Docstoc

Plagiarism

Document Sample
Plagiarism Powered By Docstoc
					    Plagiarism
Facts Worth Remembering
      Plagiarism
is an academic crime.
            Plagiarism is …

Taking another person’s phrasing or ideas
and using them in your own work
without giving that person
the credit he deserves.
Often, culpable students will react,

        “But I didn’t know!”




       Plagiarism is plagiarism
      regardless of your intent.
     Plagiarism is avoidable …


By recognizing what is not common
knowledge.
By knowing how to cite your sources
properly.
By knowing how to use direct and indirect
quotations properly.
By knowing how to paraphrase and
summarize properly.
     What happens when someone
             plagiarizes?
Depending on the
  teacher or school,
he or she might …
    fail the paper.

    fail the course.

    be suspended

    be expelled.
           With certainty,
      someone who plagiarizes …

Denies himself a chance
 to learn.
Misrepresents himself
 to peers and teachers.
Takes ownership of ideas
 not rightfully his.
Cheats author out of
 due respect and credit.
  The consequences at CHS

The student will …
 Rewrite the assignment for no credit;

 Have parent conference;

 Serve one day of in-house

  suspension;
 Face more serious consequences at

  the discretion of the administration for
  any subsequent offense.
    Why Does Plagiarism Happen?

1. Students don’t know what plagiarism is.

2. Students don’t know what “common
          knowledge” is.

3. Students don’t know how to cite sources.



                         There are more->
             More Reasons

4. Students don’t know how to use direct
  quotes.
5. Students don’t know how to paraphrase.
6. Students don’t know how to summarize.




                   There are still more ->
Still More Reasons


7. Students don’t understand the researched
  material well enough to quote, paraphrase,
  or summarize effectively.

8. Students don’t want to take the time to
  quote, paraphrase, or summarize
  effectively.
                    And the final reasons->
              Final Reasons

9. Students feel that the more sophisticated
  the wording, the better the grade.

10. Students feel there is only one good
  way to say something: the author’s way.

                         Let’s go back ->
1. Students don’t know
     what plagiarism is.

Again, …
Plagiarism is taking what another person
  has thought, researched, or crafted
  and using it in your own work
  without giving that person the credit
  he or she deserves.
 2. Students don’t know what “common
             knowledge” is.

Common Knowledge           Historical facts
is any information         Familiar proverbs
  that is readily
  available to and         Famous quotations
  accepted as fact         Simple definitions
  by everyone.

***It need not be cited.
       Uncommon Knowledge
         needs to be cited.

Unfamiliar facts    Statistics
Expert testimony    Direct or indirect
Original research   quotations
Opinions
To determine common knowledge, ask
      yourself these questions:

1. Did I already know this information
   before I read about it in this source?
2. Does this information appear as un-cited
   in multiple sources?
3. Did this information originate with me?

***If you answered yes to any question, you
     probably do not have to cite your source.
  Example of Common Knowledge vs.
       Uncommon Knowledge
  Common Knowledge            Uncommon Knowledge
Mary Flannery O’Connor      According to George Weigel
  was a Catholic novelist      in his book Letters to a
  who died at the age of       Young Catholic, Flannery
  thirty-nine.                 O’Connor chose to write
                               while looking at a
                               whitewashed wall to
                               minimize distractions and
                               maximize her own
                               imagination (11).
***No citations needed.     ***Note the citations.
             Test Yourself
        on Common Knowledge
1. The American flag currently has fifty stars.
2. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s
   Cabin.
3. Of students in grades 6-12, almost 37 percent
   believe copying from the Internet is okay.
4. Americans hate to wait more than they hate to
   spend money.
5. Humans breathe in oxygen and breathe out
   carbon dioxide.
             Test Yourself
        on Common Knowledge
1. The American flag currently has fifty stars.
2. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s
   Cabin.
3. Of students in grades 6-12, almost 37 percent
   believe copying from the Internet is okay.
4. Americans hate to wait more than they hate to
   spend money.
5. Humans breathe in oxygen and breathe out
   carbon dioxide.
3. Students don’t know how to cite their
               sources.
FAQ’s
  Whom do you cite?
   Anyone who “owns” the information you’re

    using.

  When do you cite?
   Anytime you use information or graphics,

    whether in a paper or project, that belong to
    someone else.
              More FAQ’s
How do you cite?
 According to the MLA guidelines



Where do you cite?
 In parenthetical documentation

 On a works cited page

 In the text itself



Why do you cite?
 To give credit where credit is due
   4. Students don’t know how to use
           direct quotations.
Sometimes students …
• write papers which do nothing more than link
  quotations together.
• insert quotations without any transitions or
  explanation of their significance.
• use one quotation that consumes most of a
  paragraph.
• Add quotations without reference to source.
   Quotations should be used …

Sparingly

To support a point with expert testimony
To add humor

With correct punctuation
With correct citation (author and source)
        Example of Plagiarism …
    Using Exact Words without Citing
           Original                 Student’s Work
Edible, adj. means good to
   eat, and wholesome to        The word “edible” is an
   digest, as a worm to a         adjective which
   toad, a toad to a snake, a     means good to eat,
   snake to a pig, a pig to a
   man, and a man to a
                                  and wholesome to
   worm.                          digest, as a worm to a
– taken from The Devil’s          toad, a toad to a
   Dictionary by Ambrose          snake, a snake to a
   Bierce                         pig, a pig to a man,
                                  and a man to a worm.
   Another Example of Plagiarism…
  Changing and/or Rearranging Words
           Original                 Student’s Work
Edible, adj. means good to      The word “edible” is an
   eat, and wholesome to
   digest, as a worm to a
                                  adjective which
   toad, a toad to a snake, a     means healthy to
   snake to a pig, a pig to a     digest and okay to
   man, and a man to a            eat, just like a worm is
   worm.                          to a toad, or a toad is
– taken from The Devil’s          to a snake, or a snake
   Dictionary by Ambrose          is to a pig, or a pig is
   Bierce                         to a man, and or a
                                  man is to a worm.
          Effective Use of Quotation
           Original                    Student’s Work
Edible, adj. means good to      In his popular anthology of
   eat, and wholesome to           terms defined with a
   digest, as a worm to a          satirical twist, The Devil’s
   toad, a toad to a snake, a
   snake to a pig, a pig to a      Dictionary, Ambrose
   man, and a man to a             Bierce once wrote that
   worm.                           edible “means good to
– taken from The Devil’s           eat, and wholesome to
   Dictionary by Ambrose           digest, as a worm to a
   Bierce                          toad, a toad to a snake, a
                                   snake to a pig, a pig to a
                                   man, and a man to a
                                   worm” (30).
   5. Students don’t know how to
              paraphrase.
Paraphrasing is putting written information
 into your own words.
The best way to paraphrase is to …
     1. Read the information carefully.
     2. Understand the material clearly.
     3. Rewrite without looking.
     4. Check back for accuracy.
        Example of Plagiarism …
       Changing Phrasing a Little Bit
            Original                   Student’s Work
Since the fourteenth century     Since the 1300s, the Swiss
   [the Swiss Guards] are
   the official Vatican police     Guards have been the
   officers and the pope’s         official police for the
   body guards. Their red,         Vatican as well as the
   yellow, and blue uniforms       pope’s body guards.
   were designed by
   Michelangelo. They              Their uniforms of red,
   number 110 …                    yellow, and blue were
--taken from Catholic              designed by
   Source Book                     Michelangelo. There are
                                   110 of them …
     Example of Correct Paraphrasing
            Original                      Student’s Work
Since the fourteenth century     According to the Catholic Source
                                   Book, The Swiss Guard –
   [the Swiss Guards] are          traditionally 110 in number --
   the official Vatican police     have policed the Vatican and
   officers and the pope’s         guarded the pope for the last
   body guards. Their red,         seven hundred years. Legend
   yellow, and blue uniforms       gives credit for the design of
                                   their uniforms to Michelangelo,
   were designed by                but there is no documented
   Michelangelo. They              proof of this. During the
   number 110 …                    Renaissance, their uniforms
--taken from Catholic              became brighter and more
                                   colorful, incorporating red with
   Source Book                     yellow and blue.
                                 ***Notice the synthesis of the original
                                    information with other common
                                    knowledge information.
              Another Example of
          Correct Paraphrasing/Citing
              Original                         Student’s Work
[O’Connor’s] writing habits were     In Letters to a Young Christian,
   as austere as her prose: her         George Weigel describes the
   desk faced a whitewashed             way in which Flannery
   wall, and she wrote her fiction      O’Connor typically wrote her
   looking at the blank space.          books. According to Weigel,
   What she wanted to convey in         she would sit at her desk,
   her stories and novels came          facing the nothingness of a
   out of her head and her              white wall; and thus limiting the
   reading and her reflection and       stimuli around her, O’Connor
   her prayer … -- taken from           would tap into the ideas that
   Letters to a Young Christian by      would percolate from her own
   George Weigel                        mind and memory (11).
6. Students don’t know how to
         summarize.

    Summarizing is reducing
the amount of written information
  to convey the most general or
      most important ideas.
            Example of Summarizing
           Original                          Summary
“You think, I dare say, that our    According to Syme, a
   [philologists’] chief job is       character in George
   inventing new words. But not a
   bit! We’re destroying words –      Orwell’s 1984, those
   scores of them, hundreds of        responsible for revising
   them, every day … by the year      the dictionary in 1984
   2050 … not a single human          endeavor to remove
   being will be alive who can        words from the collection
   understand such a
   conversation as we are having      rather than add words in
   now.” – two pages taken from       the hope that limited word
   1984 by George Orwell              choice will ultimately limit
                                      depth and range of
                                      thought. – one sentence
7. Students don’t understand the
researched material well enough to
paraphrase, summarize, or quote
effectively.
            Avoid books, articles, and
             web sites that are too
             technical or lofty.
            Ask your teacher/librarian
             to help you find sources
             that are more age-
             appropriate.
8. Students don’t want to take the time
to paraphrase, summarize, or quote
effectively.
You really don’t have a choice.

Accept the fact that research…
requires all of the above.
is a time-consuming task.
will be a requirement
  throughout high school
  and college.
is a valuable life skill.
9. Students feel that
the more sophisticated the wording,
the better the grade.
The truth is …
 Teachers expect and prefer age-
 appropriate discussion in high school
 papers.
 Teachers’ main concern is that students
 understand what they’re writing about and
 communicate that understanding through
 their writing.
10. Students feel there is only one
good way to say something:
     the author’s way.

There are multiple good ways!

Besides, …
Teachers know when the writing sounds like a
  college professor wrote it.
Teachers recognize individual writing styles and
  sense when the writing doesn’t sound like a
  particular student.
       Plagiarism is stealing
and leads to serious consequences,
    but can be happily avoided
          by learning how
 to research and to cite properly.




            The End

				
DOCUMENT INFO