Romanticism Romanticism • Artistic and Philosophical Movement – Late 18th Century – Mid 19th Century – European, to lesser extent American – Response to Industrialization – Related to the rise of Nationalism Early 19th Century Period from Enlightenment to Romanticism of Social Upheaval Industrial Revolution • French Revolution French Revolutions, 1789 Revolution Rise of Nationalism • Series of revolutions in Europe 1820-1848 1750 1789 1800 1850 • Industrial Revolution • Reason • Imagination/Emotion – England • Universal Truths • Human Uniqueness – France • Natural Order • Nature as Wild – Germany • Academies • Artistic Individualism • Urbanization • Independence • Patronage Liberty Leading the People by Eugène • Classical • Medieval Delacroix, 1830 • Solitude • Society Other Qualities of Romanticism Romantic Philosophy • Re-discovery of Folk Culture Arthur Schopenhauer • Nostalgia for Pre-Industrial (1788-1860) Past Writes The World as Will • Interest in “Exotic” Locales and Idea, in which he posits the existence of • Escape into Imaginative an impersonal force Worlds that he calls the will • Passionate Belief in Liberty He also elaborates on the and Equality characteristics of the J.M.W. Turner’s The Slave sublime Ship, 1840 Ingre’s The Turkish Bath, 1862 Romantic Philosophy continued Romantic Literature • Georg Hegel (1770-1831) writes The Philosophy • The epitome of Romantic literature is the lyric of History poem, which is written in the first person: • He explains the evolution of divine nature, which 1. Expresses the poet’s innermost feelings and he calls “spirit,” as a dialectical process involving temperament a thesis, antithesis, and synthesis 2. Reveals reactions to events the poet has experienced • The final goal is spiritual freedom Wolfgang von Goethe’s Faust (1808-1832) uses the • Charles Darwin in Origin of the Species (1859) legend of Faust and creates a two part poem that argues that man evolved from other life forms takes him 24 years to write. Faust’s desire to through a process known as “natural selection” experience life to the fullest makes him a romantic • His views challenge the creationist view of human hero origins William Wordsworth Lord Byron 1770-1850 1788-1824 English His name is given to the Poet term Byronic Hero His poems include Don “Emotion recollected Juan (1824) and in tranquility” Childe Harold’s Ode: Intimations on Pilgrimage (1814) Immortality (1804) both of which reveal My Heart Leaps Up his wanderlust and desire for new (1802) experiences Percy Shelley Women Romantic Writers and John Keats • Mary Shelley, is an English novelist who writes Frankenstein Shelley inspired by Due to his illness, Keats (1818) a gothic novel nature, which is is aware of the • The Brontë sisters, Charlotte and likened to extremes impermanence of life Emily write Jane Eyre (1847) of human emotion and Wuthering Heights (1847) Finds in art eternal truth Unconventional and respectively outspoken and beauty • Jane Austen differs in that her Prometheus Unbound Ode on a Grecian Urn novels, Pride and Prejudice, (1820) (1818) Emma, and Northanger Abbey, criticize sentimentality and romantic passion Romanticism in the Visual Arts Romanticism in the Visual Arts continued • French academic artists • Subject matter inspires continue with Classical emotional responses style of rendering the • Use of contemporary figure events to create an effect of • Those outside of the immediacy academies use more • Distant Medieval past and frenetic brush strokes, images of natural wonder contrasting use of light called upon to generate and vibrant colors to feelings of awe and longing create drama • Caspar Friedrich, Cloister • Dante and Virgil in Graveyard in the Snow Hell by Eugène (1810) Delacroix (1822) Francisco Goya (1746-1828) Goya continued – Spanish – The nightmarish and grotesque – The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters • Protest against oppression (1796-98) • The Third of May 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid • Oil on canvas, 1814 Théodore Géricault (1791-1824) Romantic Music – French – Nature as hostile and use of a • Belief that music should express contemporary event for subject matter emotional states rather than – The Raft of the Medusa (1818) following classical conventions • Music has urgency to it, intensity, and more contrasts in tempo and mood throughout the piece • Symphonic form: extended orchestral composition, generally in three or four movements Paganini (1832) by Delacroix • Use of folk music • Virtuoso musicians Ludwig van Beethoven Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) (1770-1827) – German - French – Represents the transition from - Combines the Faust story with Classical to Romantic music his own life to create Symphonie fantastique (1830) – Writes nine symphonies, which - Expands symphony into five are longer and more complex movements than Classical symphonies - Belongs to the genre of – Symphony No. 5 in C Minor program music, which reflects (1808) the influence of literature on – Unified by four-note motif music Giuseppe Verdi Frédéric Chopin (1820-1849) (1813-1901) – Polish – Italian composer of opera. – Short piano Two of his operas indicate compositions, such as nationalistic sentiments: nocturnes, 1. Va Pensiero from impromptus, and Nabucco (1842) études 2. Triumphal March from – Number 15 of his 24 Aida (1870) Préludes, Opus 28 – Other operas: “Raindrops” La Traviata, Rigoletto, Il – Étude in G-flat major, Trovatore, Falstaff Opus 10, No. 5 Portrait by Delacroix Richard Wagner Romantic Ballet (1813-1883) – German composer of • Use of supernatural subject matter opera • Fascination with earlier times and distant – Gesamtkunstwerk lands – Uses Germanic mythology • Borrows from folk material – The Ring of the • Rising cult of the ballerina Nibelung (1851-74) • Invention of gaslights creates varying – The Ride of the moods Valkyries from The Valkyrie Romantic Ballerinas Romantic Ballerinas continued Marie Taglioni Fanny Elssler (1808-1878) (1804-1884) – Austrian – Italian – Passionate ballerina – Ethereal ballerina – Folk dances – Cachuca (1836) – En pointe dancing – La Sylphide (1832) Discussion Questions 1. Where do you see aspects of Romanticism today? 2. How did Romanticism contribute to Nationalism? 3. Would you consider Jane Austen a romantic? Why or why not? 4. Why do you think music from the Romantic era is still listened to by many people? 5. In what way did the cult of the ballerina reflect views of women during the early to middle 1800s?
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