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					Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                          1




                 Teaching Social Interactions to Children with Autism:

       Evaluation of Two Different Script-Fading and Error Correction Procedures

                                   Caldwell College

                                  Thesis Committee:
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                              2


                                             Abstract

Written and auditory scripts and their associated fading procedures are empirically supported

procedures for teaching children with autism to initiate social interactions. Further inquiry,

however, is warranted to shape best practice guidelines for the use and fading of auditory

scripts. The proposed study will use alternating-treatments designs to evaluate two types of

procedural variations. In the first experiment, auditory scripts will be presented either on objects

or held out of sight of the participants. In the second experiment, errors in imitating auditory

scripts once fading begins will be addressed either by presenting the complete, original script, or

by presenting the script at the most recent fading level. Experiment 1 results are expected to

demonstrate skill maintenance when scripts that have never been visible are faded and for

Experiment 2 a clear difference between conditions. The implications of these results for clinical

practice are discussed and further areas for study are suggested.
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                             3


                      Teaching Social Interactions to Children with Autism:

           Evaluation of Two Different Script-Fading and Error Correction Procedures

       Social and communication skills are critical for successful, independent functioning at

school or in the community. For children with autism, however, skill deficits in these areas often

prevent them from enjoying social success and independence. Many children with autism have

deficits in communication skills including a lack of generative vocal speech, difficulty initiating

or sustaining conversations, and deficits in social interaction skills such as reciprocal social

behaviors and nonverbal components of social interaction (e.g., eye contact, appropriate posture),

As such, children with autism often have difficulty initiating or maintaining relationships with

peers. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision

(DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) characterizes these social skills and

communication deficits contributing to a “severe and pervasive” level of developmental

impairment in children with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders.

       Restricted, repetitive, or stereotyped patterns of behavior or interests (American

Psychiatric Assosication, 2000) in children with autism may compete with attending to verbal

models in the environment and to social contingencies that shape typical verbal interactions.

These challenges, in addition to the skill deficits previously described, means many children with

autism may not readily talk to other people (especially in a way that occasions reciprocal

responding) without explicitly being taught to do so. The body of research on teaching children

with autism to interact with others typically focuses on increasing two behaviors, initiations and

responses. Initiations begin a conversation and are directed to another person in the immediate

environment. Responses follow a conversation partner’s initiation or response. Typically,

responses are defined as being associated temporally or contextually to some prior verbal

behavior emitted by someone else. Both of these interactions are verbal productions with the

following characteristics:
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                        4


     (1) vocal speech with articulation that is intelligible to one or more listeners (Goldstein &

     Cisar, 1992; Krantz & McClannahan, 1993; Krantz & McClannahan, 1998);

     (2) containing a minimum amount of grammatical elements (Charlop & Milstein, 1989;

     Charlop-Christy & Kelso, 2003; Haring, Roger, Breen, & Gaylord-Ross, 1986;

     Petursdottir, McComas, McMaster, & Horner, 2007; Reagon & Higbee, 2009; Taylor &

     Levin, 1998) (e.g., noun and verb, Brown, Krantz, McClannahan, & Poulson, 2008;

     Garcia-Albea, Reeve, Brothers, & Reeve, 2009; Krantz & McClannahan, 1993;

     Stevenson, Krantz, & McClannahan, 2000);

     (3) not prompted, but cued only by stimuli natural to the ongoing situation (Charlop &

     Trasowech, 1991; Charlop & Walsh, 1986) except during fading steps in a systematic

     prompt-fading procedure (e.g., with scripts present, in a systematic script-fading protocol:

     Brown et al., 2008; Garcia-Albea et al., 2009; Krantz & McClannahan, 1993; Krantz &

     McClannahan, 1998; Stevenson, Krantz, & McClannahan, 2001);

     (4) directed towards another person in the immediate environment via body orientation,

     face orientation, use of the person’s name, or use of a socially relevant gesture (Brown et

     al., 2008; Gaylord-Ross, Haring, Breen, & Pitts-Conway, 1984; Krantz & McClannahan,

     1993; Krantz & McClannahan, 1998; MacDuff, Ledo, McClannahan, & Krantz, 2007;

     Petursdottir et al., 2007; Shabani, Katz, Wilder, & Beauchamp, 2002; Stevenson et al.,

     2000) ;

     (5) made within 1 m of another person (Gaylord-Ross et al., 1984; Krantz &

     McClannahan, 1998; Stevenson et al., 2000);

     (6) contextual to target stimuli in the environment or target remote stimuli (Charlop &

     Milstein, 1989; Charlop, Schreibman, & Thibodeau, 1985; Charlop & Trasowech, 1991;

     Charlop-Christy & Kelso, 2003; Haring et al., 1986; MacDuff, Ledo, McClannahan, &
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                              5


       Krantz, 2007; Reagon & Higbee, 2009; Shabani et al., 2002) (via script, e.g.,

       McClannahan & Krantz, 1993);

       (7) beginning when a new recipient is addressed or a new item or topic is introduced

       (Brown et al., 2008; Haring et al., 1986; Krantz & McClannahan, 1993; Krantz &

       McClannahan, 1998; Stevenson et al., 2000);

       (8) members of a response class separate from other verbal responses such as affirmative

       or negative responses to questions, requests for preferred items or situations,

       acknowledging responses (e.g., yeah, okay), verbal stereotypy, and is not a repetition of

       someone else’s or that individual’s immediately previous response (Brown et al., 2008;

       Goldstein & Cisar, 1992; Krantz & McClannahan, 1993; Krantz & McClannahan, 1998;

       Taylor & Levin, 1998).

       The current body of literature on teaching social interactions to children with autism

provides empirical support for teaching children to respond to others. The literature suggests that

initiations typically do not increase simply as a function of an increase in conversational

responses (e.g., Odom, Hoyson, Jamieson, & Strain, 1985). Further studies are needed to develop

the existing line of research on teaching children with autism to initiate conversational

exchanges.

       Natural social contingencies (i.e., other people’s immediate verbal responses, increased

probability of being the recipient of future social initiation) alone do not function as reinforcers

for many children with autism. In baseline conditions in Krantz and McClannahan (1998),

Stevenson et al. (2001), and Reagon and Higbee (2009), researchers only responded to

participants when they independently initiated interactions, and near zero-levels of initiations

were observed despite the contingencies in place. One possible explanation for this is that other

people’s verbal responses did not function as reinforcers for initiations.
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                             6


       Teaching procedures have thus been researched that utilize a variety of prompting and

reward strategies intended to magnify the obviousness of contingencies surrounding social

initiations by children with autism. Typically, this produces moderate to large increases in

initiations from near-zero levels (Brown et al., 2008; Charlop & Milstein, 1989; Gaylord-Ross et

al., 1984; Krantz & McClannahan, 1993; Sarakoff et al., 2001). These data have been generated

with participants who range in age from early childhood to teenage with a range of vocal

repertoires, scores on receptive language tests, and varying amounts of socially inappropriate

behavioral excesses. Increasing the number of opportunities for students to display the skill may

be one antecedent component of effective intervention, as it may increase the history of contact

with rewards. Effective “demagnification” of these and other antecedent events and

consequences is necessary to produce truly independent social interaction in natural conditions.

Prompt-fading strategies, thinning schedules of reinforcement, and programming for skill

maintenance continue to be important goals in research and practice.

       Directions, verbal models, and scripts are three ways researchers have prompted social

interactions by children with autism. Verbal directions were incorporated in teaching procedures

evaluated by Haring et al. (1986), Charlop-Christy and Kelso (2003), and Goldstein and Cisar

(1992). Haring et al. (1986) modeled initiations selected from a small set. If students did not

continue the conversation, instructors asked questions students about ongoing activities, and if

students repeated previous statements, a direction was given to say something new. It is unclear

whether these questions and directions functioned as prompts for the students. Furthermore,

fading of these supports was not described. Treatment effects for both initiations (i.e., change of

topic from previous statements made by either participant or conversation partner) and

responses, measured in an untaught setting with peers not participating in training sessions, were

moderate. Verbal directions appeared to be more effective when combined with written scripts

(Charlop-Christy & Kelso, 2003), although the skill taught was a combination of answering and
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                            7


asking questions with experimenters, and conversations were always teacher-initiated. Finally, a

1992 study by Goldstein and Cisar incorporated verbal directions along with verbal and motor

models in script training procedures for pretend play activities. The ratio of verbal directions and

verbal models to “indirect” prompts such as questions to prompt on-task behavior and use of

target statements was gradually decreased. These prompting procedures produced a large

treatment effect for all participants, under conditions where verbal directions were used

intermittently by untrained teachers leading the sociodramatic activity. Generality of results,

however, may be limited for the population of all students with autism as participants were

enrolled in a preschool with typical peers and had “autistic characteristics” but no diagnosis of

autism or developmental disability.

       Charlop and colleagues reported success in increasing initiations using verbal models

faded through progressive time-delay procedures (Charlop, Schreibman, & Thibodeau, 1985;

Charlop & Trasowech, 1991; Charlop & Walsh, 1986). In Charlop, Schreibman, and Thibodeau

(1985) children were taught to request items within ten seconds of item presentatio. At the

conclusion of the study, requests were made independent of verbal cues from the instructor, but

specific instructor behaviors not present in the natural environment still set the occasion for

children’s initiations. Charlop and Walsh (1986) taught children with autism to say “I like you”

or “I love you” when hugged, and in a 1991 study, Charlop and Trasowech described a parent-

implemented time-delay procedure used to fade verbal models of initiations (e.g., greetings)

during transition times (e.g., coming home from school, waking up in the morning). Treatment

integrity data from Charlop and Trasowech (1991) indicated that parents implemented the time-

delay procedure effectively. While Charlop and Walsh reported high levels of parent satisfaction

with the target response displayed under the taught conditions, the authors raised concern

regarding generalization of the targeted skill to other situations and programming effectively for
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                           8


this to occur. Both Charlop and Walsh and Charlop and Trasowech noted, appropriately, that

response variability was a concern as well.

       Two more studies have examined pairing a vibrating timer with verbal models to prompt

social initiations in a public school setting. Taylor and Levin (1998) and Shabani et al. (2002)

taught children to imitate verbal models of social initiations paired with vibrations from a device

which could be worn “invisibly” inside a pocket. While Shabani et al. (2002) faded the

frequency with which the device was activated, neither study faded the device from the students’

pockets.

       Relative to directions and verbal models, scripts and script fading may be characterized

as a technology that is child-initiated and provides rich opportunities to model and teach varied

responding (Cowan & Allen, 2007; Krantz & McClannahan,1993, and McClannahan & Krantz,

2005) . Krantz, McClannahan, and colleagues (Brown et al., 2008; Krantz & McClannahan 1993,

1998; MacDuff et al., 2007; Stevenson et al., 2000) and researchers replicating their work

(Garcia-Albea et al., 2009; Reagon & Higbee, 2009; Sarakoff et al., 2001) replaced verbal

models uttered in-vivo with written text read by the student or auditory models played by a

recording device or videotape. These models are known as scripts and are associated with the

particular prompt fading procedure known as script fading (Krantz & McClannahan, 1993). To

prompt initiations, scripts have been placed on the student’s work surface (Krantz &

McClannahan, 1993; to prompt responses, Charlop-Christy & Kelso, 2003), in the student’s

activity schedule (Krantz & McClannahan, 1998), on preferred items (Sarakoff et al., 2001), and

on items in the environment (Brown et al., 2008). Cards bearing magnetic tape strips read by a

card reader were placed in learners’ activity schedules by Stevenson, Krantz, & McClannahan

(2001). Finally, button-activated voice recording devices have been attached to out-of-place

items in the environment (MacDuff et al., 2007) and toys (Garcia-Albea et al., 2009; Reagon &
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                              9


Higbee, 2009). Videotapes were used by Charlop and Milstein (1989) to model conversations

about toys.

        Complete script fading has been attempted and accomplished in only a few cases, despite

attempts to limit the presence of instructor behavior that did not model typical or appropriate

social interaction. Sarakoff, Taylor, and Poulson (2001) successfully faded written scripts

attached to items to the first word of the script which doubled as text naturally occurring on the

item’s packaging. MacDuff et al. (2007) and Garcia-Albea et al. (2009) were able to fade audio

playback devices, but for one participant in Garcia-Albea et al.’s study, it was necessary to

change the position of the recording device from the item to being held out of the child’s view to

produce independent performance. More research is needed to determine how to make these

scripts as criterion-related as possible to successfully fade these prompts. This will build on the

results obtained in previous studies and add to best practice recommendations made by

McClannahan and Krantz (2005).

        The proposed study will use alternating-treatments designs to evaluate two research

questions. In the first experiment, auditory scripts will be presented either on objects or held out

of view of the participant as in Garcia-Albea et al. (2009). If time allows, a second experiment

will be conducted to compare two procedures for prompting an initiation in the presence of a

partially faded script if the verbal production made does not meet criteria for an interaction.

Either the full, original script (Garcia-Albea et al., 2009) or the partial script at the previous

fading level (McClannahan & Krantz, 2005, p. 129; Reagon & Higbee, 2009) will be played.

Determining if a difference exists in the efficacy of these two procedures will help instructors to

reduce child errors, decrease trials to criterion, and help children contact more rewards for

independent social initiations.

                                            Experiment 1

Method
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                           10


       Participants. Participants will be Alan, Jerry, Mark, and Ben, four boys who attend a

small, private, not-for-profit school serving children and adolescents with autism for at least two

years each at the time of the study and have a diagnosis of autism conferred by an independent

provider. Each participant receives individualized instruction in skill areas individualized to his

needs (e.g., academic skills, language skills, self-help skills, peer interaction skills) based on the

principles of applied behavior analysis 5 days a week for 6 hours per day. Participants receive

instruction on a one-to-one basis for the entire school day, except during one 45-minute group

instructional session (Jerry, Mark, and Ben) and lunch, during both of which supervision is

provided in a two teacher to six student ratio. All four participants are cued to engage in

activities by activity schedules for the entire school day. Skill acquisition data from participants’

time in intervention indicate that all participants have been previously taught to verbally imitate

over 100 words (for Mark, over 50 words) and phrases (up to six words) modeled by instructors

and verbally request objects, items, or activities independently. Some participants have been

taught to greet and respond to greetings by teachers and peers, initiate interactions with peers or

teachers when cued by activity schedules, initiate conversations about objects or general topics

with teachers or peers, and imitate motor and verbal responses modeled on a video to play

appropriately with toys. Data available regarding generalization of these skills in the presence of

materials, people, or settings that have not been associated with teaching indicate variable

performance under these conditions at or below performance during teaching conditions.

       Alan is 7 years old and has been receiving intervention at this school for two years. Alan

has mastered requesting a variety of objects, items, activities, and help from a variety of teachers

in a variety of situations. Scripts played on voice recorders are currently being used and faded to

teach Alan to initiate conversations with teachers when cued by his daily activity schedule; Alan

is not yet able to display this skill independent of instructor prompts. Alan has also previously

been taught to engage in appropriate chains of toy play by imitating motor and verbal responses
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                               11


modeled on a videotape for seven different sets of play materials. Anecdotal observations

indicate that Alan reliably responds to greetings with familiar teachers and occasionally initiates

greetings with teachers. Alan has also been taught to reliably imitate scripts played on recording

devices to initiate interactions about instructional activities and continue to initiate interactions

once scripts are faded, but this performance has not been observed to maintain once devices are

removed. Anecdotal observations indicate that Alan occasionally initiates greetings with teachers

and reliably responds to teachers’ greetings. Alan engages in moderate to low levels of motor

stereotypy and disruptive behavior.

       Jerry is 7 years old and has been receiving intervention at this school for over four years.

Written scripts have been used and faded to teach Jerry to initiate conversations about objects

using thirty-five phrases of up to nine words. Written scripts and script fading have also been

used to teach Jerry to initiate conversations with twenty statements and tell twenty different jokes

to teachers when cued by his daily activity schedule. Jerry has been taught to engage with

appropriate toy play with peers by imitating motor and verbal responses modeled on a videotape

for sixteen different sets of play materials. Anecdotal observations indicate that Jerry initiates

and responds to greetings with familiar teachers and less consistently with unfamiliar teachers.

Jerry engages in low to zero levels of verbal and motor stereotypy. Jerry reliably imitates audio

script but has these have never been used to teach him to make initiations.

       Mark is 9 years old and has been receiving intervention at this school for over five years.

Scripts played on voice recorders have been effective to teach Mark to request objects, items, or

activities using eleven phrases of up to six words. Written scripts have been used and faded to

teach Mark to initiate interactions with teachers when cued by his activity schedule using fifteen

statements. Written scripts are also being used and faded to teach Mark to initiate interactions

with a peer during a play activity. Mark has previously been taught to engage with appropriate

toy play by imitating motor and verbal responses modeled on a videotape for nine different sets
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                          12


of play materials. Anecdotal observations indicate that Mark independently requests help from

teachers when appropriate and does not independently initiate greetings with teachers or peers.

Mark engages in low levels of verbal stereotypy and very low to zero levels of motor stereotypy.

Mark reliably imitates audio script but has these have never been used to teach him to make

initiations.

        Ben is 8 years old and has been receiving intervention at this school for over three years.

Scripts played on voice recorders and systematically faded have been effective to teach Ben to

request objects, items, or activities using six three- to four-word phrases and to initiate greetings

with a variety of teachers. Ben has been taught to initiate conversations with nine teachers and

five peers using thirty-four statements and to request objects, items, or activities using six

different three to four word phrases. Anecdotal observations indicate that Ben independently

requests a variety of preferred items with a variety of instructors. Written scripts have been used

to teach Ben to initiate conversations with a variety of teachers when cued by his activity

schedule. Ben engages in very low to zero levels of stereotypy.

        Setting and apparatus. All sessions will take place in the children’s classrooms.

Classrooms are approximately 6 m x 9 m and are shared with five other students. Each student’s

work area contains one or two child-sized desks, a child-sized chair, and a child-sized bookshelf

with the student’s instructional materials and activity schedule. The classrooms also contain a

counter which serves as teacher workspace and additional shelving containing books, toys,

DVDs, a desktop computer, teacher materials, and so forth. The experimenter’s data collection

materials will be located on one of the desks in the student’s work area if two desks are present,

and on the teacher workspace counter if only one desk is present. Participants’ motivational

systems, which will consist of snacks identified as preferred via a preference assessment

(described in more detail below), will also be present.
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                         13


       Sessions will be videotaped using a tripod-mounted video camera located in an

unobtrusive location in the classroom. Participants will wear a microphone (MODEL #

INFORMATION) to increase the sound recording quality audible during video playback. Prior

to the study, participants will be taught to wear the microphone apparatus appropriately while

engaging in daily scheduled activities.

       Scripts will be presented on portable, lightweight button-activated recording devices

(e.g., 60.3 mm x 60.3 mm x 8 mm Voice-Over Recorder, 45 mm x 20 mm Mini-Me, both

manufactured by Voice Express®, www.voice-express.com – see Figure 1). Hook-and-loop

fasteners will be used to attach devices to materials as needed.

       Experimenter and assistants. The experimenter is pursuing a Master’s degree in applied

behavior analysis, an instructor at SHLI, and has two years of experience providing one-on-one

instruction based on the principles of applied behavior analysis to students with autism.

Individuals who will assist the experimenter are students pursuing graduate degrees in applied

behavior analysis with at least two years of experience providing one-on-one instruction based

on the principles of applied behavior analysis to students with autism. Assistants are familiar

with data collection, prompting, and reinforcement procedures similar to those to be used in this

study. The experimenter will serve as the primary conversation recipient.

       Dependent measures. Initiation of an interaction is defined as an understandable

statement or question that includes, at minimum, a noun or pronoun and verb. Interactions are

scored in the absence of physical or verbal prompts except as specified below (e.g., not in the

presence of verbal directions such as “Say ___”). The participant must orient his face toward the

interaction recipient for a statement to be scored as an interaction (Krantz & McClannahan,

1993, 1998; Stevenson, Krantz, & McClannahan, 2000). For the purposes of this study,

“orienting” means that midline of the participant’s face has a maximum angle of offset of

approximately 45 degrees from the midline of the conversation recipient’s face.
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                           14


       Scripted initiation. A scripted interaction matches at minimum the nouns, verbs,

adjectives, and adverbs of the original version of the most recently played script, except that verb

tense, pronouns, articles, conjunctions, and prepositions may be altered or deleted, and the

recipient’s name may be added. If a script has been partially faded, statements or questions that

match the complete version of that script as described above are scored as scripted (Krantz &

McClannahan, 1993; Krantz & McClannahan, 1998; Stevenson, Krantz, & McClannahan, 2000).

       Unscripted initiation. Unscripted interactions are verbal statements or questions that

differ from the original version of the most recently played script by one or more of the

following: noun, verb, adjective, or adverb (i.e., differs from script in any way other than verb

tense, pronouns, articles, conjunctions, and prepositions) (Krantz & McClannahan, 1993; Krantz

& McClannahan, 1998; Stevenson, Krantz, & McClannahan, 2000).

       Novel initiation. Novel interactions contain no words from the original scripts besides

conjunctions, articles, prepositions, pronouns, or the object’s name (Garcia-Albea et al., 2009).


       Non-interaction. Requests for preferred items (e.g., “Can I have a snack?”, “Can I see

that one?”), greetings or goodbyes (e.g., “Good morning”), repetitions of the participant’s or

experimenter’s immediately previous verbal statements, and answers to questions (e.g., “Yes,”

“Okay”) are scored as non-interactions (Stevenson, Krantz, & McClannahan, 2000).

       Generalization initiation. A generalization interaction occurs in the presence of stimuli,

settings, or interaction recipients that will never be associated with button-activated recording

devices, auditory scripts, prompting procedures, or reinforcement contingencies (other than a

conversational response) during this study.

       Additional stimuli. Thirty-six age appropriate leisure materials and items will be used in

each experiment (eighteen per each of the two conditions in each experiment). Stimuli will be

selected from age-appropriate toy recommendations on national chain toy retailer websites and in
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                            15


stores, toys, and leisure materials currently in the participants’ instructional environments, and

observation of peers of typical development. All participants in the same experiment will use the

same stimuli. If instructional data indicate a participant has already been taught to interact in the

presence of particular stimuli, those stimuli will not be included in this study. Stimulus sets used

for Experiment 1 are listed in Tables 1 and 2. Stimuli are subject to change based on availability

at the time the experiment begins and tables will be updated to reflect any changes made.

       Peers of typical development will be observed to determine appropriate content for

scripted statements. Typical interactions are expected to include four-to-seven word statements.

Scripted statements will be made as general as possible to increase potential functional use of

responses in the presence of other stimuli. Corresponding scripts for items in each set are listed

in Tables 1 and 2.

       Experimental design. An alternating-treatments design preceded by a baseline will be

used for each participant. Order of treatment delivery will be randomized across sessions to

control for sequencing effects, with no treatment delivered in more than two consecutive sessions

(e.g., teaching conditions are designated A and B and the order AABBABAABB is used, Barlow

& Hayes, 1979). Additionally, the first condition experienced by participants will be

counterbalanced (i.e., two participants experience condition A during the first session and the

remaining two participants experience condition B during the first session). Baseline data

collection will begin simultaneously for each participant and intervention will be introduced on

an individual basis when steady-state responding is observed for a minimum of five data points.

An alternating treatments design was chosen because it allows for simultaneous comparison of

performance in two conditions for the same individual. Additionally, a treatment effect may

often be observed more quickly compared to designs such as a multiple-baseline design. An

alternating treatments design is more appropriate than a reversal design due to the desired

acquisition and maintenance of that performance for the target behavior.
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                              16


       If steady-state responding at clearly different levels is observed for four data points after

scripts have been completely faded (i.e., Level 6 – see Table 3), the condition associated with

undesirable responding will be discontinued and teaching will begin for the stimuli in that

condition using the more effective procedure. Scripts will be reimplemented for those stimuli at

fading Level 3 (i.e., first word only remaining) because participants will have already

demonstrated making criterion numbers of scripted initiations at this fading level, and

subsequent steps will allow for a history of reinforcement surrounding to be built with these

stimuli using the other fading procedure. Thinning of the schedule of reinforcement during the

more effective condition will then commence to program for skill maintenance over time.

       Procedure.

       Assignment of training and probe trials. For each participant, one set of stimuli will be

associated with one teaching condition, and a second set of stimuli will be associated with the

other teaching condition. The pairing of stimulus sets and fading procedure types will be

counterbalanced across participants. Table 4 shows the stimulus set and teaching condition

assignment for each participant. Each stimulus set will be made up of eighteen items. Nine

training stimuli and three stimuli used to assess skill generalization (“generalization stimuli”)

will be presented for each trial and positioned and rotated through positions quasi-randomly

around the student’s instructional area. The three generalization stimuli will be randomly

selected for each participant, and will remain the same throughout the study. The nine training

stimuli will be randomly selected from the remaining pool of fifteen items for each session.

       Pre-experimental assessment. To ensure participants’ verbal imitation skills and

identification skills are not exerting an influence on data collection, two assessments will be

completed prior to the study to identify participants for inclusion. First, participants’ ability to

imitate five- to seven-word statements (not used in this study) played on a button-activated

recording device will be assessed. A criterion of four out of five correctly imitated statements
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                            17


will be used for inclusion. Second, the experimenter will assess participants’ ability to identify

objects used in the study. The experimenter will hold up or pointing to the item and ask “What is

this?” A criterion of nine out of ten correctly identified objects will be used for inclusion.

       Preference assessment. Prior to the start of the study and approximately every 10

sessions thereafter, the experimenter will conduct a multiple stimulus without replacement

preference assessment (Deleon & Iwata, 1996; Carr, Nicolson, & Higbee, 2000) for each

participant. Eight snack items will be selected for each participant based on instructor and/or

parent recommendations. The eight items will be arranged in a line on a table facing the

participant and the participant will be told to make a choice. Attempts to choose multiple items

will be blocked. When an item is chosen, the participant will be given access to 1 piece of the

snack (e.g., 1 M&M, a ½” piece of granola bar). The item will be removed from the array,

remaining items will be repositioned in a quasi-random order, and the procedure will be repeated

until no items are left. This entire procedure will be repeated two more times. The number of

times an item is selected will be divided by the number of trials for which the item was present

and multiplied by 100 to yield a selection percentage. Means selection percentages will be

calculated for each item and the top 3 items with the greatest selection percentages will be used

as rewards.

       General format. The experimenter will begin each session with a general statement such

as, “Come hang out with me,” to cue the participant that a new activity is beginning in his daily

routine while not serving as a prompt to begin a conversation. Nine training items and three

items used to assess generalization will be presented simultaneously in each session. The

interaction recipient will sit or stand with a relaxed posture approximately 1.5 – 2 m away from

the participant with face, eye gaze, and body oriented to the recipient. The interaction recipient

will respond to participant interactions defined as target behaviors for this study with a

contextually appropriate response and positive affect (e.g., saying “Neat, I like SpongeBob too!”
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                           18


while smiling, orienting face toward, and making eye contact with participant) and deliver

further access to the item for 30 s. Pieces of snack items identified as highly preferred via an

earlier preference assessment will be dropped into a cup contingent on appropriate responding as

specified in each condition. At the end of the session, the participant will gain access to his cup

of snacks and will then return to his daily instructional activities.

       Baseline sessions. In baseline conditions, the participant will experience the general

procedures described above. No further directions or prompts will be given. Snacks will be

delivered in a cup intermittently for attending behavior, e.g., standing with appropriate posture,

manipulating the target materials. Appropriate interactions will be followed by a brief, contextual

conversational response only.

       Scripts and script fading. During each session, data will be collected on the participant’s

first opportunity to make a statement for each of nine training items. The participant will be

expected to approach each of the target items, pick up or manipulate the item, approach the

experimenter within 1 m, and interact. When the participant engages in an interaction (scripted or

unscripted), within 5 s of approaching the experimenter, the experimenter will respond with a

brief conversational statement and appropriate nonverbal responses, and will deliver a piece of a

snack (e.g., 1 piece of popcorn, an M&M) in a cup and further access to the item as described

above. When a participant independently initiates an interaction by repeating the audio script on

the first opportunity for each of the nine training stimuli for one session, script fading will begin.

Scripts will be faded from end to beginning in six steps according to the procedure detailed in

Table 3.

       Device-visible condition. Button-activated recording devices containing the target scripts

will be attached to six training stimuli via hook-and-loop fasteners. Devices will be rotated daily

to promote response generalization across materials. If the student does not approach relevant

materials within 5 s of the start of the session or from the end of the previous interaction or
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                            19


approach or orient to the experimenter (i.e., conversation recipient), or activate the device within

5 s of approaching materials, a progressive time-delay procedure will be used. (Charlop,

Schreibman, & Thibodeau, 1985). A trained assistant will manually guide the correct response

and manual guidance will be provided immediately at the step (i.e., a 0-s time delay) at which the

error was made for the next two trials. These manual prompts will be faded by 2-second

increments up to a 4 s delay. Criterion to increase delay is two consecutive correct trials at the

current delay. If the student makes an error at the current delay time, a 0-s time delay will be

reimplemented on the next trial and fading will continue according to the procedure described.

       If the full script is present on the device and the student makes no response or makes a

non-interaction, the prompter will guide the student to activate the device again. This will be

repeated until the device has been activated up to three times. If the student still does not imitate

the script, the prompter will verbally model the script. Manual prompts will be faded as

described above. If a partial script is present on the device and the student does not make a

complete interaction, the prompter will replace the device on the object with a device containing

the full script and prompt the participant to activate the device as above. Initiations prompted by

a full script will be rewarded with a brief, contextual conversational response from the

experimenter. When the participant independently imitates the script, the device with the partial

script will be placed back on the object. Snacks will only be delivered for independent initiations

with the current fading level of script present. Figure 2 details the sequence of steps used in

teaching and error correction.

       Device-non-visible condition. The instructor will conceal the button-activated recording

device in her pocket. If the participant does not initiate an interaction within 5 s of approaching

or manipulating the materials, the experimenter will activate the appropriate script concealed in

her pocket. If the participant does not imitate the script, the correct response will be prompted as
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                            20


specified above, with the exception that device activations will be done by the experimenter with

the device always remaining concealed in the pocket.

       Probes for generalization. Three items per condition for each participant will be reserved

for assessing generalization and these designations are marked in Tables 1 and 2. These items

will never have recording devices attached to them and the participant will never be prompted to

approach, manipulate, or initiate an interaction surrounding generalization stimuli and button-

activated recording devices will be neither placed on nor played when a participant approaches

these stimuli. To avoid extinguishing desired responding in the presence of training stimuli,

when the participant interacts in the presence of generalization stimuli, the experimenter will

respond with a brief, contextual conversational statement and appropriate nonverbal responses as

previously described.

       Thinning of reinforcement schedule. When scripts and audio playback devices are

completely faded, the schedule of reinforcement will begin to be thinned to promote maintenance

of this skill over time under naturally occurring conditions (i.e., schedules of reinforcement more

typical of natural settings). After four days of independently interacting in the presence of eight

out of nine training stimuli, an FR2 schedule will be implemented. (i.e., reinforcement will

provided after every 2 independent interactions made by the participant). After two days of

independent interactions for eight out of nine training stimuli, an FR4 schedule of reinforcement

was implemented. Lastly, a snack item will be presented in a cup only upon completing the

session.

       Follow-up Measures. Two follow-up sessions for each participant will be conducted two

weeks and four weeks after the conclusion of the study (i.e., after the student interacts on eight

out of nine opportunities for two consecutive sessions when snacks are delivered only at the

conclusion of the session).
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                            21


       Pre- and Post-Intervention Measures. Two pre-intervention and two post-intervention

measures will be conducted for each experiment in the training setting with the training materials

with a trained, age-matched peer as the interaction recipient. The peer will be instructed to let the

participant speak first and to respond with a contextual statement if the peer initiates an

interaction as defined previously. No prompts will be provided to the participant and no button-

activated recording devices will be present.

       Social validity. Acceptability of the study’s goals, procedures, and outcomes will be

assessed. Script content and target discriminative stimuli for engaging in conversations will be

developed by observing typically developing similar-aged peers in school and play

environments. Acceptability of procedures used will be assessed using questions (i.e., items with

Likert-type rating responses) taken from the Treatment Acceptability and Rating Form (TARF;

Reimers & Wacker, 1988) appropriate to the procedures used in this study (see Appendix A). A

summarized description of the procedures used in this study, along with the modified rating

form, will be distributed to a minimum of ten teachers working at the participants’ school, with a

similar population of students, or in a similar intervention setting. Mean ratings on the form

distributed to assess acceptability of the intervention procedure are expected to be 6.0 or greater

on a 7-point scale where 7.0 corresponds to “very acceptable”.

       Social validity of participant outcomes will also be assessed. Persons blind to the purpose

of this research will rate participant competence demonstrated in video clips of participants’

performance both during baseline and after treatment. The clips will be presented in a quasi-

randomized order (i.e., the “pre” and “post” intervention clips for the same participant will never

be shown consecutively). After viewing each video clip, viewers will rate the question, “How

well did the child talk to others?” using a 7-point Likert scale where 1 = Not well at all and 7 =

Very well. Viewers may be directed to attend to certain behaviors present in the clips (e.g.,

verbal productions), but to maximize objectiveness of ratings will not be informed of the study
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                       22


purpose or which clips correspond to which study phases. A 2.0 point or greater difference is

expected between mean ratings of videotaped clips of baseline and outcome performances across

participants.

       Data Analysis. Sessions will be videotaped for later scoring of data. Each understandable

verbal production will be scored as a scripted interaction, unscripted interaction, or non-

interaction. Data will be further coded to reflect whether an interaction was made in the presence

of trained or untrained stimuli. Data will be summarized and plotted as number of scripted,

unscripted, and generalization initiations per session. Pre- and post-intervention assessment data

will be summarized as number of each type of statement made by each participant in each

condition.

       Interobserver agreement. A second observer will score at least 33% of videotaped

sessions for each condition and each participant. When observers score the same verbal

production as the same type of interaction or as a non-interaction, this will be scored as an

agreement. Number of agreements for a session will be divided by total number of

understandable verbal productions (i.e., number of agreements plus number of disagreements) in

that session and multiplied by 100 to yield a percentage interobserver agreement. Mean

interobserver agreement for each dependent variable for each participant for each phase and

treatment condition of the study is expected to be above 80%, with ranges of 80% to 100%.

       Observers will be trained on a videotape of a session for which scoring will not be

included in mean IOA calculations. Obtaining 80% or greater agreement with the experimenter

will be criterion to continue scoring that is included in mean IOA calculations. If agreement for

any session is lower than 80%, the experimenter and second observer will determine the source

of the disagreement and review dependent variable definitions to resolve the disagreement. If

necessary, more training will be provided until a criterion score of 80% agreement is again

obtained on a training video.
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                           23


       Procedural integrity. Procedural integrity will be obtained for over 33% of sessions for

each participant across phases and treatment conditions. Observers will score the experimenter’s

compliance with proposed experimental protocols (e.g., correct fading level of script present on

recording devices, correct placement of script, correct prompts used, correct error correction

protocol followed) for each observed session (please see Appendix B for a sample procedural

integrity data sheet). Interobserver agreement between the experimenter and the second observer

will be calculated for at least 33% of sessions reviewed. An agreement will be scored when two

observers score an item the same way. Number of agreements for a session will be divided by

total number of agreements plus disagreements in that session and multiplied by 100 to yield a

percentage interobserver agreement.

       Mean procedural integrity is expected to be above 80% for each participant for each

phase and treatment condition of the study. Mean interobserver agreement for treatment integrity

for each participant for each phase and treatment condition of the study is expected to be above

80%, with ranges of 80% to 100%.

Results

       Acquisition of scripted and unscripted interactions and interactions in the presence of

stimuli not associated with scripts (i.e., stimuli targeted for generalization) are displayed in

Figures 3, 4, and 5, respectively. In baseline conditions, the number of interactions is expected to

be at low to zero levels. When scripts are introduced and script fading begins, both scripted and

unscripted interactions are expected to increase in both conditions because scripts are expected to

prompt interactions reliably (i.e., greatly increase the probability that interactions will occur

following them). As scripts begin to be faded, performance is expected to maintain at criterion

levels in both conditions. Once script devices are faded from objects in the device-visible

condition, a clear disparity in treatment effect is expected to quickly emerge for all participants,

with performance maintaining at higher levels for the device-not-visible condition. Performance
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                           24


is expected to increase for the set of stimuli previously associated with the device-visible

condition once the device-not-visible teaching procedure is implemented surrounding those

stimuli. Initiations are expected to generalize across stimuli. More interactions are expected for

stimuli that have not been associated with scripts in the set associated with the device-not-visible

condition relative to those in the set associated with the device-visible condition.

Discussion

       Similar results are expected to be seen for Alan, Jerry, Mark, and Ben. Scripts are

expected to reliably prompt verbal statements and initiations of interaction for all participants

and are expected to be faded quickly while performance maintains in the absence of the full

script (i.e., when partial scripts are present) and as the schedule of reinforcement is thinned.

Initially prompting initiations with the device not visible to the participant (i.e., held behind the

learner’s ear) is expected to be more efficient in producing high, stable levels of scripted

initiations once scripts and devices are completely faded. Less conspicuous visual differences

between Levels 5 and 6 for the device-not-visible condition relative to the device-visible

condition may account for the disparity in treatment effects that may be seen between these two

conditions. Less conspicuous visual differences between stimuli in the device-not-visible

condition associated with scripts and those not associated with scripts may account for greater

levels of interactions in the presence of stimuli not associated with scripts for this condition

relative to stimuli not associated with scripts for the device-visible condition.

                                           Experiment 2

       Placement of scripts (i.e., on objects or out of view of the participant) will be consistent

with results obtained in Experiment 1. If a clear difference in responding is not observed for two

or more participants, or if a variable pattern of responding across participants (i.e., performance

maintains better for scripts on objects for two participants and when held behind the ear for the

other two participants) is observed, scripts will be placed on objects.
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                            25


Method

       All aspects of Experiment 2 will be identical to those in Experiment 1, with the following

changes.

       Participants. Four adolescent males with autism, Sam, Tyler, Percy, and Jaden will

participate in Experiment 2. All participants attend the same private not-for-profit school for

students with autism as the participants in Experiment 1, follow written activity schedules to

guide them to engage in instructional activities and work tasks for the day. Participants receive

supervision for independent activities in a zoned format (i.e., the teacher assigned to an area of

the classroom or school building supervises the students in and transitioning in and out of the

area at that time) and receive instruction in a one-to-one or one instructor to two student ratio as

necessary.

       Sam is 15 years old and has been receiving intervention at this school for the past ten

years. Skill acquisition data from Sam’s time in intervention indicate that scripts played on

portable voice recording devices and systematically faded have been effective in teaching Sam to

initiate interactions with familiar teachers when cued to do so by his daily activity schedule.

Anecdotal observations indicate that Sam initiates greetings at a low to zero level and responds

to greetings from teachers inconsistently. Sam engages in moderate to low levels of verbal and

motor stereotypy.

       Tyler is 13 years old and has been receiving intervention at this school for the past seven

years. Skill acquisition data from his time in intervention indicate that audiotaped scripts played

on Language Master cards (i.e., paper cards with a magnetic strip run through an audio-output

card reading device) and systematically faded have been effective to teach Tyler to initiate

conversations before and after a variety of activities in his daily activity schedule. Tyler is able to

imitate up phrases of up ten words when modeled via Language Master cards. Tyler has been

taught to initiate greetings with visitors in the school building, and anecdotal observations
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                             26


indicate that Tyler initiates and responds to greetings with familiar teachers. Tyler engages in

low to zero levels of stereotypy

       Percy is 17 years old and has been receiving intervention at this school for the past ten

years. Skill acquisition data indicate that written scripts and systematic fading of these scripts

have been effective in teaching Percy to initiate and respond to social interactions with

classmates at SHLI under a controlled set of circumstances. Percy reliably initiates interactions

with familiar teachers to communicate wants and needs using complete sentences. Anecdotal

observations indicate that Percy consistently responds to greetings from teachers and

inconsistently initiates greetings with familiar teachers. Percy engages in low to zero levels of

stereotypy and disruptive behavior.

       Jaden is 14 years old and has been receiving intervention at this school for the past eight

years. Skill acquisition data indicate that written scripts and systematically fading these scripts

have been effective in teaching Jaden to initiate and respond to social interactions using seven- to

ten-word statements with classmates at SHLI under a controlled set of circumstances. Jaden

reliably initiates interactions with teachers to communicate wants and needs using complete

sentences. Skill acquisition data indicate that Jaden has been taught to initiate interactions

complimenting and asking questions to familiar peers and teachers when cued to do so via his

daily activity schedule. Jaden engages in low to zero levels of stereotypy.

       Stimuli. Items that make up stimulus sets 1 and 2, item subsets, corresponding scripts,

and which items in each subset are designated as “generalization stimuli” for each participant

will be listed in Tables 5 and 6. Items will be selected when the determination is made that time

is available to conduct the experiment.

       Procedure.

       Assignment of training and probe trials. Table 7 shows the stimulus set and teaching

condition assignment for each participant in Experiment 2.
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                          27


        Scripts and Script Fading.

        Full script prompting condition. All aspects of this condition will be conducted following

the same procedures specified in the corresponding condition in Experiment 1.

        Last fading step prompting condition. All aspects of the condition will be conducted

following the same procedures specified in the corresponding device placement condition in

Experiment 1, with the following exception.

        When fading of scripts begins, if a partial script is present on the device and the

participant does not initiate an interaction by making a scripted or unscripted statement, the

prompter will replace the device with a device containing the partial script present in the

previous fading step according to Table 3. The assistant will then activate the device or prompt

the participant to activate the device as previously described. When the participant independently

makes a scripted or unscripted statement with that level of faded script, the device with the

partial script representing the current fading step in the script-fading sequence will be replaced.

When the participant makes a scripted or unscripted statement given this partial script, snacks

will be delivered into a cup. If the participant does not make a scripted or unscripted statement,

the device with the last fading step at which the participant was previously successful will be

replaced and the error correction procedure repeated until a scripted or unscripted statement is

made.

        Social validity. Mean ratings on the form distributed to assess acceptability of the

intervention procedure are expected to be 6.0 or greater on a 7-point scale where 7.0 corresponds

to “very acceptable”. A 2.0 point or greater difference is expected between mean ratings of

videotaped clips of baseline and outcome performances across participants

        Interobserver agreement. Interobserver agreement will be obtained for over 33% of

sessions for each participant across phases and treatment conditions. Mean interobserver
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                           28


agreement for each dependent variable for each participant for each phase and treatment

condition of the study is expected to be above 80%, with ranges of 80% to 100%.

       Procedural integrity. Procedural integrity will be obtained for over 33% of sessions for

each participant across phases and treatment conditions. Mean procedural integrity is expected to

be above 80% for each participant for each phase and treatment condition of the study. Mean

interobserver agreement for treatment integrity for each participant for each phase and treatment

condition of the study is expected to be above 80%, with ranges of 80% to 100%.

Results

       Acquisition of scripted and unscripted interactions and interactions in the presence of

stimuli not associated with scripts (i.e., stimuli targeted for generalization) are displayed in

Figures 6, 7, and 8, respectively. In baseline conditions, the number of interactions is expected to

be at low to zero levels. When scripts are introduced and script fading begins, both scripted and

unscripted interactions are expected to increase in both conditions because scripts are expected to

prompt interactions reliably (i.e., greatly increase the probability that interactions will occur

following them).A clear disparity in treatment effect is expected to emerge for all participants as

scripts begin to be faded, with a more desirable trend expected for the full-script prompting

condition. Performance is expected to increase for the set of stimuli previously associated with

the last fading step prompting condition once the full-script prompting procedure is implemented

surrounding those stimuli. Performance is expected to generalize across stimuli.

Discussion

       Similar results are expected to be seen for Sam, Tyler, Percy, and Jaden. Scripts are

expected to reliably prompt verbal statements and initiations of interaction for all participants

and are expected to be faded quickly while performance maintains in the absence of the full

script (i.e., when partial scripts are present). When errors in making scripted interactions are

made when partial scripts are present, it is expected that using the full script to prompt the
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                           29


desired response (a most-to-least prompting procedure) will be more efficient than using partial

scripts (a least-to-most prompting procedure) .

                                        General Discussion

        In agreement with the previous line of research on scripts and script fading, the

introduction of scripts is expected to produce increases in initiations of interactions using

statements that match provided scripts (i.e., scripted initiations) with some response variation

observed (i.e., unscripted statements). That is, without teachers giving verbal directions or

verbally modeling initiation of interactions for participants, participants are expected to learn to

initiate interactions independently. Prompts provided will be faded systematically to ultimately

produce control of these interactions by only the presence of a conversation recipient and items

around which it is appropriate to initiate interactions (Brown et al., 2008; Garcia-Albea et al.,

2009; MacDuff, Ledo, Krantz, & McClannahan, 2007; McClannahan & Krantz, 1993;

McClannahan & Krantz, 1998; Reagon & Higbee, 2009; Sarakoff, Taylor, & Poulson, 2001;

Stevenson, Krantz, & McClannahan, 2000). Describing maintenance of performance after fully

fading scripts and recording devices, the results reported in this study are expected to contribute

strong support for the use and systematic fading of auditory scripts, particularly button-activated

recording devices (Garcia-Albea et al., 2009; MacDuff et al., 2007; Reagon & Higbee, 2009), to

teach students with autism to initiate interactions (McClannahan & Krantz, 1998; Stevenson et

al., 2000).

        Programming for skill generalization across multiple stimulus exemplars is expected to

produce modest levels of initiations in the presence of stimuli not associated with teaching, in

agreement with results obtained by Garcia-Albea et al. (2009). Data reflecting assessments of

generalization are expected to increase as the skill of independently initiating interactions is

acquired during teaching. It is recommended that future studies continue to examine how to

effectively teach a generalized repertoire of initiating interactions surrounding leisure materials.
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                             30


       Clear differences in performance in different teaching conditions are expected to be

observed in both experiments. The format of this study is expected to provide a clear basis for

analyzing the relative effectiveness of different teaching procedures surrounding the use of

scripts and script fading. Because the study will be conducted in the participants’ classrooms

with everyday leisure materials, the pattern of treatment effects expected to be observed in this

study will indicate effective directions for clinical teaching. First, when introducing auditory

scripts played on a button-activated voice recorder to prompt initiations surrounding objects, data

are expected to indicate that standing behind the student and activating the device behind the

student’s ear produces more desirable performance once the device is faded compared to

attaching the device to the target object. Second, if students do not initiate interactions once

scripts begin to be faded, using the full, original script as the auditory prompt is expected to be

desirable compared to using the partial script at the previous fading level to the current one.

Expected efficient recovery of criterion levels of initiations associated with less effective

teaching procedures indicates that it will be appropriate to implement changes to teaching

procedures already in use that will be expected in this study to be associated with less desirable

outcome performances.

       In this study, it should be noted that conclusions will be limited to situations where the

interaction recipient is an instructor in the student’s school. Future studies should examine the

use of auditory scripts and script fading to promote initiations of interactions with peers, family

members, and siblings and how to effectively program for generalization of initiations across

people. Further studies may also examine differences in effectiveness associated with different

rates for fading scripts. Comparison of the effectiveness of written versus auditory scripts in a

future study may provide more direction to appropriate format for clinical use for learners who

have sight word reading skills as well as verbal imitation skills. Finally, future studies might
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                    31


examine the use of such a portable technology to teach verbal initiations surrounding less

tangible stimuli, e.g., requesting help or exiting a room or area.
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                         32


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Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                        33


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Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                         34


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Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                            35


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Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                    36


Table 1

Stimulus Set 1 for Experiment 1: Items, Scripts, and Designations as Training or Generalization

Stimuli for each Participant

Stimulus                                      Script

Carpet skates *G - Alan                       Cool, let’s try this one

Scooter *G - Mark                             Can’t wait to go for a ride

Bike helmet                                   Can’t wait to go for a ride

Remote controlled car *G - Alan               Let’s play with this

Moon shoes *G - Ben                           Cool, let’s try this one

Hess truck *G - Jerry                         Check this thing out

Kinetic energy desk toy *G - Jerry            Check this thing out

Marble run *G - Alan                          Let’s play with this

Retractable yoyo                              Watch what this does

Chinese yoyo *G - Ben                         Watch what this does

Jacob’s ladder toy *G - Jerry                 This thing is so cool

Mini pinball game *G - Mark                   Check this thing out

Nerf gun                                      Let’s play with this

Disk shooter *G - Mark                        This thing is so cool

Desktop magnetic building pieces              Let’s play with this

Tension button desktop bead figurine          Hey, look what this does

Slinky *G - Ben                               This thing is so cool

Pin art toy                                   Hey, look what this does
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                    37


Table 2

Stimulus Set 1 for Experiment 1: Items, Scripts, and Designations as Training or Generalization

Stimuli for each Participant

Stimulus                                            Script

MP3 player and headphones *G - Mark                 Cool, check this out

Handheld travel electronic game                     Cool, check this out

Light up windmill toy *G - Ben                      Let’s do this one

Liquid motion desk toy *G - Jerry                   Let’s do this one

Pet tornado toy *G - Alan                           Cool, check this out

Boxed 24-piece puzzle *G - Mark                     Hey, watch me do this

Laptop computer *G - Ben                            Let’s check it out

Portable DVD player *G - Alan                       Let’s check it out

Age-appropriate DVD in box                          Watch what this does

Crayons and paper *G - Alan                         Hey, watch me do this

Markers and paper                                   Hey, watch me do this

Digital camera *G - Jerry                           Let’s check it out

Kaleidoscope                                        Let’s play with this

Vision-distorting play glasses *G - Jerry           This looks so cool

Distortion mirror *G - Ben                          This looks so cool

Color-changing glass ball desktop *G - Mark         Look at this cool thing

Crayola glow board                                  Look at this cool thing

Magna-Doodle *G - Ben                               Hey, look what this does
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                       38



Table 3

Script Fading Steps

 Fading level         Script content

 Level 0              Full script

 Level 1              Last word removed

 Level 2              Last two words removed

 Level 3              First word only

 Level 4              First word on three stimuli and no words on six stimuli

 Level 5              No words on voice recorder

 Level 6              Voice recorder removed
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                         39


Table 4

Conditions Experienced By Participants in Experiment 1

          Participant                   Stimulus Set           Script Placement

Alan                           Set 1                     Behind ear

                               Set 2                     On items

Jerry                          Set 1                     On items

                               Set 2                     Behind ear

Mark                           Set 1                     Behind ear

                               Set 2                     On items

Ben                            Set 1                     On items

                               Set 2                     Behind ear
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                    40


Table 5

Stimulus Set 1 for Experiment 2: Items, Scripts, and Designations as Training or Generalization

Stimuli for each Participant
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                    41


Table 6

Stimulus Set 2 for Experiment 2: Items, Scripts, and Designations as Training or Generalization

Stimuli for each Participant
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                       42


Table 7

Conditions Experienced By Participants in Experiment 2

          Participant                   Stimulus Set                   Prompt

Sam                            Set 1                     Full script

                               Set 2                     Last fading level

Tyler                          Set 1                     Last fading level

                               Set 2                     Full script

Percy                          Set 1                     Full script

                               Set 2                     Last fading level

Jaden                          Set 1                     Last fading level

                               Set 2                     Full script
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                          43


Figure 1. Button-activated voice recording devices used to record and play scripts, actual size.
Left to right: Voice-Over, Mini-Me.
        Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                              44



        Figure 2. Organizational chart of reinforcement and error correction procedures used in
        Experiment 1 for the device-non-visible condition. Circular figures represent participant
        behavior. Rectangular figures represent experimenter behavior.

                                                        Leisure materials
                                                             present




                             Participant approaches                         Participant does not
                              materials within 5 s                          approach materials
                                                                                  within 5 s




           Participant orients                  Participant does not                        Manual guidance provided.
          toward conversation                      orient toward                         Progressive time delay procedure
                 partner                        conversation partner                     implemented for subsequent trials
                                                                                                for this response.



        Current script
           played




Participant makes                 Participant imitates
                                                                         Participant says
   scripted or                   partial script but does
                                                                        nothing or makes a
   unscripted                     not make complete
                                                                          non-interaction
   interaction                         interaction




   Conversation                     Full, original script
 partner responds                         replayed



  Snack delivered
                                    Participant makes
      in cup.
                                       scripted or
                                       unscripted
                                       interaction
 Access to item for
       30 s
                                       Conversation
                                     partner responds
     Trial ends
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                                                                  45


Figure 3. Expected number of scripted interactions across sessions all four participants in
Experiment 1. There will be six opportunities to make a scripted statement per session. Labels
L1-L6 will mark criterion data points for the previous level (i.e., data points after which fading
levels 1 through 6, respectively, will be implemented). Schedule of reinforcement will be
denoted by labels FR2, FR4, etc on criterion data points for the previous level of schedule
density. Solid arrows will label data points in the device-visible condition; dashed arrows will
label data points in the device-non-visible condition.



                                             BL         Scripts & Script Fading
                                                                                          Device Not Visible -
                                                                                          Stimulus Set 2      No
                                                         L1 L2 L3 L4              L5 L6             FR2 FR4 snacks
                                       10
                                        9                                                                                          Alan
                                        8
                                                                    L2           L4 L5                            L4 L6 FR4
                                        7                     L1          L3                 L6
                                                                                                                    L5 FR2 No
                                        6
                                                                                                                         snacks
                                        5
                                        4
                                        3                                Device Visible -              L3
                                                                         Stimulus Set 1
                                        2
                                        1
                                        0
                                            1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557
                                                 BL     Scripts & Script Fading
                                                                                          Device Not Visible -
                                                                                          Stimulus Set 1      No
                                                         L1 L2 L3 L4              L5 L6             FR2 FR4 snacks
                                       10
                                        9                                                                                          Jerry
                                        8
                                                                    L2           L4 L5                            L4 L6 FR4
                                        7                     L1          L3                 L6
                                                                                                                    L5 FR2 No
                                        6
                                                                                                                         snacks
                                        5
                                        4
                                        3                                Device Visible -              L3
Number of Scripted Interactions




                                                                         Stimulus Set 2
                                        2
                                        1
                                        0
                                            1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557

                                            BL        Scripts & Script Fading
                                                                                        Device Not Visible -
                                                                                        Stimulus Set 2      No
                                                       L1 L2 L3 L4              L5 L6             FR2 FR4 snacks
                                  10
                                   9                                                                                              Mark
                                   8
                                                               L2              L4 L5                             L4 L6 FR4
                                   7                      L1             L3             L6
                                                                                                                   L5 FR2 No
                                   6
                                                                                                                        snacks
                                   5
                                   4
                                   3                                Device Visible -               L3
                                                                    Stimulus Set 1
                                   2
                                   1
                                   0
                                        1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557

                                            BL        Scripts & Script Fading
                                                                                        Device Not Visible -
                                                                                        Stimulus Set 1      No
                                                       L1 L2 L3 L4              L5 L6             FR2 FR4 snacks
                                  10
                                   9                                                                                              Ben
                                   8
                                                               L2              L4 L5                             L4 L6 FR4
                                   7                     L1          L3                 L6
                                                                                                                   L5 FR2 No
                                   6
                                                                                                                        snacks
                                   5
                                   4
                                   3                                Device Visible -              L3
                                                                    Stimulus Set 2
                                   2
                                   1
                                   0
                                        1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557
                                                                                   Sessions
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                                                        46


Figure 4. Expected number of unscripted interactions across sessions all four participants in
Experiment 1. Label L6 will mark the criterion data point prior to implementation the last fading
level (i.e., fading level 6). Schedule of reinforcement will be denoted by labels FR2, FR4, etc on
criterion data points for the previous level of schedule density. Solid arrows will label data points
in the device-visible condition; dashed arrows will label data points in the device-non-visible
condition.


                                           BL      Scripts & Script Fading

                                                                              Device Not Visible -
                                     4                                        Stimulus Set 1
                                                                                                   No                    Alan
                                                                                                                          Alan
                                                                             L6                    snacks

                                     3

                                                                                                     L6       No
                                     2                                                                        snacks

                                                                                                      Device Visible -
                                                                       L6
                                     1                                                                Stimulus Set 2

                                                                                        L3
                                     0
                                         1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557

                                           BL      Scripts & Script Fading

                                                                              Device Not Visible -
                                     4                                        Stimulus Set 2          No
                                                                                                                         Jerry
                                                                             L6                       snacks

                                     3



                                     2


                                                                                                      Device Visible -
                                                                       L6
                                     1                                                                Stimulus Set 1
 Number of Unscripted Interactions




                                     0
                                         1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557
                                          BL       Scripts & Script Fading

                                                                              Device Not Visible -
                                     4                                        Stimulus Set 1       No
                                                                                                                         Mark
                                                                             L6                    snacks

                                     3



                                     2


                                                                                                     Device Visible -
                                                                      L6
                                     1                                                               Stimulus Set 2



                                     0
                                         1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557

                                          BL       Scripts & Script Fading

                                                                             Device Not Visible -
                                     4                                       Stimulus Set 2
                                                                                                     No
                                                                                                                         Ben
                                                                             L6                      snacks

                                     3



                                     2


                                                                                                     Device Visible -
                                                                      L6
                                     1                                                               Stimulus Set 1



                                     0
                                         1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                                                         47


Figure 5. Expected number of generalization interactions across sessions all four participants in
Experiment 1. Label L6 will mark the criterion data point prior to implementation the last fading
level (i.e., fading level 6). Three generalization stimuli will be presented per session. Schedule of
reinforcement will be denoted by labels FR2, FR4, etc on criterion data points for the previous
level of schedule density. Solid arrows will label data points in the device-visible condition;
dashed arrows will label data points in the device-non-visible condition.


                               BL         Scripts & Script Fading


                         4
                                                                                            No                      Alan
                                                                                                                    Alan
                                                                                          snacks
                         3
                                                                L6
                                     Device Not Visible -                                                      Device Visible -
                                                                                                               Stimulus Set 1
                         2           Stimulus Set 2

                                                                                         L6          No
                         1                                                                           snacks

                                                                         L6     L3
                         0
                             1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53


                               BL         Scripts & Script Fading


                         4
                                                                                             No                      Jerry
                                                                                           snacks
                         3
                                                                L6
                                     Device Not Visible -                                                      Device Visible -
                                                                                                               Stimulus Set 2
                         2           Stimulus Set 1

                                                                                         L6           No
                         1                                                                            snacks
Number of Interactions




                                                                         L6     L3
                         0
                             1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53


                               BL         Scripts & Script Fading


                         4
                                                                                            No                       Mark
                                                                                          snacks
                         3
                                                                L6
                                     Device Not Visible -                                                      Device Visible -
                                                                                                               Stimulus Set 1
                         2           Stimulus Set 2

                                                                                         L6          No
                         1                                                                           snacks

                                                                         L6     L3
                         0
                             1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53


                              BL          Scripts & Script Fading


                         4
                                                                                            No                      Ben
                                                                                          snacks
                         3
                                                                L6
                                     Device Not Visible -                                                      Device Visible -
                                                                                                               Stimulus Set 2
                         2           Stimulus Set 1

                                                                                        L6           No
                         1                                                                           snacks

                                                                        L6      L3
                         0
                             1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53
                                                              Sessions
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                                                                        48


Figure 6. Expected number of scripted interactions across sessions all four participants in
Experiment 2. There will be six opportunities to make a scripted statement per session. Labels
L1-L6 will mark criterion data points for the previous level (i.e., data points after which fading
levels 1 through 6, respectively, will be implemented). Schedule of reinforcement will be
denoted by labels FR2, FR4, etc on criterion data points for the previous level of schedule
density. Solid arrows will label data points in the full script prompting condition; dashed arrows
will label data points in the last fading level prompting condition.

                                                 BL     Scripts & Script Fading
                                                                                              Full Script Prompt -
                                                                                              Stimulus Set 2      No
                                                          L1 L2 L3 L4              L5 L6                FR2 FR4 snacks
                                       10
                                        9                                                                                                Sam
                                        8
                                                                    L2            L4 L5 L6                             L4 L6 FR4
                                        7                     L1           L3
                                                                                                                         L5 FR2 No
                                        6
                                                                                                                              snacks
                                        5
                                        4
                                        3                          Last Fading Level -                    L3
                                                                   Stimulus Set 1
                                        2
                                        1
                                        0
                                             1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557



                                                 BL     Scripts & Script Fading
                                                                                           Full Script Prompt -
                                                                                           Stimulus Set 1        No
                                                         L1 L2 L3 L4               L5 L6               FR2 FR4 snacks
                                       10
                                        9                                                                                                Tyler
                                        8
                                                                    L2            L4 L5                               L4 L6 FR4
                                        7                     L1           L3                 L6
                                                                                                                        L5 FR2 No
                                        6
                                                                                                                             snacks
                                        5
                                        4
                                        3                          Last Fading Level-                     L3
Number of Scripted Interactions




                                        2                          Stimulus Set 2

                                        1
                                        0
                                            1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557

                                            BL        Scripts & Script Fading
                                                                                         Full Script Prompt -
                                                                                         Stimulus Set 2        No
                                                       L1 L2 L3 L4               L5 L6               FR2 FR4 snacks
                                  10
                                   9                                                                                                   Percy
                                   8
                                                                L2              L4 L5                                L4 L6 FR4
                                   7                      L1             L3              L6
                                                                                                                       L5 FR2 No
                                   6
                                                                                                                            snacks
                                   5
                                   4
                                   3                           Last Fading Level -                    L3
                                                               Stimulus Set 1
                                   2
                                   1
                                   0
                                        1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557

                                            BL        Scripts & Script Fading
                                                                                         Full Script Prompt -
                                                                                         Stimulus Set 1       No
                                                       L1 L2 L3 L4               L5 L6              FR2 FR4 snacks
                                  10
                                   9                                                                                                   Jaden
                                   8
                                                               L2               L4 L5                                L4 L6 FR4
                                   7                     L1           L3                 L6
                                                                                                                       L5 FR2 No
                                   6
                                                                                                                            snacks
                                   5
                                   4
                                   3                          Last Fading Level-                     L3
                                                              Stimulus Set 2
                                   2
                                   1
                                   0
                                        1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557
                                                                                   Sessions
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                                                         49


Figure 7. Expected number of unscripted interactions across sessions all four participants in
Experiment 2. Label L6 will mark the criterion data point prior to implementation the last fading
level (i.e., fading level 6). Schedule of reinforcement will be denoted by labels FR2, FR4, etc on
criterion data points for the previous level of schedule density. Solid arrows will label data points
in the full script prompting condition; dashed arrows will label data points in the last fading level
prompting condition.
                                          BL      Scripts & Script Fading

                                                                             Full Script Prompt -
                                    4                                        Stimulus Set 1
                                                                                                     No                   Alan
                                                                                                                           Sam
                                                                            L6                       snacks

                                    3

                                                                                                    L6        No
                                    2                                                                         snacks

                                                                                                     Last Fading Step -
                                                                      L6
                                    1                                                                Stimulus Set 2

                                                                                        L3
                                    0
                                        1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557

                                          BL      Scripts & Script Fading

                                                                             Full Script Prompt -
                                    4                                        Stimulus Set 2          No
                                                                                                                          Tyler
                                                                            L6                       snacks

                                    3


                                                                                                    L6        No
                                    2                                                                         snacks

                                                                                                     Last Fading Step -
                                                                      L6
                                    1                                                                Stimulus Set 1
Number of Unscripted Interactions




                                                                                       L3
                                    0
                                        1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557
                                         BL       Scripts & Script Fading

                                                                            Full Script Prompt -
                                    4                                       Stimulus Set 1
                                                                                                     No
                                                                                                                          Percy
                                                                            L6                       snacks

                                    3


                                                                                                    L6        No
                                    2                                                                         snacks

                                                                                                     Last Fading Step -
                                                                     L6
                                    1                                                                Stimulus Set 2

                                                                                       L3
                                    0
                                        1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557

                                         BL       Scripts & Script Fading

                                                                            Device Not Visible -
                                    4                                       Stimulus Set 2
                                                                                                     No
                                                                                                                          Jaden
                                                                            L6                       snacks

                                    3


                                                                                                    L6        No
                                    2                                                                         snacks

                                                                                                     Device Visible -
                                                                     L6
                                    1                                                                Stimulus Set 1

                                                                                       L3
                                    0
                                        1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739414345474951535557




                                                                   Sessions
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                                                            50


Figure 8. Expected number of generalization interactions across sessions all four participants in
Experiment 2. Label L6 will mark the criterion data point prior to implementation the last fading
level (i.e., fading level 6). Three generalization stimuli will be presented per session. Schedule of
reinforcement will be denoted by labels FR2, FR4, etc on criterion data points for the previous
level of schedule density. Solid arrows will label data points in the full script prompting
condition; dashed arrows will label data points in the last fading level prompting condition.




                               BL         Scripts & Script Fading
                               L3
                         4
                                                                                            No                      Alan
                                                                                                                    Sam
                                                                                          snacks
                         3
                                                                 L6
                                                                                                               Last Fading Level-
                                        Full Script Prompt -
                                                                                                               Stimulus Set 1
                         2              Stimulus Set 2

                                                                                         L6          No
                         1                                                                           snacks

                                                                           L6
                         0
                             1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53


                               BL         Scripts & Script Fading


                         4
                                                                                             No                      Tyler
                                                                                           snacks
                         3
                                                                 L6
                                                                                                               Last Fading Level -
                                        Full Script Prompt -
                                                                                                               Stimulus Set 2
                         2              Stimulus Set 1

                                                                                         L6           No
                         1                                                                            snacks
Number of Interactions




                                                                           L6   L3
                         0
                             1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53


                               BL         Scripts & Script Fading


                         4
                                                                                            No                       Percy
                                                                                          snacks
                         3
                                                                 L6
                                         Full Script Prompt -                                                  Device Visible -
                                         Stimulus Set 2                                                        Stimulus Set 1
                         2

                                                                                         L6          No
                         1                                                                           snacks

                                                                           L6   L3
                         0
                             1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53


                              BL          Scripts & Script Fading


                         4
                                                                                            No                      Jaden
                                                                                          snacks
                         3
                                                                 L6
                                                                                                               Last Fading Level -
                                       Rull Script Prompt -
                                                                                                               Stimulus Set 2
                         2             Stimulus Set 1

                                                                                        L6           No
                         1                                                                           snacks

                                                                        L6      L3
                         0
                             1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53
                                                                Sessions
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                         51


Appendix A

                              Treatment Acceptability Questionnaire

Please read the following scenario and answer the questions below:

        Jamie is a school-age learner with autism who does not currently initiate social
interactions with peers or familiar adults. Small (e.g., 1.5”x1.5”), flat button-activated recording
devices are attached to items in Jamie’s environment that would cue typically developing
learners to initiate an interaction with a peer or adult (e.g., toys, activity folders, student’s
bookbag). The recording devices are available for purchase via the Internet, are reusable, and
range in price from approximately $6.00 to $10.00 apiece. When the button on the device is
pressed, the device plays back a verbal model of a conversational initiation related to the object
to which it is attached (e.g., “Power Rangers are cool!”). Jamie is expected to imitate the
modeled statement or make a similar statement.
        If Jamie approaches the target objects and does not initiate an interaction, his teacher will
help Jamie to activate the device or will activate the device himself or herself. As Jamie
consistently imitates the statements without adult guidance, a new recording is made with the last
word of the sentence removed. This procedure continues until the entire statement is faded, and
the device is then removed. Independent initiations may be rewarded with typical conversational
responses and perhaps initially via Jamie’s individualized motivational system (e.g., tokens,
snacks, points).

1. How clear is your understanding of the suggested procedures?



Not at all                                      Neither                                      Very clear
 clear                                         clear nor
                                                unclear

2. How acceptable to you find the strategies to be regarding your concerns about the individual
learner?



 Not at all                                    Neither                                          Very
acceptable                                    acceptable                                     acceptable
                                                 nor
                                             unacceptable

3. How willing are you to implement the suggested procedures as described?



Not at all                                      Neither                                         Very
 willing                                        willing                                        willing
                                                 nor
                                               unwilling
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                       52


*4. How disruptive will it be to your classroom to implement the suggested procedures?



Not at all                                    Neutral                                         Very
disruptive                                                                                 disruptive

*5. How affordable are these procedures?



Not at all                                    Neither                                         Very
affordable                                   affordable                                    affordable
                                                 nor
                                            unaffordable

*6. How likely are learners with whom you work to experience discomfort as a result of these
procedures?



Not at all                                     Neither                                        Very
 likely                                      likely nor                                      likely
                                              unlikely

7. How well will carrying out these procedures fit into your current classroom routines?



Not well                                      Neither                                      Very well
 at all                                       well nor
                                              unwell

8. How willing would you be to change your classroom routine to implement these procedures?



Not at all                                    Neither                                        Very
 willing                                      willing                                       willing
                                               nor
                                             unwilling



Note. Questions selected, adapted, and modified from the Treatment Acceptability Rating Form
(Reimers & Wacker, 1988). Items marked with an asterisk (*) are coded in reverse (i.e., a “Not at
all..” response coded as 7, a “Very..” response coded as 1, etc.).
Running head: TEACHING SOCIAL INTERACTION                                                   53


                                           Appendix B

                                 Procedural Integrity Data Sheet

Participant Name: _______________________                                       Date:________

Component                                                                       Score + or (–)

1. Correct items present according to running order sheet



2. Correct script fading level present on recording devices



3. Correct script placement



4. Assistant prompts participant using manual guidance according to protocol



5. Assistant fades manual guidance prompts according to time delay protocol



6. Assistant prompts interactions according to protocol



7. Independent initiation of interactions per fading level by participant are

   rewarded on appropriate schedule of reinforcement with preferred snacks

8. Independent initiation of interactions per fading level are followed by

   contextual response and appropriate nonverbal behaviors from recipient

				
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