Memory by yaofenji


									Take out a piece of paper

Name the Seven Dwarves
 Was   the exercise easy or difficult?

It depends on certain circumstantial factors:
   •Whether you like Disney movies
   •How long ago you watched the movie
   •How loud the people are around you when
   you are trying to remember
The Phenomenon of Memory
   What is memory? What role does it play in the lives of
   Luis Bunuel, Spanish filmmaker, said, “Memory is
    what makes our lives … Without it, we are nothing.”
   The Roman statesman Cicero once said: “Memory is
    the treasury and guardian of all things.”
   To a psychologist, Memory is any indication that
    learning has persisted over time. Memory is our ability
    to store and retrieve information.
   Our capacity for remembering the many voices,
    sounds, and songs, flavors, smells, textures, faces,
    sights, and events, general knowledge, and procedures
    is amazing!!
               Your Memory…

Your memory ability is most apparent in your recall of unique
and/or highly emotional moments in your past.
– For example: a vivid memory of a car accident; your first romantic
   kiss; your context when you heard some tragic news

When forming memories you must select, process, store, and
retrieve information.
Even more, to understand what you remember and HOW, we
must know how information is encoded.
Encoding, storage, and retrieval are the three aspects of
memory process.
   The processing of information into the
   memory system.

Typing info into a computer   Getting a girls name at a party

 The retention of encoded material
 over time.

Pressing Ctrl S and      Trying to remember her name
saving the info.         when you leave the party.
   The process of getting the information
   out of memory storage.

Finding your document   Seeing her the next day
and opening it up.      and calling her the wrong
                        name (retrieval failure).
         Turn your paper over
  Now pick pick out the
  seven dwarves
Grouchy Gabby Fearful Sleepy
Smiley Jumpy Hopeful Shy
Droopy Dopey Sniffy Wishful
Puffy Dumpy Sneezy Pop
Grumpy Bashful Cheerful Teach
Snorty Nifty Happy Doc Wheezy
Stubby Poopy
   Seven Dwarves

Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc and Bashful
Did you do better on the first or second dwarf memory
      Recall vs. Recognition
     With recall- you must retrieve the
      information from your memory (fill-in-the
      blank tests).
     With recognition- you must identify the
      target from possible targets (multiple-
      choice tests).
     Which is easier?
 Memory … (of course)

 To remember any event requires that we get information
  into our brains (encoding), retain that information
  (storage), and later get it back out (retrieval).
 A computer encodes, stores, and retrieves too. First, it
  translates input (keystrokes) into an electronic language,
  much like the brain encodes sensory information into a
  neural language.
 Next, the computer stores vast amounts of information on
  a disk, from which it can later be retrieved.

 Our memories are less literal and more fragile than a
  computer’s. The computer is faster in processing
          Memory … once again …
   First: Acquisition (to remember you must acquire)
         During acquisition, the relevant experience(s) leave some
          record or mark in the nervous system – called Memory
   Second: Storage (storing information like a
    squirrel’s storing nuts in its many niches)
   Third: Retrieval (“trying to remember” – dredge
    particular memory trace)
   Therefore, it is clear that there can not be any
    remembering without prior acquisition (learning).
   Memory is the process by which we recollect prior
    experiences and information and skills learned in
    the past
       Memory … once again …
   There are different types of memory.
   Memory can be categorized according to kinds of
    information it stores:
          Events (experiences)
          General Knowledge
          Skills (physical abilities)
   These three types are called: Episodic, Generic,
    and Procedural
                Episodic Memory
   Memory of specific events
   Memories of things that happen or
       Example: what you ate for dinner last dinner
        or taking a quiz last Friday.
   Some episodic memories are very
    surprising, significant, or traumatic  we
    tend to recall these events in great details.
    These are called:
              Flashbulb memories
Flashbulb Memory
            Where were you
            1. You heard about
            2. You heard about
             the death of a family
            3. You heard about
             the Tsunami Disaster
             Generic Memory
   General knowledge. For example: we
    “remember” that Thomas Jefferson was
    the _______ president of the United
   Unlike Episodic memory, with Generic
    memories we do not usually remember
    when we acquire that information.
               Procedural Memory
   It consists of skills or procedures you have
       Example: riding a bike, skipping rope,
        swimming, etc.
   Once such a skill has been learned it usually
    stays with you for many years. Even if you
    do not use it, you are unlikely to forget the
    How does our brain store long-
          term memories?
   Memories do NOT reside in single specific
    spots of our brain.

•They are not electrical (if the electrical activity
were to shut down in your brain, then restart-
you would NOT start with a blank slate).
                    Sensory Memory
        The immediate, initial recording of sensory
        information in the memory system
        Stored just for an instant, and most gets
•You lose concentration in class during a lecture. Suddenly you hear a significant
word and return your focus to the lecture. You should be able to remember what
was said just before the key word since it is in your sensory register.
•Your ability to see motion can be attributed to sensory memory. An image
previously seen must be stored long enough to compare to the new image. Visual
processing in the brain works like watching a cartoon -- you see one frame at a
•If someone is reading to you, you must be able to remember the words at the
beginning of a sentence in order to understand the sentence as a whole. These
words are held in a relatively unprocessed sensory memory.
           Short-Term Memory
  Memory that holds a few items briefly
  Seven digits (plus or minus two)
  The info. will be stored into long-term or

How do you store things from short-term to long-term?

    Rehearsal                   You must repeat things over
                                and over to put them into
                                your long-term memory.
             Working Memory
            (Modern day STM)
     Another way of describing the use of
     short-term memory is called working
     Working-Memory has three parts:
1.     Audio
2.     Visual
3.     Integration of audio and visual (controls
       where you attention lies)
      Long-Term Memory
The relatively permanent and limitless
storehouse of the memory system.
Review the three stage process of
    Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)
    The current theory of how our long-term
    memory works.
   •Memory has a neural basis.

   •LTP is an increase in a synapse’s firing
   potential after brief, rapid stimulation.
In other words, if you are trying to remember a phone
number, the neurons are firing neurotransmitter through the
synapse. The neuron gets used to firing in that pattern and
essentially learns to fire in that distinct way. It is a form of
rehearsal (but for our neurons).
      Stress and Memory
Stress can lead to
the release of
hormones that
have been shown
to assist in LTM.
Similar to the idea
of Flashbulb
Types of LTM
        The Hippocampus
Damage to the
hippocampus disrupts
our memory.
Left = Verbal
Right = Visual and
The hippocampus is
like the librarian for
the library which is
our brain.
Memory is a process of encoding, storage,
              and retrieval.
   There are two theoretical approaches that explain
   The first is called: Stage Theory – emphasizes a systematic
   process of memory of WHERE an item goes and HOW it
   is transferred and stored.
   There are three stages to memory:
   Sensory Memory  Short-term Memory  Long-term
   The second is called: The Organizational View – emphasizes
   HOW memories are processed and organized in the
              Stage Theory of Memory
        Three stages of memory storage that differ in function,
         capacity and duration
        Control processes - control movement of information
         within and between memory stores
                                           Maintenance Rehearsal

Sensory      Sensory                Working or        Long-term
             Memory                 Short-term         memory
 Input                               Memory Retrieval
            Sensory Memory Store
* Sensory Memory is the first stage and it consists of
 the immediate, initial recording of information that
 enters through our senses.
*Capacity – Large (can hold many items at once)
* Divided into two subtypes:
       Iconic memory – Momentary sensory
      memory of visual stimuli (like photographic
      snapshots of sensory images).
     Echoic memory – Momentary sensory
      memory of auditory stimuli (mental traces of
      sounds, echoes).
    *Duration - .3 sec for visual info & 2 sec for
      auditory info
Short-term (Working) Memory
Function - conscious processing of information
 – where information is actively worked on
Capacity - limited (holds 7 +/- 2 items)
Duration - brief storage (about 30 seconds)
Code - often based on sound or speech even with
visual inputs

   Sensory   Sensory               Working or
             Memory                Short-term
    Input                           Memory
        Long-term Memory
The final stage in the processing of memories.
This is where information is stored permanently
after adequate rehearsal.
If you want to remember something more than
just briefly you have to take certain steps to
store it in your PERMANENT storage place.
– Maintenance Rehearsal – simple repetition
– Elaborative Rehearsal – deep processing of material
              Long-Term Memory
         Once information passes from sensory
         to working memory, it can be encoded
         into long-term memory
                                        Maintenance Rehearsal

Sensory    Sensory               Working or        Long-term
           Memory                Short-term         memory
 Input                            Memory Retrieval
               Long-Term Memory
         Function - organizes and stores information
          – more passive form of storage than working
         Unlimited capacity
         Duration - thought by some to be permanent

                                         Maintenance Rehearsal

Sensory     Sensory               Working or        Long-term
            Memory                Short-term         memory
 Input                             Memory Retrieval
               Long-Term Memory
         Encoding - process that controls movement
         from working to long-term memory store
         Retrieval - process that controls flow of
         information from long-term to working
         memory store
                                        Maintenance Rehearsal

Sensory    Sensory               Working or        Long-term
           Memory                Short-term         memory
 Input                            Memory Retrieval
             Encoding :
Getting the information in our heads!!!!

 Two ways to encode information
     Automatic Processing
      Effortful Processing
       Automatic Processing
Unconscious encoding of incidental information.
You encode space, time and word meaning
without effort.
Things can become automatic with practice.

For example, if I tell you that you are a jerk, you
will encode the meaning of what I am saying to
you without any effort.
      Effortful Processing
Encoding that requires attention and
conscious effort.
Rehearsal is the most common effortful
processing technique.
Through enough rehearsal, what was
effortful becomes automatic.
     Things to remember about
1. The next-In-Line effect: we seldom
   remember what the person has just said
   or done if we are next.
2. Information minutes before sleep is
   seldom remembered; in the hour before
   sleep, well remembered.
3. Taped info played while asleep is
   registered by ears, but we do not
   remember it.
        Spacing Effect
We encode
better when we
study or practice
over time.
Take out a piece of paper and….

List the U.S. Presidents
             The Presidents
Washington   Taylor      Harrison       Eisenhower
J.Adams      Fillmore    Cleveland      Kennedy
Jefferson    Pierce      McKinley       L.Johnson
Madison      Buchanan    T.Roosevelt    Nixon
Monroe       Lincoln     Taft           Ford
JQ Adams     A.Johnson   Wilson         Carter
Jackson      Grant       Harding        Reagan
Van Buren    Hayes       Coolidge       Bush
Harrison     Garfield    Hoover         Clinton
Tyler        Arthur      FD.Roosevelt   Bush Jr.
Polk         Cleveland   Truman         Hargrave
             Serial Positioning Effect
      Our tendency to recall best the last
      and first items in a list.

If we graph an average person remembers presidential list- it
would probably look something like this.
Primacy and Recency Effects
Primacy and Recency effects: when we try to
remember a series of information, our
memories of the first and last bits of info. tends
to be sharpest. This primacy (first) and recency
(last) effects.
          Types of Encoding
 Semantic Encoding: the
 encoding of meaning, like the
 meaning of words

•Acoustic Encoding: the encoding
of sound, especially the sounds of

•Visual Encoding: the encoding of
picture images.
Which type works best?
    Self-Reference Effect

An example of how
we encode meaning
very well.
The idea that we
remember things (like
adjectives) when they
are used to describe
             Tricks to Encode
  Use imagery: mental pictures
   Mnemonic Devices - Memory aids using
   imagery and organizational devices.
"Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums."

   Mars, Venus, Earth, Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn,
  Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.

  *** Peg-word System
  *** Method of Loci
   Give me some more examples….

     Organizing items
     into familiar,
     manageable units
     Often it will occur
  1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1         Chunk- from Goonies

Do these numbers mean anything to you?

  1492, 1776, 1812, 1941 how about now?
How do we recall the information
 we thought we remembered?

    Let’s Jog Our Memory!!!!!!!
      Recall versus
  I probably cannot recall the
Smurfs, but can I recognize them?
      Lazy Smurf or Lethargic Smurf

      Papa Smurf or Daddy Smurf

      Handy Smurf or Practical Smurf

      Brainy Smurf or Intellectual Smurf

      Clumsy Smurf or Inept Smurf
            Retrieval Cues
 Things
       that help us

•We often use a process
called priming (the
activation of
associations in our
memory) to help us
retrieve information.
            PRIMING EFFECT
 Priming  effect occurs when people
 respond faster or better to an item if a
 similar item preceded it.

•For the most part, the priming effect is
considered involuntary and is most likely an
unconscious phenomenon.
         Repetition Priming
Repetition priming refers to the fact that it is
easier (quicker) to recognize a face or word if you
have recently seen that same face or word.

         Semantic Priming
Semantic priming refers to the fact that it is
easier (quicker) to recognize someone or word
if you have just seen someone or a word closely
               Context Effects
 It helps to put yourself
  back in the same context
  you experienced
  (encoded) something.
 If you study on your
  favorite chair at home,
  you will probably score
  higher if you also take the
  test on the chair.

                  Déjà Vu
                     That  eerie sense that you
                       have experienced
                       something before
                      What is occurring is that
                       the current situation cues
Is déjà vu really a    past experiences that are
glitch in the Matrix? very similar to the present
                       one- your mind gets
    Mood-Congruent Memory
 The  tendency to recall experiences that
  are consistent with one's current good or
  bad mood.
 If you are depressed, you will more likely
  recall sad memories from you past.
 Moods also effect that way you interpret
  other peoples’ behavior
           Forgetting Theories

   Encoding failure
   Role of time
   Interference theories
     Forgetting as Encoding Failure

   Information never encoded into LTM

    Forgetting as Retrieval Failure
   Not all forgetting is due to encoding failures
   Sometimes information IS encoded into LTM, but
    we can’t retrieve it

        Role of Time : Decay Theory
   Memories fade away or
    decay gradually if unused
   Time plays critical role
   Ability to retrieve info
    declines with time after
    original encoding
   Problem: Many things
    change with time.
    Something else may
    change and actually cause
    forgetting: Interference
          Interference Theories
   “Memories interfering with memories”
   Forgetting NOT caused by mere passage of time
   Caused by one memory competing with or
    replacing another memory
   Two types of interference
Two Types of Interference

   Types of interference

 Retroactive     Proactive
Interference   Interference
             Retroactive Interference
   When a NEW memory interferes with
    remembering OLD information
        Example: When new phone number interferes with
         ability to remember old phone number
    Example: Learning a new language interferes with ability to remember
    old language
       Types of Retrieval Failure
                          The disruptive effect of
                           new learning on the
                           recall of old
When you finally remember
this years’ locker combination,
you forget last years’.
           Proactive Interference
    Opposite of retroactive interference
    When an OLD memory interferes with
     remembering NEW information
Example: Previously learned language interferes with ability to remember
newly learned language
      Types of Retrieval Failure
 The disruptive
  effect of prior
  learning on the
  recall of new
                    If you call your new girlfriend
                    your old girlfriend’s name.
          Motivated Forgetting
   We sometimes revise our own histories

      Honey, I did stick to my diet today!!!!!!
        Motivated Forgetting
              Why does is exist?

One explanation is
 in psychoanalytic
  theory, the basic
  defense mechanism
  that banishes anxiety-
  arousing thoughts,
  feelings and memories
  from consciousness.
Memory Construction
             We sometimes alter
              our memories as we
              encode or retrieve
             Your expectations,
              environment may
              alter your memories.
         Misinformation Effect

   Incorporating misleading information into
    one’s memory of an event

My parents told me for years I
met Frank Sinatra.
I have the memory- but it never
             Source Amnesia
           (Source Attribution)
   Attributing to the
    wrong source an
    event we have
    heard about,
    read about or
•   Amnesia: is a severe memory loss caused
    by brain injury, shock, fatigue, illness, or
•   Types of amnesia:
        Childhood Amnesia (Infantile Amnesia)
        Anterograde Amnesia
        Retrograde Amnesia
         Improving Memory
Drill and Practice – repetition is one effective
way to transfer information from sensory
information to short-term memory and then to
long-term memory.
Mechanical Rehearsal and Elaborative
Minimize interference
Making connections to prior
Form unusual associations – humorous or
odd connections
Use mnemonic devices – systems for
remembering information
Activate retrieval cues – mentally recreate
situations and moods
    Forgetting and Memory Improvement
    Forgetting: is the failure to recognize or recall
    information that had been learned previously.
–     Forgetting sometimes involves decay – the fading away of a

    Recognition: the easiest memory task, is to simply
    identify objects/events/bits of info previously learned
    or encountered.
         Example: matching quiz
    Recall: is more difficult than recognition. It is the
    reconstruction of learned information in the mind.
         Example: short answer quiz
    Relearning: is to learn again something that once was
    learned but has been forgotten.

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