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									                                                                     World Conservation Congress
                                                                      Amman, 4–11 October 2000

A. Governance-related

                                                   the social and economic underpinnings of con-
2.1 Mandate for the Commission on                  servation;
Environmental, Economic and Social
                                                   HIGHLIGHTING that these Key Result Areas
Policy (CEESP)                                     are of crucial importance for most countries in
                                                   the political South as well as for fostering more
GRATEFUL for the past work of the Commis-
                                                   equitable and environmentally sustainable rela-
sion on Environmental Planning, most recently
                                                   tionships between the North and the South,
known as ‘Commission on Environmental, Eco-
                                                   where the imperatives of conservation must be
nomic and Social Policy (CEESP)’, as one of the
                                                   reconciled with those of development and pov-
networks of expert volunteers entrusted to de-
                                                   erty alleviation; and
velop and advance the institutional knowledge
and experience and objectives of IUCN under
                                                   CONVINCED that a substantial proportion of
Article 73 of the Statutes;
                                                   the IUCN membership supports a strengthening
                                                   of the social and economic agenda within the
HAVING CONSIDERED the external review of
                                                   Union, and the existence of an organized Com-
IUCN Commissions commissioned by Council
                                                   mission network to ensure full and easy access
in accordance with Resolution 19.2 of the IUCN
                                                   to global expertise in these fields;
General Assembly (Buenos Aires, 1994);
                                                   The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
NOTING the need to enhance the substantive
                                                   sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
support for the Council, and in particular its
Committee on Policy, in the interval between
                                                   1.   DECIDES to adopt the following mandate
World Conservation Congresses, by means of an
                                                        of the Commission on Environmental, Eco-
expert knowledge network on social and eco-
                                                        nomic and Social Policy (CEESP):
nomic issues, to complement the knowledge
networks provided by the other Commissions;
                                                           The Mission...
                                                           ...of the Commission on Environmental,
AWARE that IUCN’s vision and mission com-
                                                           Economic and Social Policy is to con-
pel it to examine the forces in the world that
                                                           tribute to the IUCN mission by provid-
drive us, directly and indirectly, towards and
                                                           ing expertise on the crucial economic,
away from our ultimate conservation goals;
                                                           social and cultural factors affecting
                                                           natural resources and biological diver-
CONVINCED that IUCN must make strategic
                                                           sity, and guidance and support towards
choices to address the political, economic and
                                                           effective policies and practices in envi-
social issues that propel the degradation of the
                                                           ronmental conservation and sustainable
RECOGNIZING that IUCN has decided to fo-
                                                           The Purpose...
cus its programme on the interaction between
                                                           ...of CEESP is rooted in the fact that
the conservation goals and the social and eco-
                                                           both conservation and degradation result
nomic forces;
                                                           from the interaction of humans and na-
                                                           ture and, as such, primarily need to be
NOTING that the Key Result Areas in the IUCN
                                                           dealt with through social, cultural, and
Programme call for close attention to be paid to
                                                           economic insight and action. CEESP

Resolutions and Recommendations

        will provide an open and critical space               will include activities of the newly set-
        within the IUCN community where such                  up WCPA1–CEESP Task Force on Lo-
        insight can be developed, articulated and             cal Communities and Protected Areas
        gained, and such action can be planned                (TFLCPA). In the last four years, the
        and organized. Through various forms                  CMWG has been a main reference point
        of interaction and collaboration with the             for the Union on matters of participatory
        IUCN members, partners, members of                    management of natural resources. In the
        other Commissions and Secretariat,                    future, the CMWG will structure its
        CEESP will help IUCN move closer to                   work even more explicitly on regional
        its Vision: ‘A just world that values and             and thematic areas. It will assist the
        conserves nature’.                                    IUCN members, partners and regional
                                                              offices in developing and supporting ini-
        CEESP Strategic Objectives                            tiatives that link field-based experience
    •   To lead and facilitate IUCN’s critical                in participatory management with the
        thinking and learning and inter-                      development of local capacities (knowl-
        disciplinary efforts towards more equi-               edge, skills, attitudes and institutions)
        table, viable and sustainable action for              and the elaboration of national, regional
        natural resource management and con-                  and global policies. It will work with
        servation.                                            the TFLCPA to fulfil its terms of refer-
                                                              ence. Project proposals will be devel-
    •   To develop, articulate and provide effec-             oped and submitted for funding on a
        tive advice in support of IUCN’s efforts              number of topical areas (e.g. co-
        (e.g. on approaches, lessons learned,                 management of protected areas and ag-
        methods and tools) towards more equi-                 ricultural landscapes, involvement of lo-
        table, viable and sustainable action for              cal communities in ecosystem conserva-
        natural resource management and con-                  tion – with emphasis on poor communi-
        servation.                                            ties in particularly harsh and fragile eco-
                                                              systems, such as arid lands, mountains
    •   To foster, support and learn from a vari-             and coastal areas; policy development,
        ety of community-based experiences                    including analysis and comparison of
        and initiatives towards more equitable,               co-management policies on a regional
        viable and sustainable action for natural             basis). Efforts will be made to continue
        resource management and conservation.                 to expand and diversify the membership
                                                              of CMWG and the TFLCPA. A News-
        Priorities                                            letter and a discussion list will continue
        The Commission shall focus particularly               to serve as mechanisms for communica-
        on the following four themes:                         tion among members.

    •   Collaborative Management                              Sustainable Livelihoods
    •   Sustainable Livelihoods
    •   Environment and Security                              IUCN has played a role in the area of
                                                              ‘sustainable livelihoods’ since the
    •   Trade and Environment
                                                              World Conservation Strategy, a role re-
                                                              affirmed and reinforced in the Ottawa
        The proposed orientation of each is out-
        lined below:                                          Conference of 1986. CEESP will con-
                                                              tinue to develop a structure to work on
                                                              this topic from all major perspectives,
        Collaborative Management
                                                              including those of local communities,
                                                              the private sector, international devel-
        This component will build upon the
        work of the CEESP Collaborative Man-
        agement Working Group (CMWG), and           1
                                                        World Commission on Protected Areas

                                                               World Conservation Congress
                                                                Amman, 4–11 October 2000

        opment agencies, donors, academia and        programmes will be designed and im-
        NGOs. CEESP will promote, support            plemented with relevant partners, such
        and learn from field practice. It will de-   as the International Centre for Trade and
        velop and disseminate approaches and         Sustainable Development (ICTSD). A
        mechanisms for integrating the conser-       Trade and Environment Task Force of
        vation of biodiversity and poverty           CEESP members will be established to
        elimination, including issues of equity      steer the effort. The Task Force will
        and justice. Together with a network of      likely begin with a survey of global and
        collaborating institutions and experts,      regional IUCN interests in the Trade and
        CEESP will produce publications for          Environment field, building on efforts
        both practitioners and policy makers ac-     already underway in Southern Africa,
        tive in the subject.                         South Asia and Central America. It will
                                                     focus on provision of up-to-date infor-
        Environment and Security                     mation and policy options, and on ac-
                                                     tion-oriented advice to the IUCN mem-
        This component will build upon the           bership. Early topics of interest might
        work of the current CEESP Task Force         include the impact of trade liberalization
        on Environment and Security. It will         on natural resources (e.g. forests), per-
        focus on two priorities: Environment,        verse subsidies, and the intellectual
        Security and Risk Management; and            property rights provisions of the CBD.
        Environmental Management and Vul-
        nerability to Natural Disasters. In each
        case, working under the guidance of the      Structure and organization
        existing Task Force, and in close asso-
        ciation with the IUCN Programmes and         Chair, Deputy Chair and Steering
        regions, the group will identify and de-     Committee
        velop 8-10 case studies from around the
        world, which will exemplify and illus-       The governance structure of the Com-
        trate the topic. These will be presented     mission shall consist of the Chair, a
        and debated at a conference, and later       Deputy Chair and four Thematic Vice-
        published as a book. The case studies        Chairs, in addition to not more than 10
        will also contribute to the development      Regional Vice-Chairs. Together, they
        of courses in cooperation with the Uni-      shall form the Steering Committee (SC)
        versity for Peace. Each project will take    of the Commission. The SC shall estab-
        one year.                                    lish partnerships to carry out CEESP
                                                     goals and designate organizations that
        Trade and Environment                        work closely with CEESP as cooperat-
                                                     ing organizations.
        This component of the CEESP mandate
        shall help in defining the IUCN niche in     Members
        trade and environment, focusing on pro-
        viding practical information services to     The Commission will seek a diversified
        the IUCN membership on the interface         membership, balanced in terms of gen-
        between international trade rules and        der, geographical region, discipline and
        biodiversity. Special focus would be         culture. With time, CEESP seeks to
        given to the environmental conventions       bring together some of the world’s
        – CBD2 and CITES3 in particular. Joint       foremost conservation and sustainable
                                                     development practitioners, relevant so-
                                                     cial scientists, economists and top ex-
 Convention on Biological Diversity                  perts representing major conservation
 Convention on International Trade in Endangered     and development organizations with a
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Resolutions and Recommendations

        keen interest in community-based as         4.   URGES the Director General and the
        well as macro-level sustainable devel-           newly-elected Commission Chair to ensure
        opment.                                          that the Commission’s work, the work of
                                                         the other Commissions, and the IUCN Pro-
        Work Plan                                        gramme are coherent, mutually supportive,
                                                         and synergetic;
        CEESP will develop an annual Work
        Plan in collaboration, as appropriate,      5.   REQUESTS that the Director General en-
        with IUCN members, members of other              sures such coherence, support and synergy
        Commissions, and the Secretariat, in             by dedicating relevant and appropriate pro-
        harmony with the Union’s program-                fessional staff in the Secretariat to the
        matic objectives and work plan.                  Commission.

        In pursuing its mandate, the Commis-        This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
        sion will liaise closely with other Com-    State and Agency members United States ab-
        missions and integrate its work within      stained from the adoption by consensus of this
        the overall IUCN Programme.                 Resolution. The President of IUCN indicated
                                                    that the naming of an individual in operative
        Structure                                   paragraph two had been the result of excep-
                                                    tional circumstances and was not intended to
        In consultation with the Steering Com-      create a precedent.
        mittee, the Chair may establish particu-
        lar working groups to address particular
        elements of the work programme, col-
        laborating with other relevant actors in    2.2 Integrating ecosystem manage-
        the Union. The Chair may appoint task       ment in IUCN’s Programme
        forces to deal with specific shorter-term
        assignments. In addition to thematic        RECOGNIZING that ecosystem management is
        units, a regional structure may be cre-     an essential element of the implementation of
        ated for CEESP;                             the Convention on Biological Diversity and
                                                    other international agreements, as well as na-
2.   DIRECTS the Council, at its first meeting,     tional legal instruments;
     to be held on 11 October 2000, to seek
     nominations from the membership of the         APPRECIATING the historic role of the former
     Union for the position of Chair of CEESP,      Commission on Ecology as one of IUCN’s net-
     with CVs of candidates to be received          works of expert volunteers entrusted to develop
     within a period of four weeks of the said      and advance the institutional knowledge, experi-
     meeting, and to include in a list of nomi-     ence, and objectives of IUCN under Article 73
     nees the candidature of Dr. M. Taghi Far-      of the Statutes;
     var, whose name has been endorsed by the
     Steering Committee of CEESP;                   REAFFIRMING that ecosystem management
                                                    serves a critical role in implementing the mis-
3.   FURTHER DIRECTS the President of               sion of IUCN, that ecosystem management is a
     Council to arrange a postal ballot among       Key Result Area for the Programme of IUCN,
     Council members for the election of the        and that, in addition to being the focus of the
     Chair within two weeks of the said closing     Commission on Ecosystem Management, it is
     date for the receipt of the nominations from   also a core element of the work of the Commis-
     among candidates who demonstrate experi-       sion on Environmental Law, Species Survival
     ence, willingness, and ability to work         Commission, and the World Commission on
     within the mandate of the Commission;          Protected Areas; and

                                                                      World Conservation Congress
                                                                       Amman, 4–11 October 2000

HAVING CONSIDERED the recommendations                        World Conservation Congress, and, if
of the Review of IUCN Commissions, initiated                 so, to propose terms of reference for
by the Council in accordance with Resolution                 such a review;
19.2 of the 19th Session of the IUCN General
Assembly (Buenos Aires, 1994), and in particu-          (e) recommend to the Director General
lar the recommendations on the work of the                  means of structuring Secretariat sup-
Commission on Ecosystem Management;                         port for the Union’s work on ecosys-
                                                            tem management in furtherance of the
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-             Union’s Overall Programme, with par-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:                   ticular regard to Secretariat support for
                                                            the Commission on Ecosystem Man-
1.   CALLS on Council to assign special atten-              agement; and
     tion to ecosystem management in relation
     to Key Result Area 1 in IUCN’s Overall             (f) provide that the Working Group’s re-
     Programme until the next Session of the                port be submitted to Council no later
     World Conservation Congress by conven-                 than the end of May 2001;
     ing a Working Group on Ecosystem Man-
     agement, comprising representatives of the     3. CALLS on Council, on receipt of the Work-
     Commission on Ecosystem Management,               ing Group’s report, to:
     the other interested Commissions, the Se-
     cretariat, and the Programme Committee of          (a) recommend to the 3rd Session of the
     Council;                                               World Conservation Congress whether
                                                            and how to amend the mandates of the
2.   REQUESTS Council to establish terms of                 Commission on Ecosystem Manage-
     reference for this Working Group, includ-              ment and other Commissions, as they
     ing provisions to:                                     relate to ecosystem management;

     (a) identify how best to organize the work         (b) adopt terms of reference for an exter-
         to further the Union’s endeavours in               nal review of the Commission on Eco-
         the field of ecosystem management                  system Management, if such a review
         and, in particular, to mobilize the ex-            is considered necessary; and
         pert volunteer knowledge networks in
         the Commissions;                               (c) review with the Director General how
                                                            to ensure effective Secretariat support
     (b) review the mandates of the Commis-                 for this area of work;
         sion on Ecosystem Management, and
         other Commissions, in order to make        4. REAFFIRMS that ecosystem management
         recommendations to the Council for            is fundamental to the mission of IUCN, re-
         refining those mandates with respect to       quests Council to give priority to this issue
         ecosystem management;                         between the 2nd and 3rd Sessions of the
                                                       World Conservation Congress, and to take
     (c) advise the Commissions on appropri-           appropriate action on the recommendations
         ate revisions to their strategic plans        of the Working Group on Ecosystem Man-
         and programmes to ensure that IUCN            agement;
         takes a comprehensive, Union-wide
         approach to ecosystem management;          5. URGES the Director General to make ap-
                                                       propriate provision for secretariat support to
     (d) consider whether it is also desirable to      the Commission on Ecosystem Management
         undertake an external review of the           during the interim period, until Council’s
         Commission on Ecosystem Manage-               acceptance of the Working Group report.
         ment, to be completed before the 3rd

Resolutions and Recommendations

                                                               an IUCN Arid and Semi-Arid Lands
                                                               Global Thematic Programme for ap-
2.3 An IUCN Arid and Semi-Arid                                 proval by Council;
Lands Global Thematic Programme
                                                           (b) consider how appropriate Commis-
NOTING that arid and semi-arid ecosystems                      sions can advance this proposed Pro-
occur in many continents, occupy almost half of                gramme;
the Earth’s terrestrial surface, and are inhabited
by millions of people;                                     (c) take account of IUCN’s past, current,
                                                               and planned work on arid and semi-
RECOGNIZING that arid and semi-arid lands                      arid lands;
witnessed the earliest human occupation and
activities implying that these lands have been             (d) review existing international and re-
subjected to severe degradation and deteriora-                 gional institutions and teams working
tion of their biodiversity;                                    on arid and semi-arid lands and con-
                                                               sider the ways in which IUCN should
BELIEVING that arid and semi-arid ecosystems                   cooperate with them;
play an important role in the lives of millions
who suffer from drought and deterioration of               (e) in particular, consider how the pro-
natural resources;                                             posed IUCN Arid and Semi-Arid
                                                               Lands Global Thematic Programme
FURTHER RECOGNIZING that arid and semi-                        can best support implementation of the
arid regions support distinctive ecosystems and                Convention to Combat Desertification,
species constituting an important component of                 the Convention on Biological Diver-
global biodiversity, and include animals, plants               sity and other relevant conventions;
and other organisms of economic importance;
                                                           (f) evaluate the resources required for an
ACKNOWLEDGING that there is a great need                       effective IUCN Arid and Semi-Arid
for international research and practical coopera-              Lands Global Thematic Programme,
tion in order to restore large areas of degraded               and how they might be sourced; and
arid and semi-arid habitat and to achieve the
sustainable management essential to the future             (g) make proposals to Council by August
of the inhabitants of these regions; and                       2001;

AWARE that IUCN has the capacity to contrib-          3.   REQUESTS the Director General:
ute significantly to the solution of problems in
arid and semi-arid lands;                                  (a) to provide appropriate support to the
                                                               proposed Task Force;
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:                  (b) to negotiate with funding agencies to
                                                               secure the financial resources neces-
1.   REQUESTS the IUCN Council to consti-                      sary to support the proposed IUCN
     tute a Task Force of arid land specialists in-            Arid and Semi-Arid Lands Global
     cluding representatives of appropriate                    Thematic Programme; and
     IUCN Commissions;
                                                           (c) to inform IUCN members of the out-
2.   PROPOSES that this Task Force should:                     come of the deliberations of the Task
                                                               Force, the consideration of these out-
     (a) in cooperation with the Director Gen-                 comes by Council, and of the steps
         eral, formulate proposed objectives,                  taken to establish the proposed Arid
         organizational plans and key tasks for

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

         and Semi-Arid Lands Global Thematic              view and identify the measures and re-
         Programme.                                       sources necessary, including the need to
                                                          amend the Statutes, in order to have the
                                                          Arabic language designated an official lan-
                                                          guage of IUCN, and to make an appropriate
2.4 Establishment of Arabic as an of-                     proposal to the next session of the World
ficial language of IUCN                                   Conservation Congress;

RECALLING that the Arabic-speaking mem-              3.   RECOMMENDS that the Arab countries
bers of IUCN – The World Conservation Union               take the necessary measures in the future to
and especially the new members, suffer from               have the Arabic language designated as an
difficulties of communication with each other;            official language of IUCN.

NOTING that simultaneous interpretation into
Arabic is expensive and not always available,        2.5 Regionalization of IUCN – The
that there is a lack of documentation in Arabic,     World Conservation Union
and that these circumstances hinder the Arabic-
speaking members from realizing the full benefit     RECALLING the principles cited in Resolution
of their participation, and of communication         19.1 The Strategy of IUCN - The World Conser-
among themselves during IUCN meetings;               vation Union, which was adopted by the 19th
                                                     Session of the IUCN General Assembly (Buenos
RECOGNIZING that even when simultaneous              Aires, 1994);
interpretation and documentation is made avail-
able in other languages, it is evident that direct   FURTHER RECALLING that these principles
communication and exchange of thoughts and           and other elements of the Strategy describe a
ideas is easier and more palatable when partici-     commitment to regionalize the Secretariat's
pants can use their mother language;                 Component Programmes and activities;

ACKNOWLEDGING that the number of Ara-                NOTING that the 1st Session of the World Con-
bic-speaking members is ever-increasing and          servation Congress (Montreal,1996) gave further
that there is a desire to use the Arabic language    endorsement to the regionalization process;
among the Arabic-speaking members; and
                                                     FURTHER NOTING that various reviews have
CONSIDERING that the Arabic language is not          made recommendations concerning regionaliza-
an official language of IUCN – The World Con-        tion, and that some progress has been made in
servation Union, and that the issues related to      efforts to strengthen regionalization in some re-
the Secretariat's Component Programmes are the       gions;
same in all Arab countries;
                                                     CONCERNED that the policy of regionalization
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-      requires further development in order to ensure
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:            that it is achieved equally in the different re-
                                                     gions; and
1.   ENCOURAGES          the     Arabic-speaking
     members of IUCN to establish appropriate        BELIEVING that regionalization offers the best
     consultative machinery among themselves,        opportunity for IUCN to effectively implement
     applying, if appropriate, to the Council for    its Component Programmes and activities and to
     its recognition as part of the intermediate     respond to the needs of its members in different
     machinery of IUCN;                              regions with the goal of better achieving the
                                                     overall aims of the Union;
2.   REQUESTS the Council, in dialogue with
     Arabic-speaking members of IUCN, to re-

Resolutions and Recommendations

The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-       incorporating professionals from the region into
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October, 2000:            the work of the Regional Office;

1.   REAFFIRMS the policy of regionalization;         RECOGNIZING the action carried out by the
                                                      Regional Director to resolve the current situa-
2.   REQUESTS IUCN’s Council to consider              tion of ORMA; and
     the need for additional funding for regional
     programmes;                                      ACKNOWLEDGING that the 5th Mesoamerican
                                                      IUCN Forum, held in Guatemala City, 3–7 Oc-
3.   REQUESTS the Director General to:                tober 1999, adopted a comparable motion;

     (a) further encourage regionalization of         The World Conservation Congress, at its 2nd
         the Secretariat’s Component Pro-             Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
         grammes in all regions where appro-
         priate;                                      1.   REQUESTS the Director General, together
                                                           with the Director of IUCN’s Regional Of-
     (b) support Regional Offices, where ap-               fice for Mesoamerica (ORMA), to establish
         propriate, enabling them to work with             negotiations with ORMA’s host country to
         members and Commissions to ensure a               ensure that full international mission status
         systematic approach to regionalization;           is granted, as this is an essential condition
                                                           for the formation of a multinational techni-
     (c) ensure coherence between IUCN’s                   cal team to respond to regional expecta-
         global and regional programmes, and               tions;
         to facilitate communication and coop-
         eration among regions with respect to        2.   REQUESTS the Government of Costa Rica
         these programmes; and                             to confer all attributes accompanying full
                                                           international mission status to the IUCN
     (d) keep the implementation of regionali-             Regional Office for Mesoamerica;
         zation under review, providing annual
         reports to Council, and IUCN mem-            3.   REQUESTS the Regional Director, should
         bers.                                             international mission status not be con-
                                                           ferred, to explore with countries in the re-
                                                           gion where IUCN enjoys full international
                                                           mission status, the possibility of relocating
2.6 Changes in the IUCN Regional                           the Regional Office in the medium term to
Office for Mesoamerica                                     benefit from conditions that are more fa-
                                                           vourable to formation of a multinational
CONSIDERING the need for IUCN’s Regional                   technical team.
Office for Mesoamerica (ORMA) to reflect fully
the regional composition of its members in order
to promote formation of a multinational techni-
cal work team;                                        2.7 Implementation of the IUCN
                                                      Component Programme for the Medi-
CONCERNED that, at its current site, ORMA             terranean
does not, in practice, benefit from all the attrib-
utes and capacities deriving from international       CONSCIOUS that the 1st Session of the World
mission status, essential to fully reaching its ob-   Conservation Congress (Montreal, 1996) already
jectives;                                             recognized the seriousness of the situation fac-
                                                      ing the marine, coastal and insular ecosystems
MINDFUL that full international mission status        of the Mediterranean Sea as a result of demands
is imperative in order to initiate the process of

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

created by demographic concentration, eco-           international NGOs, such as the MED Forum
nomic activities, and pollution;                     Agenda 2000, the Mediterranean NGO Pro-
                                                     gramme for Sustainable Development approved
AWARE of the approval by the United Nations          by 100 NGOs in Barcelona in November 1998
of the first Action Plan for the Protection of the   during the V Mediterranean Environmental Fo-
Mediterranean in 1975, of the Convention for         rum organized by MED Forum, the WWF Medi-
the Protection of the Marine Environment and         terranean Programme and the Greenpeace Medi-
the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean (the         terranean Forum, among others;
Barcelona Convention), which provided a legal
framework in 1976, of the Mediterranean Com-         RECALLING Resolution 1.10 IUCN's Work in
mission for Sustainable Development (MCSD),          the Mediterranean, which was adopted by the 1st
and approval in 1995 of the Barcelona Conven-        Session of the World Conservation Congress
tion’s Protocol on Specially Protected Areas and     (Montreal, 1996), which requested the Director
Biological Diversity in the Mediterranean;           General to establish an IUCN Programme for
                                                     the Mediterranean to survey IUCN members’
NOTING that there are several action pro-            needs, for the purpose of establishing comple-
grammes which affect the Mediterranean as the        mentarity among the activities of the regional
result of international conventions and the work     programmes and the Mediterranean Programme
of international organizations, for example:         and to create links with international conven-
                                                     tions applicable to the Mediterranean;
(a) the Short and Medium-Term Priority Envi-
    ronmental Action Programme (SMAP) of             RECALLING ALSO that Recommendation
    the European Union in implementing its           19.17 An IUCN Office for the Mediterranean
    EuroMediterranean policy; and                    adopted by the 19th Session of the IUCN General
                                                     Assembly (Buenos Aires, 1994) was sponsored
(b) the regional action programme against De-        by the delegation of Spain and calls for the crea-
    sertification and Drought of Appendix IV         tion of a new operational region and the opening
    of the Convention to Combat Desertifica-         of an IUCN Office for the Mediterranean; and
                                                     CONSIDERING that during the World Conser-
CONSIDERING that there are many non-                 vation Congress in Amman, IUCN, the Ministe-
governmental organizations (NGOs), universi-         rio de Medio Ambiente de España (Ministry of
ties, socio-economic participants, and local, re-    Environment of Spain), and the Consejería de
gional, and national administrations working to      Medio Ambiente de la Junta de Andalucía (Min-
improve and protect the Mediterranean basin          istry of Environment of the Autonomus Re-
that are organized through networks and interna-     gional Government of Andalusia) have signed a
tional organizations in order to be more effective   Declaration, which will allow the Parties to con-
in their work;                                       clude an Agreement for the establishment of an
                                                     IUCN Office and Programme for the Mediterra-
RECOGNIZING the important work carried out           nean;
by networks of NGOs, such as the MED Forum
– the Network of Mediterranean NGOs for              The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
Ecology and Sustainable Development – which          sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
comprises 102 NGOs in 23 Mediterranean coun-
tries, and international NGOs working in the         1.   REQUESTS the Director General to:
Mediterranean region such as the WWF Medi-
terranean Programme, Greenpeace, and Friends              (a) establish the IUCN Office for the
of the Earth;                                                 Mediterranean in Malaga, Spain, as
                                                              soon as possible, thereby giving an
NOTING the existence of action programmes of                  impetus to programme activities ap-
international governmental organizations and                  proved for the Mediterranean in line

Resolutions and Recommendations

         with objectives fixed in Resolution
         1.10 adopted by the World Conserva-        CONCERNED that the small physical size and
         tion Congress held in 1996 in Mont-        limited extent of island habitats make them ex-
         real;                                      tremely vulnerable to large-scale extractive in-
                                                    dustries, notably mining, forestry and plantation
     (b) ensure that IUCN’s Component Pro-          agriculture, that have expanded significantly in
         gramme activities for the Mediterra-       the past decade;
         nean be carried out by members, espe-
         cially networks of NGOs and interna-       AWARE that the scattered archipelagoes in-
         tional NGOs present in the Mediterra-      clude a wide range of island types which have
         nean, such as MED Forum – Network          very high levels of endemism in terrestrial and
         of Mediterranean NGOs for Ecology          freshwater ecosystems and that these levels of
         and Sustainable Development, and the       endemism mean that the biological diversity of
         WWF Mediterranean Programme,               Oceania has global significance;
         among others, as well as the National
         Committees; and                            ALSO AWARE that Oceania’s extensive marine
                                                    environments include highly diverse tropical
     (c) ensure that the IUCN Office for the        communities of coral reefs and associated eco-
         Mediterranean has, as its primary func-    systems and a large number of seamounts which
         tion, the support and promotion of the     are, as yet, largely undescribed;
         activities of the Mediterranean mem-
         bers of IUCN and cooperation with          CONCERNED that a significant proportion of
         other organizations which share the        Oceania’s terrestrial, coastal, and marine flora
         Union’s objectives, and not to under-      and fauna is threatened, especially by human
         take activities that can be carried out    overexploitation, habitat degradation, introduc-
         by the members;                            tion of alien invasive species, and climate
2.   RECOMMENDS that the Director General
     accelerates participation of IUCN in inter-    ALSO CONCERNED that regional threats to
     national conventions such as the Barcelona     marine biological diversity and small island eco-
     Convention for the Protection of the Marine    systems are of special significance as Oceania
     Environment and the Coastal Region of the      includes a significant proportion of the world's
     Mediterranean and its action plan, the Con-    ocean area and small islands;
     vention to Combat Desertification and its
     action programme and other conventions         WELCOMING the specific identification in
     applicable to the Mediterranean.               IUCN’s Overall Programme, of efforts to man-
                                                    age invasive species, as these have a particularly
                                                    serious impact on the ecosystems and endemic
                                                    species of Oceania;
2.8 IUCN’s work in Oceania
                                                    NOTING that IUCN does not have any regional
RECOGNIZING that the natural values and cul-        office or country office presence in Oceania, and
tural character of Oceania were shaped over         that previous IUCN programmes have over-
time in many small islands in a vast expanse of     looked the need for a specific focus in Oceania;
ocean, remote from major population and eco-        and
nomic centres;
                                                    FURTHER NOTING that a regional meeting of
ALSO RECOGNIZING that conserving these              IUCN members held in Australia (10–12 March
values poses particular challenges because of the   2000) expressed concerns over the low level of
remoteness, low population, and small economic      involvement by the Secretariat with Oceania
base of Oceania;                                    issues;

                                                                          World Conservation Congress
                                                                           Amman, 4–11 October 2000

The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:             2.9 Implementation and monitoring of
                                                      international conventions
1.   RECOGNIZES the significance of Oceania
     as an area of high biological diversity and      CONSIDERING the difficulties of implement-
     low economic base, vulnerable therefore to       ing decisions taken within the framework of
     a range of human-induced threats, which          conventions, treaties and other international
     has not to date been adequately recognized       agreements concerning nature conservation;
     in previous IUCN Programmes between
     General Assemblies and Congresses;               RECOGNIZING the important role played by
                                                      IUCN in the preparation of these international
2.   REQUESTS the Director General to:                agreements and its role in the designation of
                                                      World Heritage Sites, the analyses of proposed
     (a) carry out a review of the regional bal-      amendments to the Appendices of the Conven-
         ance of the Secretariat's Component          tion on International Trade in Endangered Spe-
         Programmes in relation to IUCN’s             cies of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and the
         Overall Programme until the next Ses-        drafting of guidelines for the Subsidiary Body
         sion of the World Conservation Con-          for Scientific, Technical and Technological Ad-
         gress, taking account of, among other        vice (SBSTTA) of the Convention on Biological
         issues:                                      Diversity; and
         (i) identification of areas with high        CONSIDERING that this capacity could be ex-
             biodiversity values;                     panded to cover other international conventions,
                                                      specifically the selection of sites eligible for des-
         (ii) assessment of the level of threats      ignation as ‘wetlands of international impor-
              they face; and                          tance’ under the Convention on Wetlands (Ram-
                                                      sar Convention);
         (iii) identification of those areas or is-
               sues that could substantially bene-    The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
               fit from the input of Union exper-     sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
                                                      REQUESTS the Director General to strive for
     (b) include in the review the urgent prior-      better implementation of the conventions, trea-
         ity of funding and appointing regional       ties and other international agreements concern-
         coordinators, as a minimum, in those         ing nature conservation by continuing to:
         areas that are identified as needing
         them;                                        (a) place the expertise available within IUCN at
                                                          the disposition of States requesting assis-
     (c) as a priority, take the steps necessary          tance in this field;
         to correct important gaps and imbal-
         ances that are identified; and               (b) ensure that the Secretariat’s Component
                                                          Programmes, as a priority, monitor and as-
     (d) work with the IUCN Oceania Regional              sist States to fulfill their obligations as
         Committee to ensure that the work                agreed under international agreements; and
         plan to implement the Secretariat’s
         Component Programmes takes full ac-          (c) propose pilot actions and support the activi-
         count of the need to more fully inte-            ties of IUCN members in the context of in-
         grate Oceania into the work of the Un-           ternational agreements.

Resolutions and Recommendations

                                                    tions, in order to inform IUCN and its constitu-
2.10 IUCN’s relations with the United               ents of any agenda items and other ongoing
Nations System                                      relevant issues with which IUCN and its assem-
                                                    bled expertise might be able to assist;
RECALLING the request set forth in Resolution
1.80 Relations with the United Nations System       THANKFUL for the leadership of IUCN’s State
adopted by the 1st Session of the World Conser-     members as well as other States in sponsoring
vation Congress (Montreal, 1996) requesting the     UNGA Resolution 54/195, and in particular Ec-
Council to undertake a comprehensive review of      uador, for taking the decision in the UN General
IUCN’s relations with the United Nations, its       Assembly to invite IUCN to serve as an Ob-
specialized agencies, and other international or-   server;
                                                    GRATEFUL to the President and members of
NOTING the decisions of the Council, taken in       Council, to the past and present Directors Gen-
connection with the 50th Anniversary of the         eral, to the Secretariat, to the IUCN Legal Advi-
founding of IUCN, to consult with IUCN’s            sor, and to IUCN’s Representative at the United
members, and with the Members of the United         Nations headquarters, for the extraordinary
Nations General Assembly, with respect to the       amount of dedicated services all contributed to
question of the UN General Assembly inviting        the consultations that led to the decision to in-
IUCN to be an Observer to the UN General As-        vite IUCN to undertake Observer Status in the
sembly (UNGA);                                      UN General Assembly;

HONOURED that the General Assembly of the           MINDFUL that environmental issues continue
United Nations on 17 December 1999 took a           to assume a greater role on the agendas of many
decision in UNGA Resolution 54/195 to invite        multilateral organizations, that since IUCN is
IUCN to participate in the work of the UN Gen-      the only international observer organization in
eral Assembly as an Observer;                       the UN General Assembly with expertise in is-
                                                    sues concerned with the environment, biodiver-
RECOGNIZING that the Director General of            sity, nature conservation and sustainable natural
IUCN, acting at the request of the Council, has     resource use, and that IUCN will therefore be
communicated IUCN’s acceptance of its Ob-           called upon increasingly to contribute its exper-
server Status, and appointed IUCN's first Ob-       tise to the United Nations and other multilateral
server Mission to the United Nations;               organizations;

WELCOMING the establishment since 17 De-            NOTING that the Council has not yet completed
cember 1999 of IUCN's Permanent Observer            its review of IUCN’s relations with the UN spe-
Mission to the United Nations;                      cialized agencies and other international organi-
                                                    zations, as requested in Resolution 1.80, and that
RECOGNIZING that the Director General will          IUCN continues to have obligations to imple-
prepare, on an annual basis, a report to be sub-    ment the commitments adopted at the 1992
mitted to the Secretary General of the United       United Nations Conference on Environment and
Nations describing IUCN’s participation in the      Development as set forth in Recommendation
work of the United Nations System, and will         1.79 Implementation of Earth Summit commit-
alert IUCN members to key UN documents              ments; and
relevant to their work;
                                                    FURTHER RECOGNIZING that IUCN already
FURTHER RECOGNIZING that the Director               collaborates with the United Nations Environ-
General has requested the IUCN Environmental        ment Programme (UNEP) under the Framework
Law Programme to continue monitoring docu-          Agreement signed in 1995 (especially in the
ments of the United Nations and to undertake an     fields of biological diversity, environmental law
ongoing review of the agenda of the United Na-      and information management) and also with the

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

biodiversity-related conventions serviced by         RECALLING the speech Brigitta Dahl, Speaker
UNEP;                                                of the Swedish Parliament, made before the
                                                     Closing Session of the Global Ministerial Envi-
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-      ronment Forum in Malmö, 31 May 2000, in
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:            which she lamented the lack of information and
                                                     insufficient involvement in international envi-
1.   WELCOMES AND ACCEPTS the respon-                ronmental affairs by the popularly elected repre-
     sibilities inherent in serving as an Observer   sentatives in local, regional, national and trans-
     in the United Nations General Assembly;         national assemblies; and

2.   REQUESTS the Director General to ar-            CONCERNED that, despite maintaining close
     range to open an IUCN office for its Ob-        contacts with national governments and gov-
     server Mission at the UN headquarters in        ernment agencies throughout the world and be-
     New York City, if possible through an ap-       ing in a position to intensify these ties through
     propriate agreement with an IUCN State          the recent attainment of Observer Status with the
     member;                                         United Nations General Assembly, IUCN has
                                                     few contacts with national or State parliaments;
3.   REQUESTS the Council to complete its
     review of IUCN’s relationships with the         The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
     specialized agencies and other international    sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
     intergovernmental organizations and to re-
     port accordingly to the next World Conser-      1.   CALLS ON the Director General to negoti-
     vation Congress;                                     ate a memorandum of understanding with
                                                          the Secretary General of the Inter-
4.   DECIDES to include, as a distinct agenda             Parliamentary Union (IPU) in order to in-
     item for each future World Conservation              tensify cooperation with the IPU and its
     Congress, a report from the Director Gen-            member parliaments;
     eral on IUCN’s cooperation in the work of
     the United Nations and related agencies and     2.   REQUESTS IUCN’s Commission on Envi-
     a discussion to determine those policy areas         ronmental Law to assist the Director Gen-
     on which IUCN and its Commissions shall              eral to develop and maintain the necessary
     concentrate their work.                              contacts, and to exchange information with
                                                          IPU member parliaments, throughout the
This Resolution was adopted by consensus.                 world, who approach IUCN for advice on
State and Agency members United States ab-                certain matters or who express a general in-
stained from the adoption by consensus of this            terest in policy questions pertaining to envi-
Resolution.                                               ronmental conservation and sustainable de-

                                                     3.   REQUESTS the Director General to pro-
2.11 Cooperation with parliaments                         vide a progress report to future World Con-
                                                          servation Congresses summarizing in-
RECOGNIZING that national parliaments and                 creased contacts with legislators following
parliaments in federated States wield constitu-           adoption of this Resolution.
tional influence on governmental policy and na-
tional legislation, and thus also influence inter-   This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
national relations as well as cooperation with the   State and Agency members United States ab-
United Nations System and other intergovern-         stained from the adoption by consensus of this
mental bodies;                                       Resolution.

Resolutions and Recommendations

                                                        and the policies adopted by the IUCN
2.12 Use of the name and logo of                        Council, and through corresponding proce-
IUCN – The World Conservation Un-                       dures implemented through the Office of
                                                        the Director General;
                                                    (b) all National and Regional Committees for-
RECOGNIZING that IUCN – The World Con-
                                                        mally recognized by the IUCN Council
servation Union has grown considerably in re-
                                                        have the right to identify themselves to the
cent years, and that its good name is a key asset
                                                        public as IUCN National or Regional
to the members and the overall Union, providing
                                                        Committees and that non-members invited
to the global community the assurance that pro-
                                                        to National or Regional Committee meet-
grammes and products bearing the name and
                                                        ings do not have the right to identify them-
logo of IUCN have been prepared to the highest
                                                        selves as speaking for IUCN through that
scientific and technical standards;
                                                        association with the Committee;
RECOGNIZING that there are many benefits to
                                                    (c) all IUCN Commissions have the right to
IUCN members, to IUCN as a whole, and to
                                                        identify themselves as part of IUCN and
efforts in general on behalf of nature conserva-
                                                        duly-appointed members of Commissions
tion from securing more visibility for the exist-
                                                        have the right to identify themselves as
ing programmes and products of IUCN, and that
                                                        IUCN Commission members in a manner
therefore members and other components of
                                                        consistent with each Commission’s by-
IUCN should continue to be encouraged to pub-
licize appropriately their association with IUCN;
                                                    (d) all elected officials of IUCN may identify
NOTING, however, that in the absence of con-
                                                        themselves by reference to their elected ti-
sistent guidance on this matter, some compo-
                                                        tles for the period of their elected position;
nents and members of IUCN have encountered
difficulties in deciding when and how to publi-
                                                    (e) this authorization to represent IUCN – The
cize their association with IUCN;
                                                        World Conservation Union as a whole may
                                                        only be undertaken in accordance with
CONCERNED that the inconsistent or unauthor-
                                                        policies adopted by the IUCN Council and
ized use of IUCN’s name and logo may weaken
                                                        through procedures implemented through
the importance and maintenance of the Union’s
                                                        the Office of the Director General; and
good name and thereby cause confusion
amongst the public about IUCN; and
                                                    (f) the Office of the Director General is re-
                                                        sponsible for communicating throughout
RECOGNIZING that to achieve consistency and
                                                        IUCN the policies, procedures and criteria
clarity in the use of the name and logo, such use
                                                        pertaining to the IUCN name and logo, and
should only be authorized through policies
                                                        also for monitoring the use of the name and
adopted by the IUCN Council and through pro-
                                                        logo with the purpose of notifying the rele-
cedures implemented through the Office of the
                                                        vant IUCN body of instances of possible
Director General;
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

DECIDES that:                                       2.13 Vote of Thanks to the Host
(a) all members of IUCN in good standing
    have the right to identify themselves           AWARE that the demanding objectives of a
    through the use of the IUCN name and            World Conservation Congress of IUCN can only
    logo, in accordance with this Resolution

                                                   World Conservation Congress
                                                    Amman, 4–11 October 2000

be met when the Session takes place in a well-
equipped and efficiently managed setting;

EMPHASIZING that a congenial and friendly
atmosphere contributes immensely to success;

NOTING with appreciation that these conditions
were met in full measure at the 2nd World Con-
servation Congress held in Amman;

The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

1.   EXPRESSES its deepest appreciation to
     His Majesty King Abdullah II, for his warm
     welcome and for providing the auspices for
     our Congress in Amman;

2.   RECORDS its warmest appreciation to the
     Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, through its
     Minister of Municipalities, Rural Affairs
     and the Environment, H.E. Mr Abdel Ra-
     heem Akour, for so generously hosting the
     Second World Conservation Congress;

3.   FURTHER RECORDS its great apprecia-
     tion to H.E. Mr Akel Biltaji, Minister of
     Tourism and Antiquities and, in particular,
     to H.E. Dr Alia Hatough-Bouran, Secretary
     General of the Ministry of Tourism and An-
     tiquities and Head of the IUCN National
     Committee, for her support throughout the
     period of the organization of the Congress,
     as well as during the Session itself;

4.   ACKNOWLEDGES with gratitude the
     dedicated support provided by the local
     conference organizers, Al Rajwa Invest-
     ments, the Al Hussein Sports City and the
     Royal Cultural Center, the many local vol-
     unteer helpers, and all those others who
     gave generously of their time and knowl-

Resolutions and Recommendations

B. Programme-related

2.14 Strengthening IUCN’s use of its                   (b) study the volunteer organization of
Commissions                                                the Commissions and comparable
                                                           knowledge networks no later than
GRATEFUL for the countless hours that senior               2002, and, taking the results of this
experts and other volunteers throughout the                study into consideration, to recom-
world contribute to the work of IUCN through               mend to Council the establishment of
its Commissions;                                           adequate Secretariat support and co-
                                                           ordination systems and other appro-
AWARE that the effectiveness of measures for               priate measures to enhance the volun-
the conservation of nature and natural resources           tary work of the Commissions; and
depends upon engaging the latest scientific
knowledge available;                                   (c) report to the 3rd World Conservation
                                                           Congress on the measures undertaken
NOTING with thanks the external reviews of the             to ensure that the voluntary contribu-
Commissions undertaken by the Council during               tions of the Commissions are recog-
the period since the 1st Session of the World              nized as a central element in the de-
Conservation Congress (Montreal, 1996);                    livery of the Union’s Overall Pro-
                                                           gramme and Financial Plan.
NOTING also that while the Secretariat of
IUCN must have considerable professional ex-
pertise, that expertise should be deployed in
ways that integrate with, complement, and en-      2.15 IUCN Collaborative Manage-
able the work of each Commission more effec-       ment for Conservation Programme
tively; and
                                                   RECALLING Recommendation 1.42 Collabo-
WISHING to strengthen the work of the Com-         rative Management for Conservation, adopted
missions as key components of IUCN;                by the 1st Session of the World Conservation
                                                   Congress (Montreal, 1996), and Resolutions
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-    19.1 Strategy of The World Conservation Union
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:          and 19.23 Importance of Community-based Ap-
                                                   proaches adopted by the 19th Session of the
1.   REAFFIRMS the Commissions as essential        IUCN General Assembly (Buenos Aires, 1994);
     partners in the design and implementation
     of IUCN's knowledge-based Overall Pro-        REAFFIRMING that IUCN members are
     gramme;                                       keenly interested in tapping the benefits of co-
                                                   management partnerships, which can:
2.   REQUESTS the Director General to:
                                                   (a) provide effective means of dealing with
     (a) investigate a means of evaluating and         complex interests and relationships, in-
         reporting regularly on the many con-          cluding conflicts over control and use of
         tributions of time and expertise pro-         natural resources;
         vided by Commission members in ser-
         vice to IUCN;

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

(b) build on the complementarity of the knowl-           highlighted in Recommendation 1.42,
    edge, skills, and practices of various social        which are still of utmost importance to the
    actors;                                              Union’s membership;

(b) provide effective incentives for resource        (d) address such concerns and opportunities
    users to engage in conservation initiatives;         within IUCN’s Overall Programme until
                                                         the next World Conservation Congress on
(d) contribute to the broad objectives of par-           the basis of the successes and lessons
    ticipatory democracy and participatory de-           learned in co-management initiatives sup-
    velopment; and                                       ported by IUCN members and partners and
                                                         by the CMWG; and
(e) promote the participation of marginalized
    groups and communities, thus enhancing           (e) report to the Union on all of the above as
    equity and sustainability in management;             soon as possible, but no later than October
NOTING with satisfaction that IUCN members
and partners and the IUCN Co-Management
Working Group (CMWG) have been supporting
successful and instructive co-management initia-     2.16 Climate change, biodiversity,
tives in different regions in response to the urg-   and IUCN's Overall Programme
ing of the above-referenced Recommendation
and Resolutions;                                     RECALLING that the Caracas Declaration
                                                     and Action Plan from the IVth World Congress
CONCERNED that the lessons learned in those          on National Parks and Protected Areas (Cara-
initiatives and the programmatic and policy          cas, Venezuela, 1992) identified climate change
benefits of the co-management option are not         as a significant issue concerning conservation
being built upon by the IUCN Secretariat; and        of biological diversity and management of pro-
                                                     tected areas;
REGRETTING that the Collaborative Manage-
ment for Conservation Programme, mandated            RECALLING Recommendation 18.22 Global
by Recommendation 1.42 has received dimin-           Climate Change adopted by the 18th Session of
ishing attention and support and is de facto ne-     the IUCN General Assembly (Perth, 1990);
                                                     FURTHER RECALLING Recommendations
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-      1.71 Climate Change, 1.72 Climate Change,
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:            Biodiversity and the IUCN Programme, and
                                                     1.73 Protocol or other legal instrument to the
REQUESTS the Director General to:                    Framework Convention on Climate Change
                                                     adopted by the 1st Session of the World Con-
(a) examine the current status of the Collabo-       servation Congress (Montreal, 1996);
    rative Management for Conservation Pro-
    gramme called for in Recommendation              NOTING the Report of the 9th Global Biodiver-
    1.42, as well as the causes and effects of its   sity Forum (Kyoto, 1997), which emphasized
    state of neglect;                                that biodiversity loss is likely to accelerate be-
                                                     cause of global warming by providing an addi-
(b) review the lessons learned in co-                tional stress to ecosystems already facing local-
    management initiatives supported by IUCN         ized pressures, and highlighted the potential for
    members and partners and by the CMWG;            carbon sequestration projects to provide the
                                                     additional benefit of conserving biodiversity;
(b) devise competent and effective means to
    respond to the concerns and opportunities

Resolutions and Recommendations

NOTING the Report of the 11th Global Biodi-              tion on the vulnerability and adaptation of
versity Forum (Buenos Aires, 1998) emphasiz-             ecological systems and socio-economic
ing that the goals of biodiversity conservation          sectors to climate change, as well as the
and sustainable use can no longer be achieved            economic and social aspects of climate
without taking climate change into account;              change mitigation;

NOTING the Report of the 12th Global Biodi-         4.   CALLS ON the Director General:
versity Forum (Dakar, 1998), which identified a
number of shared concerns and interests on the           (a) to facilitate the formation of an inter-
desertification, biodiversity, and climate change            Commission Task Force to advance
agendas;                                                     the work of IUCN on climate change;
FURTHER NOTING the Report of the 13th
Global Biodiversity Forum (San Jose, 1999),              (b) in accordance with Recommendation
which concluded that the goals of wetland and                1.72 Climate Change, Biodiversity
water resource conservation and wise use can no              and the IUCN Programme to develop
longer occur without taking climate change into              and implement a strategy on climate
account; and                                                 change;

RECOGNIZING the Convention on Biological            5.   CALLS ON:
Diversity Expert Consultation on Coral Bleach-
ing, (Manila, 1999), which concluded that recent         (a) the World Commission on Protected
mass bleaching events are a likely consequence               Areas (WCPA) to develop new guide-
of a steadily rising baseline of marine tempera-             lines for protected area management
tures, and in combination with more localized                and planning aimed at minimizing and
human-induced stresses, pose a significant threat            adapting to the impacts of climate
to coral reefs and the human populations which               change and to integrate climate
depend on them, particularly Small Island De-                change into the Vth World Parks Con-
veloping States;                                             gress; and

The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-          (b) the Species Survival Commission
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:                    (SSC) to develop new tools and tech-
                                                             nologies to evaluate the importance of
1.   AFFIRMS that climate change represents a                climate change as a threatening proc-
     major and growing threat to efforts to                  ess for particular species in particular
     achieve IUCN’s mission to influence and                 areas;
     encourage societies to conserve the integ-
     rity and diversity of nature and to ensure     6.   REQUESTS the Director General, within
     that natural resources are used equitably           available resources, to:
     and sustainably;
                                                         (a) support the integration of ecological
2.   WELCOMES the steps taken by IUCN to                     and social considerations, including
     develop the strategic elements necessary to             those of indigenous people and local
     address climate change as it relates to the             communities, into the work of the UN
     conservation and sustainable use of biodi-              Framework Convention on Climate
     versity and natural resources;                          Change (UNFCCC) and the Intergov-
                                                             ernmental Panel on Climate Change
3.   LOOKS FORWARD to the findings of the                    (IPCC);
     Third Assessment Report of the Intergov-
     ernmental Panel on Climate Change                   (b) strengthen linkages between the
     (IPCC), which will provide further informa-             UNFCCC, IPCC, Convention on Bio-

                                                                 World Conservation Congress
                                                                  Amman, 4–11 October 2000

    logical Diversity, Convention on Wet-               tivities that will allow them to meet
    lands (Ramsar Convention), UN Con-                  their regional needs;
    vention to Combat Desertification,
    Regional Seas Conventions, UN Con-
                                               7.   FURTHER REQUESTS the Director Gen-
    vention on the Law of the Sea, Con-
                                                    eral to report on the progress made on this
    vention on International Trade in En-
                                                    topic at the next session of the World Con-
    dangered Species of Wild Fauna and
                                                    servation Congress and to make further
    Flora (CITES), Convention on Migra-
                                                    recommendations, as appropriate and nec-
    tory Species (CMS or Bonn Conven-
                                                    essary, for implementing this Resolution.
    tion), International Convention on the
    Regulation of Whaling (ICRW), Con-
                                               This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
    vention on the Conservation of Antarc-
                                               State and Agency members United States ab-
    tic    Marine      Living    Resources
                                               stained from the adoption by consensus of this
    (CCAMLR), International Convention
    for the Prevention of Pollution from
    Ships (MARPOL) and other relevant
    international instruments;

(c) facilitate a balanced dialogue on the      2.17 Climate and energy
    treatment of land-use change and for-
    estry activities used to address climate   RECOGNIZING that the Intergovernmental
    change;                                    Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has docu-
                                               mented the need for all States, enterprises, and
(d) consult with Commissions and mem-          civil society to stabilize the emission of green-
    bers to develop recommended guide-         house gases in order to maintain historic cli-
    lines for maintaining and enhancing        mate conditions on Earth;
    biodiversity whenever terrestrial se-
    questration of greenhouse gases is be-     ACKNOWLEDGING that the United Nations
    ing undertaken;                            Development Programme (UNDP) has released
                                               the World Energy Assessment documenting that
(e) promote activities to enhance ecosys-      current and future energy demands will greatly
    tem resilience to climate change           increase greenhouse gas emissions;
    through inter alia the:
                                               NOTING that UNDP has requested assistance
    (i) creation of buffer zones and mi-       from IUCN in disseminating information about
          gratory corridors;                   the World Energy Assessment and in having the
    (ii) ecosystem restoration;                IUCN Regional Offices help to educate gov-
    (iii) conservation of marine and           ernment officials, civil society and the private
          coastal ecosystems, particularly     sector about the World Energy Assessment and
          coral reefs; and                     cleaner, more affordable available energy;
    (iv) maintenance of forest quality; and
    (v) protection of important ecosystem      FURTHER NOTING that the Conference of the
          services and groups of species;      Parties of the United Nations Framework Con-
          and                                  vention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has
                                               progressed toward defining the common but
(f) support the work of non-governmental       differentiated responsibilities that all States
    organizations and developing country       have to maintain the historic climate conditions
    members in building capacity to par-       on Earth; and
    ticipate in the climate change debate
    so as to promote strong rules and ac-      RECOGNIZING the importance of the research
                                               and consultations of the IUCN Commission on

Resolutions and Recommendations

Environmental Law on the use of legal instru-        RECALLING Resolution 16.7 Support for
ments to encourage the use and transfer of en-       Conservation in Africa adopted by the 16th Ses-
ergy-efficient technology and energy conserva-       sion of the IUCN General Assembly (Madrid,
tion methodology in support of both sustainable      1984), and Recommendations 18.23 Land Deg-
development and reduction of greenhouse gas          radation adopted by the 18th Session of the
emissions;                                           General Assembly (Perth 1990), and 1.74 Com-
                                                     bating Desertification adopted by the 1st Ses-
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-      sion of the World Conservation Congress
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:            (Montreal 1996);

1.   URGES all States and private sector com-        ALSO RECALLING the global consensus
     mercial enterprises to reduce emissions of      achieved during and after the Rio ‘Earth Sum-
     greenhouse gases and retire the most pollut-    mit’ with regard to relationships between envi-
     ing energy facilities, to adopt and use en-     ronmental and development issues, and the re-
     ergy-efficient technologies to reduce emis-     sulting adoption of the UN Convention to
     sions, and to facilitate the transfer and im-   Combat Desertification (CCD), Paris,1994;
     plementation of these technologies as rap-
     idly as possible throughout the world;          CONFIRMING the relevant orientations of the
                                                     World Conservation Strategy and Caring for
2.   RECOMMENDS that any measures to en-             the Earth as prerequisites for maintaining es-
     hance the sequestration of carbon by the        sential living conditions and environmental bal-
     Earth’s natural marine and terrestrial sys-     ances in arid and semi-arid zones;
     tems be undertaken based on the precau-
     tionary principle and only after thorough       CONVINCED that combating desertification
     environmental impact assessment;                and the effects of drought in arid and semi-arid
                                                     zones remain the basis in such regions for im-
3.   INVITES IUCN members to study the               plementation of all other conservation strate-
     World Energy Charter and consider how           gies, namely biological diversity, climate
     best to support its objectives;                 change, and prevention and management of
                                                     environmental risks;
4.   CALLS ON the Director General to request
     IUCN Regional Offices, within available         NOTING with satisfaction the highly signifi-
     means, to assist the United Nations Devel-      cant progress since the adoption of the CCD
     opment Programme to disseminate informa-        and the development and adoption of national
     tion about the World Energy Assessment          and regional action programmes for Africa in
     and to help educate government officials,       particular;
     civil society, and the private sector about
     the World Energy Assessment and about           RECALLING the major contributions made to
     cleaner, more affordable available energy       the Sahel Programme and many other relevant
     options evaluated therein.                      programmes, such as the UNESCO Man and
                                                     Biosphere (MAB) Programme, the US-AID
This Resolution was adopted by consensus.            supported initiative on arid zones, and the es-
State and Agency members United States ab-           sential needs and food security strategies sup-
stained from the adoption by consensus of this       ported by the International Labour Organization
Resolution.                                          (ILO), the World Health Organization (WHO),
                                                     the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),
                                                     and the World Food Programme (WFP) that
2.18 Strengthening actions for imple-                have widely contributed to the formulation of
mentation of the UN Convention to                    subsequent strategies including the Nairobi and
                                                     Lagos Action Plans, the UNSO Strategy, and
Combat Desertification                               the Special Initiative for Africa;

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

                                                          new impetus, and required coordination, to
CONCERNED that the significant contributions              support the efforts of many other actors.
of several different initiatives have not reversed
the pernicious phenomenon of desertification or
led to support for the harmonious development
of affected zones as perceived in the action pro-     2.19 Responding to the recommenda-
grammes that have been adopted;                       tions from the World Commission on
CONVINCED that, in order to produce the de-
sired effects, the action programmes should be
                                                      RECALLING Recommendations 18.56 Nar-
supported by arrangements in which the various
                                                      mada Valley project, India adopted by the 18th
actors (i.e. States, non-governmental organiza-
                                                      Session of the IUCN General Assembly (Perth,
tions, aid agencies, the private sector, and local
                                                      1990), 19.44 Water regimes of rivers, flood-
communities) can specify the level of their indi-
                                                      plains and wetlands, 19.73 Paraguay-Parana
vidual commitments, notably in terms of re-
                                                      Waterway project adopted by the 19th Session
source allocation and provision of adequate
                                                      of the General Assembly (Buenos Aires, 1994),
means for combating desertification; and
                                                      and 1.98 Environmentally sustainable develop-
                                                      ment of the Mekong River Basin adopted by the
FURTHER CONVINCED that enhanced sup-
                                                      1st Session of the World Conservation Congress
port to such processes can come from IUCN,
                                                      (Montreal, 1996);
specifically from its networks of experts, mem-
bers, and partners, through coordination, train-
                                                      ALSO RECALLING Recommendations 18.57
ing, lobbying, and innovative efforts, notably in
                                                      Tehri dam project, India, adopted by the 18th
the framework of the Global Initiative on Deser-
                                                      Session of the General Assembly (Perth, 1990)
tification adopted by the 18th Session of the
                                                      and 19.29 Dam construction, Irrigation and
General Assembly of the Union;
                                                      water diversions adopted by the 19th Session of
                                                      the General Assembly (Buenos Aires, 1994);
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
                                                      ACKNOWLEDGING the significant impact
                                                      dams have had on human communities, riverine
1.   REAFFIRMS its support to the Secretariat
                                                      and wetland ecosystems, and biodiversity;
     and other actors in their concerted efforts to
     promote integrated and sustainable devel-
                                                      RECOGNIZING the potential for future dams
     opment of arid and semi-arid zones, notably
                                                      to substantially affect human communities,
     through implementation of the CCD;
                                                      riverine and wetland ecosystems, and biodiver-
2.   REQUESTS the IUCN Secretariat, mem-
     bers, and the specialist networks of the Un-
                                                      SUPPORTING the urgent need to ensure wise
     ion, to make desertification control the key
                                                      use of global water resources to meet the needs
     requirement for the development of these
                                                      of society in an equitable and sustainable fash-
     arid and semi-arid zones, by supporting the
     adoption and implementation of relevant
     national, sub-regional, and regional action
                                                      NOTING the need to promote open, transpar-
                                                      ent, and accountable decision-making processes
                                                      and to find cooperative ways of satisfying dif-
3.   REQUESTS the Director General and
                                                      fering interests;
     Chairs of Commissions to give particular
     assistance for the development and imple-
                                                      ACKNOWLEDGING the initiative taken by
     mentation of the Global Initiative on Deser-
                                                      the Director General in 1997, in collaboration
     tification as an appropriate tool for giving
                                                      with the World Bank, to bring together gov-
                                                      ernments, the private sector, and civil society

Resolutions and Recommendations

stakeholders through the World Commission on
Dams;                                                      (c) encourage the Task Force to develop
                                                               processes and partnerships with rele-
AWARE that the World Commission on Dams                        vant public, private, and civil society
is undertaking a global review of large dams,                  institutions to undertake its work;
and will develop criteria and guidelines for fu-
ture assessment of dam alternatives and for dam       4.   REQUESTS the Director General to:
planning, construction, and operation to be in-
cluded in its final report to be released in No-           (a) define the Secretariat’s continued role
vember 2000; and                                               and involvement in any follow-up ac-
                                                               tivities that may arise as the mandate
NOTING that many IUCN members have been                        of the World Commission on Dams
actively involved in the World Commission on                   expires, recognizing the Union’s role
Dams processes – a key arena of public policy-                 in establishing the World Commission
making that has far-reaching consequences for                  on Dams and its mandate; and
energy and water resource management;
                                                           (b) report to Council, IUCN members and
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-                partners, and the broader international
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October, 2000:                     community within two years of the 2nd
                                                               Session of the World Conservation
1.   REQUESTS the Council and Director Gen-                    Congress, and again at the 3rd Session
     eral to take due note of the recommenda-                  of the World Conservation Congress,
     tions laid out in the Commission’s report                 on the implementation of the recom-
     and to build follow-up activities into the                mendations, activities, and audit of
     current and future Component Programmes                   the above Task Force.
     of the Union;

2.   URGES all governments, IUCN members,
     and the Director General to bring the report     2.20 Conservation of marine biodi-
     to the attention of their respective constitu-   versity
     encies, and to support regional, national,
     and local processes to consider the conclu-      RECALLING Recommendations 17.38 Protec-
     sions of the report at all levels;               tion of the Coastal and Marine Environment
                                                      adopted by the 17th Session of the IUCN Gen-
3.   REQUESTS the Council to:                         eral Assembly (San Jose, 1988) and 1.37 Ma-
                                                      rine Protected Areas adopted by the 1st Session
     (a) establish a Task Force, with member-         of the World Conservation Congress (Montreal,
         ship comprising a balanced group, rep-       1996), 19.46 Marine and Coastal Area Conser-
         resentative of stakeholders involved         vation, and 19.56 Global Fisheries adopted by
         with dams, to review the report and          the 19th Session of the IUCN General Assembly
         advise the Union, its members, and           (Buenos Aires, 1994);
         partners, on ways of responding to the
         findings and recommendations of the          ACKNOWLEDGING the jurisdictional frame-
         World Commission on Dams;                    work for the marine environment provided by
                                                      the United Nations Convention on the Law of
     (b) mandate the Task Force to monitor the        the Sea, 1982;
         response to the Commission’s recom-
         mendations by governments, non-              RECALLING that Article 197 of the United
         governmental organizations, public in-       Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,
         ternational financial institutions, and      1982 calls upon States to “cooperate on a global
         the private sector; and                      basis and, as appropriate, on a regional basis …

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

for the protection and preservation of the marine    far from shallow coastal waters and beyond the
environment, taking into account regional fea-       jurisdictional limits of coastal States;
                                                     RECOGNIZING that while knowledge of the
RECALLING that the 1995 Jakarta Mandate on           resources of the high seas is limited, increas-
Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity,             ingly areas with significant biodiversity values
adopted by the Conference of Parties to the          and potential economic value are being identi-
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), re-        fied that would benefit from a conservation ap-
affirmed that there is a critical need to address    proach, whereby any use must be ecologically
the conservation and sustainable use of marine       sustainable, and based on a precautionary ap-
and coastal biological diversity;                    proach to initial exploration and potential use,
                                                     consistent with Principle 15 of the Rio Decla-
RECALLING that the 1995 FAO Code of Con-             ration on Environment and Development;
duct for Responsible Fisheries calls upon states
to apply the precautionary approach widely to        CONCERNED that there are limited interna-
conservation, management, and exploitation of        tional mechanisms to ensure sustainable man-
living aquatic resources in order to protect them    agement of living and non-living marine re-
and preserve the aquatic environment;                sources that straddle coastal State jurisdictions
                                                     and the high seas, or that they are restricted en-
RECALLING that Decision 7/1(22) of the UN            tirely to the high seas;
Commission on Sustainable Development en-
couraged States to establish and manage Marine       OBSERVING that technology and capacity are
Protected Areas, along with other appropriate        rapidly developing to facilitate increased ex-
management tools, in order to ensure the con-        traction of living and non-living marine re-
servation of biological diversity and the sustain-   sources;
able management and use of oceans;
                                                     BELIEVING that the marine environment of
RECOGNIZING that the biodiversity of the ma-         the high seas, including all living and non-
rine environment, both within coastal State ju-      living resources, is the common heritage of all
risdictions and on the high seas, as defined by      people, to be used with judgement, and not to
the United Nations Convention on the Law of          excess;
the Sea, 1982, is an integral part of the natural
and cultural heritage of the world;                  BELIEVING that, linked with common owner-
                                                     ship, is a common responsibility to ensure the
FURTHER RECOGNIZING that recent discov-              maintenance of marine resources for the direct
eries have demonstrated that seamounts support       benefit and enjoyment of present and future
highly diverse fauna with a high degree of en-       generations and to ensure that any use of ma-
demism, and that these faunas are little known       rine resources is appropriate; and
and may be threatened;
                                                     RECOGNIZING that Marine Protected Areas,
CONCERNED that many marine ecosystems                covering the full range of IUCN categories and
both within coastal State jurisdictions and on the   providing for ‘multiple use’, can be valuable
high seas have become seriously degraded as a        tools for integrating biodiversity conservation,
result of human activities and that the rate of      responsible fisheries, mineral exploration and
degradation continues to increase;                   extraction, particularly sensitive sea areas, tour-
                                                     ism, and scientific research in a sustainable
ACKNOWLEDGING that the biodiversity of               manner;
the oceans is extensive, including phyla not
found on land, and that a significant portion of     The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
the oceans’ biodiversity can be found in areas       Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

Resolutions and Recommendations

1.   URGES all countries that have not already        Fisheries By-Catch and Recommendations 1.17
     done so to sign and ratify the UN Conven-        Coastal and Marine Conservation and Man-
     tion on the Law of the Sea, 1982 and the         agement, 1.18 Aquaculture, and 1.37 Marine
     UN Fish Stock Agreement, 1995;                   Protected Areas that were adopted by the 1st
                                                      Session of the World Conservation Congress
2.   REAFFIRMS IUCN’s commitment to the               (Montreal, 1996);
     creation of a representative system of Ma-
     rine Protected Areas at regional and global      RECOGNIZING the significance of the oceans
     scales to provide for the protection, restora-   as constituting the greater part of the planet’s
     tion, sustainable use, understanding, and        biosphere;
     enjoyment of the marine heritage of the
     world in perpetuity;                             ALSO RECOGNIZING the socio-economic
                                                      significance of marine resources to the planet’s
3.   RENEWS IUCN’s recommendation that                human population;
     each national government should seek co-
     operative action between the public and all      FURTHER RECOGNIZING the role the
     levels of government for the development         oceans play in regulation of the global climate;
     and management of a national system of
     Marine Protected Areas;                          ALSO RECALLING Chapter 17 of Agenda 21,
                                                      which affirms that oceans are an essential com-
4.   CALLS ON the Director General to work            ponent of the global life-support system, for
     with IUCN members and multilateral agen-         which new approaches are required to meet the
     cies to explore an appropriate range of          rights and obligations of States under interna-
     tools, including high seas Marine Protected      tional law;
     Areas, with the objective of implementing
     effective protection, restoration, and sus-      NOTING the responsibilities and competencies
     tainable use of biological diversity and eco-    at an intergovernmental level are divided
     system processes on the high seas;               amongst a large number of UN bodies;

5.   CALLS ON national governments, interna-          EMPHASIZING the need for national action,
     tional agencies, and the non-governmental        and the critical importance of regional coopera-
     community to better integrate established        tion in order to achieve implementation of
     multilateral agencies and existing legal         global principles at a practical level;
     mechanisms to identify areas of the high
     seas suitable for collaborative management       ALSO EMPHASIZING the importance of in-
     action, and to reach agreement by consen-        volving all relevant disciplines and stake-
     sus on regimes for their conservation and        holders, including user groups and non-
     management.                                      governmental organizations in decision-making
                                                      at all levels;
This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
State and Agency members United States ab-            CONCERNED that after the 1st World Conser-
stained from the adoption by consensus of this        vation Congress, IUCN terminated its Global
Resolution.                                           Marine and Coastal Programme coordination

                                                      COMMENDING the positive efforts now un-
2.21 IUCN Marine Component Pro-                       derway to reconstitute IUCN’s Marine Compo-
gramme                                                nent Programme, on the basis of interventions
                                                      from IUCN’s membership, including linkages
RECALLING Resolutions 1.15 Incidental Mor-            to the Sustainable Use Initiative;
tality of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries and 1.16

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

NOTING the opportunity that UN General As-
sembly Observer Status affords to IUCN in                 (b) ensure effective arrangements are put
terms of advancing conservation and sustainable               in hand to coordinate IUCN’s marine
use of natural resources, including the context of            activities and outputs in such a way
oceans;                                                       that the Commissions, membership,
                                                              and the Secretariat’s Component Pro-
FURTHER NOTING that a scoping meeting                         grammes work together to maximize
convened by the IUCN Secretariat in 1998 iden-                IUCN’s influence on the conservation
tified three principal areas of focus for IUCN                and sustainable use of marine re-
(i.e. protection of essential habitats, promotion             sources; and
of sustainable fisheries, protection of the marine
environment from land-based activities); and              (c) emphasize mechanisms for regional
                                                              and national support for marine con-
CONCERNED, however, that efforts pertaining                   servation and sustainable use.
to marine and coastal issues within IUCN are
fragmented amongst several Component Pro-
grammes and Commissions and do not provide
the necessary leadership;                            2.22 IUCN’s work in the Arctic
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-      RECALLING Resolution 1.7 An IUCN Strat-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:            egy for the Arctic adopted by the 1st Session of
                                                     the World Conservation Congress and other
1.   ENDORSES the reinstitution of a strong          Resolutions endorsing IUCN’s Arctic involve-
     Marine Component Programme in IUCN,             ment that were adopted by earlier General As-
     based upon the results of the 1998 scoping      semblies;
     exercise and IUCN’s Overall Programme;
                                                     RECOGNIZING the work undertaken by the
2.   CALLS ON the Director General to provide        IUCN Canada Office, and taking note of the
     adequate support for the full range of IUCN     February 2000 IUCN Council meeting that
     marine-related activities, consistent with      agreed on the importance of the Arctic in
     the work of the Commissions, including,         IUCN’s programme and recommended that the
     but not limited to, the Marine Component        IUCN Office for Russia and the Common-
     Programme;                                      wealth of Independent States (CIS) lead in pro-
                                                     viding secretariat support and that this work be
3.   CALLS ON IUCN’s members and partners            undertaken in conjunction with, in particular,
     to participate in and support the IUCN Ma-      the IUCN offices in Canada, the USA, Europe,
     rine Component Programme as an instru-          and Russia;
     ment for highlighting issues of global rele-
     vance that should be addressed through re-      ACKNOWLEDGING the important role of
     gional and national mechanisms, with an         IUCN and its members in protecting and con-
     objective of maintaining and securing con-      serving biodiversity and ecosystems globally;
     ditions consistent with conservation and
     sustainable use;                                RECOGNIZING that the circumpolar Arctic
                                                     ecosystem and its proper functioning is criti-
4.   REQUESTS the Director General to:               cally important for, inter alia, Arctic residents,
                                                     for the world’s climate and ocean regimes and
     (a) submit to IUCN Council for considera-       for migratory species from all hemispheres;
         tion at its first meeting in 2001, de-
         tailed strategies for addressing marine     AWARE that the Arctic ecosystem is under
         and coastal issues in an integrated         increasing threat from anthropogenic activity,

Resolutions and Recommendations

especially pollutants from other areas, and cli-         (a) integrated ecosystem management and
mate change;                                                 ecological integrity and environmental
                                                             security in the Arctic, notably inter
NOTING the establishment of home rule and                    alia, the conservation and management
land claim organizations for indigenous peoples              needs of species and habitats, to pro-
as a distinct level of democratic governance;                tected areas, to the northern timberline
                                                             forests, to the Arctic marine environ-
NOTING the valuable cooperation that exists                  ment, and to pollution;
among the Arctic countries and indigenous peo-
ples’ organizations through, inter alia, the Arc-        (b) the rights, needs and involvement of
tic Council, and that IUCN is expected to re-                Arctic indigenous peoples, their de-
ceive full Accredited Observer Status to the Arc-            pendence upon, and traditional knowl-
tic Council in October 2000 at the Arctic Coun-              edge of, the sustainable use of natural
cil Ministerial Meeting in Barrow, Alaska;                   resources; and

CONFIRMING IUCN’s intention to add value,                (c) the needs of other permanent residents
to complement, and to contribute to existing                 in the Arctic, and their involvement in
Arctic organizations and their activities; and               IUCN activities;

WELCOMING the initiatives of IUCN’s World           4.   REQUESTS the Director General to:
Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), such
as convening a Circumpolar Marine Workshop               (a) prepare and implement an IUCN Arc-
in Montreal, Canada (28 November – 2 Decem-                  tic Strategy and Action Plan; and
ber 1999) in association with Working Groups
of the Arctic Council, publishing the Report and         (b) establish Arctic activities as part of
Recommendations of that workshop, establish-                 IUCN’s Overall Programme until the
ing a network of Arctic specialists, convening a             next World Conservation Congress
Planning Session in Illulissat, Greenland (21–23             and to provide appropriate Secretariat
June 2000), and development of an Action Plan                support.
and Statement of Goals for WCPA’s Arctic ac-
tivities;                                           This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
                                                    State and Agency members United States ab-
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-     stained from the adoption by consensus of this
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:           Resolution.

     cumpolar Arctic as a priority ecosystem for
     IUCN;                                          2.23 Improving IUCN capacity for
                                                    strategic information manage-
2.   RECOGNIZES the need for an IUCN Arc-
     tic Strategy and Action Plan and notes that
                                                    ment/information technology
     it must be consistent with IUCN’s goals
                                                    NOTING that the past decade has seen un-
     and mission, complement the work of the
                                                    precedented growth and expansion in tools and
     Arctic Council, and it must address IUCN’s
                                                    methodologies for information technology and
     Key Result Areas in the Overall Pro-
                                                    information management and that these devel-
                                                    opments include expansion of global computer
                                                    networks, rapid advances in more affordable
3.   REQUESTS IUCN to pay particular atten-
                                                    computing capacities, and greatly enhanced
     tion to:
                                                    capacity to manipulate electronic documents,
                                                    maps, and images;

                                                                      World Conservation Congress
                                                                       Amman, 4–11 October 2000

RECOGNIZING that a global ‘digital divide’           2.   REQUESTS the Director General, in con-
has emerged, separating those with access to              sultation with members and Commissions,
information technology networks and resources             to identify resources to develop and im-
from those without, and that IUCN should play a           plement a strategic plan for information
leading role in redressing denials of access and          technology which is adapted to the organi-
inequities of resources within the conservation           zation’s international mission and the Se-
community;                                                cretariat’s Component Programmes, and
                                                          which supports implementation of IUCN’s
NOTING the importance of the initiative of                Overall Programme;
IUCN, together with that of several organiza-
tions, to establish the Biodiversity Conservation    3.   CALLS ON the Director General, working
Information System (BCIS) aimed at redressing             closely with the IUCN Information Man-
the inequities described in the preceding para-           agement Group, to recruit a Union-wide
graph;                                                    group of expert volunteers from among its
                                                          Commissions and members to undertake a
FURTHER NOTING that IUCN has taken sev-                   comprehensive review and develop the
eral important initiatives to contribute to BCIS          strategic plan for information technology.
(notably the PARC project, the Species Informa-
tion Service, the IUCN Digital Library, the Eco-
system Management Information System, and
the Environmental Law Information System)            2.24 Establishment of an IUCN In-
and that these initiatives will improve the capac-   ternational Academy of Environ-
ity of IUCN to provide conservation information
to its members, Commissions, and staff;
                                                     mental Law
                                                     RECOGNIZING the important contributions to
EMPHASIZING that these initiatives deserve
                                                     the field of environmental law made by IUCN –
strong, continuing support by IUCN;
                                                     The World Conservation Union since 1965;
ACKNOWLEDGING that although the IUCN
                                                     RECALLING that one of the objectives of
Information Management Group has functioned
                                                     IUCN since its founding in 1948 has been the
at a high level of efficiency within its current
                                                     drafting of laws and treaties for the protection
constraints of staffing and resources, IUCN has
                                                     of nature;
not yet planned and implemented for optimal
application of information technology and re-
                                                     AWARE that environmental law has become a
sources which are now available and commonly
                                                     field of law whose scope is exceptionally broad,
used by many smaller organizations; and
                                                     ranging from the legal systems of local authori-
                                                     ties and the customary law of traditional socie-
NOTING the need to achieve implementation of
                                                     ties and indigenous peoples, through to the laws
Key Result Area 6 Information and Communi-
                                                     of States and international law among States;
cation in IUCN’s Overall Programme;
                                                     CONVINCED that the future effectiveness of
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
                                                     environmental law will depend on building the
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
                                                     capacity of lawyers and others involved in envi-
                                                     ronmental law, policy, and decision-making to
1.   CONFIRMS that IUCN must make a seri-
                                                     further its development and implementation in
     ous and sustained commitment to build an
                                                     all regions of the Earth; and
     information technology and information
     management infrastructure which is com-
                                                     ACKNOWLEDGING that the IUCN Commis-
     mensurate to its size and international mis-
                                                     sion on Environmental Law, at the 50th Anni-
                                                     versary of IUCN celebration in Fontainbleau,

Resolutions and Recommendations

France, proposed the creation of an IUCN Acad-       NOTING the Plant Conservation Programme
emy of Environmental Law;                            that has been developed by the Species Survival
                                                     Commission (SSC) to address this crisis;
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:            RECOGNIZING the Gran Canaria Declara-
                                                     tion on the Need for a Global Programme for
1.   WELCOMES the initiative taken by the            Plant Conservation issued by 16 of the world’s
     IUCN Commission on Environmental Law            leading botanists, including eight members of
     to pursue the establishment of an IUCN In-      the SSC Plant Conservation Committee, on 4
     ternational Academy of Environmental            April 2000; and
     Law, and requests the Council to give ur-
     gent consideration to this endeavour within     FURTHER NOTING Decision V/10 of the
     IUCN’s Overall Programme before the next        Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) that
     World Conservation Congress;                    agrees to consider the establishment of a global
                                                     strategy for plant conservation at the 6th meet-
2.   NOTES that the role of the Academy will         ing of the Conference of the Parties to the
     be to provide a framework to further ad-        CBD;
     vance the development and implementation
     of environmental law at global, regional        The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
     and national levels, through teaching, train-   Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
     ing, research, and related activities;
                                                     1.   COMMENDS the Species Survival Com-
3.   REQUESTS the Chair of the Commission                 mission for its work in developing the
     on Environmental Law and the Director                Plant Conservation Programme, and calls
     General to identify, take into account, and          for the rapid implementation of this Com-
     collaborate with existing international and          ponent Programme within the context of
     regional training and research institutions          IUCN’s Overall Programme;
     and programmes, and to develop a detailed
     statement of goals, functions, structure, and   2.   ENDORSES the Gran Canaria Declara-
     legal form of the Academy for the consid-            tion on the Need for a Global Programme
     eration of Council;                                  for Plant Conservation;

4.   INVITES all IUCN members with an inter-         3.   URGES Parties to the CBD to consider the
     est in advancing the field of environmental          establishment of a global strategy for plant
     law to provide all possible assistance to the        conservation at the 6th meeting of the Con-
     Environmental Law Programme in this pro-             ference of the Parties to the CBD;
                                                     4.   REQUESTS the Director General and the
                                                          Species Survival Commission to provide
                                                          technical and scientific assistance to the
2.25 Conservation of plants                               CBD in the development of a global plant
                                                          conservation strategy;
RECOGNIZING the fundamental importance of
plants for the maintenance of all other forms of     5.   AGREES to assist and promote the devel-
life;                                                     opment and implementation of a global
                                                          plant conservation strategy under the aus-
ALARMED at the massive extinction crisis af-              pices of the CBD (Key Result Area 2, Re-
fecting plant species;                                    sult 6) in IUCN’s Overall Programme.

                                                                         World Conservation Congress
                                                                          Amman, 4–11 October 2000

2.26 Preparing for Rio+10                              (the World Parks Congress), Caracas, Vene-
                                                       zuela, 1992 that the Vth such Congress should
RECALLING the 1972 United Nations Confer-              be held in Africa;
ence on The Human Environment, held at
Stockholm, which first emphasized the preserva-        GRATEFUL to the Government of South Af-
tion and enhancement of the human environ-             rica for its generous offer to host that meeting
ment, and the 1992 UN Conference on Envi-              in Durban, South Africa, in September 2003;
ronment and Development, held in Rio de Ja-
neiro, which pushed forward the concept of sus-        NOTING the excellent work already done by
tainable development;                                  the World Commission on Protected Areas
                                                       (WCPA) in preparation for the next World
RECOGNIZING that the implementation of the             Parks Congress, under the title of ‘Vth World
principles set forth in Agenda 21 are indispensa-      Parks Congress – Benefits Beyond Bounda-
ble in order to prevent further worldwide dete-        ries’;
rioration of the environment; and
                                                       ACKNOWLEDGING the support already
AWARE that the 55th UN General Assembly is             given to IUCN in preparation of the World
to deal with the outcome of the review of the          Parks Congress by South African National
implementation of Agenda 21 and to address the         Parks, the National Wildlife Service of New
major challenges to sustainable development;           South Wales, Australia, the United States Na-
                                                       tional Park Service, and the Global Environ-
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-        ment Facility/The World Bank;
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
                                                       NOTING the Union’s orientation towards pro-
1.   URGES IUCN’s Council, Commissions,                ducing measurable progress in each of the
     and Secretariat to undertake all steps neces-     seven Key Result Areas, including ecosystem
     sary in order to ensure that IUCN will be         protection, which are described in IUCN’s
     able to offer valuable input, both in prepa-      Overall Programme;
     rations for, and during, the Rio+10 Confer-
     ence;                                             ALSO NOTING that the World Parks Congress
                                                       will review the global status of protected areas,
2.   REQUESTS all IUCN’s members to mobi-              assess the critical issues facing them, and map
     lize their efforts, and where possible to co-     out directions for the next decade and beyond;
     ordinate their activities, in order to contrib-   and
     ute to a productive and successful conclu-
     sion of the forthcoming conference;               FURTHER NOTING that it is expected that the
                                                       World Parks Congress will confirm the central
3.   REQUESTS the Director General, subject            role of protected areas in the broader economic,
     to funds becoming available, to form a            social, and environmental agenda for human-
     Working Group that also allows NGOs to            kind in the 21st century, especially in the con-
     network and organize themselves to take           servation and sustainable use of natural re-
     part in Rio+10 and in the preparatory con-        sources;
                                                       The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
                                                       Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

2.27 The Durban World Parks Con-                       1.   AGREES that the World Parks Congress
                                                            should be a central feature in the Secre-
gress                                                       tariat’s Component Programmes between
                                                            the 2nd and 3rd World Conservation Con-
RECALLING the decision of the IVth World
Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas

Resolutions and Recommendations

                                                          (a) ensure that the Gender and Sustain-
2.   CALLS ON the Director General to mobi-                   able Development Group can func-
     lize all parts of the Secretariat to work in             tion;
     support of the Vth World Parks Congress;
                                                          (b) name a full-time person in the Secre-
                                                              tariat’s Social Policy Component Pro-
3.   INVITES all within the IUCN family to
                                                              gramme to facilitate the theme of
     participate actively in the Congress;
                                                              gender at the global and regional lev-
4.   URGES IUCN members and donors to give
     all possible financial, technical, and intel-        (c) operationalize the IUCN Plan of Ac-
     lectual support to ensure the success of the             tion that was approved by Council
     Durban World Parks Congress, in particular               through concrete proposals making it
     to the Secretariat and WCPA in preparing                 possible to seek funding for its im-
     for the event, through assistance to devel-              plementation;
     oping country participants, and in the               (d) define gender criteria for the formula-
     preparation and dissemination of Congress                tion of future projects, initiatives, or
     outputs.                                                 Secretariat Component Programmes
                                                              at the global and regional levels; and
                                                          (e) include gender equity indicators in the
2.28 Gender policy                                            IUCN monitoring and evaluation sys-
MINDFUL that IUCN – The World Conserva-
tion Union supports the principles expressed in      2.   CALLS ON the Director General to ensure
the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms            that:
of Discrimination against Women, the Declara-
tion of Human Rights, the Beijing Declaration,            (a) the Gender Equity Policy that was ap-
the United Nations Conference on Environment                  proved by Council is applied in all
and Development, and the UN Convention to                     Secretariat Component Programmes,
Combat Desertification;                                       projects, or initiatives;

CONSIDERING that the IUCN Plan of Action                  (b) gender equity is mainstreamed in all
approved by Council includes a policy on gen-                 of the Secretariat’s actions, projects,
der equity;                                                   and initiatives; and
                                                          (c) gender equity indicators are involved
RECALLING that Resolution 1.5 Definition of a                 in all actions carried out by the Secre-
Gender Policy for the Union was adopted by the                tariat.
1st Session of the World Conservation Congress
(Montreal, 1996); and

ACKNOWLEDGING that the 5th Meso-                     2.29 IUCN Policy Statement on Sus-
american IUCN Forum, held in Guatemala City,
                                                     tainable Use of Wild Living Resources
in October of 1999, adopted a comparable mo-
                                                     RECALLING Resolution 1.39 Sustainable Use
                                           nd        Initiative adopted by the 1st Session of the
The World Conservation Congress at its 2 Ses-
                                                     World Conservation Congress, requested the
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
                                                     Species Survival Commission’s (SSC) Sustain-
                                                     able Use Specialist Group (SUSG) to develop
1.   REQUESTS the Director General to:
                                                     urgently a short policy paper on sustainable use
                                                     for written comment from IUCN members, and

                                                                      World Conservation Congress
                                                                       Amman, 4–11 October 2000

for SSC to take these comments into account in      The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
preparing a final draft for presentation at the     Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
next World Conservation Congress;
                                                    1.   ADOPTS the Policy Statement attached
ACKNOWLEDGING that, in accordance with                   herewith and commends the policy to
Resolution 1.39, the Steering Committee of the           IUCN’s members, Commissions, and Se-
SUSG drafted the Policy Statement on Sustain-            cretariat for implementation in the context
able Use of Wild Living Resources, the final ver-        of IUCN’s Overall Programme, and in ac-
sion of which is attached as an Annex to this            cordance with the objectives of IUCN;
                                                    2.   CALLS ON the Secretariat to report on the
ALSO ACKNOWLEDGING that successive                       progress achieved in implementing the
drafts of this statement were reviewed by mem-           terms of the Policy Statement at the 3rd
bers of 14 regional SUSGs, Chairs and members            World Conservation Congress.
of the SSC Specialist Groups, the SSC Steering
Committee, Chairs of other Commissions, heads       This Resolution was adopted by a show of
of IUCN’s Thematic and Regional Component           hands. State and Agency members United
Programmes, and IUCN’s members;                     States abstained from adoption of the Resolu-
RECOGNIZING that sustainable use is one of
the three components of the objective of the
Convention on Biological Diversity and that the
Convention provides a definition of ‘sustainable    Policy Statement on Sustainable Use of Wild
use’;                                               Living Resources (Annex to Resolution 2.29)

NOTING that Article 3 of the Convention on          1.   Conservation of biological diversity is cen-
Wetlands (Ramsar Convention) obliges its Con-            tral to the mission of IUCN, and accord-
tracting Parties to implement wise use ap-               ingly IUCN recommends that decisions of
proaches and that, in particular, the Convention         whether to use, or not to use, wild living
has recently produced a series of Wise Use               resources should be consistent with this
Handbooks;                                               aim.

ALSO NOTING that the Parties to the Conven-         2.   Both consumptive and non-consumptive
tion on International Trade in Endangered Spe-           use of biological diversity are fundamental
cies of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) have en-            to the economies, cultures, and well-being
dorsed the principle of sustainable use in Reso-         of all nations and peoples.
lution Conf. 8.3;
                                                    3.   Use, if sustainable, can serve human needs
RECOGNIZING that sustainability and sustain-             on an ongoing basis while contributing to
able use are concepts that are now being applied         the conservation of biological diversity.
to sectors beyond the scope of this policy state-
ment per se, e.g. water, agriculture, soils; and    4.   In Recommendation 18.24, adopted by the
                                                         18th Session of the General Assembly
NOTING that most Component Programmes of                 (Perth, 1990), IUCN – The World Conser-
IUCN work on sustainable use and that there is a         vation Union recognized that “the ethical,
need for the principles of sustainable use to be         wise and sustainable use of some wildlife
mainstreamed in all pertinent IUCN technical,            can provide an alternative or supplemen-
regional, national, project, and Commission ac-          tary means of productive land use, and can
tivities;                                                be consistent with and encourage conser-
                                                         vation, where such use is in accordance
                                                         with appropriate safeguards”.

Resolutions and Recommendations

                                                         (b) Institutional structures of management
5.   This position was reaffirmed in Recom-                  and control require both positive in-
     mendation 19.54 at the following session of             centives and negative sanctions, good
     the Union’s General Assembly in 1994 and                governance, and implementation at an
     subsequently in Resolution 1.39 at the 1st              appropriate scale. Such structures
     Session of the World Conservation Con-                  should include participation of rele-
     gress in 1996.                                          vant stake-holders and take account of
                                                             land tenure, access rights, regulatory
6. Analyses of uses of wild living resources in              systems, traditional knowledge, and
   a number of different contexts demonstrate                customary law;
   that there are many biological, social, cul-
                                                         (c) Wild living resources have many cul-
   tural, and economic factors, which combine
                                                             tural, ethical, ecological and eco-
   in a variety of configurations to affect the
                                                             nomic values, which can provide in-
   likelihood that a particular use may be sus-
                                                             centives for conservation. Where an
                                                             economic value can be attached to a
                                                             wild living resource, perverse incen-
7.   On the basis of these analyses, IUCN con-
                                                             tives removed, and costs and benefits
     cludes that:
                                                             internalized, favourable conditions
                                                             can be created for investment in the
     (a) Use of wild living resources, IF sus-
                                                             conservation and the sustainable use
         tainable, is an important conservation
                                                             of the resource, thus reducing the risk
         tool because the social and economic
                                                             of resource degradation, depletion,
         benefits derived from such use provide
                                                             and habitat conversion; and
         incentives for people to conserve
         them;                                           (d) Levels and fluctuations of demand for
                                                             wild living resources are affected by a
     (b) When using wild living resources,
                                                             complex array of social, demographic,
         people should seek to minimize losses
                                                             and economic factors, and are likely
         of biological diversity;
                                                             to increase in coming years. Thus at-
     (c) Enhancing the sustainability of uses of             tention to both demand and supply is
         wild living resources involves an on-               necessary to promote sustainability of
         going process of improved manage-                   uses.
         ment of those resources; and
     (d) Such management should be adaptive,        9.   IUCN is committed to ensuring any uses
         incorporating monitoring and the abil-          of wild living resources are equitable and
         ity to modify management to take ac-            ecologically sustainable, and to this end it
         count of risk and uncertainty.                  has established the Sustainable Use Initia-
                                                         tive which incorporates regionally struc-
                                                         tured Specialist Groups of the Species
8.   To increase the likelihood that any use of a
                                                         Survival Commission to:
     wild living resource will be sustainable re-
     quires consideration of the following:
                                                         (a) Identify, evaluate, and promote the
                                                             principles of management that con-
     (a) The supply of biological products and
                                                             tribute to sustainability and enhanced
         ecological services available for use is
                                                             efficiency in the use of wild living re-
         limited by intrinsic biological charac-
                                                             sources; and
         teristics of both species and ecosys-
         tems, including productivity, resil-            (b) Regularly communicate their findings
         ience, and stability, which themselves              to members and the broader commu-
         are subject to extrinsic environmental              nity.

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

                                                          (a) undertake a region-wide survey of the
                                                              problem; and
2.30 Impacts of military activities on
the environment and indigenous peo-                       (b) promote ways of mitigating past dam-
                                                              age so as to secure environmental re-
ples’ communities in the Arctic                               covery in the region.
BELIEVING that the indigenous peoples issue
                                                     This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
is of growing importance in the World Conser-
                                                     State and Agency members United States ab-
vation Union;
                                                     stained from the adoption by consensus of this
NOTING that IUCN has created a focal point
for the specific purpose of assessing and pro-
moting indigenous peoples’ needs and wishes;

RECOGNIZING that IUCN acknowledges the               2.31 Genetically Modified Organisms
legitimacy of certain kinds of subsistence use in    and biodiversity
most categories of protected areas;
                                                     WHEREAS there is widespread concern that
AWARE that IUCN is expected to receive full          genetically modified organisms (GMOs) could
accredited Observer Status to the Arctic Council     have potentially dangerous effects on living
in October 2000 at the Arctic Ministerial Meet-      organisms and their ecosystems;
ing in Barrow, Alaska;
                                                     AWARE of the growing movements through-
ACKNOWLEDGING that the traditional subsis-           out the world opposing genetic modification
tence lifestyle of indigenous peoples of the Arc-    and aware of rejections of genetic modification
tic makes them particularly vulnerable to the        in agriculture and food production;
impact of contaminants in the food chain, in-
cluding those originating from former military       WHEREAS, in particular, releasing genetically
activities;                                          modified organisms into the environment may
                                                     pose a threat of significant reduction or loss of
WELCOMING the work of IUCN to develop a              biological diversity;
programme in the Arctic; and
                                                     MINDFUL of the obligations undertaken by the
AWARE that military activities and bases in the      Parties to the Convention on Biological Diver-
Arctic have left an aftermath of environmental       sity to ensure the conservation and sustainable
damage and disruption to the communities in the      use of biological diversity and welcoming the
region;                                              adoption of the Cartagena Protocol on Bio-
                                                     safety to the Convention on Biological Diver-
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-      sity and calling for its early ratification and im-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:            plementation;

1.   REQUESTS the Director General to ensure         NOTING that potential effects of GMOs for
     that the Secretariat’s programme activities     achieving global food security have not been
     in the Arctic address the issue of the impact   adequately demonstrated so far;
     of past military activities on the environ-
     ment and indigenous peoples’ communities        RECALLING the principles expressed in Car-
     in the region;                                  ing for the Earth: A Strategy for Sustainable
                                                     Living published jointly by IUCN, WWF, and
2.   CALLS ON IUCN to urge the eight cir-            UNEP in 1991; and
     cumpolar nations to:

Resolutions and Recommendations

RECOGNIZING the lack of knowledge on the            the US delegation is contained in the Congress
effects on biodiversity of GMOs and the conse-      Proceedings.
quent importance of applying the precautionary
approach as set out in Principle 15 of the Rio
Declaration on Environment and Development
and as reflected in the Cartagena Protocol on       2.32 Organic agriculture and conser-
Biosafety and in numerous international treaties;   vation of biodiversity
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-     RECOGNIZING the important role of agricul-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:           ture in Agenda 21;
1.   URGES IUCN’s members to apply the pre-         AWARE of the negative effects to biodiversity
     cautionary principle in their respective re-   from agriculture that is not based on sound
     gions regarding further releases of geneti-    practices and is dependent on inappropriate in-
     cally modified organisms into the environ-     puts of chemicals and other synthetic products
     ment;                                          and the challenges of the growing demand for
2.   REQUESTS the Director General to
                                                    RECOGNIZING that organic farming is an im-
     (a) support initiatives to implement the       portant contribution to sustainable rural devel-
         Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety; and       opment and for the future development of agri-
                                                    culture and food security;
     (b) propose to Council options for an
         IUCN contribution that will advance        RECALLING that, in particular, organic agri-
         leadership, research, analysis, and the    culture puts the concept of multi-functionality
         dissemination of knowledge regarding       into practice, including biodiversity;
         the potential ecological impact of the
         release of genetically modified organ-     ACKNOWLEDGING the 1999 Vignola Decla-
         isms into the environment, focusing        ration and Action Plan as the result of the
         especially on biodiversity, socio-         meeting on the relationship between nature
         economic impact, and food security.        conservation, biodiversity, and organic agricul-
                                                    ture, convened by IUCN, the International Fed-
This Resolution was adopted by a show of            eration of Organic Agriculture Movements, and
hands. The delegations of the State members         the Associazione Italiana per l’Agricoltura
Australia, Canada and New Zealand and the           Biologica (AIAB), which embraces the objec-
State and Agency members United States ab-          tives of the Convention on Biological Diversity
stained from the adoption of this Resolution.       and which concluded that organic agriculture is
The delegation of Canada provided a formal          essential for conserving biodiversity and nature;
Statement for the Record indicating that the        and
delegation had formally objected to an amend-
ment changing the words “precautionary ap-          NOTING the potential of organic agriculture to
proach” to “precautionary principle”. The full      achieve effective management and restoration
statement of the Canadian delegation is con-        of ecosystems and to combine effective land
tained in the Congress Proceedings. The dele-       use with enhancement of biological diversity;
gation of the United States provided a formal
Statement for the Record indicating inter alia      The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
that “the Resolution taken as a whole still ap-     Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
pears to prejudge, in a negative and unbalanced
manner, the question of the potential risks and     1.   REQUESTS Council to give consideration
benefits of biotechnology”. The full statement of        to setting up a working group to study and
                                                         report on the contribution of organic agri-

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

     culture to enhancing the conservation of        and the role of the Commission on Environ-
     biodiversity;                                   mental, Economic and Social Policy (CEESP)
                                                     in this respect;
2.   REQUESTS the Director General to:
                                                     FURTHER ACKNOWLEDGING that mutu-
     (a) develop guidelines to strengthen biodi-     ally consistent policies require consultation and
         versity conservation, energy conserva-      coordination with key interests both domesti-
         tion, water conservation, and cultural      cally and internationally which are facilitated
         heritage in organic agricultural prac-      by organizations such as the International Cen-
         tices; and                                  tre for Trade and Sustainable Development
                                                     (ICTSD); and
     (b) cooperate with the private sector,
         NGOs, governments, and the Interna-         FURTHER ACKNOWLEDGING the leading
         tional Federation of Organic Agriculture    role played by IUCN in the establishment of
         Movements.                                  ICTSD and the networks developed by ICTSD
                                                     among all sectors of civil society, governments,
This Resolution was adopted by a show of             and intergovernmental organizations;
hands. The delegations of the State member
Australia, and State and Agency members              The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
United States, abstained from the adoption by        Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
consensus of this Resolution.
                                                     1.   URGES IUCN to investigate the environ-
                                                          mental consequences of trade liberalization
                                                          and to widely disseminate the results and
2.33 Trade liberalization and the en-                     recommend actions if and as appropriate;
                                                     2.   REQUESTS IUCN to elaborate on models
NOTING that globalization and trade liberaliza-           of dispute settlement and compliance
tion can result in greater income disparities both        mechanisms, including arbitration proce-
within and between countries and may affect               dures, for Multilateral Environment
environmental conservation in positive or nega-           Agreements, which would also cover trade
tive ways;                                                and environment conflicts;

RECOGNIZING that failure to address this is-         3.   CALLS ON IUCN to actively promote
sue may undermine sustainable development                 capacity-building programmes for devel-
objectives by leading to a mismatch between               oping countries so as to enable them to in-
short-term economic gains and the longer-term             clude environmental considerations in
maintenance of natural resources and habitats             trade policies and to implement the above
and the environmental services they provide,              recommendations in cooperation with ap-
which may be particularly relevant to develop-            propriate partner organizations, in particu-
ing countries because of lack of capacity to              lar, ICSTD.
promote sustainable utilization of natural re-
sources;                                             This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
                                                     State and Agency members United States ab-
AWARE that trade liberalization may encourage        stained from the adoption by consensus of this
unsustainable exploitation of natural resources      Resolution.
and marginalization of local communities;

ACKNOWLEDGING the important advocacy,
support, and coordination roles carried out by       2.34 Multilateral and bilateral finan-
IUCN as a respected and trusted organization         cial institutions and projects impact-

Resolutions and Recommendations

ing on biodiversity and natural fea-                 which is relevant to major projects and their
tures                                                impact on the environment;

RECOGNIZING that multilateral financial insti-       The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
tutions, notably the World Bank Group and the        Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
Regional Development Banks, and bilateral fi-
nancial institutions, notably Development Assis-     1.   URGES States:
tance Agencies and Export Credit Agencies, are
significant sources of public funds for projects          (a) to consider and give appropriate pro-
that may have significant social and economic                 tection to critical areas for biodiver-
benefits (e.g. through loans, credits, guarantees,            sity and natural features, using the full
and equity investments for extractive and infra-              range of IUCN protected area man-
structure projects);                                          agement categories and international
                                                              designations; and
RECOGNIZING, however, that investments                    (b) in relation to projects where they are
fund extractive industries (e.g. oil, gas, mining,            seeking international investments, to
and timber operations) and infrastructure pro-                respect the status of established pro-
jects (e.g. hydroelectric projects and road build-            tected areas, including international
ing) which have the potential to:                             designations;

(a) damage marine and terrestrial ecosystems         2.   CALLS ON multilateral and bilateral fi-
    and landscapes;                                       nancial institutions not to fund projects
                                                          that are incompatible with national legisla-
(b) lead to population declines, species extinc-          tion and the objectives of the established
    tions and other losses of biodiversity; and           protected areas, and to take into account
                                                          published lists and other sources of advice
(c) harm local human communities with social              relating to sites of importance for their
    and environmental consequences;                       biodiversity and natural features;

ACKNOWLEDGING that international agree-              3.   REQUESTS IUCN to further develop its
ments and national legislation and policies have          dialogue with financial institutions to as-
led to the establishment of protected areas of            sist in the achievement of operative para-
significant conservation value for the purpose of         graph 2;
safeguarding their biodiversity and natural fea-
tures (e.g. Ramsar sites, World Heritage sites,      4.   INVITES IUCN’s Commissions to further
UN List of Protected Areas);                              develop best practice guidelines in relation
                                                          to extractive industries and infrastructure
AWARE that many critical areas of biodiversity            projects which may adversely impact pro-
and conservation importance remain undesig-               tected areas and biodiversity conservation.
nated but may require protection in order to
safeguard their biodiversity and natural features;   This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
                                                     State and Agency members United States ab-
FURTHER AWARE that such areas include, but           stained from the adoption by consensus of this
are not restricted to, those on published lists      Resolution.
(e.g. Conservation International’s Biodiversity
Hotspots, BirdLife International’s Important
Bird Areas); and
                                                     2.35 Follow-up on World Bank For-
NOTING that IUCN, through its Commissions,           est Policy
has developed a range of best practice guidance

                                                                         World Conservation Congress
                                                                          Amman, 4–11 October 2000

CONSIDERING that IUCN and the World Bank                    of the communication channel that has
signed an agreement to promote a public consul-             been opened between the Union and the
tation on the World Bank Forest Policy;                     World Bank for the revision of the Forest
                                                            Policy, and with regard to the Forest Pol-
NOTING that, as part of the consultation, the               icy, to perform a critical and constructive
World Bank decided to encourage globally a                  follow-up of the future implementation of
process known as the Forest Policy Implementa-              that policy;
tion Review and Strategy (FPIRS);
                                                       3.   REQUESTS the Director General to assess
RECOGNIZING the advantages and richness                     any new World Bank strategy, with a view
that resulted from the consultation, such as na-            to recommending options to Council per-
tional case studies and regional workshops, as              taining to the Union’s involvement in the
well as the analytical documents on the most                implementation of the new strategy, in-
important topic of the world forest agenda;                 cluding monitoring.

OBSERVING the constructive welcome that the            This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
revision process of the World Bank Forest Pol-         State and Agency members United States ab-
icy has awakened among the different organiza-         stained from the adoption by consensus of this
tions and people who have been consulted;              Resolution.

APPRECIATING the role of IUCN as facilitator
of the participation of different actors of the for-
est sector in the Forest Policy Implementation         2.36 Poverty reduction and conserva-
Review and Strategy (FPIRS) process; and               tion of environment
RECALLING Resolutions 1.19 A Global IUCN               NOTING that Asia, Africa, Latin America and
Temperate, Boreal and Southern Cold Temper-            the Caribbean are experiencing rapid depletion
ate Forests Programme and 1.20 Biological Di-          of their natural resources in addition to high
versity and Forests, and Recommendations 1.21          incidences of poverty;
Forest Concessions, 1.22 Voluntary Independent
Certification of Forest Management and Mar-            ACKNOWLEDGING that the majority of poor
keting Claims, and 1.23 Forest Management              people live in areas that are described as envi-
Plans in South America, which were adopted by          ronmentally vulnerable, where minor changes
the 1st Session of the World Conservation Con-         in climate, water quantity or land use can have
gress (Montreal, 1996) and which promote               a dramatic, sometimes disastrous effect on the
closer relations between IUCN’s Component              quality of the local environment and its ability
Programmes and the World Bank with regard to           to support the local populations;
Forest Policy;
                                                       RECOGNIZING that poverty is a deprivation
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-        of essential assets and opportunities to which
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:              every human is entitled, such as education,
                                                       health care, nutrition, water and sanitation, as
1.   ACKNOWLEDGES the World Bank for                   well as income, employment and wages;
     the beneficial, open, and transparent global
     public consultation process, which is pro-        NOTING that the environment constitutes the
     moted within the framework of the Forest          natural conditions such as land, air and water in
     Policy Implementation Review and Strategy         which people, animals, and plants live;
                                                       ACCEPTING that poverty due to a multiplicity
2.   ENCOURAGES IUCN members, Commis-                  of factors, including population growth, results
     sions, and the Secretariat to take advantage      in resource depletion, which further exacerbates

Resolutions and Recommendations

the incidences of poverty showing that both are
interlinked; and                                     REALIZING that citizen organizations have an
                                                     important role in making the public more aware
CONCERNED that the Asian, African, Latin             of questions relating to environmental protec-
American and Caribbean countries cannot ad-          tion and ecologically sustainable development
dress environmental issues without linking it to     issues through activities such as education,
poverty alleviation;                                 training, and research; and

The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-      AWARE that a nation’s environment is only
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:            truly protected when concerned citizens are in-
                                                     volved in the process;
bers:                                                The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
                                                     Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
(a) address poverty simultaneously with envi-
    ronmental rehabilitation;                        1.   RECOGNIZES and affirms the importance
                                                          of grassroots environmental organizing
(b) design projects so as to reflect both envi-           and action;
    ronmental rehabilitation and poverty allevia-
    tion simultaneously; and                         2.   APPRECIATES the concerns raised, by
                                                          both environmental and human rights or-
(c) adopt the above as part of their policy.              ganizations, that environmental advocates
                                                          are increasingly in danger for exercising
This Resolution was adopted by consensus. State           the basic rights of a civil society, including
and Agency members United States refrained                the rights of freedom of opinion, expres-
from engaging in deliberations on this Motion             sion, and assembly;
and took no national government position on the
Resolution as adopted, for reasons given in the      3.   FURTHER RECOGNIZES that for the
US General Statement on the IUCN Resolutions              purposes of protecting the environment,
Process (see p. 107).                                     promoting ecologically sustainable devel-
                                                          opment, and protecting the rights of per-
                                                          sons affected by environmental harm, eve-
                                                          ryone has the right, in accordance with the
2.37 Support for environmental de-                        International Covenant on Civil and Po-
fenders                                                   litical Rights, individually and in associa-
                                                          tion with others, at the local, national and
UNDERSTANDING that the participation of                   international levels to:
non-governmental organizations and individual
advocates is essential to the fundamentals of             (a) meet or assemble peacefully;
civil society to assure the accountability of gov-
ernments and multinational corporations;                  (b) form, join, and participate in non-
                                                              governmental organizations, associa-
RECOGNIZING that grassroots organizing and                    tions, or groups;
environmental advocacy are often viewed as
politically threatening activities and can thus be        (c) communicate with non-governmental
dangerous and sometimes life-threatening;                     or intergovernmental organizations;

CONCERNED that human rights violations may                (d) participate actively, freely, and mean-
lead to environmental degradation and that envi-              ingfully in environmental decision-
ronmental degradation may lead to human rights                making activities and processes that
violations;                                                   may have an impact on the environ-

                                                                     World Conservation Congress
                                                                      Amman, 4–11 October 2000

         ment or ecologically sustainable de-      ples oriented to the conservation of nature and
         velopment; and                            natural resources for which positive interaction
                                                   and mutual cooperation is extremely desirable,
     (e) submit to governmental bodies and         especially in light of the context of increasing
         agencies and organizations concerned      globalization;
         with environmental affairs, criticism,
         proposals for improving their function-   CONSIDERING that this positive cooperation
         ing, and proposals for environmental      is of special relevance in the case of interna-
         law reform, and to draw attention to      tional and national non-governmental conserva-
         any aspect of their work which may        tion institutions, especially when they are work-
         hinder or impede the protection of the    ing in the same countries or places and on
         environment or the promotion of sus-      common topics, given their often complemen-
         tainable development;                     tary capacities and interests;

4.   CALLS ON the Director General to speak        NOTING that, nonetheless, more and more fre-
     out publicly and forcefully:                  quently there are many situations in which rela-
                                                   tions among international and national organi-
     (a) in support of freedom for individuals     zations are not cooperative or complementary
         to participate in grassroots environ-     and, on the contrary, they are interventionist
         mental activities as articulated in       and work competitively, making the work of
         paragraph 3;                              conservation in a country difficult;

     (b) in support of environmental advocates     RECOGNIZING that this inconvenient situa-
         who are suffering harassment or perse-    tion is related to the existence of uncoordinated
         cution; and                               institutional agendas and competition for finan-
                                                   cial resources; and
     (c) to discourage harassment or persecu-
         tion of environmental advocates and       FURTHER RECOGNIZING that there are
         environmental organizations using all     many examples of positive interactions and co-
         appropriate means;                        operation from which to learn and that an effort
                                                   should be made to promote cooperation among
5.   ENCOURAGES members to inform the              non-governmental members of IUCN;
     Director General of instances of threats,
     harassment, or persecution of environ-        The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
     mental advocates;                             Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

6.   CALLS ON the Council to regularly pub-        1.   REQUESTS the Council and Director
     lish in member mailings the names of those         General to:
     individuals or communities whose harass-
     ment or persecution has been brought to the        (a) study mechanisms that promote closer
     attention of the Director General.                     cooperation and strategies among in-
                                                            ternational   and    national  non-
                                                            governmental members of IUCN; and

2.38 Cooperation among international                    (b) encourage National and Regional
and national participants in conserva-                      IUCN Committees to act as facilita-
                                                            tors for the creation of strategic alli-
tion programmes                                             ances and groupings among national
                                                            and/or regional organizations;
CONSCIOUS that IUCN is a large gathering of
countries and national and international organi-
zations sharing a mission and common princi-

Resolutions and Recommendations

2.   REQUESTS             international      non-     CONCERNED that corruption in the forest sec-
     governmental organizations that are mem-         tor reduces the likelihood of good forest man-
     bers of IUCN to cooperate in order to en-        agement and can have long-term negative envi-
     sure forms of intervention that positively       ronmental impacts on forests and biodiversity;
     affect and support national, regional, and
     community efforts and initiatives for con-       AWARE that corrupt forestry activity can have
     servation in a framework of partnerships         adverse impacts on forest communities and can
     that contribute to the strengthening and sus-    lead to conflicts;
     tainability of national processes;
                                                      NOTING that corruption can lead to rapid and
3.   URGES countries, bilateral and multilateral      unsustainable practices and that countries asso-
     institutions, foundations, and other donors      ciated with long-term forest sector corruption
     to develop criteria for assigning financing      have ultimately seen declines in their domestic
     to international non-governmental organi-        industries, as the quantity and quality of the
     zations that contribute to a positive rela-      forest estate declines;
     tionship with national non-governmental,
     regional, and community conservation or-         FURTHER NOTING that corruption erodes
     ganizations in order to create alliances, take   public trust in the government and reduces for-
     advantage of synergies, and consolidate lo-      est-based revenues;
     cal institutions for conservation and sus-
     tainable development.                            RECOGNIZING that the Organization for Eco-
                                                      nomic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
This Resolution was adopted by consensus.             1997 Convention on Combating Bribery of
State and Agency members United States ab-            Foreign Public Officials in International Busi-
stained from the adoption by consensus of this        ness Transactions, that came into force in Feb-
Resolution.                                           ruary 1999, lends added weight to the need to
                                                      address corruption;

                                                      ACKNOWLEDGING that corruption contrib-
2.39 Corruption in the forest sector                  utes to unsustainable logging practices, which
                                                      threaten many of the world’s forests; and
ACKNOWLEDGING that good governance,
transparency, democratic processes, and human         RECALLING Recommendations 1.21 Forest
rights are fundamental components of the Rio          Concessions, 1.22 Voluntary Independent Cer-
Declaration on Environment and Development,           tification of Forest Management and Marketing
which can be significantly undermined by cor-         Claims and 1.62 Illegal International Trade in
rupt practices;                                       Forest Products, which were adopted by the 1st
                                                      Session of the World Conservation Congress;
RECOGNIZING that corrupt acts in the forest
sector in some parts of the world have profound       The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
negative economic, ecological, and social im-         Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
pacts and act as a direct impediment to achiev-
ing sustainable forest management, poverty al-        1.   REQUESTS the Director General to con-
leviation, and sustainable development;                    duct, together with interested IUCN mem-
                                                           bers, an analysis of forest sector corruption
NOTING that the failure to recognize and ana-              that focuses on regions where corruption
lyze the influence of corruption in the forest sec-        poses a significant impediment to achiev-
tor is a significant factor in many forest sector          ing sustainable forest management, where
planning failures, including those financed by             the analysis includes:
multilateral and bilateral institutions;

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

     (a) a review of policy options to help
         eliminate corrupt practices, including
         an analysis of the types, actors, causes,
         locations, and scale of corruption, in      2.40 Natural resource security in
         regions where corruption poses a sig-       situations of conflict
         nificant impediment to achieving sus-
         tainable forest management;                 RECALLING Resolution 19.41 Armed Conflict
                                                     and the Environment adopted by the 19th Ses-
     (b) case studies of policies implemented to     sion of the IUCN General Assembly (Buenos
         help eliminate forest sector corruption,    Aires, 1994);
         e.g. requiring performance bonds from
         companies to which logging rights are       NOTING that ‘conflict’, for the purpose of this
         issued, which can then be confiscated       Resolution, means various forms of struggle,
         if the company does not comply with         often armed, between different groups, either
         all applicable laws and contracts; and      within one country or between two or more
                                                     countries, that results in disruption of civil soci-
     (c) an annotated directory of national, re-     ety;
         gional, and international organizations
         and instruments involved in the elimi-      RECOGNIZING that the impacts of conflicts
         nation of forest sector corruption          cut across boundaries, cultures, and communi-
         through good governance;                    ties and may lead to the overuse and misuse of
                                                     natural resources, environmental degradation,
2.   CALLS ON the Director General to:               and loss of species;
     (a) collaborate with the secretariats of        NOTING the profound immediate and long-
         relevant national, regional, and inter-     term scale of environmental damage caused as
         national organizations and instruments      a result of conflict;
         with a view to enhancing cooperation
         and coordination in achieving the goal      CONSIDERING that there are many national,
         of eliminating forest sector corruption;    regional, and global processes that try to miti-
         and                                         gate against conflict and the effects thereof,
                                                     most notably the UN Security Council which
     (b) report to the IUCN Council in 2002 on       has prime responsibility for the reduction and
         the actions requested above;                responsible management of conflict;
3.   URGES States, in collaboration with ap-         EMPHASIZING that this is a global priority for
     propriate stakeholders, in particular civil     governments as much as responsible conserva-
     society, States, and corporations, to perfect   tion;
     codes of conduct that would contribute to
     sustainable forest management.                  EXPRESSING appreciation to the United Na-
                                                     tions High Commissioner for Refugees, the In-
The delegation of the United States made a for-      ternational Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
mal Statement for the Record, indicating, inter      and other national and international bodies con-
alia, that the delegation welcomed IUCN work         cerning their humanitarian work in this field
to address illegal activities in the forest sector   and the complementarity this will have with the
and noting that IUCN’s niche would be clearer        IUCN initiative;
following an upcoming World Bank conference
relevant to the issue. The Statement, which is       CONCERNED that a number of critical biodi-
reproduced in full in the Congress Proceedings       versity areas are prone to, or actually are in, a
also outlined a number of initiatives undertaken     conflict situation;
by the US.

Resolutions and Recommendations

NOTING that responsible conflict management                     ners concerned with conflict man-
(and understanding of the underlying causes)                    agement and its effects on the conser-
and mitigation is an important conservation ob-                 vation of biodiversity; and
jective as it is a security issue; and
                                                           (c) working with the international com-
FURTHER NOTING that some existing con-                         munity to identify approaches that
flicts relate to natural resources and that it is              could assist in limiting environmental
likely that conflicts over natural resources, espe-            degradation in situations of conflict.
cially water, will increase in future;
                                                      This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-       State and Agency members United States re-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:             frained from engaging in deliberations on this
                                                      Motion and took no national government posi-
1.   URGES all members and components of              tion on the Resolution as adopted, for reasons
     IUCN to develop a greater understanding of       given in the US General Statement on the IUCN
     the underlying causes of conflict, particu-      Resolutions Process (see p. 107).
     larly in the manner it affects the conserva-
     tion of biodiversity;

2.   CALLS ON members to identify those con-          2.41 International Ombudsman Cen-
     flict situations that relate to the control of   tre for Environment and Develop-
     natural resources and to bring these situa-
     tions to the attention of the UN Security
     Council or other appropriate entities with
                                                      AWARE that the process of globalization poses
     proposals for measures to deter those who
                                                      a new generation of challenges and opportuni-
     would sustain such conflicts;
                                                      ties, but also increases the potential for envi-
                                                      ronment-related conflicts;
3.   REQUESTS the Director General, Com-
     missions, Councillors and members of
                                                      CONSCIOUS of the fact that conservation and
     IUCN to endorse a set of activities to en-
                                                      sustainable development can only be achieved
     hance the understanding of conflict and its
                                                      through the participation of all stakeholders in
     context to conservation, including:
                                                      decision-making processes and that victims of
                                                      conflicts are often the disadvantaged who are
     (a) review and analysis of existing knowl-
                                                      least able to protect their interests or assert their
         edge and experience with conflict and
         its context to biodiversity:
                                                      ACKNOWLEDGING the initiative of the Di-
          (i) at different levels (e.g. local, na-
                                                      rector General to enter into an executive agree-
              tional, regional);
                                                      ment with the Earth Council and the United
          (ii) in different societies (e.g. seden-    Nations University for Peace, establishing, on a
               tary, nomadic, indigenous);            pilot basis, an International Ombudsman Centre
                                                      to provide mechanisms for addressing such
          (iii) under different regimes (e.g. po-
                                                      contentious issues;
                litical, land); and
          (iv) from different points of view (e.g.    NOTING that IUCN, through its members and
               those of Governments, different        partners, is well-positioned to assist in address-
               factions, NGOs, local communi-         ing environmental conflict at transboundary and
               ties);                                 local levels; and

     (b) sharing such knowledge and experi-           FURTHER NOTING that this initiative re-
         ence among IUCN members and part-            sponds to a long-perceived need for a non-

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

adversarial, non-judicial but flexible mechanism     of Microbiological Sciences (IUMS), the Inter-
to address current and potential conflicts per-      national Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU)
taining to environment and development issues;       and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Pro-
                                                     gramme (IGBP);
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:            FURTHER NOTING that IBOY was endorsed
                                                     by the XVI International Botanical Congress in
1.   WELCOMES the announcement that an               St Louis, United States, in August 1999;
     International Ombudsman Centre for the
     Environment and Development (OmCED)             AWARE that the 5th meeting of the Conference
     has been established on a pilot basis;          of the Parties to the Convention on Biological
                                                     Diversity (CBD) invited Parties to find ways
2.   REQUESTS the Director General to:               and means to collaborate with IBOY;

     (a) make contact with OmCED during the          NOTING that DIVERSITAS-IBOY aims to
         pilot phase; and                            focus global attention on biodiversity through
                                                     the promotion of international and national pro-
     (b) present a report on the outcome of this
                                                     jects that will push the frontiers of science, the
         contact in order to facilitate a decision
                                                     forging of links between different disciplines,
         by IUCN on its relations with Om-
                                                     the development of a new cohesive science, the
                                                     provision of a scientific basis for policy devel-
                                                     opment, and the engagement and education of
This Resolution was adopted by consensus, hav-
                                                     the public;
ing been formally introduced by the delegation
of the State member the Netherlands. The dele-
                                                     WARMLY WELCOMING the invitation made
gation of the Belize Audubon Society, speaking
                                                     in August 2000 by DIVERSITAS encouraging
on behalf of the Mesoamerican IUCN Members’
                                                     IUCN to participate in IBOY; and
Committee, made a formal Statement for the
Record underlining that, in the Committee’s
                                                     NOTING the importance that many members
view, the Earth Council and the University for
                                                     have attached to the work of the Union on bio-
Peace should become members of IUCN before
                                                     diversity assessment, particularly in relation to
negotiations with IUCN continued. The full
                                                     Key Result Area 5 of IUCN’s Overall Pro-
texts of the formal Statements referred to are
reproduced in the Congress Proceedings.
                                                     The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
                                                     Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
2.42 International Biodiversity Ob-                  1.   STRONGLY ENDORSES the initiative of
servation Year                                            DIVERSITAS to launch IBOY;

AWARE of the initiative of DIVERSITAS (an            2.   URGES IUCN members to contribute to
international programme of biodiversity science)          IBOY;
to launch the International Biodiversity Obser-
vation Year (IBOY) for 2001–2002;                    3.   REQUESTS the Director General to par-
                                                          ticipate in IBOY through the implementa-
NOTING that IBOY is being sponsored by the                tion of activities on biodiversity assess-
International Union of Biological Sciences                ment under Key Result Area 5 of IUCN’s
(IUBS), the Scientific Committee on Problems              Overall Programme.
of the Environment (SCOPE), the United Na-
tions Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or-
ganization (UNESCO), the International Union

Resolutions and Recommendations

                                                      EMPHASIZING that any efforts to protect and
                                                      manage these river systems should take into
                                                      account the needs of local people to maintain
2.43 Sustainable management and                       their livelihood, and should involve local com-
protection of Asia’s major river sys-                 munities in this process in order to be effective
                                                      and sustainable; and
                                                      RECALLING Resolution 19.23 The impor-
ACKNOWLEDGING that Asia’s major river
                                                      tance of community-based approaches adopted
systems, including their watershed areas, sup-
                                                      by the 19th Session of the IUCN General As-
port the livelihoods of a significant proportion of
                                                      sembly (Buenos Aires, 1994) and Recommen-
the world's human population both within and
                                                      dation 1.42 Collaborative management for con-
across countries;
                                                      servation adopted by the 1st Session of the
                                                      World Conservation Congress (Montreal,
AWARE that these river systems are home to a
great diversity of ecosystems with a wealth of
plant and animal life;
                                                      The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
                                                      Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October
FURTHER AWARE that overexploitation or
misuse of these river systems and their sur-
rounding lands may lead to habitat loss, species
                                                      1.   CALLS ON the riparian States to utilize
extinction, soil erosion, siltation, pollution,
                                                           fully the existing cooperative mechanisms
flooding, and unstable water flows that may
                                                           and arrangements for conservation and
threaten the integrity of these rivers;
                                                           sustainable management of these important
ENCOURAGED by the recent efforts of ripar-
ian States to address critical issues affecting the
                                                      2.   REQUESTS the Director General to:
protection of these waters, such as:
                                                           (a) design and conduct a study on the ne-
(a) logging bans in the upper watersheds of the                cessity and feasibility of establishing
    Yangtze;                                                   a new mechanism for conservation
                                                               and sustainable management of these
(b) the commitment to establish a wetlands
                                                               waters for the common interest of the
    reserve to protect the headwaters of the
                                                               riparian States;
    Yangtze, Yellow, and Lancang (Mekong)
                                                           (b) on completion of this study to con-
(c) coordination by Cambodia, Laos, Thailand,                  vene, if necessary, a meeting of gov-
    and Vietnam on Mekong River conserva-                      ernments and representatives of in-
    tion; and                                                  digenous communities and organiza-
                                                               tions of riparian States to discuss the
(d) NGO initiatives for forest protection in the
                                                               findings of the study and determine
    Himalayan region;
                                                               agreed appropriate follow-up actions;
APPLAUDING the World Conservation Un-
                                                           (c) assist in obtaining the necessary fund-
ion’s Overall Programme until the next World
                                                               ing for activities related to this Reso-
Conservation Congress;
                                                               lution; and
NOTING its orientation towards producing
                                                           (d) report back to the IUCN membership
measurable progress in each of its seven Key
                                                               at the next session of the World Con-
Result Areas, including ecosystem protection;
                                                               servation Congress on progress made
                                                               with implementing this Resolution.

                                                                         World Conservation Congress
                                                                          Amman, 4–11 October 2000

                                                            (b) simplify coordination of IUCN’s ac-
This Resolution was adopted by consensus. State                 tivities in the region;
and Agency members United States refrained
from engaging in deliberations on this Motion          2.   CALLS on IUCN’s Commissions to in-
and took no national government position on the             crease their activities in Central Asian
Resolution as adopted, for reasons given in the             States, and in particular to pay special at-
US General Statement on the IUCN Resolutions                tention to the transfer of experience and
Process (see p. 107).                                       knowledge in the fields of environmental
                                                            law, protected areas (including World
                                                            Heritage protection), and education and
                                                            communication in the region;
2.44 Strengthening IUCN’s presence
in Central Asia                                        3.   URGES IUCN’s members to mobilize fi-
                                                            nancial and other relevant resources to
RECOGNIZING the uniqueness and high vul-                    support various activities of Central Asian
nerability of ecological systems of Central Asia,           members.
and, as a consequence, the presence of objective
difficulties in achieving steady development in
the region;
                                                       2.45 Conservation of mountain eco-
NOTING IUCN’s determination to promote de-             systems in Europe
velopment of inter-sectoral approaches to prob-
lems of nature protection in Central Asia;             RECOGNIZING the value of mountain ecosys-
                                                       tems and landscapes for Europeans, their bio-
RECOGNIZING IUCN’s efforts to develop a                logical importance, their fragility and their his-
Component Programme for Central Asia;                  torical role as a refuge for several species of
                                                       animals and plants;
WELCOMING the interest of IUCN's European
Regional Component Programme, the West-                CONCERNED about the heavy demands
ern/Central Asia and North Africa Regional             placed on several mountain regions in Europe,
Component Programme and the Asia Regional              especially by agriculture, urban development,
Component Programme to cooperate with IUCN             transportation, and tourism;
members in Central Asian countries for the de-
velopment of a Central Asian Regional Compo-           RECALLING Recommendation 17.62 Conser-
nent Programme; and                                    vation of the Alps adopted by the 17th Session
                                                       of the IUCN General Assembly (San José,
NOTING progress in formulating a programme             1988), which emphasizes that, as a result of
framework and subsequent implementation of             accumulated serious problems, the Alps repre-
priority activities, such as red listing of species,   sent one of the most threatened mountain sys-
environmental law, and World Heritage protec-          tems in the world and urges implementation of
tion;                                                  a joint conservation strategy for the Alpine re-
                                                       gions; and
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:              ENDORSING the work carried out within the
                                                       framework of the Council of Europe and its
1.   REQUESTS the Director General to:                 Mountain Charter, the Provisions and Protocols
                                                       of the Alpine Convention, the work of the
     (a) promote further strengthening of              French Committee for IUCN and the conclu-
         IUCN’s presence in the Central Asian          sions of the workshop organized on mountains
         States; and                                   during the second IUCN Pan-European Forum

Resolutions and Recommendations

(27–29 October 1999, Calvia, Spain) and other                (ii) adopt and enforce legislation
important activities;                                             limiting the impact of urban de-
                                                                  velopment on the environment
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-                   and promote a heightened
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:                         awareness of natural risks;

1.   REQUESTS the Director General, to:                  (c) for transportation:

     (a) undertake measures for the conserva-                (i) take steps to decrease road traffic
         tion and sustainable use of mountain                    and the diverse means of motor-
         ecosystems through active participa-                    ized traffic that intrude on and
         tion in the International Year of the                   increasingly occupy mountain
         Mountain in 2002; and                                   habitat;
     (b) consider interest to create a Thematic              (ii) reach a more balanced distribu-
         Component Programme on Mountain                          tion of means of transportation
         Ecosystems;                                              by promoting the use of the rail-
                                                                  way and public transportation in
2.   URGES European countries with mountain                       the next several years; and
     ecosystems subject to high levels of exploi-
                                                             (iii) intensify enforcement and in-
     tation and use to adopt the following rec-
                                                                   crease awareness of existing
                                                                   European legislation, especially
                                                                   the measures on transportation
     (a) for agriculture:
                                                                   provided for by the Alpine Con-
                                                                   vention; and
         (i) ensure limitation of intensive ag-
             riculture especially harmful to the
                                                         (d) for tourism:
         (ii) develop incentives to promote                  (i) promote the       development of
              quality production rewarding tra-                  tourism based     on discovery of
              ditional know-how and respect for                  nature, respect    for the environ-
              the environment; and                               ment and local    traditional activi-
                                                                 ties; and
         (iii) make aware and support local
               farmers financially in the mainte-            (ii) limit the excessive impact of
               nance of environmental quality in                  tourism through promotion of
               the mountains, specifically ensur-                 awareness using specialized
               ing cohabitation between live-                     training adapted for professionals
               stock and large predators, mainte-                 working in tourism, instilling re-
               nance of open environments fa-                     spect for the environment, pro-
               vourable to biodiversity, conser-                  viding information for users of
               vation of high-altitude marshes                    the mountains about the fragility
               and peat bogs, and the protection                  of mountain habitats, and by cre-
               of mineral springs;                                ating public/stakeholder consul-
                                                                  tations for mountain tourism and
     (b) for urban development:                                   sports;

         (i) promote the use of traditional or      3.   APPEALS STRONGLY to European
             existing architecture using quality         States, taking into account their bio-
             materials and ensuring integration          geographical ties to several European
             in the landscape; and                       mountain chains, to:

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

    (a) ensure monitoring of the adoption and        areas (Cape Town, 16–18 September 1997) and
        implementation of the Protocols of the       the Cilento Declaration (4–7 November 1999)
        Alpine Convention in association with        of the World Commission on Protected Areas;
        the International Commission for the
        Protection of the Alps (CIPRA);              PLEASED by the creation of the international
                                                     whale sanctuary, the project for creating the
    (b) promote the development of similar           Bouches de Bonifacio International Marine
        regional conventions for other moun-         Park in the Mediterranean and current steps
        tain systems; and                            taken by the Mercantour National Park in
                                                     France and the Alpi Marittime National Park in
    (c) encourage implementation of projects         Italy for the creation of an international park in
        promoting the sustainable conservation       the Alps;
        of mountain biodiversity and integrat-
        ing the cultures and traditions of the       PLEASED ALSO by the measures taken by the
        local populations living in these re-        French government for designation of the three
        gions.                                       French national parks (i.e. Ecrins, Mercantour,
                                                     Vanoise) along with their Alpine counterparts
This Resolution was adopted by consensus. State      (i.e. Alpi Marittime, Gran Paradiso, Hohe Tau-
and Agency members United States refrained           ern and Triglav) as World Heritage Sites;
from engaging in deliberations on this Motion
and took no national government position on the      NOTING the international importance of the
Resolution as adopted, for reasons given in the      Alps and the Mediterranean basin, two geo-
US General Statement on the IUCN Resolutions         graphical entities harbouring a natural and cul-
Process (see p. 107).                                tural heritage unique in the world, but which
                                                     are heavily threatened by human activities; and

                                                     SPECIFICALLY NOTING the importance of
2.46 Protected areas of international                the Mont Blanc Massif, whose protection con-
importance in the Alps and the Medi-                 cerns France, Italy, and Switzerland, and which
                                                     was the subject of Recommendation 19.93 Con-
terranean                                            servation in the Mont Blanc Region, France,
                                                     Italy and Switzerland, adopted by the 19th Ses-
CONVINCED that protected areas play an es-
                                                     sion of the IUCN General Assembly (Buenos
sential role in the protection of an exceptional
                                                     Aires, 1994);
natural heritage and that they constitute an im-
portant tool for international cooperation among
                                                     The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
the countries concerned;
                                                     Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
AWARE of the need to protect and manage out-
                                                     1.   ENCOURAGES States to promote the
standing natural areas at the level of the ecosys-
                                                          creation of cross-border protected areas of
tem, even if shared among several States, and to
                                                          international importance in the Alps and
establish ties among protected areas in order to
                                                          the Mediterranean;
build a truly functional ecological network;
                                                     2.   REQUESTS the World Commission on
RECOGNIZING the importance of networks for
                                                          Protected Areas and the Commission on
cooperation among protected areas, facilitating
                                                          Environmental Law to continue and accel-
exchanges and the sharing of experiences, espe-
                                                          erate their work on principles, guidelines
cially the Alpine Network of Protected Spaces;
                                                          and a legal framework to encourage the
                                                          joint management of cross-border natural
APPROVING the recommendations included in
                                                          areas aimed at harmonizing regulations
the European strategy Parks for Life, the decla-
ration of principles on cross-border protected

Resolutions and Recommendations

     and involving local, regional, and national     BEING AWARE of the vulnerability of rivers
     participants from the States concerned;         owing to:

3.   REQUESTS the Director General to inter-         (a) a lack of ecological management over the
     vene with concerned governmental and                past thousand years which has resulted in
     non-governmental bodies, within the                 vast amounts of transformation of rivers in
     framework of the cross-border Conference            Europe;
     on Mont Blanc, to accelerate the implemen-
     tation of the operational, international man-   (b) their becoming the most degraded and
     agement structure for sustainable conserva-         heavily polluted terrestrial ecosystems;
     tion of this prestigious area.
                                                     (c) the reduction of wild (or semi-natural) sec-
This Resolution was adopted by consensus. State          tions of river valleys in Europe to about
and Agency members United States refrained               5% of their original number or area;
from engaging in deliberations on this Motion
and took no national government position on the      (d) being under threat of almost total disap-
Resolution as adopted, for reasons given in the          pearance due to construction of waterways
US General Statement on the IUCN Resolutions             or channelization; and
Process (see p. 107).
                                                     (e) the additional threat to several central
                                                         European rivers from diminishing precipi-
                                                         tation, as predicted in computer simula-
2.47 Conservation of the last wild riv-                  tions analyzing climate change;
ers of Europe
                                                     BELIEVING that wisely managed and care-
RECOGNIZING that natural rivers and their            fully protected natural rivers may become an
valleys constitute:                                  important environmental asset and economic
                                                     driver for local communities and entire national
(a) terrestrial ecosystems having amongst the        economies;
    highest on-land biological production, bio-
    diversity and abundance of living organ-         The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
    isms;                                            Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

(b) the natural corridors of life uniting the        1.   REQUESTS IUCN’s Council, Director
    European flora and fauna into coherent eco-           General and members to launch a Pan-
    logical and genetic units;                            European campaign to save this most
                                                          threatened of our ecosystems;
(c) dynamic natural migration routes for the
    chemical and physical matter, as well as for     2.   CALLS ON European countries to incor-
    the biological species;                               porate into their water policies elements to:

(d) discrete catchment units with their fauna             (a) preserve all remaining wild and semi-
    and flora evolving separately in isolation                wild rivers in a state close to natural;
    from other river systems; and
                                                          (b) cease some programmes for river
(e) precious natural resources, the use of which              channelization and damming, espe-
    during the coming centuries is hardly pre-                cially those initiated before the adop-
    dictable and therefore they should not be ir-             tion of the EU Water Framework Di-
    reversibly transformed now;                               rective;

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

     (c) prepare independent strategic envi-          Global Temperate, Boreal and Southern Cold
         ronmental impact assessments of the          Temperate Forest Programme;
         economic and ecological consequences
         of river regulation projects before they     ACKNOWLEDGING that Russian forests play
         are undertaken; and                          a crucial role globally in maintaining the biodi-
                                                      versity, cultural, and economic values of the
     (d) initiate programmes to ‘re-naturalize’       temperate and boreal forests;
         some river sections, aiming to prevent
         the loss of the biological elements na-      NOTING that Russia maintains and preserves
         tive to particular catchment areas;          the largest areas of intact boreal forests in the
                                                      world; and
3.   URGES relevant European States to con-
     serve the last of the European wild rivers,      FURTHER ACKNOWLEDGING that devel-
     such as Belaya, Danube delta, Desna,             opment of participatory decision-making pro-
     Dnepr, Loire, Northern Dwina & Youg,             cedures, creation of protected area networks,
     Oka, Pechora, Pripjet, Sava, Tisza, Udaj,        and development of credible forest certification
     Ural, Viatka, Vistula, Volga delta, Vy-          systems are among many tools to promote pro-
     chegda, West Dwina – Daugava, and a              tection and sustainable use of boreal forests in
     number of smaller rivers;                        Russia;

4.   URGES IUCN to:                                   The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
                                                      Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
     (a) review and if necessary promote further
         development of an international classifi-    1.   URGES all interest groups to include par-
         cation of river and river-valley catego-          ticipation as one of the key elements in de-
         ries from the point of view of the degree         cision-making processes affecting forests;
         of their naturalness; and
                                                      2.   RECOMMENDS that IUCN strengthens
     (b) prepare of a list of the most valuable            its work on forests by facilitating offers of
         rivers and river-valleys or their sections        possibilities to link conservation and sus-
         in Europe.                                        tainable use policies and practices in Rus-
This Resolution was adopted by consensus. State
and Agency members United States refrained            3.   CALLS ON IUCN members to mobilize
from engaging in deliberations on this Motion              expertise in their countries to support for-
and took no national government position on the            est conservation and sustainable use in
Resolution as adopted, for reasons given in the            Russia and to develop solutions to the so-
US General Statement on the IUCN Resolutions               cio-economic problems;
Process (see p. 107).
                                                      4.   CALLS ON IUCN to actively support
                                                           credible forest certification, as one of the
                                                           most efficient ways to promote the sus-
2.48 IUCN Temperate, Boreal, and                           tainable use of forests.
Southern Cold Temperate Forests
                                                      This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
Programme in Russia                                   State and Agency members United States re-
                                                      frained from engaging in deliberations on this
RECALLING Resolution 1.19 A global IUCN
                                                      Motion and took no national government posi-
temperate, boreal and southern cold temperate
                                                      tion on the Resolution as adopted, for reasons
forests programme, adopted by the 1st Session of
                                                      given in the US General Statement on the IUCN
the World Conservation Congress (Montreal,
                                                      Resolutions Process (see p. 107).
1996), which called for establishment of a

Resolutions and Recommendations

                                                          Framework in Mesoamerica through the
                                                          regional councillors;

2.49 Strategic Framework for IUCN                    4.   URGES the IUCN Commissions to sup-
in Mesoamerica                                            port the implementation of the Strategic
                                                          Framework in Mesoamerica.
RECOGNIZING that IUCN’s work in Meso-
america has received significant support from
the three primary components of the Union: the
Secretariat, members, and Commissions;               2.50 Environmental education in the
                                                     Mesoamerican Component Pro-
RECALLING that at the 1st World Conservation         gramme
Congress, (Montreal, 1996), IUCN – Meso-
america presented the ‘1997–2000 Mesoamerica         CONSIDERING that changing the mindset of
Programme’, which promoted the integration of        people to value biodiversity continues to be the
the three components;                                most important foundation for achieving equi-
                                                     librium between human beings, biodiversity,
RECOGNIZING that the ‘1997–2000 Meso-                and nature;
america Programme’ was implemented with the
support of the three components in an exemplary      AWARE that much progress has been made in
process of integration for IUCN in the region, a     promoting valuation of biodiversity, but that
process that should be strengthened and consoli-     colossal efforts are still required to achieve this
dated;                                               goal; and

TAKING INTO ACCOUNT that with the ap-                ACKNOWLEDGING that the 5th Meso-
proval of the new IUCN Statutes, IUCN’s              american Regional Forum, held in Guatemala
Council recognizes four of the eight National        City, October 1999, adopted a comparable reso-
Committees in Mesoamerica and the establish-         lution;
ment of the Regional Forum; and
                                                     The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
MINDFUL that the IUCN members attending              Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
the 5th Mesoamerican Regional Forum, held in
Guatemala City, October 1999, reaffirmed their       1.   REQUESTS that environmental education
interest in continuing to develop the process ini-        be a central theme incorporated into all of
tiated and defined in a Strategic Framework in            the themes that ORMA and its members
Mesoamerica, which shall apply until the 3rd              develop;
World Conservation Congress;
                                                     2.   REQUESTS that the different cultures be
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-           respected during this process of education
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:                 and learning.

1.   APPROVES the Strategic Framework in
     Mesoamerica until the next World Conser-
     vation Congress;                                2.51 Conserving the Panama Canal
2.   REQUESTS the Director General’s support
     for implementing the Strategic Framework
                                                     RECOGNIZING that the Panama Canal Water-
     in Mesoamerica;
                                                     shed contains one of the most important artifi-
                                                     cial wetlands in the Latin American region;
3.   URGES IUCN’s Council to provide follow-
     up on the implementation of the Strategic

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

TAKING INTO ACCOUNT that the Panama                       (a) promote an International Forum in the
Canal Watershed provides important products                   Republic of Panama, with the partici-
and environmental services, such as timber, non-              pation of the World Commission on
timber forest products, fisheries, opportunities              Dams and other relevant bodies iden-
for ecological tourism, and conservation of bio-              tified by IUCN, to contribute to im-
diversity, both inside and outside the protected              proving baseline information and de-
areas that are present in this watershed;                     cision-making on the proposed con-
                                                              cept for enlarging the Panama Canal,
HIGHLIGHTING that this inter-ocean water-                     with the participation of communities
shed is located within the Mesoamerican Bio-                  within the watershed, civil society, in-
logical Corridor and therefore possesses one of               ternational organizations, and the
the region’s better-conserved examples of biodi-              competent Panamanian authorities;
versity, and that the area’s population has a rich
socio-cultural and ethnic mix;                            (b) encourage the development of fund-
                                                              ing proposals to strengthen the studies
RECOGNIZING that it provides water for the                    and initiatives underway in the Pa-
transit of national and international shipping                nama Canal Watershed; and
between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific
Ocean, with approximately 12,000 ships per                (c) contribute through IUCN’s Global
year using 3,020 million cubic metres of water;               and Regional Freshwater initiatives to
and                                                           the investigation, analysis, and dis-
                                                              semination of the rich potential of the
AWARE of the global commercial needs that                     Panama Canal Watershed.
require deeper drafted ships to pass through the
Panama Canal, and the growing demand for             This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
freshwater for human consumption by the              The State member Panama, and the State and
Panamanian population; and                           Agency members United States, abstained from
                                                     the adoption by consensus of this Resolution.
FURTHER AWARE that the Government of the
Republic of Panama has determined the neces-
sity for carrying out studies to consider the pos-
sibility of enlarging the Panama Canal;              2.52 Consolidation of IUCN’s Com-
                                                     ponent Programme for South Amer-
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
                                                     CONSIDERING that the 2000–2005 Compo-
1.   URGES the competent Panamanian au-
                                                     nent Programme of IUCN in South America is
     thorities for the Panama Canal Watershed,
                                                     the result of a widely participatory and consen-
     Panamanian organizations, and communi-
                                                     sual process among the membership, Commis-
     ties to set up an open and participatory
                                                     sions, and Secretariat, from within the region;
     process, to carry out the studies on possible
     enlargement of the Panama Canal and to
                                                     OBSERVING that the South American con-
     guarantee satisfactory implementation of
                                                     stituents of the Union have concluded that
     necessary mitigation measures in such a
                                                     IUCN must be the regional leader and facilita-
     way that these joint efforts succeed in
                                                     tor in the development of concepts, strategies,
     minimizing the environmental and social
                                                     and tools for the conservation and sustainable
     impacts of the proposed work;
                                                     use of natural resources and biological diver-
                                                     sity, through the synergetic activities of its con-
2.   REQUESTS the Director General to:
                                                     stituents’ network, the linkages between the
                                                     global, regional, and national levels, the search
                                                     for agreements between the public and private

Resolutions and Recommendations

actors, and the integration of the social dimen-
sion into its action;                                1.   INVITES South American governments,
                                                          multilateral organizations that are active in
FURTHER OBSERVING that the South Ameri-                   the region, environmental NGOs and inter-
can Component Programme is focused on five                ested citizens, whether IUCN members or
processes which are degrading natural resources           not, to take advantage of the capacity of
and considered as priorities for action: defores-         the Union (represented by 96 government
tation, degradation of water sources and wet-             and non-government members, hundreds
lands, desertification, genetic erosion, and deg-         of specialists who are members of Com-
radation of marine and coastal ecosystems; and            missions, and an active and expert Re-
that the Component Programme also focuses on              gional Office), to develop work alliances
strengthening IUCN’s management capacity in               that contribute to the solution of the five
the region;                                               processes of degradation with the aim of a
                                                          just world that values and conserves na-
FURTHER OBSERVING that the Component                      ture;
Programme seeks to alleviate these five proc-
esses of degradation by focusing its efforts on      2.   REQUESTS the Director General and
critical ecosystems and improved understanding            IUCN’s Council, in addition to the budget-
of the underlying causes and options for solu-            ary support provided to the South Ameri-
tions;                                                    can Component Programme, properly
                                                          framed within the Overall Programme and
RECOGNIZING that in South America, IUCN                   Financial Plan of the Union, to support and
is supporting a valuable decentralization and             implement as soon as possible, procedures
regionalization process of its activities, consis-        to link regional and national donors and
tent with principles discussed during the 1st             investors, to co-finance the South Ameri-
World Conservation Congress (Montreal, 1996);             can Component Programme;

OBSERVING that there are intermediate gov-           3.   REQUESTS the Director General to:
ernance structures properly constituted and ac-
                                                          (a) undertake a participatory evaluation
tive in this region – in particular a Regional
                                                              of the South American Component
Committee and National Committees – that in-
                                                              Programme prior to 2002, to elucidate
volve all constituent sectors of the Union, and
                                                              the regional experience in terms of:
are able to coordinate IUCN’s actions and ex-
tend its reach and effectiveness;                              (i) decentralization;
                                                               (ii) interactions with Headquarters;
CONSIDERING that Resolution 19.13 In-
creased IUCN Presence and Influence in South                   (iii) influence over regional proc-
America, adopted by the 19th Session of the                          esses; and
IUCN General Assembly (Buenos Aires, 1994),                    (iv) effectiveness in fulfilling the
calls for actions to support regional constituents                  Mission; and
and construction of regional and national struc-
tures; and                                                (b) present the results and lessons learned
                                                              at the upcoming 3rd World Conserva-
FURTHER RECOGNIZING that there is a need                      tion Congress, as a case study to be
to support these processes by a participatory Re-             shared with the rest of the Union.
gional Component Programme that is congruent
with the environmental and social realities of
South America;

The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

                                                                         World Conservation Congress
                                                                          Amman, 4–11 October 2000

2.53 Nature conservation on the Guy-                   2.   ASKS the governments concerned to har-
ana Shield                                                  monize and expand the application of na-
                                                            ture conservation measures at the scale of
CONSIDERING that the region of the Guyana                   all of the Guyana Shield through the estab-
Shield, which includes parts of Brazil, Colom-              lishment of a coherent network of pro-
bia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, and                   tected areas;
Venezuela, possesses one of the last large areas
in the world of still relatively intact primary rain   3.   INVITES the relevant States to take into
forest;                                                     account guidelines issued by the World
                                                            Commission on Protected Areas on:
CONSCIOUS of the importance of forming a
regional network of protected areas capable of              (a) mining and related activities affecting
ensuring the transmission to future generations                 protected areas; and
of a natural heritage of great biological impor-
tance and preserving the life style of the indige-          (b) principles and guidelines on indige-
nous populations of the region;                                 nous and traditional populations and
                                                                protected areas that were drafted in
RECOGNIZING the Government of Guyana’s                          cooperation with WWF;
contribution to the world through its generous
donation of forest land for establishment of the       4.   REQUESTS the Director General to mobi-
Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest                lize the expertise of members, specialists,
Conservation and Development to promote sus-                and the IUCN Secretariat to meet the in-
tainable forest management;                                 ternationally important challenge of nature
                                                            conservation on the Guyana Shield.
the national park with international implications      This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
planned for southern French Guiana, as foreseen        State and Agency members United States re-
in the decisions taken at the 1992 Earth Summit        frained from engaging in deliberations on this
and at the time of the 50th Anniversary of IUCN        Motion and took no national government posi-
– The World Conservation Union in 1998; and            tion on the Resolution as adopted, for reasons
                                                       given in the US General Statement on the IUCN
SERIOUSLY CONCERNED by the use of in-                  Resolutions Process (see p. 107).
tensive and unwise practices in the exploitation
of natural resources, such as mining activities,
specifically gold panning, which is causing con-
siderable negative impacts on natural environ-         2.54 Antarctica and the Southern
ments and seriously affecting the health of hu-        Ocean
man populations, for example through mercury
poisoning;                                             RECALLING Resolutions 15/20 Antarctica
                                                       environment and the Southern Ocean adopted
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-        by the 15th Session of the IUCN General As-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:              sembly (Christchurch, 1981), and 16/8 Antarc-
                                                       tica I adopted by the 16th Session of the General
1.   REQUESTS the governments concerned to             Assembly (Madrid, 1984), as well as Recom-
     continue their efforts to ensure conservation     mendations 17.52 Antarctica, 17.53 The Ant-
     of a large part of the total tropical forest in   arctic: minerals activity adopted by the 17th
     the region of the Guyana Shield in close          Session of the General Assembly (San Jose,
     consultation with the indigenous and tradi-       1988), 18.75 Antarctica adopted by the 18th
     tional populations;                               Session of the General Assembly (Perth, 1990),
                                                       and 1.110 Antarctica and the Southern Ocean

Resolutions and Recommendations

adopted by the 1st Session of the World Conser-      cies, that knowledge of these ecosystems re-
vation Congress;                                     mains inadequate, and that conservation meas-
                                                     ures for these islands need to be strengthened;
ALSO RECALLING Resolutions 16/9 Antarc-
tica II adopted by the 16th Session of the General   GREATLY CONCERNED about the harmful
Assembly (Madrid, 1984), 18.74 The Antarctic         levels of over-fishing of certain fish species in
Conservation Strategy adopted by the 18th Ses-       the oceans around Antarctica;
sion of the General Assembly (Perth, 1990), and
19.96 Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, as          STRESSING the importance of the conserva-
well as Recommendation 19.95 Improved Pro-           tion of the ocean ecosystems around Antarctica
tection for Wildlife in Subantarctic Island Eco-     and the urgent need to ensure that all use of
systems adopted by the 19th Session of the Gen-      their living resources is sustainable according to
eral Assembly (Buenos Aires, 1994);                  the ‘ecosystem as a whole’ conservation stan-
                                                     dard contained in Article II of the Convention
RECOGNIZING the crucial role played by Ant-          for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Liv-
arctica in global climate, oceanic circulation,      ing Resources (CCAMLR);
and in the world’s biophysical and biochemical
systems;                                             WORRIED about the continuing deaths of sea-
                                                     birds in large numbers from both legal and ille-
FURTHER RECOGNIZING the importance of                gal long-line fishing operations in the oceans
the Antarctic environment and its dependent and      around Antarctica, which threaten populations
associated ecosystems, its great value as the        of albatrosses and petrels;
world’s largest remaining wilderness area, its
intrinsic and inspirational values, and its impor-   TROUBLED about the increasing levels and
tance for scientific research and monitoring di-     geographic extent of tourism to the region, in-
rected to enhancing human understanding of the       cluding use of vessels carrying more than 400
natural environment and global processes, in-        people and the opening-up of previously unvis-
cluding those modified by human activity;            ited areas;

APPRECIATING that the governments of Japan           CONCERNED about plans to carry out scien-
and Russia have now ratified the Protocol on         tific research in Lake Vostok by drilling
Environmental Protection to the Antarctic            through its ice covering, given the absolutely
Treaty, permitting its entry into force;             pristine condition of the lake, the high likeli-
                                                     hood of its ecosystem containing ancient forms
WELCOMING entry into force of the Protocol           of life, and the risk of contamination from the
on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic         drilling;
Treaty, adopted by the Parties to the treaty in
Madrid, 1991, which commits the Parties to the       RECOGNIZING the important role of IUCN in
comprehensive protection of the Antarctic envi-      providing a forum for the discussion of issues
ronment and its dependent and associated eco-        affecting Antarctica’s environment by govern-
systems, designates Antarctica as a “reserve de-     mental and non-governmental bodies and in
voted to peace and science” and, inter alia, pro-    contributing to the work of the components of
hibits any activity related to mineral resources     the Antarctic Treaty System; and
other than basic scientific research;
                                                     FURTHER RECOGNIZING ongoing associa-
FURTHER WELCOMING the consequent es-                 tions with IUCN’s Commissions, particularly
tablishment of the Committee on Environmental        those for Protected Areas, Species Survival, and
Protection;                                          Environmental Law;

AWARE that the sub-Antarctic islands support         The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
distinctive ecosystems and many endemic spe-         Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

                                                                      World Conservation Congress
                                                                       Amman, 4–11 October 2000

                                                         Antarctica, to ensure that all fishing al-
1.   CALLS ON all Non-Consultative Parties to            lowed follows prudent rules that will sup-
     the Antarctic Treaty, which have not al-            port conservation of these ecosystems, and
     ready done so, to ratify the Protocol on En-        to implement the ‘Dissostichus Catch
     vironmental Protection and ensure that its          Documentation Scheme’ adopted at the
     rules are fully honoured by their nationals         1999 meeting of CCAMLR parties;
     and entities under their control;
                                                    5.   ENCOURAGES Parties to the Antarctic
2.   URGES all Parties to the Protocol on Envi-          Treaty to enhance inspection provisions so
     ronmental Protection to take the steps nec-         as to enforce the provisions of the Protocol
     essary to:                                          on Environmental Protection;

     (a) ensure that its provisions are manda-      6.   URGES the governments concerned to
         tory in the domestic legal context;             adopt and enforce measures necessary to
                                                         ensure the conservation of sub-Antarctic
     (b) bring into force Annex V on Protected           island ecosystems, especially the eradica-
         Areas, which has yet to be ratified by          tion wherever practicable and the adoption
         Ecuador, India, Poland, and Russia;             of quarantine measures against the further
                                                         introduction of alien species;
     (c) complete, as a matter of priority, the
         elaboration of rules and procedures re-    7.   STRONGLY RECOMMENDS to Parties
         lating to the liability for damage aris-        to the Antarctic Treaty that they give spe-
         ing from activities taking place in the         cial protected status to Lake Vostok in or-
         Antarctic Treaty area covered by this           der to maintain it in its present pristine
         Protocol;                                       state for future generations and that they
                                                         defer for the foreseeable future any deci-
     (d) develop a comprehensive network of              sion to allow scientific drilling into the
         protected areas pursuant to Annex V of          Lake;
         the Protocol, which includes appropri-
         ate representation of the principal        8.   REQUESTS the Director General:
         habitats and biological diversity of the
         region as well as other values; and             (a) in consultation with Parties to the
                                                             Antarctic Treaty and IUCN members,
     (e) establish and enforce stringent regula-             Commissions, and Council, to seek to
         tions governing the conduct of all per-             ensure, subject to availability of re-
         sons visiting Antarctica, whether sci-              sources, a balanced and effective set
         entists, logistical and support person-             of IUCN Antarctic-related activities,
         nel, or tourists;                                   and in particular to support actively:

3.   ENCOURAGES Parties to the Treaty to                     (i) establishment and management
     establish a permanent Secretariat as a mat-                 of new forms of Antarctic pro-
     ter of urgency, which is needed to ensure                   tected areas, with special empha-
     the effective implementation of the Antarc-                 sis given to marine sites,
     tic Treaty and the Protocol on Environ-
                                                             (ii) conclusion of negotiations to
     mental Protection;
                                                                  elaborate rules and procedures
                                                                  relating to liability for damage
4.   CALLS ON governments, including but not
                                                                  arising from activities taking
     restricted to Parties to both the Antarctic
                                                                  place in the Antarctic Treaty area
     Treaty and CCAMLR, to take urgent steps
                                                                  covered by this protocol; and
     to stop the illegal fishing for toothfish
     (Dissostichus spp.) in the oceans around

Resolutions and Recommendations

         (iii) more steps to ensure that cumula-         (a) continue to develop and put forward
               tive environmental impacts are                policy advice, especially on:
               understood and taken into account
               in decision-making within the                   (i) effective implementation of the
               Antarctic Treaty System;                            Protocol on Environmental Pro-
     (b) in consultation with IUCN’s World                    (ii) negotiation of rules and proce-
         Commission on Protected Areas, to                         dures relating to liability for
         ensure that the entire area to which the                  damage arising from activities
         Protocol on Environmental Protection                      taking place in the Antarctic
         applies should be considered for inclu-                   Treaty area and covered by this
         sion in future versions of the list of                    Protocol;
         protected areas produced by the World
                                                              (iii) stopping illegal fishing in the
         Conservation Monitoring Centre;
                                                                    oceans around Antarctica and
                                                                    improving CCAMLR’s legal and
     (c) in consultation with IUCN’s members,
                                                                    enforcement systems; and
         Commissions, and Council, as well as
         Parties to CCAMLR, to promote new                    (iv) preventing seabird mortality as
         measures and enforcement of existing                      by-catch in long-line fisheries;
         measures in order to ensure the viabil-
         ity of ecosystem management of Ant-             (b) develop more effective collaboration
         arctic marine ecosystems, and in par-               with IUCN members and other bodies
         ticular to stop illegal and other forms             and organizations who have relevant
         of over-fishing in the region;                      experience concerning the Antarctic;
     (d) to participate in meetings of Antarctic
         Treaty System components where such             (c) contribute to raising public awareness
         participation will contribute to achiev-            about Antarctic and sub-Antarctic
         ing the objectives referenced above;                conservation issues, through seminars,
                                                             technical sessions, and publications;
     (e) to continue and strengthen the capacity
         of the Antarctic Advisory Committee         10. CALLS ON IUCN members to mobilize
         to advise the IUCN Council, Director            the resources needed to enable this Resolu-
         General and Commissions, including              tion to be implemented.
         with additional funds and Secretariat
         support; and                                This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
                                                     State and Agency members United States ab-
     (f) to designate the Antarctic Advisory         stained from the adoption by consensus of this
         Committee as an inter-Commission            Resolution.
         Task Group which will allow formal
         links to be established with all relevant
         IUCN Commissions, thereby enhanc-
         ing effective communication and col-        2.55 Millennium Ecosystem Assess-
         laboration with IUCN members who            ment
         have expertise concerning the Antarc-
         tic region;                                 RECOGNIZING that both the challenge of ef-
                                                     fectively managing the Earth’s ecosystems and
9.   RECOMMENDS that the Antarctic Advi-             the consequences of failure will increase sig-
     sory Committee of IUCN should:                  nificantly during the 21st century, and that the

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

scientific knowledge decision-makers need to          AWARE of the central role that IUCN has
meet this challenge is insufficient today;            played in shaping the Millennium Ecosystem
                                                      Assessment through its role on the exploratory
RECALLING that development prospects of               Steering Committee and of the involvement of
nations are linked to the productivity of their       IUCN members including World Resources
ecosystems, that human development relies on          Institute (WRI) and the Directorate for Nature
ecosystem goods such as food, timber, genetic         Management of Norway; and
resources, and medicines, and services such as
water purification, flood control, coastline stabi-   AWARE that the Secretary General of the
lization, carbon sequestration, waste treatment,      United Nations has called upon countries to
disease regulation, and the provision of aesthetic    provide the necessary financial support for the
and cultural benefits, and that these goods and       Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and be-
services are in turn dependent on biodiversity        come actively engaged in it;
and various essential ecosystem processes such
as pollination, seed dispersal, and soil forma-       The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
tion;                                                 Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

NOTING that the loss and degradation of eco-          1.   REQUESTS the Director General and
system goods and services hinders national de-             IUCN members to support and become in-
velopment and takes the most serious toll on the           volved in the Millennium Ecosystem As-
poor, who often depend directly on forests, fish-          sessment;
eries, and agriculture for their livelihoods and
who tend to be most vulnerable to problems re-        2.   RECOMMENDS that IUCN members
sulting from ecosystem degradation such as                 contribute their expertise to the process
floods or crop failures;                                   and, in turn, seek to shape the process so
                                                           that it provides ‘added value’ at the local,
RECOGNIZING that sound ecosystem man-                      national, regional, and global levels;
agement decisions in this new century will re-
quire a dramatic increase, or ‘step change’, in       3.   REQUESTS that:
the information that can be brought to bear on
resource management decisions;                             (a) the IUCN Secretariat helps to ensure
                                                               that the information, data, and find-
RECOGNIZING that the ecosystem approach                        ings produced through the Millen-
being developed for the implementation of the                  nium Ecosystem Assessment reach
Convention on Biological Diversity is dependent                the IUCN members effectively;
on improved availability of relevant information
                                                           (b) the IUCN Commission on Ecosystem
on ecosystem goods, services, and processes;
                                                               Management participates actively in
                                                               the Millennium Ecosystem Assess-
NOTING that the proposed Millennium Ecosys-
                                                               ment, subject to resource availability,
tem Assessment, which would include both a
                                                               and ensure that its activities are care-
global scientific assessment of the impact of
                                                               fully coordinated with the Millennium
changes in ecosystems on their ability to meet
                                                               Ecosystem Assessment; and
human needs and a set of local, national, and
regional ‘catalytic’ assessments, would signifi-           (c) the IUCN’s regional and Headquar-
cantly help to provide better information for de-              ters Secretariat support and become
cisions, build capacity at all levels to undertake             involved in the Millennium Ecosys-
ecosystem assessments, and raise public aware-                 tem Assessment.
ness of the importance of ecosystems for human

Resolutions and Recommendations

2.56 Land-use policies and legal tools                The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
for coastal conservation                              Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

RECALLING that ecological, economic, and              1.   REQUESTS the Director General to work
social aspects of coastal conservation have be-            cooperatively with, and support the im-
come a major global concern in light of urbani-            plementation of, the Convention on Wet-
zation, and degradation of shores caused by abu-           lands and other agreements dealing with
sive occupation and the expanded use of coastal            coastal conservation;
areas for human activities;
                                                      2.   STRONGLY URGES States with a coast-
NOTING that more than 60 per cent of the                   line to consider:
world’s population currently lives on coasts and
that according to projections this will increase to        (a) encouraging permanent scientific
approximately 80 per cent during the next 25                   monitoring of coastal changes in order
years;                                                         to assist with political decisions on
                                                               development options by establishment
CONCERNED by insufficient implementation                       of geographic information systems
of 80 international treaties and agreements rec-               and creation of specific independent
ommending conservation of the world’s coastal                  agencies to monitor, provide scientific
areas;                                                         warning, and to act as an interface be-
                                                               tween politicians and scientists;
TAKING INTO ACCOUNT the special interest
of the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar Con-                 (b) taking into consideration the social,
vention) with regard to wetlands of international              cultural, and economic importance of
importance, the marine and coastal programme                   the conservation of coastal areas in
of the Convention on Biological Diversity pro-                 development planning by giving an
viding for integrated coastal management, and                  important place to sociology and by
the protocols of the Conventions on regional                   reinforcing the presence of conserva-
seas and other agreements on coastal conserva-                 tion specialists and scientists in the
tion;                                                          forums and councils created for
                                                               coastal management;
RECALLING Recommendations 19.46 Marine
and Coastal Area Conservation that was                     (c) creating or reinforcing legislation in
adopted by the 19th Session of the IUCN General                order to prevent or minimize distur-
Assembly (Buenos Aires, 1994) and 1.17                         bances created by overexploitation or
Coastal and Marine Conservation and Man-                       misuse of coastal resources, marine or
agement that was adopted by the 1st Session of                 terrestrial pollution, fragmentation of
the World Conservation Congress (Montreal,                     the natural environment, the demands
1996); and                                                     of tourism, uncontrolled expansion of
                                                               aquaculture, mariculture, and the in-
ACKNOWLEDGING the protection programme                         troduction of exotic species;
for large marine ecosystems, supported by the
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Ad-                 (d) preparing codes of good conduct with
ministration (NOAA) of the United States, the                  the participants involved;
UNESCO International Oceanographic Com-
mission and the work of the Coastal Areas                  (e) establishing a legal regime for the
Working Group of the IUCN Commission for                       public maritime domain for the con-
Environmental, Economic and Social Policies                    servation and management of the ma-
created after the 1st Session of the World Con-                rine parts of the coastal zone;
servation Congress;

                                                                  World Conservation Congress
                                                                   Amman, 4–11 October 2000

(f) extending to adjacent marine areas the                     tion, and the rendering of land
    protection given to terrestrial protected                  acquired for conservation inal-
    areas, in order to ensure coherence in                     ienable;
    the management of ecosystems and to
    define the protection status of sensitive             (v) promotion and facilitation of
    ecological areas in the public maritime                   procedures or means of transfer-
    domain by making it possible for pub-                     ring existing rights over the pub-
    lic or private agencies responsible for                   lic maritime domain in order to
    conservation and, in particular, for lo-                  recover the conservation pur-
    cal communities to ensure manage-                         poses of occupied space; and
    ment of these areas;
                                                          (vi) promotion and facilitation of
(g) creating incentive systems, for in-                        long-term conservation of private
    stance economic systems that support                       property using economic and le-
    the objectives of integrated coastal                       gal means such as conventional
    management and support and rein-                           protective constraints, land-use
    force long-term conservation activi-                       planning, and incentive meas-
    ties; and                                                  ures.

(h) carrying out policies for managing           This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
    coastal areas through land protection        State and Agency members United States ab-
    with the cooperation and participation       stained from the adoption by consensus of this
    of all parties concerned and with legal      Resolution.
    and financial tools such as:

    (i) preparation of a land survey or
        similar instrument to provide ac-        2.57 Preparation and adoption of
        curate information with references       guidelines for oil, gas and mineral ex-
        and maps of land holdings, occu-
        pation, and use of the coastal area
                                                 ploration and exploitation in arid and
        that will allow the creation of a        semi-arid zones
        system of land taxation that is
        useful for conservation;                 RECALLING that Resolution 19.1 The Strat-
                                                 egy of IUCN – The World Conservation Union,
    (ii) enforcement of the common law           which was adopted by the 19th Session of the
         or unwritten law of local commu-        IUCN General Assembly (Buenos Aires, 1994),
         nities whose occupation or use of       describes IUCN, its mission, objectives, and the
         the land furthers the aims of           content of the programme;
         coastal conservation;
                                                 ALSO RECALLING that Recommendation
    (iii) provision of a permanent protec-       1.74 Combating Desertification, adopted by the
          tion status to public land in sensi-   1st Session of the World Conservation Congress
          tive or ecologically outstanding       (Montreal, 1996), calls upon States to support
          coastal areas;                         the implementation of the Convention to Com-
                                                 bat Desertification (CCD), notably through al-
    (iv) facilitation of procedures for          location of the required means for the imple-
         friendly land acquisition or            mentation of national, regional, or sub-regional
         through pre-emption, donation, or       action plans;
         expropriation whenever necessary
         to the benefit of public or private     REMEMBERING the global consensus
         agencies responsible for conserva-      achieved at and after the UN Conference on

Resolutions and Recommendations

Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro,          and the adverse effects from degradation of
1992) on environmental and development issues         these environments on biodiversity, rural
and the international legal principles, notably the   economies, and the social life of people living
precautionary principle, principle of preventive      in and near these sites, if appropriate measures
action, and the principle that the polluter pays,     are not taken in a timely manner;
which underlie sustainable development and
accountability;                                       BELIEVING that adoption of guidelines, nota-
                                                      bly within the framework of the CCD, would
ACKNOWLEDGING that the World Conserva-                help to strengthen the capacity and increase the
tion Strategy (WCS) and Caring for the Earth          willingness of States, civil society, and the pri-
describe requirements for maintaining environ-        vate sector to make arrangements that are envi-
mental balance and needs for survival of biodi-       ronment-friendly and conducive to the equita-
versity in arid and semi-arid zones;                  ble distribution of the benefits from oil, gas,
                                                      and mineral exploration and exploitation, which
NOTING that arid and semi-arid areas are sites        can contribute to economic development in
for a wide range of production activities, notably    these zones; and
mineral exploration and exploitation, which are
useful for growth and development in these ar-        ALSO BELIEVING that better coordination,
eas;                                                  lobbying, and innovation would help in the
                                                      short term to put in place frameworks and pro-
FURTHER NOTING that because of their im-              cedures that would improve the role and contri-
pacts and scope, oil, gas, and mineral explora-       bution of the oil, gas, and mining industries in
tion and exploitation activities disrupt and pol-     the prevention and management of environ-
lute (e.g. physical, geophysical, chemical im-        mental risks, while facilitating optimal devel-
pacts) and therefore constitute threats to soils,     opment in arid and semi-arid zones;
species, human settlements, water quality, and
climate in arid and semi-arid zones;                  The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
                                                      Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
ACKNOWLEDGING therefore, the urgent need
to define and adopt clear and comprehensive           1.   REAFFIRMS IUCN’s support of the Con-
guidelines setting the conditions under which              vention to Combat Desertification (CCD)
oil, gas, and mineral exploration and exploita-            for continuing the development and adop-
tion activities could be conveniently pursued in           tion of appropriate guidelines aimed at
a manner enabling conservation of the environ-             governing oil, gas, and mineral exploration
ment and economic development in general in                and exploitation in arid and semi-arid
these zones;                                               zones as a specific contribution to the im-
                                                           plementation of the CCD;
BEARING IN MIND the important initiatives
undertaken by States and in the private sector,       2.   STRONGLY URGES that all relevant par-
notably through environmental impact studies,              ties, notably States, relevant United Na-
legislative reforms, gradual tailoring of tech-            tions agencies and the private sector, are
nologies and tools to take account of specific             given increased opportunities to contribute
needs in concerned zones or spaces, and adop-              to the development and dissemination of
tion of guides and standards of reference, in-             these guidelines as programming, negotia-
cluding definition of restoration and/or compen-           tion, control, and monitoring tools required
sation measures, and the adoption of technology            for oil, gas, and mineral exploration and
and tools taking into account the extreme sensi-           exploitation in arid and semi-arid zones;
tivity of those areas;
                                                      3.   REQUESTS the Director General and
CONSIDERING the extreme fragility of ecosys-               Chairs of Commissions to provide special
tems in arid, semi-arid, and sub-humid zones

                                                                World Conservation Congress
                                                                 Amman, 4–11 October 2000

     assistance for the development and adop-       (a) recognize the important role of natural
     tion of these guidelines.                          ecosystems in contributing to sustain-
                                                        able development by:

                                                        (i) ensuring that all major develop-
2.58 Ecological management issues                           ment investment, such as dam
relating to large dams                                      construction, will seek to con-
                                                            serve and enhance the ecological
RECOGNIZING that the Mission Statement of                   services provided by river basin
IUCN – The World Conservation Union com-                    ecosystems; and
mits the Union to ensuring that any use of natu-
ral resources should be ecologically sustainable;       (ii) avoiding any actions that dimin-
                                                             ish such values;
FURTHER RECOGNIZING the increasing im-
portance that the international community places    (b) recognize the importance of biodiver-
on ensuring that any use of natural resources           sity and promote its conservation by
should be ecologically sustainable;                     ensuring that dam projects will be re-
                                                        assessed if they are shown to have a
ACKNOWLEDGING that in all societies, river-             high probability of having a signifi-
ine ecosystems are valued for their ecological,         cant detrimental effect on species di-
economic, social, and cultural values by both           versity or ecosystem integrity;
local communities and wider society;
                                                    (c) recognize the need for the precaution-
NOTING that in all societies, large and small           ary approach because of the high de-
dams are built to meet human needs such as              gree of uncertainty associated with
drinking water supply, food and fibre produc-           dam development actions affecting
tion, flood control, and/or energy generation;          river basin ecosystems, dams, and as-
                                                        sociated land use activities;
ALSO RECOGNIZING that a wide range of
ecological, economic, and social costs have ac-     (d) ensure effective public participation
companied such benefits to society;                     in planning, design, and management
                                                        of dams through open processes that
FURTHER NOTING that solutions to the many               ensure there will be a full sharing of
almost irreversible problems, such as the loss of       available information, especially with
biodiversity and adverse impacts on ecological          local communities and institutions,
processes (e.g. site specific impacts on riverine       including identification of knowledge
and aquatic ecosystems, water quality, soils),          gaps and confidence levels;
will require major intellectual, economic, and
social efforts by governments, land managers,       (e) adopt an adaptive management ap-
and the wider community; and                            proach if, notwithstanding the above
                                                        reservations, a decision is made to
ACKNOWLEDGING that there have been in-                  construct a dam, by ensuring that de-
creasing worldwide efforts to address the prob-         sign features will include the capacity
lems arising from inappropriate construction            for flexible adjustments to meet future
and/or management of dams;                              environmental needs including envi-
                                                        ronmental flows, water quality, and
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-         sustainability of wetlands; and
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
                                                    (f) promote the development of national
1.   CALLS ON all governments to:                       and sub-national, where appropriate,
                                                        legislative or policy frameworks to

Resolutions and Recommendations

         ensure that all uses of river basin eco-   nity for the improvement of environmental law
         systems will be ecologically sustain-      and policy for the sustainable use of soils, par-
         able;                                      ticularly in regard to the ecological functions of
                                                    soil for the conservation of biodiversity and the
2.   REQUESTS the Director General to ensure        maintenance of human life, including:
     that the recommendations outlined above
     are taken fully into account in the develop-   (a) the production of biomass and the filtering,
     ment of IUCN’s Overall Programme until             buffering and transformation activity be-
     the next World Conservation Congress.              tween the atmosphere, ground water and
                                                        plant cover;
This Resolution was adopted by a show of
                                                    (b) soils as a biological habitat and gene re-
hands. In calling for a show of hands, the dele-
gation of the State member China made a formal
Statement for the Record indicating its opposi-     (c) soils as a spatial base for technical, indus-
tion to the Motion on the grounds that it “does         trial and socio-economic structures and
not take a comprehensive consideration to coor-         their development; and
dinate protection of ecosystems and social de-      (d) soils as a source of raw materials;
velopment. It has the potential to detain any
benefits that human beings could get from dams.     CONVINCED that the future ecological bene-
That deflects the comprehensive objective of        fits of the world’s soils will depend on the exis-
IUCN and is against the objective of sustainable    tence of adequate global, regional, and national
development”. The Statement of the delegation       legal strategies to enable individual nations to
of China is reproduced in full in the Congress      make sound land use and land management de-
Proceedings. State and Agency members United        cisions, and on building capacity to communi-
States abstained from adoption of this Resolu-      cate these strategies;
                                                    CONCERNED that there is a need to study fur-
                                                    ther and make recommendations concerning the
                                                    synergy among several international environ-
2.59 Legal aspects of the sustainable               mental instruments of relevance to soils and the
use of soils                                        patterns of their implementation through na-
                                                    tional legislation; and
RECALLING that one of the objectives of the
International Union for the Conservation of Na-     ACKNOWLEDGING that whilst there is a
ture and Natural Resources (IUCN) since its         range of international instruments addressing
founding in 1948 was the establishment of laws      aspects of soil conservation, there is at present
and treaties for the protection of nature;          no specific global environmental law instru-
                                                    ment for the sustainable use of soils;
RECOGNIZING the important contributions
made by the IUCN since 1965 towards estab-          The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
lishing the field of environmental law;             Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

AWARE that environmental law has become a           1.   WELCOMES the initiative of the Envi-
field of law whose scope is exceptionally broad,         ronmental Law Programme to form a
ranging from the legal systems of local authori-         Working Group on the Legal Aspects of
ties and the customary law of traditional socie-         the Sustainable Use of Soils to prepare
ties and indigenous peoples, through to the laws         guidelines and explanatory material relat-
of States and the international law among States;        ing to principles and elements of national
                                                         legislation and policy to assist States to
NOTING the significant cooperation and sup-              manage their specific soil degradation and
port that exists among the soil science commu-           land degradation problems, and to investi-

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

     gate the need for and feasibility of further      DEEPLY CONCERNED that only about 10
     developing international environmental law        animals remain in the northern savannahs of the
     in this field, in particular through an inter-    Republic of Cameroon;
     national instrument for the sustainable use
     of soils;                                         NOTING with sincere regret that the efforts
                                                       made by the IUCN/SSC African Rhino Special-
2.   INVITES IUCN members to provide all               ist Group, in collaboration with the Govern-
     possible support to the Environmental Law         ment of the Republic of Cameroon, including
     Programme in developing guidelines on the         the drafting of a recovery plan, have not suc-
     essential elements to include in environ-         ceeded in stopping the progressive disappear-
     mental legislation and policy for the sus-        ance of the last Western Black Rhinoceroses;
     tainable use of soils, and its investigation of
     a global instrument for the sustainable use       RECOGNIZING the current initiative of the
     of soils;                                         Government of the Republic of Cameroon, in
                                                       cooperation with IUCN, the World Wide Fund
3.   REQUESTS the Environmental Law Pro-               For Nature (WWF) and the IUCN/SSC African
     gramme, in its development of legal guide-        Rhino Specialist Group, aimed at establishing a
     lines and explanatory material, and investi-      plan for conserving the rhinoceroses in the
     gation into a global legal instrument for the     wild; and
     sustainable use of soils, to pay particular at-
     tention to the ecological needs of soil and       ACCEPTING that this initiative, including a
     their ecological functions for the conserva-      technical mission to the Republic of Cameroon
     tion of biodiversity and the maintenance of       before the end of 2000 to agree on the required
     human life.                                       actions, will be the last concerted attempt to
                                                       save this taxon from extinction;
This Resolution was adopted by consensus. The
delegation of the United States abstained from         The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
adoption of this Resolution by consensus. The          Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
US delegation also provided a formal Statement
for the Record, indicating that while the US was       1.   REQUESTS the Government and Presi-
supportive of the first part of the first operative         dent of the Republic of Cameroon to take
paragraph, it was not convinced of the feasibil-            all agreed and identified measures neces-
ity or utility of an international instrument on            sary to ensure the future of the Western
the sustainable use of soils. The Statement is              Black Rhinoceros;
reproduced in full in the Congress Proceedings.
                                                       2.   REQUESTS the Director General to pro-
                                                            mote the implementation of the necessary
                                                            actions among donors in order to obtain fi-
2.60 Conservation of the Western                            nancial support for these activities to se-
                                                            cure this taxon in the wild.
Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis
longipes)                                              This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
                                                       State and Agency members United States re-
NOTING that the action plan drafted in 1999 by         frained from engaging in deliberations on this
the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC)             Motion and took no national government posi-
African Rhino Specialist Group listed the West-        tion on the Resolution as adopted, for reasons
ern Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis                 given in the US General Statement on the IUCN
longipes) as critically endangered;                    Resolutions Process (see p. 107).

Resolutions and Recommendations

2.61 Conservation of Houbara Bus-                     2.   REQUESTS that steps be taken by the
tard (Chlamydotis undulata) in North                       IUCN Species Survival Commission and
                                                           BirdLife International for the thorough ex-
and sub-Saharan Africa                                     amination of the status and taxonomy of
                                                           Chlamydotis undulata to ensure its proper
NOTING with much regret that contrary to Rec-
                                                           listing in the IUCN Red List of Threatened
ommendation 1.27 Protection of the Houbara
                                                           Species because of its dramatic decline in
Bustard adopted by the 1st Session of the World
                                                           numbers in all of the range states in North
Conservation Congress (Montreal, 1996), the
                                                           Africa and sub-Saharan Africa;
Houbara Bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) con-
tinues to be illegally hunted in all areas in which
                                                      3.   REQUESTS the Director General to:
it occurs in Africa;
                                                           (a) respond positively to any requests from
CONCERNED that unsustainable and illegal
                                                               the Range States to provide technical
hunting, including the use of sophisticated
                                                               assistance, and to help identify finan-
means, are increasingly endangering Houbara
                                                               cial support for the development and
Bustards, as well as other rare species that are
                                                               implementation of an action plan, simi-
on the verge of extinction;
                                                               lar to the one recommended for the
                                                               Asiatic Houbara Bustard (Recommen-
ACKNOWLEDGING that most range countries
                                                               dation 1.28: Agreement on the conser-
in North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa have
                                                               vation and management of the Asiatic
made a commitment to protect the Houbara Bus-
                                                               Houbara Bustard), to conserve and
tard, namely as Parties to the Convention on In-
                                                               manage the North African Houbara
ternational Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
                                                               Bustard; and
Fauna and Flora (CITES), the Convention on
Migratory Species (CMS or Bonn Convention)
                                                           (b) urgently communicate this Resolution
and the Convention on Biological Diversity
                                                               to the States and members of IUCN in
(CBD); and
                                                               the region.
RECOGNIZING that some members of the in-
                                                      This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
ternational community of scientists recognize
                                                      State and Agency members United States re-
two distinct species of Houbara Bustard: A
                                                      frained from engaging in deliberations on this
North African species (Chlamydotis undulata)
                                                      Motion and took no national government posi-
and an Asian species (Chlamydotis macqueenii);
                                                      tion on the Resolution as adopted, for reasons
                                                      given in the US General Statement on the IUCN
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
                                                      Resolutions Process (see p. 107).
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

1.   URGES States in North Africa and sub-
     Saharan Africa to:
                                                      2.62 Chinese Alligator (Alligator si-
     (a) honour their international commitments       nensis) conservation
         and to enforce their national legislation
         by not allowing hunting of those popu-       RECALLING that the status of the Chinese
         lations of Houbara Bustard that are          Alligator (Alligator sinensis) in the wild has
         threatened with extinction in North Af-      long been of concern to the Government of the
         rica and sub-Saharan Africa; and             People’s Republic of China;

     (b) implement proper management plans            AWARE that the Chinese Alligator was classi-
         with the aim of developing the sustain-      fied in 1996 as Critically Endangered in the
         able use of these species;                   IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals 1996,
                                                      and has been given the highest priority for con-

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

servation action by the IUCN Species Survival              (a) maintain a strong research presence
Commission (SSC) Crocodile Specialist Group;                   dedicated to this species;

ACKNOWLEDGING the success of actions                       (b) maintain its captive stock and breed-
initiated by the People’s Republic of China na-                ing programme so that restocking can
tionally, and Anhui Province regionally, in:                   be accomplished in the future;

(a) declaring a Chinese Alligator Reserve in               (c) take such actions that are necessary to
    Anhui Province;                                             ameliorate current threats to the exist-
                                                                ing wild population, with the primary
(b) building a large research centre dedicated to
                                                                aim of improving the status of the
    Chinese Alligators;
                                                                wild population;
(c) carrying out extensive research on Chinese              (d) to set in train programmes aimed at
    Alligators;                                                 improving the status of the remaining
(d) developing the technology for captive                       population; and
    breeding; and
                                                           (e) to investigate options for reducing the
(e) now being in a position to produce over                    risk of extinction by re-establishing
    2000 hatchlings per year in captivity;                     other wild populations somewhere
                                                               within their former range;
CONCERNED that very recent survey results
now confirm the single remaining wild popula-         3.   REQUESTS the Species Survival Com-
tion of Chinese Alligators, within the Chinese             mission, within available resources, to of-
Alligator Reserve, to be fragmented and con-               fer assistance to China, through the
tinuing to decline because of a suite of socio-            IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group, in
economic and environmental factors that are                convening technical workshops to imple-
difficult to resolve; and                                  ment the foregoing actions.

RECOGNIZING that, in addition to national             This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
concerns about the survival of wild Chinese Al-       State and Agency members United States re-
ligators, a very high level of international con-     frained from engaging in deliberations on this
cern was expressed at the recent meeting of the       Motion and took no national government posi-
IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group about the         tion on the Resolution as adopted, for reasons
need for urgent action to ensure this unique          given in the US General Statement on the IUCN
crocodilian does not become extinct in the wild;      Resolutions Process (see p. 107).

The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
                                                      2.63 Illegal and/or unsustainable
1.   ENCOURAGES the People’s Republic of              trade of wildlife species among and
     China to continue its efforts to save the last
     wild population, and to use this year, the       from the Mekong riparian countries
     Chinese Year of the Dragon, as an opportu-
     nity to foster and build international coop-     RECOGNIZING that the increasing unsustain-
     eration in solving this challenging and criti-   able trade of wildlife species occurring among
     cally important conservation problem;            and from the Mekong riparian States is threat-
                                                      ening the conservation of species;
2.   URGES all IUCN members to support the
     Government of the People’s Republic of           NOTING the developing socio-economic con-
     China in their efforts to:                       text and critical environmental situation, includ-
                                                      ing increasing access to forest areas of the Me-
                                                      kong River riparian States;

Resolutions and Recommendations

                                                        long-term interests of States to prevent ille-
AWARE of developing legal frameworks regu-              gal and/or unsustainable trade, with a spe-
lating wildlife trade in the Mekong River ripar-        cial focus on consumers, traders, and mid-
ian States, including the implementation of the         dlemen;
Convention on International Trade in Endan-
gered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES);      (b) disseminate information to the media that
                                                        contributes to the awareness of a wide
AWARE that wildlife species are a source of             range of stakeholders;
food and traditional medicine and that trade cur-
rently threatens these uses;                        (c) collect and provide to decision-makers, pol-
                                                        icy advisors, and officers in charge of law
AWARE of increasing demands for wildlife                enforcement, accurate, scientifically based
within and beyond the region;                           information on wildlife trade and its impact
                                                        on wild populations;
RECALLING the Beijing Statement adopted by
the participants in the Workshop on the Control     (d) conduct case studies on the ecological, so-
of Wildlife in the Asian Region, hosted by the          cial, cultural, and economic dynamics of
Ministry of Forestry of China (23–24 October            wildlife trade;
1995) in Beijing, China (attended by representa-
tives of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia,         (e) incorporate the information from (c) and
China, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lao PDR,           (d) above into the management of species
Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, Pakistan, Phil-            in trade;
ippines, the Republic of Korea, Russian Federa-
tion, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam,      (f) revise and update legal measures to imple-
and Hong Kong) and the subsequent work con-             ment CITES and encourage effective wild-
ducted by the Mekong River riparian States;             life management;

AWARE of the structure of IUCN – The World          (g) improve the effectiveness of law enforce-
Conservation Union, including the Species Sur-          ment, including training and the provision
vival Commission and its Specialist Groups,             of resources to officers and border officials
which provide independent scientific expertise,         who control wildlife trade; and
and the collaborative relationship IUCN has
with relevant institutions; and                     (h) strengthen the voice of these States in re-
                                                        gional and international wildlife trade-
RECOGNIZING that IUCN’s interest in facili-             related fora and develop common ap-
tating exchange of information between riparian         proaches to wildlife trade issues.
States, establishment of a common strategy to
tackle unsustainable trade, and promotion of        This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
sustainable use of wild species for the long-term   State and Agency members United States re-
benefit of the Mekong River region;                 frained from engaging in deliberations on this
                                                    Motion and took no national government posi-
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-     tion on the Resolution as adopted, for reasons
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:           given in the US General Statement on the IUCN
                                                    Resolutions Process (see p. 107).
CALLS ON the Director General, in collabora-
tion with the CITES Secretariat, and other agen-
cies where relevant, to assist the Mekong River
riparian States to:                                 2.64 The unsustainable commercial
                                                    trade in wild meat
(a) increase general awareness of the impact of
    trade on the conservation of species and the

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

RECOGNIZING that wildlife is essential to             importance of this resource to local, national,
both ecological systems and human cultures;           and international stakeholders;

ACKNOWLEDGING the importance of wild-                 The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
life to the well-being of human communities in        Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
many countries;
                                                      1.   ADVOCATES an immediate, collective
NOTING that despite the potential for sustain-             global response to develop a clear under-
able exploitation of wildlife for commercial and           standing of the causes of, and to identify
subsistence purposes, there is an increasing un-           the most appropriate solutions to, the un-
sustainable, and often illegal commercial trade            sustainable commercial trade in wild meat;
in ‘meat and other products derived from wild         2.   URGES governments of all affected na-
animals for human consumption’ (in parts of                tions to recognize the socio-economic
Africa known as ‘bushmeat’, hereafter referred             value of meat and other products derived
to as ‘wild meat’);                                        from wild animals, and the increasing im-
                                                           pact of the unsustainable commercial trade
UNDERSTANDING that:                                        on long-term food security and national
(a) this trade is a significant immediate threat
    to wildlife populations particularly in forest    3.   URGES all States to adopt or strengthen
    and grassland ecosystems throughout the                legislation, where appropriate, and to en-
    world;                                                 force legislation, to control the unsustain-
                                                           able commercial trade in wild meat;
(b) a very wide range of species, even those not
    currently identified as threatened, are at risk   4.   URGES all members and States to collabo-
    of local extinction across wide areas;                 rate towards establishing appropriate in-
                                                           formation exchange regarding the sustain-
(c) there is a significant trade in globally               ability of harvest and trade in wild meat,
    threatened species for their meat and other            and to use that information to formulate
    products; and                                          and implement action programmes where
(d) several species are already presumed ex-
    tinct as a result of this trade;                  5.   URGES donor and lending organizations
                                                           to provide additional resources to support
CONCERNED that an unintended consequence                   appropriate and necessary programmes to
of some international and national development             control the unsustainable commercial trade
programmes and resource extraction activities              in wild meat and address its root causes;
has contributed to the magnitude of the problem;
                                                      6.   REQUESTS the Director General, the
AWARE that political instability and deteriorat-           IUCN Species Survival Commission
ing economic conditions in many countries also             (SSC), and the World Commission on Pro-
contribute to the magnitude of the problem;                tected Areas (WCPA), in collaboration
                                                           with relevant State members, agencies, or-
CONCERNED that depletion of wildlife in                    ganizations, and local stakeholders to:
many areas will have a substantial negative ef-
fect on the livelihoods and nutritional status of          (a) coordinate information and resources
local human communities; and                                   to identify and increase awareness of
                                                               the root causes of unsustainable
CONSIDERING the complex relationship of the                    commercial trade in wild meat and
economic, cultural, ecological, and nutritional                contribute to solutions;

Resolutions and Recommendations

     (b) urge international financing and donor
         organizations, national agencies, and       This Resolution was adopted by consensus. The
         the private sector to mitigate against      delegation of the United States provided a for-
         the unintended consequences of devel-       mal Statement for the Record indicating sup-
         opment programmes and resource ex-          port for the Resolution and outlining a number
         traction activities on the unsustainable    of relevant US initiatives. The Statement is re-
         commercial trade in wild meat;              produced in full in the Congress Proceedings.

     (c) urge natural resource extraction and
         infrastructure development companies
         and agencies to control hunting and         2.65 Incidental capture of marine
         trade in wild meat associated with their    turtles by pelagic longline fisheries
                                                     RECALLING Resolution 1.16 Fisheries by-
     (d) urge timber-certifying entities to in-      catch, which was adopted by the 1st Session of
         clude into their certification processes    the World Conservation Congress (Montreal,
         criteria requiring the control of hunting   1996) and Recommendation 19.61 By-catch of
         and commercial trade in wild meat as-       non-target species, which was adopted by the
         sociated with logging operations;           19th Session of the IUCN General Assembly
                                                     (Buenos Aires, 1994);
     (e) strengthen the management of pro-
         tected areas to control the impact of       ACKNOWLEDGING the provisions of the UN
         unsustainable commercial trade in wild      Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
         meat;                                       of 10 December 1982, including:
     (f) identify existing resources, develop        (a) Part V, Article 61, paragraph 4, relating to
         new financing mechanisms, and build             the obligations of States to consider the ef-
         capacity to develop and implement               fects of fishing operations on “...species
         strategies and actions to address the           associated with or dependent upon har-
         problems of the unsustainable com-              vested species with a view to maintaining
         mercial trade in wild meat;                     or restoring populations of such associated
                                                         or dependent species above levels at which
     (g) involve all relevant regional and               their reproduction may become seriously
         global IUCN programmes in efforts to            threatened”;
         develop other solutions to the problem
         of unsustainable commercial trade in        (b) Part V, Article 63, paragraphs 1 and 2,
         wild meat, through dialogue with af-            which instruct States to cooperate in the
         fected States and communities; and              conservation of the same stock or stocks of
                                                         associated species occurring within the ex-
     (h) engage in existing and possible future          clusive economic zones of two or more
         dialogues with interested parties at the        coastal States or both within the exclusive
         international level, including the              economic zone and in an area beyond and
         United Nations Environment Pro-                 adjacent to it; and
         gramme (UNEP), the United Nations
         Food and Agriculture Organization           (c) Part VII, Section 2,1 Articles 116 through
         (FAO), the Convention on Biological             119 which provide obligations to States in
         Diversity (CBD) and the Working                 relation to Conservation and Management
         Group on Bushmeat Issues established            of the Living Resources of the High Seas;
         under the Convention on International
         Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
         Fauna and Flora (CITES).

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

RECOGNIZING Article 8(c) of the Convention               “minimize pollution, waste, discards, catch
on Biological Diversity which instructs Parties          by lost or abandoned gear, catch of non-
to:                                                      target species, both fish and non-fish spe-
                                                         cies ... and impacts on associated or de-
    “Regulate or manage biological resources
                                                         pendent species, in particular endangered
    important for the conservation of biological
                                                         species, through measures including, to the
    diversity whether within or outside pro-
                                                         extent practicable, the development and
    tected areas, with a view to ensuring their
                                                         use of selective, environmentally safe and
    conservation and sustainable use”, and Ar-
                                                         cost-effective fishing gear and tech-
    ticle 8(f) which impels parties to “promote
    the recovery of threatened species, inter
    alia, through the development and imple-
                                                     RECOGNIZING the endangered status of ma-
    mentation of plans or other management
                                                     rine turtles, as listed in CITES and the IUCN
                                                     Red List, and the broad range of threats, which
                                                     include overexploitation, habitat loss, and fish-
NOTING that the Convention on the Conserva-
                                                     eries by-catch;
tion of Migratory Species of Wild Animals
(CMS or Bonn Convention) states in Article II,
                                                     ACKNOWLEDGING that marine turtles are
paragraph 1 that:
                                                     slow-growing, slow-to-mature, long-lived, have
                                                     low juvenile survival and thus may take dec-
    “Parties acknowledge the importance of           ades to recover once human-induced sources of
    migratory species being conserved and of         mortality are significantly reduced;
    Range States agreeing to take action to this
    end whenever possible and appropriate,           CONSIDERING that pelagic longline fishing
    paying special attention to migratory spe-       has been shown to cause long-term harm to
    cies the conservation status of which is un-     populations of some non-target species, espe-
    favourable, and taking individually or in        cially marine turtles;
    cooperation appropriate and necessary steps
    to conserve such species and their habitat”;     OBSERVING that marine turtles are captured
                                                     worldwide in the lines and hooks of pelagic
FURTHER NOTING that the 6th Conference of            longlines and this number has not been ade-
Parties to CMS (Bonn Convention), in Resolu-         quately quantified, but is estimated to be at
tion 6.2 (By-catch), inter alia:                     least tens of thousands of turtles annually;

    “Requests all Parties, as a matter of gravity,   RECOGNIZING that the incidental hooking or
    to continue and strengthen measures with         entanglement of marine turtles by pelagic
    fisheries under their control, to minimize as    longlines routinely results in their injury and
    far as possible the incidental mortality of      subsequent death, either immediately observed
    migratory species listed in Appendices I         or after release;
    and II, including sea birds, marine turtles,
    and cetaceans”;                                  GREATLY CONCERNED that the incidental
                                                     capture of marine turtles by pelagic longline
AWARE of the UN Agreement for the Imple-             fisheries has contributed significantly to the
mentation of the Provisions of the United Na-        decline and near-extinction of several popula-
tions Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10         tions (e.g. Pacific populations of Leatherback
December 1982 Relating to the Conservation           Turtle Dermochelys coriacea) and is impeding
and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and         the recovery of marine turtle populations
Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, that requires (ac-     worldwide, and thus undermines decades of
cording to Article 5, paragraph f) coastal States    conservation efforts and investments under-
and States fishing on the high seas to:              taken by many nations, organizations, and indi-

Resolutions and Recommendations

                                                                that the incidental capture of marine
APPLAUDING the United Nations Food and                          turtles by longline fisheries is a seri-
Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) Committee                      ous threat to the survival of some
on Fisheries (COFI) for recognizing the adverse                 populations of these reptiles in our
impact of pelagic longline fishing on seabirds                  world’s oceans, and thus the FAO,
worldwide and for developing, under the Code                    and all States and regional fishery or-
of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, and Inter-                ganizations should develop collabora-
national Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental                 tive and integrated efforts to ensure
Catch of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries (IPOA–                  that such initiatives are consistent
Seabirds);                                                      with each other and mitigation meas-
                                                                ures for some species do not nega-
NOTING that each member State of COFI has                       tively impact other species; and
agreed to develop a National Plan of Action for
Reducing Incidental Catch of Seabirds in                   (b) in cooperation with IUCN members,
Longline Fisheries (NPOA–Seabirds) that will                   States, regional fishery organizations
require mitigation measures to decrease the in-                and other relevant intergovernmental
cidental catch of seabirds;                                    organizations, to develop expedi-
                                                               tiously an International Plan of Ac-
NOTING that mitigation measures have been                      tion for Reducing Incidental Catch of
developed and proposed to reduce seabird by-                   Marine Turtles in Longline Fisheries
catch in longline fisheries, and emphasizing that              based on the assessment advocated in
such measures should not adversely affect ma-                  paragraph 1 which should be inte-
rine turtles;                                                  grated fully with similar initiatives fo-
                                                               cused on other species, including the
AWARE that no gear/technological solution                      IPOA–Seabirds;
currently exists to mitigate the incidental capture
of marine turtles by pelagic longline fisheries;      3.   CALLS UPON States and other interested
                                                           parties to support FAO in undertaking
NOTING that the impact of Illegal, Unregulated             these initiatives;
and Unreported (IUU) fishing on marine turtles
is not known; and                                     4.   EXHORTS, in accordance with the legal
                                                           obligations derived from the instruments
ALSO NOTING that the incidental catch of ma-               mentioned herein, all States and regional
rine turtles may have an adverse impact on fish-           fishery bodies to take all possible measures
ing activities;                                            to immediately assess the magnitude of the
                                                           incidental capture of marine turtles in pe-
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-            lagic longline fisheries worldwide and to
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:                  reduce the capture of marine turtles to the
                                                           lowest possible levels;
1.   IMPLORES the FAO, in cooperation with
     IUCN members, States and regional fisher-        5.   REQUESTS that the FAO and IUCN
     ies bodies, to conduct a technical consulta-          members inform the Director General prior
     tion to assess the magnitude of the inciden-          to, or at, the 3rd Session of the World Con-
     tal catch and mortality of marine turtles in          servation Congress on progress made to-
     pelagic longline fisheries worldwide;                 ward evaluating and reducing incidental
                                                           marine turtle mortality;
2.   URGES the FAO–COFI:
                                                      6.   CALLS ON the Director General to report
     (a) to advise forthwith all nations and               on the progress made toward implement-
         agencies involved in developing                   ing this Resolution at the 3rd Session of the
         NPOA–Seabirds and similar initiatives             World Conservation Congress and make

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

     further recommendations, as appropriate          Southern Ocean and the inability of CCAMLR
     and necessary, to implement fully this           to ensure adequate compliance with its regula-
     Resolution.                                      tions;

                                                      COMMENDING the activities of several
                                                      CCAMLR members in patrolling the waters of
2.66 Pirate fishing and seabird mor-                  the Southern Ocean and arresting unlicensed
tality from longlining in the Southern                longline fishing vessels within territorial waters
                                                      and Exclusive Economic Zones surrounding
Ocean and adjacent waters                             sub-Antarctic islands under their jurisdiction,
                                                      but also noting that these activities have not
RECALLING Resolutions 1.15 Incidental mor-
                                                      halted pirate fishing, given the difficulties of
tality of seabirds in longline fisheries and 1.16
                                                      effectively patrolling such a vast area;
Fisheries by-catch adopted by the 1st Session of
the World Conservation Congress (Montreal,
                                                      NOTING WITH APPROVAL that CCAMLR
1996) and Recommendation 19.61 By-catch of
                                                      continues to address seabird mortality by
non-target species adopted by the 19th Session
                                                      longline fisheries in the Southern Ocean by the
of the IUCN General Assembly (Buenos Aires,
                                                      adoption and annual renewal of conservation
                                                      measures designed to minimize interactions
                                                      with seabirds such as closed seasons, night-
NOTING that the Convention on the Conserva-
                                                      setting, dumping of offal and use of bird-
tion of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
                                                      scaring streamer lines, and that it annually
(CCAMLR) has responsibility for managing the
                                                      through its ad hoc Working Group on Inciden-
living resources, including fish and seabirds, of
                                                      tal Mortality Arising from Longline Fishing
the Southern Ocean, and that in recent years it
                                                      (CCAMLR WG-IMALF) collates and analyses
has continued to express serious concern about
                                                      data collected by observers aboard longliners,
Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) or
                                                      both on levels of seabird mortality and compli-
‘pirate’ fishing for toothfish (Dissostichus spp.)
                                                      ance with conservation measures;
and the attendant high levels of seabird mortality
caused by the lack of adoption of mitigation
                                                      ALSO NOTING WITH APPROVAL that the
measures, considering that the current levels of
                                                      United Nations Food and Agriculture Organiza-
exploitation of both fish and birds by pirate fish-
                                                      tion (FAO) at its 1999 Ministerial Meeting on
ers are in many cases unsustainable;
                                                      the Implementation of the Code of Conduct for
                                                      Responsible Fisheries decided to develop an
FURTHER NOTING that CCAMLR at its 18th
                                                      International Plan of Action (IPOA) to deal
Meeting in November 1999 adopted a Catch
                                                      effectively with all types of IUU fishing, and
Documentation Scheme (Conservation Measure
                                                      that an Expert Consultation took place in Aus-
170/XVIII) that requires CCAMLR members to
                                                      tralia in May 2000, to be followed by a Techni-
document international trade in toothfish and to
                                                      cal Consultation in Rome, Italy in October 2000
certify that it has been caught in a manner con-
                                                      to effect an IPOA, planned to be adopted at the
sistent with CCAMLR conservation measures;
                                                      24th Session of the FAO Committee on Fisher-
                                                      ies (COFI) in early 2001;
NOTING HOWEVER, that the Catch Docu-
mentation Scheme is only binding on CCAMLR
                                                      NOTING that many Southern Ocean seabirds at
members, and that the majority of pirate fishing
                                                      risk from longlining migrate to adjacent waters
for toothfish is carried out by vessels licensed by
                                                      at lower latitudes, north of the area of compe-
non-CCAMLR nations, including ‘flag-of-
                                                      tence of CCAMLR, where they are caught by
convenience’ States;
                                                      pelagic longliners fishing for tuna and other
                                                      fish species on the high seas and in domestic
GREATLY CONCERNED about the harmful
                                                      waters, and by demersal longliners fishing
levels of over-fishing particularly of Patagonian
                                                      within domestic waters surrounding the large
Toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) in the

Resolutions and Recommendations

Southern Hemisphere land masses of Africa,          the 24th Session of COFI to be held in early
Australasia, and South America;                     2001 as part of their reporting in terms of the
                                                    FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisher-
ALSO NOTING that the Commission for the             ies which, inter alia, states that by-catch of
Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna Thunnus       non-target species should be reduced to a
maccoyii (CCSBT) has considered the problem         minimum;
of seabird mortality, including of Southern
Ocean species, through its Working Group on         COMMENDING those States whose licensed
Ecologically Related Species by introducing         vessels fish for toothfish in the Southern Ocean
some mitigation measures, but noting that other     that have completed or commenced the process
regional fishery bodies with areas of compe-        of producing and adopting their NPOA–
tence visited by Southern Ocean seabirds have       Seabirds, but further noting that for many other
yet to address adequately, or at all, the problem   such countries, no progress has apparently yet
of seabird mortality;                               been achieved; and

FURTHER NOTING that a worldwide review              NOTING that researchers in a number of coun-
of the incidental catch of seabirds by longline     tries are continuing to develop and test new
fisheries published by the FAO in 1999 (FAO         mitigation measures to reduce seabird mortality
Fisheries Circular No. 937) showed that alba-       from longline fishing, such as underwater set-
trosses (Family Diomedeidae), giant petrels         ting devices and line-weighting regimes, and
(Macronectes spp.) and petrels (Procellaria         that a number of workshops, conferences, and
spp.) occurring in the Southern Ocean were se-      other meetings held in several countries in the
verely affected by mortality caused by longline     last two years continue to review and publicize
fishing, including that for toothfish;              such methods, and that FAO Fisheries Circular
                                                    No. 937 exhaustively reviews mitigation meas-
NOTING that, mainly as a consequence of this        ures;
mortality, all species belonging to these seabird
taxa have now been listed in the Appendices of      The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd
the Convention on the Conservation of Migra-        Session in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
tory Species of Wild Animals (CMS or Bonn
Convention), that following adoption of a reso-     1.   CALLS ON States and regional fishery
lution expressing concern over fisheries by-             bodies to combat pirate fishing for tooth-
catch, including seabirds, the 6th Conference of         fish in the Southern Ocean by all practical
Parties to CMS, held in 1999 in South Africa,            means, including by undertaking at-sea pa-
resolved that an Agreement for Southern Hemi-            trols, by removal of economic incentives
sphere Albatrosses and Petrels should be                 that lead to the re-flagging of vessels to
adopted by Range States, and that an intergov-           non-CCAMLR nations, by adoption of
ernmental meeting was held in July 2000 in               strict port and trade controls, by passage of
Australia to develop such an Agreement;                  domestic regulations, by the documenta-
                                                         tion and certification of international trade
ALSO NOTING that at its 23rd Session in March            in toothfish, including the implementation
1999 the Committee on Fisheries (COFI) of the            of the CCAMLR Catch Documentation
FAO unanimously adopted, an International                Scheme, and by the adoption of the FAO
Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catch of          International Plan of Action to Combat Pi-
Seabirds in Longline Fisheries (IPOA–Seabirds)           rate Fishing (currently under develop-
and that IPOA–Seabirds requests FAO member               ment);
States to undertake an assessment of the levels
of seabird mortality in their longline fisheries    2.   CALLS ON all States, including flag of
and to adopt National Plans of Action (NPOA–             convenience nations, whose flagged ves-
Seabirds) if found warranted by the levels of            sels fish for toothfish in the Southern
mortality occurring, and to describe progress at         Ocean to accede to CCAMLR, and urges

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

     those states who have not yet acceded to
     CCAMLR, or whose vessels fish in waters          8.   CALLS ON all importers, wholesalers,
     adjacent to CCAMLR and in the CCSBT                   and retailers of toothfish and derived prod-
     convention areas, to adopt voluntarily the            ucts to purchase and trade only in toothfish
     conservation measures adopted under these             caught in compliance with all appropriate
     treaties;                                             CCAMLR conservation measures, as evi-
                                                           denced by an accompanying verifiable
3.   CALLS ON States and regional fishery                  Catch Documentation Certificate;
     bodies to reduce the mortality of seabirds
     consequent on longline fishing in the            9.   REQUESTS          BirdLife     International,
     Southern Ocean to levels which do not sig-            through its global partnership of national
     nificantly affect the population status of the        members and its Seabird Conservation
     affected species;                                     Programme and Save the Albatross Cam-
                                                           paign, to work collaboratively and con-
4.   RECOMMENDS that regional fishery bod-                 structively with IUCN’s Species Survival
     ies which manage geographical regions vis-            Commission and Antarctic Advisory
     ited by Southern Ocean seabirds adopt an              Committee, IUCN members, States, re-
     ecosystem approach that takes full account            gional fishery bodies especially CCAMLR
     of the mortality of seabirds by longlining,           and CCSBT, the Bonn Convention, FAO,
     and adopt regulations and conservation                the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Re-
     measures that lead to a significant and rapid         search, non-governmental organizations,
     reduction in such mortality;                          fishers, fishing and fishing-gear industries,
                                                           researchers, and conservationists to study
5.   URGES every State whose licensed vessels              further the problem of seabird mortality
     undertake longlining in seas visited by               from longline fishing in the Southern
     Southern Ocean seabirds to undertake as-              Ocean and to advocate its reduction to in-
     sessments and if appropriate produce,                 significant levels by the testing and adop-
     adopt, and implement by regulation and test           tion of mitigation methods;
     for compliance by way of independent ob-
     server programmes in its fisheries an            10. REQUESTS IUCN members to report to
     NPOA–Seabirds that will lead to significant          the Director General prior to or at the 3rd
     and rapid reductions in seabird mortality,           Session of the World Conservation Con-
     reporting to the FAO Committee of Fisher-            gress on progress made in reducing pirate
     ies biennially on its achievements from              fishing for toothfish in the Southern Ocean
     2001 onwards;                                        and in the adoption of mitigation measures
                                                          aiming at a reduction in bird mortality
6.   CALLS ON all range States for Southern               from longlining in the Southern Ocean and
     Ocean albatrosses and petrels, including             adjacent waters;
     those States fishing on the high seas within
     their migratory ranges, to support the           11. CALLS ON the Director General to direct
     speedy development of an Agreement for               IUCN activities appropriately and to report
     Southern Hemisphere Albatrosses and Pet-             on progress made in implementing this
     rels under the terms of the Bonn Conven-             Resolution at the 3rd Session of the World
     tion, and to become a party to such an               Conservation Congress and if necessary to
     Agreement as soon as it is opened for sig-           make further recommendations.
     nature and ratification;
                                                      This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
7.   CALLS ON States to consider other na-            State and Agency members United States re-
     tional and international measures to address     frained from engaging in deliberations on this
     the problem of IUU-caught Patagonian             Motion and took no national government posi-
     Toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides);            tion on the Resolution as adopted, for reasons

Resolutions and Recommendations

given in the US General Statement on the IUCN            in IUCN’s Overall Programme on combat-
Resolutions Process (see p. 107).                        ing invasive alien species;

                                                     2. URGES IUCN members to actively dis-
                                                        seminate and promote the IUCN Guidelines
2.67 Invasive alien species                             for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss
                                                        Caused by Alien Invasive Species to the ap-
CONCERNED that invasive alien species are               propriate government and management
now one of the most serious global threats to           agencies, and to support the guiding princi-
ecosystem integrity and species survival;               ples outlined therein;

CONCERNED that these threats are increasing          3. REQUESTS the Director General to take
with globalization and growth in the volume of          an active role in working with States, trade
trade and international movements of people;            organizations, and financial institutions to
AWARE that climate change, habitat degrada-             ensure that international trade and financial
tion, and other negative impacts on ecosystems          agreements, codes of practice, treaties, and
can assist the establishment and spread of inva-        conventions take into account the threats
sive alien species;                                     posed to biological diversity and the finan-
                                                        cial costs and economic losses associated
FURTHER CONCERNED that the direct eco-                  with invasive alien species.
nomic costs of the global damage caused by in-
vasive alien species is many billions of dollars     The delegation of the United States provided a
annually, yet awareness of the full costs and        formal Statement for the Record indicating inter
their causes is low in many countries;               alia that “guidelines will be most effective if
                                                     they focus on initial efforts that could be under-
APPRECIATING the high level of interest in           taken by a wide range of governments, encour-
these issues in the workshop sessions of the 1st     age collaboration among countries, and are
World Conservation Congress (Montreal, 1996)         realistically founded on the current state of sci-
and of the activities of the Invasive Species Spe-   entific knowledge and technical ability”. The
cialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival           full statement of the US delegation is contained
Commission;                                          in the Congress Proceedings.

WELCOMING the approval of the IUCN
Guidelines for the Prevention of Biodiversity
Loss Caused by Alien Invasive Species by the         2.68 Conservation of plants in
51st Meeting of the IUCN Council in February         Europe
2000; and
                                                     RECOGNIZING the fundamental importance
NOTING that the components of IUCN are ac-           of plants for the maintenance of all life on the
tively contributing to national, regional, and       planet;
global initiatives relating to invasive alien spe-
cies, including processes under the Convention       CONCERNED that over 2,000 species of plants
on Biological Diversity and the Global Invasive      are rare or threatened in Europe and that the
Species Programme;                                   number is increasing despite strenuous efforts
                                                     to conserve them;
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:            KNOWING that threats from intensive agricul-
                                                     ture, economic development, habitat loss, and
1. SUPPORTS the range of initiatives under-          tourism continue to threaten the flora of
   way within the Union to address invasive          Europe, including both higher and lower plant
   alien species issues and welcomes the focus       species;

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

                                                           tats and Species Directive and the Pan-
NOTING the particular relevance for plant con-             European Biological and Landscape Di-
servation in Europe of the Gran Canaria Decla-             versity Strategy;
ration on the Need for a Global Programme for
Plant Conservation;                                   5.   ENDORSES the promotion by Planta Eu-
                                                           ropa of the Spanish ‘Microreserve’ project
AWARE of the decision by the Convention on                 throughout Europe as a potentially signifi-
Biological Diversity (CBD) to consider the es-             cant mechanism for the conservation of
tablishment of a global strategy for plant con-            endemic and other rare and threatened
servation at the 6th meeting of the Conference of          plant species;
the Parties to the CBD (The Hague, 2002);
                                                      6.   WELCOMES the Euro+Med PlantBase
FURTHER NOTING the fact that the Planta                    initiative and its aim of providing an elec-
Europa Network has been formally constituted               tronic information system for the plants of
as the programme of Plantlife International, and           Europe and the Mediterranean region and
has a significant role in the promotion and facili-        urges members of the Union to cooperate
tation of plant conservation work throughout               with it and support it;
Europe; and
                                                      7.   CALLS ON European members and rele-
ACKNOWLEDGING the partnership between                      vant SSC Specialist Groups to engage in a
the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC)                 new initiative between the Council of
European Plant Specialist Group and the Planta             Europe and Planta Europa to develop a de-
Europa Network to coordinate and integrate                 tailed action-oriented Plant Conservation
their activities;                                          Strategy for Europe;

The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-       8.   REQUESTS the Director General to pro-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:                  vide support from the IUCN Secretariat to:

1.   COMMENDS the IUCN/SSC for its work                    (a) promote the project to identify Impor-
     in developing the Plant Conservation Pro-                 tant Plant Areas in Europe through the
     gramme;                                                   work of the Species Survival Com-
                                                               mission and the IUCN European Re-
2.   WELCOMES the continuing development                       gional Programme in particular;
     of the Planta Europa Network as a major
     means of implementing the SSC Plant Con-              (b) help facilitate the raising of funds, es-
     servation Programme in Europe and the                     pecially for the Important Plant Areas
     new level of cooperation being developed                  project and the European Red List;
     between Planta Europa and the IUCN/SSC                    and
     European Plant Specialist Group;
                                                           (c) continue to provide support for the
3.   CALLS for the rapid implementation of the                 work of Planta Europa and to coordi-
     priorities in that programme for plant diver-             nate IUCN’s own plant conservation
     sity conservation including the identifica-               activities with the work of Planta Eu-
     tion of ‘Important Plant Areas’ at appropri-              ropa.
     ate regional and national scales;
                                                      This Resolution was adopted by consensus.
4.   RECALLS the importance of legal provi-           State and Agency members United States re-
     sions for the conservation of plants in          frained from engaging in deliberations on this
     Europe including the ‘Bern’ Convention on        Motion and took no national government posi-
     the conservation of European wildlife and        tion on the Resolution as adopted, for reasons
     natural habitats, the European Union Habi-

Resolutions and Recommendations

given in the US General Statement on the IUCN
Resolutions Process (see p. 107).

                                                                      World Conservation Congress
                                                                       Amman, 4–11 October 2000


2.69 Tiger (Panthera tigris) conserva-              2.70 Conservation of Tibetan Ante-
tion                                                lope (Pantholops hodgsoni)
RECOGNIZING that loss and degradation of            NOTING that the Tibetan Antelope (Pantholops
natural habitat is one of the key factors leading   hodgsoni) is a key species of the Qinghai-
to the decline of populations of Tiger (Panthera    Tibetan Plateau Faunal region of Qinghai, Xinji-
tigris) in the wild;                                ang, and Tibet, China and that a migrant popula-
                                                    tion of Tibetan Antelope also occurs in the
NOTING the potential of poorly planned devel-       northern Ladakh region of India;
opment projects to have grave impacts on wild-
life habitat; and                                   RECALLING that the Chinese Government
                                                    listed the Tibetan Antelope in 1988 among the
AWARE that bilateral and multilateral funding       State’s first class protected wild animals,
agencies have, in the past, supported develop-      thereby banning hunting and use of its products
ment projects that adversely impacted the integ-    in trade, and has established nature reserves spe-
rity of Tiger habitats;                             cifically for conservation of this species;

The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-     FURTHER RECALLING that the Government
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:           of India included the Tibetan Antelope in
                                                    Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection)
1.   URGES bilateral and multilateral funding       Act in October 1977, thereby according com-
     agencies and national and local govern-        plete legal protection to the species;
     ments to desist from making financial in-
     vestments that adversely affect Tiger habi-    FURTHER NOTING that these and other gov-
     tats;                                          ernments re-affirmed their commitment to Ti-
                                                    betan Antelope conservation at the International
2.   RECOMMENDS that such funding agen-             Workshop on Conservation and Control of
     cies and governments heighten the priority     Trade in the Tibetan Antelope, held in Xining,
     given to Tiger conservation within their       China, in October 1999;
                                                    ALSO RECALLING that the Tibetan Antelope
This Recommendation was adopted by consen-          was listed in Annex II of the Convention on In-
sus. State and Agency members United States         ternational Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
refrained from engaging in deliberations on this    Fauna and Flora (CITES) in 1975, and trans-
Motion and took no national government posi-        ferred to Annex I in 1979, and that a Resolution
tion on the Recommendation as adopted for rea-      on the Conservation and Control of Trade in
sons given in the US General Statement on the       Tibetan Antelope was adopted at the 11th meet-
IUCN Resolutions Process (see p. 107).              ing of the Conference of Parties to CITES in
                                                    April 2000;

                                                    RECOGNIZING that stocks of skins and un-
                                                    derwool derived from Tibetan Antelopes are still
                                                    being used to make products such as shahtoosh
                                                    shawls, which are being traded on the world
                                                    market in large quantities;

Resolutions and Recommendations

                                                           forts in India, by providing financial assis-
FURTHER NOTING that organized large-scale                  tance to manage nature reserves, improve
illegal hunting of Tibetan Antelope and smug-              anti-poaching efforts, facilitate scientific
gling of its products continue in spite of the rig-        research, monitor populations, and prevent
orous measures taken by the Chinese Govern-                trade.
ment to prevent these illegal activities;
                                                       This Recommendation was adopted by consen-
RECOGNIZING that this illegal trade has con-           sus. State and Agency members United States
tributed to the sharp decline in the population of     refrained from engaging in deliberations on this
the Tibetan Antelope, and that, if these activities    Motion and took no national government posi-
continue, the Tibetan Antelope will become ex-         tion on the Recommendation as adopted, for
tinct; and                                             reasons given in the US General Statement on
                                                       the IUCN Resolutions Process (see p. 107).
FURTHER RECOGNIZING that the key to sav-
ing the threatened Tibetan Antelope depends
upon the elimination of the processing of un-
derwool for shahtoosh and other products, and          2.71 Cooperative regional action plan
the cessation of trade in these products, as well      for the conservation of river dolphins
as on in situ species conservation measures;
                                                       (Platanista spp. and Lipotes spp.) in
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-        the South Asian region
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
                                                       CONSIDERING that there are only four species
1.   URGES all States to enforce existing legis-       of freshwater dolphin found in the world, out of
     lation to conserve the Tibetan Antelope and       which the Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista
     to place a strict ban on all trade in products    gangetica), Indus River Dolphin (Platanista mi-
     from this species;                                nor) and Yangtze River Dolphin (Lipotes vexilli-
                                                       fer) are found exclusively in the Asian region;
2.   ENCOURAGES States, within their respec-
     tive laws and regulations, to make invento-       REALIZING that freshwater dolphins are indi-
     ries of existing commercial stocks of Ti-         cators of the quality of their freshwater ecosys-
     betan Antelope underwool and products             tems;
     and to apply a registration system to these
     stocks;                                           ACKNOWLEDGING that the Yangtze River
                                                       Dolphin is already on the verge of extinction
3.   CALLS on all concerned States to take the         and that populations of the other two Asian river
     strictest measures to shut down all process-      dolphins are rapidly declining;
     ing of, and trade in, products made from the
     Tibetan Antelope;                                 CONSIDERING that the distributions of the
                                                       Ganges and Indus River Dolphins stretch across
4.   ENCOURAGES close coordination be-                 political boundaries in various river systems;
     tween all concerned countries in supporting
     and facilitating the exchange of information      RECOGNIZING that as a consequence of its
     among conservation and law enforcement            distribution, the Ganges River Dolphin is part of
     authorities in their efforts to protect the Ti-   the natural heritage and resources shared by four
     betan Antelope;                                   nations, i.e. Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Ne-
5.   REQUESTS IUCN’s members, interna-
     tional organizations and donors to support        CONSIDERING that many river dolphin popu-
     China’s Tibetan Antelope Conservation             lations have come under serious threat because
     Programme, together with conservation ef-         of habitat destruction, excessive fishing, pollu-

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

tion, direct killing for oil, and dangers arising   2.72 Conservation of Dugong (Dugong
from dams and other impediments along rivers;       dugon), Okinawa Woodpecker (Sa-
FURTHER CONSIDERING that river dolphins
                                                    pheopipo noguchii) and Okinawa Rail
are elusive and relatively little is known about    (Gallirallus okinawae) on and around
their ecology; and                                  Okinawa Island

EMPHASIZING that conservation of river dol-         NOTING that the Dugong (Dugong dugon) is a
phins requires a coordinated approach for opti-     globally threatened species (i.e. it is listed as
mum effectiveness;                                  ‘vulnerable’ under criterion A1 in the 2000
                                                    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species);
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:           FURTHER NOTING that a local population
                                                    around Okinawa Island is also Endangered (un-
1.   URGES governments in the South Asian           der criteria CR D1 or CR C2b of the Mamma-
     region, namely the Governments of Bang-        logical Society of Japan, 1997) and that this spe-
     ladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan,     cies has only been recorded along the coast of
     to jointly develop and implement action        Okinawa Island in Japan over the past 30 years;
     plans for the conservation of the Ganges
     River Dolphin and the Indus River Dolphin;     ALSO NOTING that the Dugong is listed under
                                                    the US Endangered Species Act;
2.   CONCLUDES that the success of these
     conservation action plans will depend on       RECOGNIZING that year-round presence of
     protection of the two species and also of      Dugongs has so far only been confirmed on the
     their habitats;                                east coast of middle and northern parts of Oki-
                                                    nawa Island, thereby indicating the great impor-
3.   ENTREATS all governments to take meas-         tance of this small and isolated area of habitat
     ures against excessive fishing, direct kill-   for the conservation of Okinawa’s Dugongs,
     ing, and habitat destruction;                  whose numbers are also small;

4.   ENCOURAGES the efforts taken by the            UNDERSTANDING that options for a military
     Indian River Dolphin Committee (IRDC)          airport for the US Marine Corps include a cen-
     and Asian River Dolphin Committee              tral part of the Dugong’s habitat or an adjacent
     (ARDC) in the conservation of river dol-       terrestrial area (a relocation site for the current
     phin species.                                  Futenma Airport);

This Recommendation was adopted by consen-          CONCERNED that if the construction of the
sus. State and Agency members United States         airport is to be implemented in this area, it risks
refrained from engaging in deliberations on this    destruction of coral reefs and seagrass beds in
Motion and took no national government posi-        the coastal area of Henoko, which are important
tion on the Recommendation as adopted, for          resting and feeding areas for Dugongs, and may
reasons given in the US General Statement on        pose grave threats to the survival of the small,
the IUCN Resolutions Process (see p. 107).          local population;

                                                    ENDORSING the recent decision of the Japa-
                                                    nese Government to undertake voluntarily an
                                                    Environmental Impact Assessment to determine
                                                    the likely impact of construction on terrestrial
                                                    and coastal habitats, including the coral reefs
                                                    and seagrass beds on which the Dugong popula-
                                                    tion depends for its survival;

Resolutions and Recommendations

                                                               tary facilities in and around the habitat
NOTING that the subtropical forests of the                     of the Dugong;
Yambaru, in northern Okinawa, contain many
endemic species and subspecies of international            (b) implement as soon as possible Dugong
concern, such as Okinawa Woodpecker (Sa-                       conservation measures that will help
pheopipo noguchii) (Critically Endangered,                     stop further reduction of the popula-
IUCN 2000) and Okinawa Rail (Gallirallus oki-                  tion and help its recovery;
nawae) (Endangered, IUCN 2000), and are
therefore particularly important for conservation          (c) prepare as soon as possible a biodiver-
of biodiversity;                                               sity conservation plan for the endan-
                                                               gered species of the Yambaru and
CONCERNED that the survival of many of                         Okinawa’s Dugong population, and to
these endemic species and subspecies in the                    conduct detailed studies of these spe-
Yambaru is threatened by dam building, con-                    cies and their habitats; and
struction of forestry roads, felling for timber,
and introduced invasive species, all of which              (d) consider nomination of the Yambaru
lead to habitat deterioration;                                 as a World Heritage Site;

NOTING that a US military training site (US           2.   URGES the Government of the United
Marine Corps Jungle Warfare Training Centre),              States of America to cooperate with the
where developments and entry by civilians are              voluntary Environmental Impact Assess-
banned, has acted as a wildlife refuge;                    ment, as requested by the Government of
WELCOMING the decision that half of the US
military training site will be returned to Japan in   3.   URGES the Governments of Japan and the
the near future and that there is a possibility of         United States of America to:
the Government of Japan designating this area
as a Forest Ecosystems Protection Area and Na-             (a) take into account the findings of the
tional Park;                                                   voluntary Environmental Impact As-
                                                               sessment and on this basis to take ap-
CONCERNED that in the area remaining under                     propriate measures to help ensure the
US Marine Corps control, construction of seven                 survival of the Dugong population;
military helipads and connecting roadways risks                and
the deterioration of habitats of endemic species
in the most important remaining area of natural            (b) assess the environmental effects of the
forest; and                                                    proposed construction of military fa-
                                                               cilities and training areas, taking into
FURTHER CONCERNED that frequent mili-                          account the studies referred to in op-
tary training in the area will cause disturbance to            erative paragraph 1 (c) above, and on
rare species such as the Okinawa Woodpecker                    this basis take appropriate measures to
and Okinawa Rail and increase the likelihood of                help ensure the survival of the Oki-
their extinction;                                              nawa Woodpecker and Okinawa Rail.

The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-       This Recommendation was adopted by consen-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4– 11 October 2000:            sus. However, the delegation of the State mem-
                                                      ber Japan did not associate itself with this adop-
1.   URGES the Government of Japan to:                tion by consensus. State and Agency members
                                                      United States abstained from the adoption by
     (a) complete as soon as possible the vol-        consensus of this Recommendation. The delega-
         untary Environmental Impact Assess-          tion of the State member Japan provided a for-
         ment relating to construction of mili-       mal Statement for the Record confirming that

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

the Government of Japan had already set up
policy guidance to avoid serious impacts on the      FURTHER ACKNOWLEDGING that these
natural environment as a result of the relocation    measures, along with the enthusiastic participa-
of Futenma Airport. The Government of Japan          tion of the public and efforts of concerned scien-
had also initiated a preliminary assessment of       tists and conservationists, have resulted in a
the status of Dugong. The delegation of the          constant increase in the population of the
United States made a formal Statement for the        Crested Ibis;
Record indicating support for a comprehensive
and transparent environmental impact assess-         NOTING that, at the same time, two ex-situ
ment on the proposed Futenma relocation op-          Crested Ibis captive-breeding programmes were
tions, readiness to cooperate with the Govern-       established (in Beijing and Yang County,
ment of Japan on such an assessment, and             Shaanxi Province) and that by the end of 1999
openness to dialogue with concerned NGOs.            the total population of wild and captive-bred
The Statements are reproduced in full in the         Crested Ibis had reached approximately 200;
Congress Proceedings.                                and

                                                     RECOGNIZING that irrespective of the great
                                                     achievements that have been made in the recov-
2.73 Conservation of Crested Ibis                    ery and conservation of the Crested Ibis, it re-
(Nipponia nippon)                                    mains highly endangered and at risk of extinc-
RECOGNIZING that the Crested Ibis (Nipponia
nippon) is one of the most seriously endangered      The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
bird species in the world today;                     sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

NOTING that, historically, it inhabited exten-       1.   CALLS on IUCN’s members to encourage
sive areas of China, Japan, the Korean penin-             ornithologists worldwide to play an active
sula, and far eastern Russia;                             role in advising and assisting China’s
                                                          Crested Ibis Conservation Programme to
NOTING FURTHER that human activities have                 bring about complete success in the recov-
imposed serious unfavorable impacts on this               ery and conservation of the Crested Ibis in
species and its habitat, resulting in a sharp re-         this new century;
duction in areas suitable for the existence of the
Crested Ibis and the decline of its populations      2.   REQUESTS those countries formerly in-
since the 1920s;                                          habited by the Crested Ibis to attach due
                                                          importance and emphasis to the Crested
RECALLING that the Crested Ibis was desig-                Ibis recovery programme and to strengthen
nated as ‘world protected bird’ at the 12th Inter-        their cooperation with one another;
national Conference on Birds which was con-
vened in 1960;                                       3.   URGES all international conservation or-
                                                          ganizations, especially IUCN and WWF,
FURTHER RECALLING the welcome discov-                     along with interested countries, to give spe-
ery of seven wild Crested Ibis in Yang County,            cial attention and both financial and techno-
Shaanxi Province, China in May 1981, which                logical support to the wild Crested Ibis
brought new hopes for saving this endangered              Conservation Programme in Yang County,
and precious species;                                     Shaanxi Province, China – the only pro-
                                                          gramme of its kind in the world.
ACKNOWLEDGING that the administrative
department of the Central Government of China        This Recommendation was adopted by consen-
and local government offices adopted a series of     sus. State and Agency members United States
measures to protect the species;                     refrained from engaging in deliberations on this

Resolutions and Recommendations

Motion and took no national government posi-        The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
tion on the Recommendation as adopted, for          sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
reasons given in the US General Statement on
the IUCN Resolutions Process (see p. 107).          1.   CONGRATULATES the Kingdom of
                                                         Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates
                                                         on their early implementation of national
                                                         measures for research-based conservation
2.74 Conserving the Saker Falcon                         of wildlife;
(Falco cherrug)
                                                    2.   REQUESTS that Saker Falcon range States
RECOGNIZING that the Saker Falcon (Falco                 and falconers work with CITES and other
cherrug), a migratory steppeland raptor, has for         international regulatory authorities to de-
centuries been harvested as a high-value natural         velop an internationally recognized system,
resource for traditional falconry;                       initially for this species but applicable for
                                                         other wildlife, that combines wildlife re-
NOTING that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has              search and modern marking technologies
a prominent National Commission for Wildlife             to:
Research and Development, extensive practice
of falconry, and is located on an important Saker        (a) monitor populations and estimate sus-
Falcon migration route;                                      tainable yields;

ACKNOWLEDGING that valuable research on                  (b) regulate procurement and international
the population ecology of Saker Falcons has                  movements with minimal administra-
been conducted in Saker range States, especially             tive costs; and
by the United Arab Emirates;
                                                         (c) motivate conservation of the species
AWARE that raptor populations can be impor-                  and its habitats throughout its range.
tant biological indicators of healthy ecosystems,
including steppelands, that are widely threatened   This Recommendation was adopted by consen-
by intensification of agricultural practices;       sus. State and Agency members United States
                                                    refrained from engaging in deliberations on this
ALSO AWARE that Saker Falcon populations            Motion and took no national government posi-
have recently declined in some range States;        tion on the Recommendation as adopted, for
                                                    reasons given in the US General Statement on
NOTING that resolutions by the World Working        the IUCN Resolutions Process (see p. 107).
Group on Birds of Prey and the Raptor Research
Foundation call for monitoring and regulation to
ensure that use of Saker Falcon populations re-
mains sustainable; and                              2.75 Southern Hemisphere albatross
                                                    and petrel conservation
FURTHER NOTING that a combination of
electronic markers and DNA analyses could be        RECALLING Resolutions 1.15 Incidental mor-
used to monitor populations and levels of har-      tality of seabirds in longline fisheries and 1.16
vesting through traditional trapping, to motivate   Fisheries by-catch that were adopted by the 1st
conservation of breeding areas through pay-         Session of the World Conservation Congress
ments for marking, and to minimize costs of im-     (Montreal, 1996);
plementing the regulations of the Convention in
Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and       REFLECTING that, owing to the impact of less
Flora (CITES);                                      than fifty years of human activities, the alba-
                                                    trosses (Diomedeidae) of the Southern Ocean

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

are one of the most threatened families of migra-    tional international cooperative action is re-
tory animals across their migratory range;           quired;

NOTING that Southern Hemisphere albatrosses          CONCERNED that without action to reduce or
and petrels (Procellariidae) are highly migratory    mitigate threats to albatrosses and petrels, many
species and frequently move within and between       populations and potentially some species, are at
State jurisdictions and interact with fishing ves-   risk of extinction;
sels on the high seas;
                                                     NOTING that one species of Southern Hemi-
FURTHER NOTING that a major threat to the            sphere albatross was listed in Annex I, and ten
populations of Southern Hemisphere albatrosses       species of Southern Hemisphere albatrosses
and petrels arises from longline fishing activi-     were listed in Annex II, of the Convention on
ties;                                                the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild
                                                     Animals in 1997;
AWARE that, for a number of albatross and pet-
rel species, population sizes and trends are in-     RECOGNIZING that the Convention on the
sufficiently known to determine their current        Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild
status;                                              Animals added seven species of Southern Hemi-
                                                     sphere petrels to Annex II in 1999;
ALSO AWARE that albatrosses and petrels face
continuing threats from human disturbance, pol-      FURTHER NOTING that a successful meeting
lution, introduced predators, disease, and the       was held in Hobart, Australia, in July 2000, to
effects of climate change;                           facilitate the development of an international
                                                     Agreement for the conservation of Southern
RECALLING that the 1st Session of the World          Hemisphere albatrosses and petrels;
Conservation Congress (Montreal, 1996) ac-
tively encouraged motions to support the listing     ACKNOWLEDGING that this meeting pro-
of all albatross species on the Annexes to the       duced significant positive outcomes with all at-
Convention on the Conservation of Migratory          tending countries and international organizations
Species of Wild Animals (CMS or Bonn Con-            agreeing to the fundamental principles associ-
vention), and to urgently develop regional con-      ated with an Agreement focusing on the conser-
servation agreements;                                vation of albatrosses and petrels, and there was
                                                     unanimous support to move towards a formal
ALSO RECALLING that the Commission for               negotiating session as soon as possible; and
the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living
Resources (CCAMLR) has adopted conserva-             UNDERSTANDING that the positive outcomes
tion measures to reduce the incidental catch of      of the meeting demonstrate the level of interna-
seabirds, particularly albatrosses;                  tional concern and commitment to establishing
                                                     an international agreement to help restore the
NOTING that the United Nations Food and Ag-          conservation status of Southern Hemisphere al-
riculture Organization’s (FAO) International         batrosses and petrels;
Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catch of
Seabirds in Longline Fisheries was adopted in        The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
1999;                                                sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

ACKNOWLEDGING that most Range States of              1.   URGES all members to initiate relevant
breeding populations are taking action to con-            activities within and between countries to
serve albatrosses and petrels within their na-            assist in the conservation of Southern
tional jurisdictions but that, owing to the highly        Hemisphere albatrosses and petrels;
migratory nature of albatrosses and petrels, addi-   2.   CALLS ON all countries to take action to
                                                          identify the status of albatross and petrel

Resolutions and Recommendations

     populations and determine the nature and       FURTHER RECOGNIZING that as a conse-
     scope of threats to those populations within   quence of their biology, marine turtles are the
     their national jurisdictions;                  shared resources of many nations;

3.   REQUESTS that all members classified as        NOTING that the Indian Ocean supports six of
     Range States for Southern Hemisphere al-       the seven species of marine turtles, with many
     batrosses and petrels under the Convention     populations being of global importance;
     on the Conservation of Migratory Species
     of Wild Animals participate actively in the    FURTHER NOTING that many populations of
     next formal negotiating session for the suc-   marine turtles have come under serious threat
     cessful conclusion of an Agreement for the     due to trawling-related mortality, habitat de-
     conservation of Southern Hemisphere alba-      struction, and harvesting for meat and shells;
     trosses and petrels;
                                                    CONCERNED that certain populations have
4.   REQUESTS all members whose vessels are         suffered severe mortality in the past 10 years;
     undertaking fishing activities within the
     waters covered by the Commission for the       CONSIDERING that at least 75,000 Olive Ri-
     Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living        dley Turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) have died
     Resources to implement the Commission’s        as a consequence of trawling-related mortality in
     conservation measures;                         the past six years on the Orissa coast, India;

5.   ENCOURAGES all relevant members to
     implement the United Nations Food and          FURTHER CONSIDERING that habitats of
     Agriculture Organization’s International       juvenile turtles are poorly studied and little is
     Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental         known about the early stages of the life history
     Catch of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries.       of marine turtles; and

This Recommendation was adopted by consen-          ACKNOWLEDGING that marine turtles need
sus. State and Agency members United States         to be protected at all stages of their life history
refrained from engaging in deliberations on this    to ensure their long-term survival;
Motion and took no national government posi-
tion on the Recommendation as adopted, for          The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
reasons given in the US General Statement on        sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
the IUCN Resolutions Process (see p. 107).
                                                    1.   URGES the States of the region to jointly
                                                         develop an action plan for the conservation
                                                         and management of marine turtles in the
2.76 Regional action plan for the con-                   Indian Ocean;
servation of marine turtles in the In-
                                                    2.   SUGGESTS that the success of these con-
dian Ocean                                               servation programmes will depend on pro-
                                                         tecting these long-distance migrants at all
RECOGNIZING that marine turtles represent a
                                                         stages of their life cycle;
wealth of resources to many States in the Indian
                                                    3.   ENTREATS all governments to take meas-
                                                         ures to reduce trawling-related mortality
CONSIDERING that marine turtles migrate
                                                         and loss of habitat;
over several thousands of kilometers, frequently
crossing the national boundaries of several
                                                    4.   ENCOURAGES the processes initiated in
States and spending substantial periods of time
                                                         the region by the Governments of Australia
in international waters;
                                                         and Malaysia towards an Indian Ocean and

                                                                          World Conservation Congress
                                                                           Amman, 4–11 October 2000

     Association of South East Asian Nations           ence organized in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (25–29
     (ASEAN) agreement for the conservation            May 1999), in partnership with the Government
     of marine turtles;                                of Côte d’Ivoire, the Government of France, and
                                                       the French Committee for IUCN;
5.   REITERATES the need for a regional net-
     work, consisting of governmental agencies         CONGRATULATING the Governments of Be-
     and non-governmental organizations from           nin, Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo,
     all relevant countries, for monitoring ma-        Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana,
     rine turtles and ensuring their conservation      Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Nigeria and
     in the region.                                    Togo for having signed the Memorandum of
                                                       Understanding; and

                                                       NOTING Resolution 2000-11 adopted at the 20th
2.77 Conservation of marine turtles                    Symposium on the Biology and Conservation of
on the Atlantic coast of Africa                        Marine Turtles held in Orlando, USA (29 Feb-
                                                       ruary to 3 March 2000);
RECALLING that the six species of marine tur-
tles found on the Atlantic coast of Africa, from       The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
the Straits of Gibraltar to Cape Hope, and in          sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
Macaronesia, are all included in the IUCN Red
List of Endangered Animal Species;                     1.   REQUESTS the States on the Atlantic coast
                                                            of Africa to continue their efforts for the
ALSO RECALLING that marine turtles are                      conservation of marine turtles, and the
listed in Annex I of the Convention on Interna-             Governments of Angola, Cameroon, Cape
tional Trade in Endangered Species of Wild                  Verde, Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, Morocco,
Fauna and Flora (CITES) and in Annexes I and                Namibia, Portugal (Azores and Madeira),
II of the Convention on the Conservation of Mi-             Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra
gratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS or Bonn                Leone, South Africa, and Spain (Canary Is-
Convention);                                                lands) to sign promptly the Memorandum
                                                            of Understanding put forward by the Con-
SERIOUSLY CONCERNED by the many                             vention on Conservation of Migratory Spe-
threats to marine turtles during all stages of their        cies of Wild Animals;
life cycle, including destruction and pollution of
coastal and marine habitats, coastal urbaniza-         2.   REQUESTS other States to participate in
tion, industrial fishing activities, irrational ex-         and support this international effort, spe-
ploitation, and international trade;                        cifically by limiting and orienting their ac-
                                                            tivities in the region concerned in order to
RECOGNIZING the shared responsibility of                    promote the conservation of marine turtles
States for the conservation of populations of ma-           and their natural habitats;
rine turtles on the Atlantic coast of Africa;
                                                       3.   ALSO REQUESTS all Contracting Parties
CONSCIOUS that planned and coordinated                      of CITES to implement and closely monitor
measures should immediately be taken to coun-               the total ban on international trade covering
ter threats to existing populations;                        all species of marine turtles, in accordance
                                                            with the listing of these species in Annex I
WELCOMING with satisfaction the Memoran-                    of CITES.
dum of Understanding for the conservation of
marine turtles on the Atlantic coast of Africa,
put forward by the Convention on Conservation          2.78 Promoting sustainable fisheries
of Migratory Species of Wild Animals and
adopted by 17 States at an international confer-

Resolutions and Recommendations

RECOGNIZING the vital role of fisheries,              RECOMMENDS that:
coastal zones, and the aquatic environment in
creating jobs, contributing to food security          (a) States take appropriate measures to identify
through significant provision of protein for hu-          critical or endangered zones for the repro-
man and animal nutrition, and in making impor-            duction of marine, brackish, or freshwater
tant contributions to the economy;                        species and the creation of protected areas
                                                          within these zones for biological diversity
ACKNOWLEDGING the key role fisheries                      conservation at the local, national, and
products play in combating poor nutrition and             global levels;
malnutrition in coastal and inland regions of de-
veloping countries;                                   (b) States and the international community un-
                                                          dertake the research necessary to achieve
CONSIDERING that activities on land have                  sustainable fisheries management;
impacts on the marine environment and that oc-
cupation of coastal land areas and exploitation       (c) States, international organizations, and na-
of sea and coastal zone resources may lead to             tional organizations should cooperate to
conflicting activities;                                   monitor the use of the marine environment
                                                          and coastal zones;
RECOGNIZING that some fisheries around the
world are overexploited;                              (d) States should take necessary measures to
                                                          prevent, deter, and eliminate Illegal, Unre-
AWARE of the deterioration of the marine envi-            ported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing;
ronment and the consequences for fishery re-
sources;                                              (e) subsidies provided by developed countries
                                                          to their industrial fishing fleets should be
ACKNOWLEDGING the need to implement the                   eliminated where they have negative im-
Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries                 pacts for developing countries;
adopted by the United Nations Food and Agri-
culture Organization (FAO) in 1995, other inter-      (f) there be greater transparency involving all
national fisheries agreements, and the responsi-          the stakeholders, including small-scale fish-
bility of States for sustainable fisheries man-           eries professionals, in the negotiation proc-
agement;                                                  esses for fishing agreements with other
NOTING the trend of some industrial fishing
fleets to increase their capacities to catch target   (g) there be strengthened cooperation among
and secondary species;                                    countries for the improved management of
                                                          shared fishing resources in order to avoid
RECOGNIZING that States may reserve part of               conflicts;
their Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) to de-
velop small-scale fisheries; and                      (h) development and use of management op-
                                                          tions and selective fishing gears be pro-
RECOGNIZING that under the FAO Code of                    moted to reduce the by-catch of non-target
Conduct on International Trade in Fish and                species in a practical and cost-effective
Fishery Products, such trade should not com-              manner;
promise the sustainable development of fisheries
and responsible utilization of living aquatic re-     (i) national and regional plans for emergency
sources;                                                  intervention be developed to cope with
                                                          emergency situations that may arise;
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-       (j) IUCN members mobilize the resources
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:                 needed for implementation of this Recom-
                                                          mendation; and

                                                                         World Conservation Congress
                                                                          Amman, 4–11 October 2000

(k) FAO provides technical assistance to devel-       2.   URGES all bilateral and multilateral devel-
    oping countries to implement this Recom-               opment assistance agencies and other gov-
    mendation.                                             ernment agencies not to support pro-
                                                           grammes involving the deliberate introduc-
                                                           tion of alien species into the wild, with the
                                                           purpose of their reproduction and propaga-
2.79 Introduction of alien species                         tion in the wild, unless supported by an ap-
                                                           propriate risk analysis and environmental
NOTING that both public and private develop-               assessment.
ment agencies have deliberately introduced alien
species into the wild, with the expectation that      The delegation of the United States provided a
they will reproduce in the wild and provide eco-      formal Statement for the Record indicating the
nomic benefits, such as pest control, future har-     commitment of the US to deal with invasive spe-
vest or use in the wild;                              cies. The US also noted that “the Recommenda-
                                                      tion as adopted calls for risk assessments to be
FURTHER NOTING that there have also been              conducted before introductions of alien species
deliberate introductions of alien species into the    are permitted, rather than the absolute rejection
wild for aesthetic or recreational reasons;           of the introduction of non-native species, which
                                                      cannot be scientifically justified at this time, and
AWARE that many introductions of alien spe-           recognizes that scientific knowledge to predict
cies into the wild have had disastrous results, far   invasive impacts is uncertain”. The Statement is
greater in scale than the intended benefits, and      reproduced in full in the Congress Proceedings.
may have extreme and negative impacts on en-
tire ecosystems, including the extinction of na-
tive species;
                                                      2.80 The ecospace of Beringia and the
RECOGNIZING that the current state of eco-            Earth’s migratory species
logical knowledge makes it difficult to accu-
rately predict the chain of events that will occur    RECALLING with satisfaction that Mikhail
as the result of any such introduction of alien       Gorbachev and George Bush announced their
species, and hence the positive or negative con-      intent to establish an International Park across
sequences and impacts; and                            the Bering Strait;

RECOGNIZING that the precautionary ap-                AWARE that Beringia is one of the Earth’s key-
proach would mitigate against actions that may        stone biodiversity regions, with birds migrating
be expected to interfere with significant ecosys-     between Beringia and South America, Oceania,
tem functions, and have the potential to cause        South East Asia, Europe and Africa, and with
extinction of native species;                         marine mammals, such as Grey Whales
                                                      (Eschrichtius robustus), migrating between Baja
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-       California in Mexico and Beringia, and with
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:             fish, such as salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) mi-
                                                      grating between the waters of Japan and Korea
1.   CALLS ON civil society, institutions, and        to spawn in Beringia;
     governments not to deliberately introduce
     alien species into the wild, for the purpose     KNOWING that the Bering land bridge was the
     of their reproduction and propagation in the     earliest pathway for humans moving between
     wild, unless supported by an appropriate         Asia and North America, and is still the home of
     risk analysis and environmental assessment       the Inuit and place of sacred lands and prehis-
     of the possible consequences of introduc-        toric and archaeological cultural sites;

Resolutions and Recommendations

RECONFIRMING prior IUCN decisions re-                     and throughout their range beyond Berin-
garding the importance of establishing a pro-             gia.
tected area regime for Beringia, as reflected in
Recommendations 1.108 Conservation of the             This Recommendation was adopted by consen-
Bering Sea Ecosystem and 1.109 Beringian              sus. The delegation of the United States made a
Heritage International Park adopted by the 1st        formal Statement for the Record, supporting the
Session of the World Conservation Congress            Recommendation as adopted but noting that,
(Montreal, 1996) and Recommendations 17.57            “the US cannot support or advocate a ‘joint
Bering Land Bridge World Heritage Site, USSR          management’ system, which lacks due regard
and USA adopted by the 17th Session of the            for the principles of national sovereignty and the
IUCN General Assembly (San Jose, 1988) and            applicable laws of Russia and the United States.
18.45 Beringia adopted by the 18th Session of         The protected lands in either country will be
the General Assembly (Perth, 1990);                   subject only to the laws and regulations of their
                                                      governments and will not be subject to any in-
APPRECIATIVE of the contributions of the              ternational management or regulation”. The
Commission on Environmental Law (CEL), and            Statement is reproduced in full in the Congress
in particular the tireless work of the late Profes-   Proceedings.
sor Oleg Stepanovich Kolbasov, Vice Chair of
CEL, in his work to support the establishment of
the Beringian International Park;
                                                      2.81 Mining concessions and pro-
UNDERSTANDING that there is support for               tected areas in Mesoamerica
the establishment of an international park
agreement and an interest in cultivating ecotour-     AWARE of the need to promote the sustainable
ism in the region, consistent with natural and        development of the people of Mesoamerica
cultural values; and                                  through wise and sustainable use of renewable
                                                      and non-renewable resources in the region;
RECOGNIZING the principle of national sover-
eignty and that each country will manage its          CONVINCED that the eradication of extreme
designated sites in accordance with its own ap-       poverty, economic growth, and raised standards
plicable laws and regulations;                        of living for the population are essential for en-
                                                      suring that nature is conserved in the Meso-
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-       american region;
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
                                                      INFORMED of the growing number of conces-
1.   URGES the Russian Federation and the             sions for mineral and petroleum exploration and
     United States of America to continue to ad-      extraction in all of the region’s countries;
     vance their stewardship of the world’s bio-
     diversity resources in the lands, air and wa-    RECALLING that, further to a motion for-
     ter of Beringia;                                 warded by the 1st World Conservation Congress
                                                      (Montreal, 1996), the IUCN Council approved a
2.   REQUESTS the Commission on Environ-              resolution on the exclusion of mining and oil
     mental Law to continue its studies and con-      concessions in protected areas corresponding to
     sultations with interested parties on the le-    IUCN categories I, II and III;
     gal and institutional framework for the cul-
     tural and biodiversity resources of Beringia;    CONCERNED about the possible social and
                                                      environmental impacts of unsustainable, un-
3.   URGES all IUCN members to support ef-            planned and uncontrolled processes involved in
     forts to conserve the habitats for species of    the use of non-renewable resources in the re-
     migratory birds and mammals that are             gion; and
     found in Beringia during part of the year,

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

ACKNOWLEDGING that the 5th Mesoamerican
IUCN Forum held in Guatemala City (3–7 Oc-           2.82 Protection and conservation of
tober 1999), adopted a comparable motion;            biological diversity of protected areas
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
                                                     from the negative impacts of mining
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:            and exploration

1. URGES States and civil society in the re-         CONSIDERING that protected areas of various
   gion to carry out participatory, consultative,    definitions and categories are home to a substan-
   and transparent processes in awarding con-        tial portion of the Earth’s biological diversity,
   cessions to explore and exploit mineral and       threatened species, indigenous communities,
   hydrocarbon resources;                            lifestyles, and cultures;

2. REQUESTS that processes for awarding              NOTING that protected areas act as an impor-
   mining and petroleum concessions be con-          tant natural system for the regulation of the
   sonant with policies and commitments ac-          world’s climate balance;
   quired by all the States in the region with re-
   spect to biodiversity conservation, and in        RECALLING that a large majority of State
   particular, with the urgent need to establish     members of IUCN are signatories to the Con-
   and/or consolidate national systems of pro-       vention on Biological Diversity;
   tected areas and preserve representative
   samples of all natural ecosystems in Meso-        ACKNOWLEDGING that many of IUCN’s
   america, within the framework of the Presi-       State members have established national sys-
   dential Initiative for the Mesoamerican Cor-      tems of protected areas to guarantee the conser-
   ridor;                                            vation of biological diversity;

3. URGES, in this context, the different gov-        CONCERNED by the negative social and envi-
   ernments in the region to analyze current         ronmental impacts associated with the rapid
   legislation on mining and effect adjustments      growth of mining and mineral exploration ac-
   responding to this need, making it possible       tivities worldwide with particular reference to
   for this Recommendation to be effective in        the risks posed to the preservation of biological
   the region;                                       diversity in protected areas; and

4. RECOMMENDS that processes for mining              RECOGNIZING that the positive endeavours of
   and hydrocarbon exploration and exploita-         States, environmental groups, and threatened
   tion be conducted under the strictest and         communities require strong legislative instru-
   most modern techniques of control, monitor-       ments to strengthen their efforts for nature con-
   ing, and environmental administration, in-        servation;
   cluding processes of correction, mitigation,
   compensation, restoration, and environ-           The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
   mental certification.                             sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

This Recommendation was adopted by consen-           1.   INVITES all governments and corporations
sus. State and Agency members United States               to promote and implement best practice in
refrained from engaging in deliberations on this          all aspects of mining and mineral extrac-
Motion and took no national government posi-              tion, from first exploration through to de-
tion on the Recommendation as adopted, for                commissioning and subsequent land use;
reasons given in the US General Statement on
the IUCN Resolutions Process (see p. 107).           2.   CALLS on all IUCN’s State members to
                                                          prohibit by law, all exploration and extrac-
                                                          tion of mineral resources in protected areas

Resolutions and Recommendations

     corresponding to IUCN Protected Areas            This Recommendation was adopted by a show of
     Management Categories I to IV;                   hands. The delegation of the United States made
                                                      a formal Statement for the Record indicating
3.   RECOMMENDS that:                                 that it had opposed and voted against the Rec-
                                                      ommendation, noting that mining policy is an
     (a) in categories V and VI, exploration          internal matter for sovereign states, and reiter-
         and localized extraction would be ac-        ating that, “in the US, management of parks and
         cepted only where the nature and ex-         requirements for environmental assessments are
         tent of the proposed activities of the       based on domestic laws and regulations, not a
         mining project indicates the compati-        global framework. In this context, the US Gov-
         bility of the project activities with the    ernment has acted strongly to limit mining
         objectives of the protected area;            where it is not appropriate”. The full Statement
                                                      is reproduced in the Congress Proceedings.
     (b) authorization for localized exploration
         and mining require an environmental
         impact assessment (EIA) of the project
         and approval by the relevant compe-          2.83 Armed conflicts in natural areas
         tent authority and stakeholder groups        (Panama and Colombia)
         after public disclosure of the EIA draft
         document; and                                CONSIDERING the effects of armed conflicts
                                                      in natural areas of national, regional, and global
     (c) authorized exploration and mining pro-       importance on the indigenous peoples and local
         jects be subject to strict planning, op-     communities that inhabit such areas;
         erating, monitoring, and post-use res-
         toration conditions;                         RECOGNIZING that an example of such a case
                                                      is found along the frontier between Panama and
4.   URGES that proposed changes to the               Colombia, where the Darien National Park (also
     boundaries of protected areas, or to their       designated as a Biosphere Reserve and Natural
     categorization, to allow for the exploration     World Heritage Site) is located in Panama and
     or localized extraction of mineral resources,    Los Katios National Park (which is also desig-
     should be subject to procedures at least as      nated a Natural World Heritage Site) is located
     rigorous as those involved in the establish-     in Colombia; and
     ment of the protected area in the first place;
                                                      AWARE that the 5th Mesoamerican IUCN Fo-
5.   RECOMMENDS that exploration and ex-              rum, held in Guatemala City, 3–7 October 1999,
     traction of mineral resources and allied in-     adopted a comparable motion;
     frastructure development work, which is
     outside of a protected area, but which may       The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
     negatively affect the values for which the       sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
     protected areas were established, should be
     subject to:                                      1.   EXPRESSES its commitment to support
                                                           the efforts of States and involved parties in
     (a) EIA preparation and approval from                 resolving their conflicts through dialogue,
         relevant competent authority and stake-           contributing in this way to the conservation
         holder groups after public disclosure of          of the natural and cultural heritage of hu-
         the EIA draft document; and                       manity;
     (b) strict planning, operating, monitoring,      2.   REQUESTS the Director General to seek to
         and post-use restoration conditions.              ensure that IUCN promotes cooperation
                                                           and conservation measures between Co-
                                                           lombia and Panama for natural areas that

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

    are located in these two States and endan-       United Nations, and the Panama Canal Treaty of
    gered by armed conflict.                         1977; and

This Recommendation was adopted by consen-           NOTING that the 5th Mesoamerican Forum, held
sus. The delegation of the State member Panama       in Guatemala City (3–7 October 1999), adopted
indicated that had there been a vote the delega-     a comparable motion;
tion would have abstained. State and Agency
members United States refrained from engaging        The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
in deliberations on this Motion and took no na-      sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
tional government position on the Recommenda-
tion as adopted, for reasons given in the US         1.   ENCOURAGES the Governments of Pa-
General Statement on the IUCN Resolutions                 nama and the United States to negotiate in a
Process (see p. 107).                                     friendly and conscientious manner the envi-
                                                          ronmental restoration of the damaged and
                                                          polluted ecosystems in the Republic of Pa-
                                                          nama resulting from military wastes and ac-
2.84 Unexploded ordnance contami-                         tivities;
nation in sites of United States mili-
                                                     2.   CALLS ON IUCN’s organizational and
tary activities in the Republic of Pa-                    State members to provide technological as-
nama                                                      sistance and human resources to facilitate
                                                          the negotiations and clean-up efforts re-
AWARE that the presence of the United States              quired to restore the affected ecosystems to
in Panamanian territory during the 20th century           an acceptable state.
left a worrisome environmental legacy that in-
cludes unexploded ordnance, chemical weapons,        This Recommendation was adopted by a show of
toxic wastes, and other very serious sources of      hands. The delegations of the State members
pollution in Panamanian territory;                   Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Norway and
                                                     Panama, and State and Agency members United
ACKNOWLEDGING that the traditional friend-           States abstained from adoption of this Recom-
ship and cooperation between the peoples of the      mendation. The delegation of the United States
United States of America and the Republic of         made a formal Statement for the Record noting
Panama have been effective sources of peaceful       that the US agreed with Panama that reducing
conflict-resolution between those two countries;     the risk of injury or loss of life should be the fo-
                                                     cus of efforts to manage the former US military
FURTHER ACKNOWLEDGING that the Pa-                   range lands in Panama and that the US and Pa-
nama Canal and the contiguous areas have ren-        nama had made progress toward agreement on
dered a priceless service to the international       this issue and were continuing to work together
community, especially in the promotion of peace      through diplomatic channels to bring the matter
and cooperation, international trade, and friend-    to resolution.
ship between nations;

ASSERTING that legal, moral, political, diplo-
matic, economic, technological, and ethical ob-      2.85 Conservation of Middle and
ligations exist to clean up and mitigate the envi-
ronmental impact of the affected ecosystems in       Lower Parana River
the Republic of Panama, as stated by the United
Nations Convention on Biological Diversity,          RECALLING that, with an area of 3.1 million
Chemical Weapons Convention of 1997, the             square kilometres, the basin of the Rio de la
various human rights Covenants adopted by the        Plata is the second largest river basin in South
                                                     America and fourth largest in the world, and that
                                                     this area includes the whole of Paraguay, to-

Resolutions and Recommendations

gether with considerable parts of Bolivia, Brazil             the conservation and sustainable de-
and Uruguay, including the largest wetland cor-               velopment of the region; and
ridor in the world, from the Pantanal in Mato
Grosso to Rio de la Plata;                                (b) the Government of Argentina grants
                                                              the highest priority to the implementa-
CONSIDERING that the main river of this basin                 tion of conservation and wise use
is the Parana and the most important floodplain               measures to maintain the essential eco-
is that which develops in the Middle and Lower                logical conditions and processes of the
Parana, where riverine wetlands are character-                Middle and Lower Parana Rivers;
ized by seasonal inundation each year;
                                                     2.   URGES all IUCN members to support the
RECOGNIZING that this floodplain and its wet-             Government of Argentina in this task;
lands provide fundamental resources (which ex-
ceed the regional needs in many cases), such as      3.   CALLS ON all international organizations,
fresh water, fisheries, tourism and recreation,           including multilateral development assis-
thus fulfilling essential functions for the devel-        tance agencies, to support the Government
opment and well-being of riverside villages;              of Argentina in the implementation of pro-
                                                          tection and conservation policies covering
AWARE that the consequences of intensive                  the Middle Parana River.
human activities in the basin (e.g. expansion of
the agricultural frontier, infrastructure works,     This Recommendation was adopted by consen-
urban development, pollution, inadequate re-         sus. State and Agency members United States
source management) threaten maintenance of           refrained from engaging in deliberations on this
the essential ecological conditions of the area;     Motion and took no national government posi-
                                                     tion on the Recommendation as adopted, for
NOTING that these impacts are determining            reasons given in the US General Statement on
factors in the gradual decline in populations of     the IUCN Resolutions Process (see p. 107).
many aquatic species and increased environ-
mental and social insecurity;

CONSIDERING that this region is a case in            2.86 Protection of the Macal River
which the coordinated work of all the involved       Valley in Belize
actors is needed in applying the wise use princi-
ple and international cooperation framework          RECOGNIZING that the tropical forests of Be-
established by the Convention on Wetlands            lize provide some of the richest and best-
(Ramsar Convention) nearly 30 years ago; and         preserved habitats for endangered flora and
                                                     fauna in Mesoamerica;
NOTING that the wise use principle is based on
collaboration, exchange of information, and full     FURTHER RECOGNIZING the large propor-
participation of all sectors (e.g. management        tion of natural areas of Belize that are protected
organizations, research institutions, NGOs, local    under national law;
community organizations);
                                                     ALSO RECOGNIZING the efforts of the Gov-
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-      ernment of Belize to maintain and preserve these
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:            protected natural areas;
1.   RECOMMENDS that:                                NOTING in particular that the Macal River Val-
                                                     ley provides an important habitat for endangered
     (a) the members of IUCN recognize and           species of international value, such as the Jaguar
         support the initiatives of the countries    (Panthera onca), Morelet’s Crocodile (Crocody-
         of the Rio de la Plata Basin to promote

                                                                         World Conservation Congress
                                                                          Amman, 4–11 October 2000

lus moreletii), and Belize’s national animal, the     Macal River in the early 1990s and is now ma-
Central American Tapir (Tapirus bairdii);             jority-owned by Duke Energy of the United
ALSO NOTING that the upper Macal and Ras-
paculo Rivers are included in IUCN’s Tapir Ac-        BEING AWARE that Belize Electricity Lim-
tion Plan as one of the last strongholds in Cen-      ited, a private company, majority-owned by For-
tral America for the Central American Tapir;          tis Inc. of Canada, has submitted documentation
                                                      to the National Environmental Appraisal Com-
RECOGNIZING that the Macal River Valley               mittee (NEAC) of Belize, proposing to build a
contains a floral floodplain habitat, classified as   second hydroelectric and water storage dam,
‘riparian shrublands in hills’, which is very rare    known as the ‘Chalillo Project’, in the Macal
in Belize;                                            River Valley;

FURTHER RECOGNIZING that approximately                NOTING that the Chalillo Project would flood
80 per cent of this habitat exists along the Macal    parts of the legally designated Mountain Pine
and Raspaculo Rivers;                                 Ridge Forest Reserve, Chiquibul Forest Reserve,
                                                      and parts of the Chiquibul National Park;
AWARE that the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao),
and many other species which inhabit the Macal        RECOGNIZING that the area to be flooded also
River Valley, are listed in Appendix I of the         includes some of the flora, the floodplain habitat
Convention on International Trade in Endan-           of Belize, and some of the nesting sites known
gered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES);        in Belize for Ara macao cyanoptera;

ACKNOWLEDGING that it is likely that less             FURTHER RECOGNIZING that important
than a few hundred individual Scarlet Macaws          habitat for other endangered species would be
remain in Belize;                                     flooded;

ALSO ACKNOWLEDGING that recent sight-                 AWARE that the NEAC found the preliminary
ings have shown the only known nesting sites          documentation by Belize Electricity Limited
for the endangered subspecies of Scarlet Macaw        incomplete due to its lack of documentation on
– Ara macao cyanoptera – to be in the Ras-            the possible effects the dam would have on
paculo and Upper Macal River Valley, with             wildlife;
most of them being along this ‘floodplain’ habi-
tat;                                                  RECOGNIZING that an Environmental Impact
                                                      Assessment on the proposed project is now be-
NOTING that the local subspecies of the Scarlet       ing prepared and is scheduled for completion by
Macaw is morphologically distinct from the            mid 2001; and
nominate subspecies and that the range of the
local subspecies is restricted to extreme southern    STRONGLY REAFFIRMING that all decisions
Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and              regarding the proposed project must take into
Nicaragua;                                            account the best interest of the people of Belize
                                                      and their desire to achieve balanced develop-
FURTHER NOTING that the local subspecies is           ment;
more threatened than the nominate subspecies;
                                                      The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
AWARE that IUCN has recently adopted an               sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
Action Plan to save the world’s threatened par-
rots;                                                 1.   URGES Belize Electricity Limited together
                                                           with its majority owner, Fortis Inc., to con-
NOTING that a run-of-the-river dam, known as               duct a fully transparent and participatory
the ‘Mollejon dam’, was built on the Lower                 environmental impact assessment of the

Resolutions and Recommendations

     proposed hydroelectric facility and, unless    and Agency members United States refrained
     such EIA shows that the project would not      from engaging in deliberations on this Motion
     cause significant degradation or destruction   and took no national government position on the
     of wildlife habitat and the natural environ-   Recommendation as adopted, for reasons given
     ment, agree to terminate the project;          in the US General Statement on the IUCN Reso-
                                                    lutions Process (see p. 107).
2.   URGES the NEAC of Belize to:

     (a) follow and apply the laws of Belize on
         environment and environmental im-          2.87 Protected areas and the Meso-
         pact assessment with regard to the         american Biological Corridor
         proposed project, with special atten-
         tion to participatory processes and        NOTING that Central America has played a
         conformity with best international         pioneering role in the formulation and approval
         practices; and                             of regional conventions;
     (b) unless the EIA shows that the project      RECOGNIZING the momentous political deci-
         would not cause significant degrada-       sion of the Presidents in the Mesoamerican re-
         tion or destruction of wildlife habitat    gion in signing and supporting initiatives for the
         and the natural environment, recom-        Mesoamerican Biological Corridor and the
         mend against approval of the project;      Mesoamerican Coral Reef System;
3.   CALLS on the Government of Belize to:          FURTHER NOTING the need for continuity
                                                    and follow-up on compliance with these agree-
     (a) maintain its record of environmental       ments and initiatives over the medium and long
         stewardship;                               term, given the nature of the environmental
     (b) continue to protect the populations of
         endangered species found in Belize;        RECALLING the exceptional biological wealth
         and                                        of the isthmus and its vital ecological function
     (c) continue to require that fully transpar-   as a migratory corridor between North and
         ent and participatory environmental        South America;
         impact assessments be completed be-
         fore any decision is made on the pro-      STRESSING the importance of the protected
         posed dam and, unless the EIA shows        areas and national parks as irreplaceable instru-
         that the project would not cause sig-      ments for nature conservation and sustainable
         nificant degradation or destruction of     development in Central American countries; and
         wildlife habitat and the natural envi-
         ronment, not to allow the construction     ACKNOWLEDGING that the 5th IUCN Meso-
         of the Chalillo Dam in the Macal River     american Forum, held in Guatemala City (3–7
         Valley;                                    October 1999), adopted a comparable motion;
4.   REQUESTS the Director General of IUCN          The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
     to provide technical and scientific support    sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
     to Belize during the preparation, review,
     and evaluation of the EIA.                     1.   ENCOURAGES the governments and par-
                                                         liaments of Mesoamerica to continue proc-
This Recommendation was adopted by consen-               esses for the legal declaration of protected
sus. The delegations of the State members Aus-           areas and national parks in their respective
tralia and New Zealand indicated that had there          countries so as to:
been a vote they would have abstained. State

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

     (a) preserve representative samples of all            sign, promotion, administration and co-
         natural ecosystems in the isthmus;                management of protected areas in the
                                                           Mesoamerican region that ensure equitable
     (b) fill gaps currently existing in each              participation by local communities;
         country’s system of protected areas;
         and                                          6.   CALLS ON the States of Mesoamerica to
                                                           continue with the implementation of, and
     (c) consolidate and give continuity to the            compliance with, regional and international
         regional environmental initiatives of             commitments and agreements in the envi-
         the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor              ronmental arena.
         and Mesoamerican Coral Reef System;
                                                      This Recommendation was adopted by consen-
2.   INVITES the pertinent authorities to allo-       sus. State and Agency members United States
     cate the economic resources necessary for        refrained from engaging in deliberations on this
     an efficient administration and protection of    Motion and took no national government posi-
     the protected areas and national parks in        tion on the Recommendation as adopted, for
     Mesoamerica;                                     reasons given in the US General Statement on
                                                      the IUCN Resolutions Process (see p. 107).
3.   URGES regional governments and civil
     society to make it a priority to protect natu-
     ral ecosystems that provide economically
     important environmental services and func-       2.88 Establishment of an Ecological
     tions in the region and to protect the Central   Corridor in the Americas
     American population against major natural
     disasters through the legal declaration of       NOTING that the mountain chain running the
     protected areas;                                 length of the Western Hemisphere is considered
                                                      to be one of the regions with greatest biodiver-
4.   SUPPORTS rapid legal declaration (as pro-        sity in the world;
     tected areas) of the following sites, thus
     contributing in concrete and direct form to      RECOGNIZING that the Wildlife Conservation
     the constitution of the Mesoamerican Cor-        Society has proposed the creation of a pro-
     ridor:                                           gramme called Ecological Corridor in the
                                                      Americas, which would form a hemispheric sys-
     (a) Punta de Manabique, Río Sarstún,             tem of protected areas and other wild areas
         Manchón Huamuchal, Sierra Santa              joined with areas subject to sustainable man-
         Cruz, Sierra Caral, and Yaxhá in Gua-        agement extending along the continental moun-
         temala;                                      tain chain from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego;
     (b) Punta Izopo in Honduras;                     AWARE that the proposed ecological corridor
                                                      in the Americas is to conserve biodiversity,
     (c) the Pital-La Cureña zone in the north-       maintain ecological viability and evolutionary
         ern region and La Danta Biological           processes, and provide environmental services
         Corridor in the south and central Pa-        through the formation of a conceptual frame-
         cific zone in Costa Rica; and                work for joint action that supports and brings
                                                      together local, national, and regional conserva-
     (d) forest in the watershed of the Mosquito      tion efforts along the corridor;
         Gulf, on the Caribbean coast of Pa-
         nama;                                        MINDFUL that the primary aim of the proposed
                                                      ecological corridor in the Americas is to protect
5.   COMMITS to continuing support, within            all rain forests and other types of forests and
     available resources, of efforts for the de-      natural vegetation found along the corridor, as

Resolutions and Recommendations

public or private parks or reserves, or to be ex-         explore the concept of the continental ini-
ploited on the basis of sustainable management            tiative to create the Ecological Corridor in
because of their extreme hydrologic and bio-              the Americas;
logical importance;
                                                     2.   REQUESTS national and regional institu-
BEING AWARE that the proposed ecological                  tions and organizations in the above-
corridor in the Americas would provide many               mentioned countries, multilateral institu-
benefits to society along the corridor in the             tions, and public and private organizations
hemisphere, such as permanent provision of                to cooperate in exploring this concept;
clean water, promotion of ecotourism, preven-
tion of natural disasters, soil conservation, pro-   3.   RECOMMENDS that international institu-
duction of new medicines and other chemical               tions and organizations develop projects for
substances, storage and capture of carbon diox-           conservation and sustainable management
ide, and creation of opportunities for scientific         of forests and other types of natural vegeta-
research and artistic inspiration;                        tion along the mountain backbone of the
                                                          Western Hemisphere and coordinate their
ACKNOWLEDGING that the Governments of                     efforts with organizations and institutions
Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala,               that already participate and that will con-
Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama have already              tinue to participate in exploring the concept
created the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor,             of the proposed Ecological Corridor in the
which would be part of the Ecological Corridor            Americas.
in the Americas;
                                                     The delegation of the United States made a for-
RECOGNIZING that the Mesoamerican Bio-               mal Statement for the Record recognizing the
logical Corridor, currently being implemented,       importance of ecological corridors in preserving
constitutes one of the most successful examples      biodiversity and providing important ecological
in the world of a regional corridor and has simi-    services, welcoming the initiative to create a
lar objectives to those proposed for the Ecologi-    Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, and noting
cal Corridor in the Americas;                        that the proposed expansion of this corridor to
                                                     create an Ecological Corridor for the Americas
OBSERVING that several initiatives for local         [Editor’s note: as had been called for in the
corridors on the continent along the mountain        original Motion text) would need further explo-
chain are being carried out and could be con-        ration by governments.
nected to form an almost continuous hemi-
spheric corridor; and

EMPHASIZING that in several international            2.89 Marine protected areas in the
fora the idea has been proposed to create a cor-     Baltic Sea
ridor for conservation in the Americas, or a
trans-hemispheric corridor, as part of a world-      RECOGNIZING the important role of marine
wide network of regional biological corridors        protected areas as an effective method for the
extending through Europe, Asia, and the Far          conservation of marine biodiversity and as a
East;                                                contribution to the sustainable use of living ma-
                                                     rine resources;
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:            ACKNOWLEDGING that integrated coastal
                                                     management is an essential means for achieving
1.   RECOMMENDS that the Governments of              sustainable use of marine and coastal ecosys-
     Argentina, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Colom-       tems;
     bia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, the
     United States of America, and Venezuela

                                                                      World Conservation Congress
                                                                       Amman, 4–11 October 2000

RECALLING Recommendation 1.37 Marine                tion on the Recommendation as adopted, for
Protected Areas, which was adopted by the 1st       reasons given in the US General Statement on
Session of the World Conservation Congress          the IUCN Resolutions Process (see p. 107).
(Montreal, 1996) that:

     “URGES all coastal states to move quickly
     to establish national systems of representa-   2.90 Convention for the Protection of
     tive marine protected areas”; and              the Marine Environment and the
     “RECOMMENDS that coastal States, as
                                                    Coastal Region of the Mediterranean
     part of their overall programmes of marine
                                                    RECALLING that the Convention on the Pro-
     protected areas, establish viable marine
                                                    tection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollu-
     protected areas which meet the protection
                                                    tion was approved in 1976 in Barcelona (and
     criteria for IUCN Categories I and II so as
                                                    known for short as the Barcelona Convention)
     to safeguard a representative proportion of
                                                    and amended considerably in 1995, in particular
     marine ecosystems in a natural state and
                                                    to extend its coverage from the marine environ-
     thus help make it possible for sustainable
                                                    ment to coastal areas and that the name of the
     use and the maintenance of biodiversity
                                                    treaty has been amended (subject to ratification)
     throughout their marine ecosystems”; and
                                                    to become the Convention for the Protection of
                                                    the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region
ALSO RECALLING the Helsinki Commission
                                                    of the Mediterranean;
Recommendation 15/5 on marine protected ar-
eas in the Baltic Sea;
                                                    NOTING that six implementation Protocols to
                                          nd        the Barcelona Convention, which are fundamen-
The World Conservation Congress at its 2 Ses-
                                                    tal for the protection and conservation of the
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
                                                    Mediterranean marine environment and coastal
                                                    areas, were significantly modified in 1995 and
1.   URGES all coastal States in the Baltic Sea
                                                    that similar new Protocols have been signed but
     region to move quickly to establish the se-
                                                    not yet ratified;
     lected areas in the Baltic Sea as marine re-
                                                    CONSIDERING that as of 5 June 2000 the
                                                    amendments to the Barcelona Convention had
2.   RECOMMENDS that the States around the
                                                    been ratified by only nine of the 15 States neces-
     Baltic Sea whose economies are in transi-
                                                    sary for the amendments to enter into force;
     tion be supported by other States with fund-
     ing and expertise in order to establish and
                                                    RECOGNIZING that the Protocol on Specially
     manage marine reserves;
                                                    Protected Areas and Biological Diversity in the
                                                    Mediterranean (SPA Protocol) obtained the
3.   REQUESTS IUCN members in all Euro-
                                                    minimum number of ratifications in December
     pean States to support the establishment of
     marine reserves;
                                                    FURTHER RECALLING that NGOs in the
4.   REQUESTS the Director General to report
                                                    Mediterranean region, meeting in Barcelona in
     on the progress made toward implementa-
                                                    November 1998, during the 5th Mediterranean
     tion of this Resolution at the next World
                                                    Environmental Forum organized by MED Fo-
     Conservation Congress.
                                                    rum – the Mediterranean NGO Network for
                                                    Ecology and Sustainable Development – re-
This Recommendation was adopted by consen-
                                                    quested the Contracting Parties of the Barcelona
sus. State and Agency members United States
                                                    Convention, including the European Union, to
refrained from engaging in deliberations on this
                                                    ratify the Convention and its Protocols before
Motion and took no national government posi-
                                                    October 1999, which was the date of the 11th

Resolutions and Recommendations

meeting of the Contracting Parties, held in          SERIOUSLY CONCERNED by the fact that
Malta; and                                           ships that are twenty or more years old comprise
                                                     40 per cent of the world’s tanker fleet;
NOTING that, in light of the non-ratification of
the Convention and its Protocols, Mediterranean      NOTING that the sinking of the tanker Erika in
NGOs, meeting in Malta in October 1999, re-          December 1999, with a highly toxic cargo,
quested that the required minimum number of          caused widespread pollution of French coasts
ratifications be achieved by June 2000, but at the   and brought again to light the inefficiency of
time of drafting this Recommendation, only the       preventive and clean-up measures in the struggle
SPA Protocol had obtained the minimum num-           against oil spills; and
ber of ratifications for entry into force;
                                                     ADHERING to Resolution 16.15 Liability and
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-      Compensation for Oil Spills from Vessels
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:            adopted by the 16th Session of the IUCN General
                                                     Assembly (Madrid, 1984), requiring application
REQUESTS the Director General to urge the            of the principle of ‘polluter pays’ and that ade-
Contracting Parties to the Convention on the         quate financing be provided for the restoration
Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against          of polluted natural habitats by oil;
Pollution, to accept immediately the 1995
amendments to the Barcelona Convention and           The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
its Protocols, and to ratify both the earlier and    sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
new Protocols to the Convention, in order that
they may enter into force and facilitate more        1.   REQUESTS member States of the Interna-
effective implementation of agreed measures for           tional Maritime Organization (IMO) to:
protection of the Mediterranean.
                                                          (a) take steps to modify existing legislation
This Recommendation was adopted by consen-                    in order to reinforce preventive meas-
sus. State and Agency members United States                   ures against marine pollution by petro-
refrained from engaging in deliberations on this              leum products and to hold polluters ac-
Motion and took no national government posi-                  countable;
tion on the Recommendation as adopted, for
reasons given in the US General Statement on              (b) accelerate implementation of the Inter-
the IUCN Resolutions Process (see p. 107).                    national Convention for the Prevention
                                                              of Pollution from Ships (also referred to
                                                              as ‘MARPOL’) provisions aimed at
                                                              eliminating single-hull vessels and re-
2.91 Ocean pollution by oil                                   placing them with double-hull vessels;

RECALLING Resolution 8 Marine Oil Tankers                 (c) reinforce implementation of existing
- Pollution adopted by the 14th Session of the                regulations in order to guarantee that
IUCN General Assembly (Ashkabad, 1978) and                    States respect international rules for
Recommendation 18.73 Prohibition of Oil                       vessels registered in their country or op-
Tankers Inshore of the Coral Sea Great Barrier                erating in areas within their national ju-
Reef World Heritage Area, Australia, adopted                  risdiction;
by the 18th Session of the General Assembly
(Perth, 1990);                                            (d) raise the limits on financial compensa-
                                                              tion by the International Oil Pollution
AWARE that oil tanker traffic has almost dou-                 Compensation Funds (IOPC Funds);
bled during the past fifteen years;

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

     (e) establish data systems (transponders)        reasons given in the US General Statement on
         aboard vessels for recording and identi-     the IUCN Resolutions Process (see p. 107).
         fying navigation; and

     (f) undertake highly dissuasive activities
         against the perpetrators discharging         2.92 Indigenous peoples, sustainable
         waste at sea, cognizant that this practice   use of natural resources, and interna-
         discharges into the sea much greater
         volumes of petroleum than that from oil
                                                      tional trade
                                                      REAFFIRMING that the fourth principle of
                                                      Caring for the Earth: A Strategy for Sustainable
2.   RECOMMENDS that IUCN, its Commis-
                                                      Living is:
     sions, members, and partners take note of
     work underway internationally to survey
                                                          “For the Earth to continue to sustain bil-
     ecosystems vulnerable to marine pollution,
                                                          lions of people it is essential to minimize
     and to support these initiatives as appropri-
                                                          the depletion of non-renewable resources
                                                          and to switch to renewable substitutes
                                                          where possible”;
3.   REQUESTS States:
                                                      RECOGNIZING that the eighth principle directs
     (a) to exclude these ecologically sensitive
                                                      nations to consider people as the central element
         coastal and marine areas from mari-
                                                      of the system and that economic policy should
         time routes; or, where this is not possi-
                                                      be related to environmental carrying capacity so
         ble, to create strictly defined sea lanes
                                                      as to increase the benefits obtained from each
         that will afford protection to these
                                                      stock of resources;
         ecologically sensitive coastal and ma-
         rine areas;
                                                      NOTING that Article 10 of the Convention on
                                                      Biological Diversity (CBD) calls upon Parties to
     (b) to review, and update where necessary,
                                                      integrate consideration of the conservation and
         the legal instruments within the
                                                      sustainable use of biological resources into na-
         framework of relevant intergovern-
                                                      tional decision-making;
         mental procedures; and
                                                      ACKNOWLEDGING that most, if not all, in-
     (c) in all cases of marine pollution by pe-
                                                      digenous peoples define themselves as insepara-
         troleum products, to consider indemni-
                                                      ble from the land and see the land’s resources as
         fying natural environments in the same
                                                      gifts provided by the Creator for their use;
         way as for individuals and property, in
         order to rectify ecological damage;
                                                      RECALLING that Article 8(j) of the CBD
                                                      commits each Party to respect, preserve, and
4.   URGES the relevant components of IUCN
                                                      maintain the traditional practices of indigenous
     to examine the question of environmental
                                                      and local communities that are relevant for the
     and economic costs of oil pollution and
                                                      sustainable use of biological diversity and to
     contribute to the Convention on Biological
                                                      encourage the equitable sharing of the benefits
     Diversity (CBD) process on defining envi-
                                                      arising from the utilization of such knowledge
     ronmental responsibility.
                                                      and practices;
This Recommendation was adopted by consen-
                                                      CONSIDERING that in many indigenous and
sus. State and Agency members United States
                                                      local communities, traditional knowledge about
refrained from engaging in deliberations on this
                                                      the wise use of renewable resources will not
Motion and took no national government posi-
                                                      continue to be meaningful and passed on to sub-
tion on the Recommendation as adopted, for
                                                      sequent generations unless sufficient economic

Resolutions and Recommendations

incentives exist to encourage their continued
practice;                                              2.93 Conservation of Kaisho Forest,
NOTING that many indigenous and local com-
munities are located in remote areas with few          AWARE that at the 1997 General Assembly of
economic opportunities other than those pre-           the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE),
sented by the local natural resources; and             the Government of Japan proposed an environ-
                                                       mentally conscious exposition with a theme of
MINDFUL of the existence of barriers to the            ‘Beyond Development - Rediscovering Nature’s
trade in products derived from non-endangered          Wisdom’ and that Japan was chosen as the host
wild species which may discourage the sustain-         nation of the 2005 World Exposition;
able use of these renewable resources;
                                                       RECOGNIZING that an environmental impact
The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-        assessment published in 1999 by the Japan As-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:              sociation for the 2005 World Exposition re-
                                                       vealed the Kaisho Forest, which is the proposed
1.    URGES all national governments, without          site for the Exposition and located near Nagoya
      prejudice to their obligations under interna-    City in Aichi Prefecture, to be a hotspot of bio-
      tional law, to put their sustainable use prin-   diversity that includes endangered species listed
      ciples into action in order to improve the       in Red Data Books published by the Environ-
      viability of indigenous and local communi-       ment Agency of Japan;
      ties, which depend on the harvesting of re-
      newable resources, by eliminating tariff,        ACKNOWLEDGING the efforts by the Gov-
      and non-tariff barriers, which discourage        ernment of Japan that have changed the Exposi-
      the sustainable use of natural products de-      tion site location three times and their with-
      rived from non-endangered species;               drawal of an urban development and road con-
                                                       struction plan for the purpose of protecting the
2.    REQUESTS IUCN to:                                threatened wetland vegetation and endangered
                                                       Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), which are found in
      (a) assess through its Sustainable Use Ini-      the Kaisho Forest;
          tiative, and with the participation of
          other components of IUCN, the degree         ALSO ACKNOWLEDGING the Government
          to which trade barriers without basis in     of Japan’s commitment to secure habitat for
          international law are a hindrance to the     plants and animals in the countryside ecosystem
          rights of indigenous and local commu-        as stipulated in the Basic Environment Plan of
          nities and to the sustainable develop-       1994 and the National Strategy for Biodiversity
          ment of their culture and economy;           Conservation in 1995; and
      (b) make known the results of this assess-       WELCOMING the initiative of the Bureau In-
          ment; and                                    ternational des Expositions in taking a lead in
                                                       the 2005 World Exposition, to achieve the best
      (c) recommend actions if and as appropri-        outcome as an environmentally conscious expo-
          ate.                                         sition;
This Recommendation was adopted by a show of           The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
hands. The delegations of the State members            sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
Australia, Germany, New Zealand and Russian
Federation indicated that they had abstained.          1.   CALLS ON the Bureau International des
State and Agency members United States ab-                  Expositions to continue to provide pertinent
stained from adoption of this Recommendation.               advice to the Government of Japan so that
                                                            the 2005 World Exposition, to be held in

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

     Aichi Prefecture, Japan is conducted in an     change, to ensure that food production is not
     environmentally conscious manner; and          threatened, and to enable economic development
                                                    to proceed in a sustainable manner;
2.   URGES the Government of Japan to take
     concrete actions, including establishing a     AWARE that the UNFCCC has been ratified by
     National Countryside Park, so that the Kai-    over 180 countries;
     sho Forest is conserved for the future.
                                                    RECALLING that the 3rd Conference of Parties
This Recommendation was adopted by consen-          to the UNFCCC negotiated the Kyoto Protocol
sus. State and Agency members United States         and agreed to legally binding commitments
refrained from engaging in deliberations on this    among Annex I countries to reduce emissions of
Motion and took no national government posi-        carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases;
tion on the Recommendation as adopted, for
reasons given in the US General Statement on        REAFFIRMING that the Kyoto Protocol is a
the IUCN Resolutions Process (see p. 107).          first step towards addressing climate change,
                                                    and that subsequent reductions in greenhouse
                                                    gas emissions will be needed to fulfil the ulti-
                                                    mate objective of the Convention;
2.94 Climate change mitigation and
land use                                            RECALLING that Article 3.3 of the Kyoto Pro-
                                                    tocol allows Annex I countries to utilize a lim-
RECALLING Recommendation 18.22 Global               ited set of land use, land use change, and for-
Climate Change adopted by the 18th Session of       estry activities, limited to afforestation, refores-
the IUCN General Assembly (Perth, 1990);            tation, and deforestation to meet their commit-
                                                    ments under Article 3.1 of the Protocol;
RECALLING Recommendations 1.71 Climate
Change, 1.72 Climate Change, Biodiversity and       FURTHER RECALLING that Article 3.4 of the
the IUCN Programme, and 1.73 Protocol or            Kyoto Protocol provides Annex I countries with
Other Legal Instrument to the Framework Con-        the option of undertaking additional human-
vention on Climate Change adopted by the 1st        induced activities in the agricultural soils and
Session of the World Conservation Congress          land use, land use change, and forestry catego-
(Montreal, 1996);                                   ries to meet their commitments under Article 3.1
                                                    of the Protocol;
NOTING that the Second Assessment Report of
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change       FURTHER RECALLING that Article 6 of the
(IPCC) concluded that atmospheric concentra-        Kyoto Protocol provides that Annex I countries
tions of greenhouse gases are increasing largely    may transfer to, or acquire from, any other such
due to human activities, that global climate is     Party, emission reduction units from projects
changing and is expected to change in the future,   aimed at reducing emissions or enhancing re-
and that the balance of evidence suggests a dis-    movals in any sector of the economy, including
cernible human influence on the Earth’s climate;    land use change and the forestry sector;

RECALLING Article 2 of the United Nations           FURTHER RECALLING that Article 12 of the
Framework Convention on Climate Change              Kyoto Protocol defines a clean development
(UNFCCC), which states that the ultimate objec-     mechanism to assist Parties not included in An-
tive of the Convention is to achieve a stabiliza-   nex I in achieving sustainable development and
tion of greenhouse gas concentrations in the at-    in contributing to the ultimate objective of the
mosphere at a level that would prevent danger-      Convention, and to assist Annex I countries in
ous anthropogenic interference with the climate     achieving their commitments under Article 3.1;
system and within a time frame sufficient to al-
low ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate

Resolutions and Recommendations

AWARE that the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCC             protect watersheds, habitats, and biodiversity
had been signed by 84 countries and ratified by        through reducing deforestation and soil loss;
22 countries, as of June 2000;
                                                       CONCERNED that improperly designed land
ALSO AWARE that the Protocol will not enter            use, land use change, and forestry projects and
into force unless and until it has been ratified by    activities can be abused, creating incentives for
55 Parties including those in Annex I which ac-        clearing native forests, destroying primary for-
counted in total for at least 55 per cent of the       ests, removing people from their land, and con-
total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990;               tinuing emissions from industrial sources;

RECOGNIZING Recommendation 7.1 of the                  FURTHER CONCERNED that the continuing
Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar Convention)             and catastrophic loss of forest and other biodi-
A global action plan for the wise use and man-         versity makes a substantial contribution to
agement of peatlands, adopted at the 7th meeting       greenhouse gas emissions;
of the Conference of Contracting Parties, which:
                                                       EMPHASIZING that anthropogenic climate
      Expresses deep concern for carbon loss due       change presents one of the greatest threats to
      to peat fires and other human induced fac-       biodiversity; and
      tors throughout the world;
                                                       RECOGNIZING decision V/4 of the Conven-
      Emphasizes the need to include all wetland       tion on Biological Diversity (CBD), Progress
      carbon sinks and sequestration initiatives as    report on the implementation of the programme
      key issues in the global discussion concern-     of work for forest biological diversity, which:
      ing the Kyoto Protocol under the United
      Nations Framework Convention on Climate               “URGES the United Nations Framework
      Change; and                                           Convention on Climate Change, including
                                                            its Kyoto Protocol, to ensure that future
      Identifies as a research priority the need for        carbon sequestration activities are consis-
      further information on the greenhouse gas             tent with, and supportive of, the conserva-
      implications of the utilization of peatland           tion and sustainable use of biological di-
      resources;                                            versity”; and

NOTING that the IPCC ‘Special Report on Land                “REQUESTS the CBD Subsidiary Body on
Use, Land Use Change and Forestry’ concluded                Scientific, Technical and Technological
that land use, land use change, and forestry ac-            Advice to prepare scientific advice on inte-
tivities provide an opportunity to reduce green-            grating biodiversity considerations, includ-
house gas emissions into the atmosphere by                  ing biodiversity conservation, in the imple-
avoiding deforestation, and to increase the up-             mentation of the United Nations Frame-
take of carbon from the atmosphere into the ter-            work Convention on Climate Change and
restrial biosphere through afforestation, refores-          its Kyoto Protocol”;
tation, and improved forest, cropland, and range-
land management;                                       The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
                                                       sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:
ALSO NOTING that the Special Report identi-
fied the risks associated with land use, land use      1.   CALLS ON:
change, and forestry activities;
                                                            (a) all Parties to the UN Framework Con-
NOTING FURTHER that properly designed                           vention      on     Climate  Change
land use, land use change, and forestry projects                (UNFCCC) to ratify the Kyoto Proto-
can promote sustainable development goals and                   col, under which the predominant

                                                                    World Conservation Congress
                                                                     Amman, 4–11 October 2000

          share of reductions must come from          (a) a short- and long-term net positive re-
          reductions in fossil fuel emissions;            duction of greenhouse gases in the at-
                                                          mosphere, with permanent reduction
     (b) UNFCCC Parties (taking into account              as the ultimate goal;
         their common but differentiated re-
         sponsibilities), corporate sector entities   (b) reductions are additional to any that
         and energy associations, to reduce               would occur otherwise with funding
         greenhouse gas emissions from the                primarily coming from private sector
         atmosphere and promote the use of                sources;
         new, energy-efficient, and environ-
         mentally-sound technologies in order         (c) effective measures to prevent, or quan-
         to prevent dangerous anthropogenic in-           tify and discount, the loss or displace-
         terference with the climate system;              ment of carbon benefits due to the
                                                          shifting of emissions-producing activi-
     (c) all countries to recognize the impacts           ties;
         of climate change on biodiversity and
         desertification, and therefore, to adopt     (d) authoritative, timely, and transparent
         only those measures for greenhouse               information;
         gas reduction that are consistent with
         the Convention on Biological Diver-          (e) scientifically valid monitoring and
         sity (CBD), the UN Convention to                 verification protocols, as well as trans-
         Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the              parent reporting;
         Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar
         Convention), the Regional Seas Con-          (f) consistency with the goals of the CBD,
         ventions, and other multilateral envi-           Ramsar Convention, Regional Seas
         ronmental agreements; and                        Conventions, and UNCCD;

     (d) International Financial Institutions to      (g) involvement of relevant stakeholders
         integrate biodiversity and social con-           including local communities and in-
         siderations into their continuing work           digenous peoples in the design and
         on climate change;                               implementation of projects;

2.   REQUESTS the 6th Conference of the Par-          (h) sustainable development activities that
     ties to the UNFCCC to recognize the pri-             provide economic benefits to local
     mary role of fossil fuel emissions and the           communities, and recognize the rights
     important role that land use, land use               of indigenous peoples;
     change, and forestry activities play in cli-
     mate change;                                     (i) prohibition of crediting for sequestra-
                                                          tion projects where native ecosystems
3.   URGES the 6th Conference of the Parties to           were converted after adoption of the
     the UNFCCC to ensure that any land use,              Kyoto Protocol;
     land use change, and forest activities under
     Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol       (j) adoption of the precautionary approach
     are environmentally sound and, where ap-             in the use of genetically modified or-
     propriate, meet the following criteria, and          ganisms and invasive species;
     that any such activities accepted under Ar-
     ticles 6 and 12 of the Kyoto Protocol are        (k) protection of biodiversity and habitats,
     also environmentally sound and, at a mini-           transfer of technology, and capacity
     mum, meet the following criteria:                    building for developing country stake-

Resolutions and Recommendations

      (l) enhancement of:
                                                     NOTING that these strategy documents can play
          (i) ecosystem resilience to climate        a pivotal role not only in addressing the on-
              change through activities such as      going problems of environmental degradation
              protection of important buffer         but also in anticipating future problems and ca-
              zones and habitat for migratory        tastrophes and, in so doing, help to incorporate
              bird species,                          preventative measures that either reduce the risk
                                                     or frequency of occurrence;
          (ii) restoration of native ecosystems
               and species, protection of coral      RECOGNIZING that the increase in irregular
               reefs, maintenance and restoration    climatic changes often ascribed to the El Niño or
               of mature forest cover, and           La Niña effect is something that is likely to fur-
                                                     ther perpetuate incidents of natural disasters
          (iii) protection of important functional   such as droughts and floods;
                   ecosystem services and groups
                   of species;                       FURTHER RECOGNIZING that the frequency
                                                     and severity of these disasters, unless checked,
      (m) contributions are made to broader con-     will only serve to undermine sustainable devel-
          servation goals, which include meas-       opment initiatives;
          urement, monitoring, and evaluation of
          the ecological and social effects of       NOTING that the effect of the present drought
          projects; and                              in Afghanistan, India, Pakistan and many parts
                                                     of Africa on human and animal life, vegetation,
      (n) the number of credits available to Par-    and local ecological systems is just one illustra-
          ties from land use, land use change,       tion of the devastation that can occur;
          and forestry projects should be no
          more than the proportion of total          FURTHER NOTING that the same is true for
          greenhouse gas emissions attributable      the recent floods in Mozambique, parts of
          to emissions from land use, land use       China, and South America;
          change, and forestry.
                                                     ACKNOWLEDGING that strategies that pro-
This Recommendation was adopted by consen-           mote proactive approaches to prevent or expe-
sus. The delegations of the State members Aus-       dite responses to problems can significantly re-
tralia and New Zealand indicated that had there      duce the size and the severity of a disaster;
been a vote they would have abstained. State
and Agency members United States refrained           FURTHER ACKNOWLEDGING that it is rea-
from engaging in deliberations on this Motion        sonable to assume that had such strategies ex-
and took no national government position on the      isted, particularly in the countries affected by
Recommendation as adopted, for reasons given         drought and floods, much of the devastation be-
in the US General Statement on the IUCN Reso-        ing witnessed could have been significantly
lutions Process (see p. 107).                        minimized; and

                                                     NOTING that it would be both logical and ap-
                                                     propriate for national strategy documents to take
2.95 Drought and flood mitigation                    cognizance of the potential threats of droughts
strategies                                           and floods and include strategies that could help
                                                     to combat the devastating effects of droughts
RECALLING that the 1992 ‘Earth Summit’ in            and floods where possible;
Rio called on all countries to develop and put in
place effective National Strategies for Sustain-     The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
able Development (NSSD) by the year 2002;            sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

                                                                        World Conservation Congress
                                                                         Amman, 4–11 October 2000

                                                      NOTING the consultations conducted by the
1.   CALLS ON all IUCN State members, es-             Earth Council, since the 1992 United Nations
     pecially those prone to incidents of drought     Conference on Environment and Development,
     or floods to develop, incorporate, and im-       to prepare an Earth Charter;
     plement specific strategies aimed at reduc-
     ing the social and ecological degradation        AWARE of the collaboration between IUCN’s
     resulting from droughts and floods as part       Commission on Environmental Law, through its
     of their national strategies for sustainable     Ethics Working Group, and the drafters of the
     development;                                     Earth Charter; and

2.   URGES IUCN State members to adopt a              RECALLING Recommendation 1.66 Draft In-
     participatory approach for the development,      ternational Covenant on Environment and De-
     articulation, and implementation of such         velopment, which was adopted by the 1st Session
     strategies, whereby men and women from           of the World Conservation Congress (Montreal,
     different tiers of society and public and pri-   1996);
     vate institutions and citizen groups are en-
     couraged to actively contribute to this proc-    The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
     ess;                                             sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

3.   REQUESTS the Organization for Eco-               REQUESTS the Director General, in consulta-
     nomic Cooperation and Development                tion with IUCN members and Commissions, to:
     (OECD), that has been entrusted with the
     development of guidelines for national           (a) examine and review the Earth Charter, with
     strategies for sustainable development, to           particular reference to Recommendation
     refine, revise, and/or develop additional            1.66 adopted by the 1st Session of the
     guidelines that help member States to in-            World Conservation Congress, and bearing
     corporate the essence of this Recommenda-            in mind the provisions of The World Con-
     tion in their respective National Strategies         servation Strategy and Caring for the
     for Sustainable Development;                         Earth; and

4.   ASKS IUCN to work with the United Na-            (b) make a recommendation to members at the
     tions Environment Programme (UNEP), the              3rd Session of the World Conservation
     United Nations Framework Convention on               Congress on the appropriate response of
     Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the OECD                 IUCN to the Earth Charter.
     to lobby for the establishment of a rapid re-
     action fund and force to handle drought and      This Recommendation was adopted by consen-
     flood catastrophes.                              sus. State and Agency members United States
                                                      abstained from the adoption by consensus of this
This Recommendation was adopted by consen-            Recommendation.
sus. State and Agency members United States
refrained from engaging in deliberations on this
Motion and took no national government posi-
tion on the Recommendation as adopted, for            2.97 A Marten’s Clause for environ-
reasons given in the US General Statement on          mental protection
the IUCN Resolutions Process (see p. 107).
                                                      RECALLING that Recommendation 1.75
                                                      Armed Conflict and the Environment, which was
                                                      adopted by the 1st Session of the World Conser-
2.96 Earth Charter and draft Interna-                 vation Congress (Montreal, 1996), endorsed the
tional Covenant                                       promotion of the ‘Draft Convention on the Pro-

Resolutions and Recommendations

hibition of Hostile Military Activities in Interna-       the principles and fundamental values of
tionally Protected Areas’;                                humanity acting as steward for present and
                                                          future generations”.
REAFFIRMING the awareness expressed in the
World Charter for Nature [see note (i) below]         Notes:
that mankind is a part of nature and life depends          (i) The World Charter for Nature was
on the uninterrupted functioning of natural sys-               adopted by the United Nations General
tems;                                                          Assembly on 28 October 1982.

ALSO REAFFIRMING that every form of life                   (ii) “Until a more complete code of the
is unique, warranting respect regardless of its                 laws of war has been issued, the High
apparent worth to man;                                          Contracting Parties deem it expedient
                                                                to declare that, in cases not included
CONSIDERING the adoption of the 8th pream-                      in the Regulations adopted by them,
bular paragraph in ‘The Hague Convention (IV)                   the inhabitants and the belligerents
Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on                       remain under the protection and the
Land’ (18 October 1907), which is also known                    rule of the principles of the law of na-
as the Marten’s Clause [see quotation contained                 tions, as they result from the usages
in note (ii) below], and which is reiterated in                 established among civilized peoples,
Article 1(2) of the ‘Protocol Additional to the                 from the laws of humanity, and the dic-
Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and                        tates of the public conscience”.
Relating to the Protection of Victims of Interna-
tional Armed Conflicts’ [see quotation con-               (iii) “In cases not covered by the Protocol
tained in note (iii) below];                                    or by other international agreements,
                                                                civilians and combatants remain under
RECOGNIZING the fundamental importance of                       the protection and authority of the
the Marten’s Clause in providing a juridical                    principles of international law derived
standard governing the conduct of all persons in                from established custom, from the
times of armed conflict in the absence of con-                  principles of humanity and from dic-
ventional law; and                                              tates of public conscience.” Art. 1(2),
                                                                Protocol Additional (No. 1) to the Ge-
REAFFIRMING the need for appropriate meas-                      neva Conventions of 12 August 1949,
ures to protect the environment at the national                 and Relating to the Protection of Vic-
and international, individual and collective, pri-              tims of International Armed Conflicts,
vate and public levels;                                         Geneva, 8 June 1977.

The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-       This Recommendation was adopted by consen-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:             sus. State and Agency members United States
                                                      abstained from the adoption by consensus of this
URGES all United Nations Member States to             Recommendation.
endorse the following policy:

      “Until a more complete international code
      of environmental protection has been            2.98 To secure the environment of
      adopted, in cases not covered by interna-       Gaza Strip, West Bank and Jerusalem
      tional agreements and regulations, the bio-
      sphere and all its constituent elements and     EXPRESSING CONCERN at the renewed out-
      processes remain under the protection and       break of violence in the region and the resulting
      authority of the principles of international    loss of human life and environmental impact;
      law derived from established custom, from
      dictates of the public conscience, and from

                                                                       World Conservation Congress
                                                                        Amman, 4–11 October 2000

RECOGNIZING that socio-economic and po-              are reproduced in full in the Congress Proceed-
litical stability are important to ensure environ-   ings.
mental security and ecological integrity in the
region; and

CONSIDERING that the Vision of IUCN is to
create “a just world that values and conserves
nature”, and that this Vision includes respect for
human rights;

The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Ses-
sion in Amman, Jordan, 4–11 October 2000:

1.   SUPPORTS all efforts to bring the violence
     to an end and to protect the environment;

2.   URGES the protection of civilians, espe-
     cially children;

3.   FURTHER URGES respect for humanitar-
     ian and environmental principles consistent
     with International Law and Agreements;

4.   NOTES with concern the degradation of
     land and natural resources in the region;

5.   APPEALS to the international community
     to help ensure environmental security and
     to prevent deterioration of resources in the
                                                             IUCN Motions Process
6.   AFFIRMS that the peace process offers an           2nd World Conservation Congress
     opportunity to build relations in order to
     better protect human life and the environ-
                                                             US General Statement
     ment in the region.
                                                     The following Statement was made by the dele-
This Recommendation was adopted by a show of
                                                     gation of the State member United States during
hands. The delegations of the State members
                                                     the 19th Sitting of the World Conservation Con-
Australia, Guatemala, Japan, New Zealand,
                                                     gress on Friday, 6 October 2000. It should be
Russian Federation, and State and Agency
                                                     noted that references to the ‘Quadrennial Pro-
members United States indicated that they had
                                                     gram’ equate to the document subsequently
abstained from adoption of this Recommenda-
                                                     adopted as ‘IUCN’s Overall Programme until
tion. The delegations of the State members Aus-
                                                     the next World Conservation Congress’.
tralia and New Zealand made formal Statements
for the Record, indicating that they did not con-
                                                     “Madame President, the United States recog-
sider IUCN to be the appropriate forum for ad-
                                                     nizes the importance to many IUCN members of
dressing this issue. The State member France,
                                                     the motions process, which is a major feature of
speaking on behalf of the European Union,
                                                     the World Conservation Congress.
made a formal Statement for the Record sup-
porting the Recommendation. These Statements
                                                     We are very interested in the perspectives and
                                                     priorities of IUCN members, particularly NGOs,

Resolutions and Recommendations

as reflected in the 110+ motions put forward for     on so they can be taken into account when the
this Congress. We recognize that IUCN as an          draft Program is being prepared in Gland. We
organization has an important contribution to        are not comfortable with having programmatic
make to the international environmental dia-         and governance motions follow a separate track
logue.                                               that essentially begins after the draft Program is
                                                     completed. This undermines the value of the
We also appreciate the excellent efforts made by     Quadrennial Program, which we believe is an
the Resolutions Working Group to review and          important first step to establishing a coherent
provide guidance on all the motions and to iden-     program of work and budget for IUCN.
tify their relevance to the proposed IUCN Quad-
rennial Program and their cost implications.         We have also come to the conclusion that there
                                                     are some types of resolutions on which it may
As the RWG indicates, a number of motions            not be appropriate for us as a government to en-
would require a significant shift in priorities,     gage in or negotiate.
resources and funding allocations within the
Quadrennial Program. This raises the central         Among these is a large group of motions di-
issue of how the motions process fits into the       rected primarily to a single government or group
ongoing process of formulating the Quadrennial       of governments on national, bilateral or regional
Program, which we will finalize at this Con-         issues. We welcome and take seriously the in-
gress.                                               terest of IUCN members in important national
                                                     and regional issues, such as the conservation in
We note that a number of these motions reflect       the Mekong Delta, Mesoamerica and parts of
the strong views of a few members on what ac-        Africa, but we believe that responses to these
tions State members should take nationally, re-      motions are best left to the country or countries
gionally or internationally on complex and often     affected. We will not take a position as a gov-
controversial issues.                                ernment on such motions (which often concern
                                                     issues where we lack sufficient factual informa-
We have given serious thought as to how best         tion), except as they are directed at the US Gov-
we as a State member can participate in this mo-     ernment. In this case we will provide a state-
tions process. Because of the high priority we       ment for the record to help clarify the issues
place on IUCN’s programs which contribute            raised and provide our perspectives.
significantly to conservation goals we share, we
have concluded that we should focus our atten-       A second group of motions are those focused on
tion on those motions that deal with IUCN insti-     global issues that we agree are important but are
tutional, governance and broad program-              topics of ongoing intergovernmental policy de-
matic issues (which can be found in each of the      bate in other fora, such as climate change, bio-
three PRG, CNV and GOV categories).                  technology and trade. We respect the interest of
                                                     members in issues of global concern and we
We believe the consideration of important pro-       share many of these interests, especially on
gram and operational matters should be closely       emerging issues such as illegal logging and in-
integrated with the discussion of the Quadren-       vasive species. However, we do not intend to
nial Program. Therefore, we may not be pre-          take national government positions or particular
pared to join consensus at this time on several of   views on these issues as presented in resolutions
these ‘institutional’ motions until the implica-     here or to vote on the outcome.
tions of these resolutions have been discussed
and resolved in the context of the Quadrennial       We will provide you with a list for the record of
Program.                                             those resolutions the US Government will re-
                                                     frain from engaging on.
I would add that we believe there should be a
way to get proposals that have implications for      We would have two suggestions for considera-
the Quadrennial Program into the process early       tion by the Council as it continues its review of

                                                     World Conservation Congress
                                                      Amman, 4–11 October 2000

the resolutions process following this Congress.
First, it might be useful to recast or redefine
some motions that express the strong views of a
minority of members as ‘Statements’ which
could be sponsored and submitted by interested
members, discussed at the Congress, and in-
cluded in the record of the Congress proceed-
ings. This would enable members to highlight
and discuss important issues without attempting
to negotiate points and positions on which there
is no agreement among IUCN members.

Secondly, we suggest there be consideration of
how to provide a clear process through which
members who wish to propose a change or ex-
pansion in IUCN priorities, program compo-
nents and/or resource allocations can do so
through their respective Council members dur-
ing the process of developing the next Quadren-
nial Program, rather than separately in motions.
This would enable the range of members to have
their views on program matters considered by
the Council and incorporated in the proposed
Program before the final draft is submitted to the
next Congress.

We are happy to discuss these and other ideas
with interested members during this Congress.
We would like this statement entered for the
record in the report of this Congress”.


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