Romanticism Romanticism Other Qualities of Romanticism Romantic by ghkgkyyt


                                                                      • Artistic and Philosophical Movement
                                                                        – Late 18th Century – Mid 19th Century
                                                                        – European, to lesser extent American
                                                                        – Response to Industrialization
                                                                        – Related to the rise of Nationalism

            Early 19th Century Period                          from     Enlightenment                      to       Romanticism
               of Social Upheaval
                                                                               Industrial Revolution
    • French Revolution                                                              French        Revolutions,
      1789                                                                         Revolution      Rise of Nationalism
    • Series of revolutions
      in Europe 1820-1848                                             1750           1789     1800                       1850

    • Industrial Revolution                                      •    Reason                                    •   Imagination/Emotion
       – England                                                 •    Universal Truths                          •   Human Uniqueness
       – France                                                  •    Natural Order                             •   Nature as Wild
       – Germany                                                 •    Academies                                 •   Artistic Individualism
    • Urbanization                                                                                              •   Independence
                                                                 •    Patronage
                      Liberty Leading the People by Eugène       •    Classical
                                                                                                                •   Medieval
                     Delacroix, 1830                                                                            •   Solitude
                                                                 •    Society

     Other Qualities of Romanticism                                            Romantic Philosophy
• Re-discovery of Folk Culture                                                                           Arthur Schopenhauer
• Nostalgia for Pre-Industrial                                                                             (1788-1860)
  Past                                                                                                   Writes The World as Will
• Interest in “Exotic” Locales                                                                             and Idea, in which he
                                                                                                           posits the existence of
• Escape into Imaginative                                                                                  an impersonal force
  Worlds                                                                                                   that he calls the will
• Passionate Belief in Liberty                                                                           He also elaborates on the
  and Equality                                                                                             characteristics of the
                                                                J.M.W. Turner’s The Slave                  sublime
                                                                Ship, 1840
                              Ingre’s The Turkish Bath, 1862
 Romantic Philosophy continued                                       Romantic Literature
• Georg Hegel (1770-1831) writes The Philosophy           • The epitome of Romantic literature is the lyric
  of History                                                 poem, which is written in the first person:
• He explains the evolution of divine nature, which       1. Expresses the poet’s innermost feelings and
  he calls “spirit,” as a dialectical process involving      temperament
  a thesis, antithesis, and synthesis                     2. Reveals reactions to events the poet has
• The final goal is spiritual freedom
                                                          Wolfgang von Goethe’s Faust (1808-1832) uses the
• Charles Darwin in Origin of the Species (1859)             legend of Faust and creates a two part poem that
  argues that man evolved from other life forms              takes him 24 years to write. Faust’s desire to
  through a process known as “natural selection”             experience life to the fullest makes him a romantic
• His views challenge the creationist view of human          hero

          William Wordsworth                                               Lord Byron
               1770-1850                                                   1788-1824
   English                                                                            His name is given to the
   Poet                                                                                 term Byronic Hero
                                                                                      His poems include Don
   “Emotion recollected                                                                 Juan (1824) and
     in tranquility”                                                                    Childe Harold’s
   Ode: Intimations on                                                                  Pilgrimage (1814)
     Immortality (1804)                                                                 both of which reveal
   My Heart Leaps Up                                                                    his wanderlust and
                                                                                        desire for new
     (1802)                                                                             experiences

                Percy Shelley                                   Women Romantic Writers
               and John Keats
                                                                           • Mary Shelley, is an English
                                                                             novelist who writes Frankenstein
Shelley inspired by          Due to his illness, Keats                       (1818) a gothic novel
 nature, which is              is aware of the                             • The Brontë sisters, Charlotte and
 likened to extremes           impermanence of life                          Emily write Jane Eyre (1847)
 of human emotion                                                            and Wuthering Heights (1847)
                             Finds in art eternal truth
Unconventional and                                                           respectively
 outspoken                     and beauty
                                                                           • Jane Austen differs in that her
Prometheus Unbound           Ode on a Grecian Urn                            novels, Pride and Prejudice,
 (1820)                        (1818)                                        Emma, and Northanger Abbey,
                                                                             criticize sentimentality and
                                                                             romantic passion
                                                                Romanticism in the Visual Arts
 Romanticism in the Visual Arts                                           continued
                                                          • French academic artists
                        • Subject matter inspires           continue with Classical
                          emotional responses               style of rendering the
                        • Use of contemporary               figure
                          events to create an effect of   • Those outside of the
                          immediacy                         academies use more
                        • Distant Medieval past and         frenetic brush strokes,
                          images of natural wonder          contrasting use of light
                          called upon to generate           and vibrant colors to
                          feelings of awe and longing       create drama
                        • Caspar Friedrich, Cloister      • Dante and Virgil in
                          Graveyard in the Snow             Hell by Eugène
                          (1810)                            Delacroix (1822)

   Francisco Goya (1746-1828)                                              Goya continued

  – Spanish
  – The nightmarish
    and grotesque
  – The Sleep of
    Reason Produces
                                                            • Protest against oppression
                                                            • The Third of May 1808: The Execution of the
                                                              Defenders of Madrid
                                                            • Oil on canvas, 1814

Théodore Géricault (1791-1824)                                    Romantic Music
     – French
     – Nature as hostile and use of a                     • Belief that music should express
       contemporary event for subject matter
                                                            emotional states rather than
     – The Raft of the Medusa (1818)                        following classical conventions
                                                          • Music has urgency to it, intensity,
                                                            and more contrasts in tempo and
                                                            mood throughout the piece
                                                          • Symphonic form: extended
                                                            orchestral composition, generally in
                                                            three or four movements             Paganini (1832) by Delacroix
                                                          • Use of folk music
                                                          • Virtuoso musicians
   Ludwig van Beethoven
                                                                  Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
                           – German                                            - French
                           – Represents the transition from                    - Combines the Faust story with
                             Classical to Romantic music                         his own life to create
                                                                                 Symphonie fantastique (1830)
                           – Writes nine symphonies, which
                                                                               - Expands symphony into five
                             are longer and more complex                         movements
                             than Classical symphonies
                                                                               - Belongs to the genre of
                           – Symphony No. 5 in C Minor                           program music, which reflects
                             (1808)                                              the influence of literature on
                           – Unified by four-note motif                          music

                                                                         Giuseppe Verdi
Frédéric Chopin (1820-1849)
– Polish                                                                           – Italian composer of opera.
– Short piano                                                                        Two of his operas indicate
  compositions, such as                                                              nationalistic sentiments:
  nocturnes,                                                                        1. Va Pensiero from
  impromptus, and                                                                    Nabucco (1842)
  études                                                                            2. Triumphal March from
– Number 15 of his 24                                                                Aida (1870)
  Préludes, Opus 28                                                                – Other operas:
  “Raindrops”                                                                      La Traviata, Rigoletto, Il
– Étude in G-flat major,                                                             Trovatore, Falstaff
  Opus 10, No. 5
                                   Portrait by Delacroix

          Richard Wagner
                                                                          Romantic Ballet
– German composer of                                          • Use of supernatural subject matter
                                                              • Fascination with earlier times and distant
– Gesamtkunstwerk                                               lands
– Uses Germanic
  mythology                                                   • Borrows from folk material
– The Ring of the                                             • Rising cult of the ballerina
  Nibelung (1851-74)                                          • Invention of gaslights creates varying
– The Ride of the                                               moods
  Valkyries from The
             Romantic Ballerinas                       Romantic Ballerinas continued
Marie Taglioni                                                      Fanny Elssler (1808-1878)
 (1804-1884)                                                           – Austrian
 – Italian                                                             – Passionate ballerina
 – Ethereal ballerina                                                  – Folk dances
                                                                       – Cachuca (1836)
 – En pointe dancing
 – La Sylphide (1832)

         Discussion Questions
1. Where do you see aspects of Romanticism today?
2. How did Romanticism contribute to Nationalism?
3. Would you consider Jane Austen a romantic?
   Why or why not?
4. Why do you think music from the Romantic era is
   still listened to by many people?
5. In what way did the cult of the ballerina reflect
   views of women during the early to middle 1800s?

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