Practice PSSA Reading Prompt by wuyunqing

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									Practice PSSA Reading Prompt                       Name: _____________________________


Programming for the Web                             Date: _________________ Period: _____


                        Web Site Accessibility Benefits Everyone
                                          by Gene Liebel

Web Accessibility focuses on making sites friendlier to users with a wide range of disabilities.
Disabilities addressed tend to focus on vision problems from color blindness to complete loss of
eyesight, but can also include hearing loss, lack of motor function, and cognitive impairment.

Best practices for web accessibility are generally considered to be beneficial to all site users, not
just disabled ones. For example, designing a page to be easily parsed by a screen reader will also
make it easier to look at on a handheld device.

Web Accessibility for Color Blind Users
About one in 5-8% of men (estimates vary) suffer from some form of colorblindness. In its most
common form, red and green are indistinguishable. Best practice is to avoid dependency on color
for coding, popout, and highlights. Color should be combined with contrast, shapes, symbols,
text labels and other approaches that will remain distinguishable for colorblind users.

As an added benefit, following this guideline will strengthen the desired effect of the color use
for normal users and will remain effective on grayscale displays and printouts.

Web Accessibility for Visually Impaired Users
Visually impaired users will need to use one or more techniques to make text more readable.

Variable Font Size

Many users will use their browser’s built-in font scaling to make text larger and more readable.
To make this possible and effective for users, you need to pay attention to a several of things:

      Use relative font sizing in your code (em ,%) instead of fixed units (px, cm, in)
      Make sure your design can accommodate variable font sizes. In tight fixed areas, text can
       start to overlap, become clipped, or wrap so as to become unreadable.
      Avoid using images as text. These will not scale.

Contrast

Text with little background contrast is often difficult to read for users with normal sight, and is
even more difficult to read for users with visual impairments.
Keep in mind that some users will use high contrast screen modes built into Windows and
MacOS.

Screen Readers

Blind and severely visually impaired users will often use a screen reader to access a web page.
Screen readers literally read the page aloud and describe options for following links and
performing other actions. Designing to better accommodate screen readers will also improve a
page’s display on small screens and will improve search engine optimization.

      Add ALT tags to all of your images
      Use structural markup of the page content and implement design through CSS
      Keep in mind that screen readers will start reading at the beginning of the structural
       markup and continue to the end. This means, for example, that standard nav links at the
       top of the page will have to be read first for every web page that is accessed.

Automated Accessibility Testing
You can use one of several automated tools to help you assess the accessibility of your web site.
They can be very useful in helping you to identify and correct most problems. However, keep in
mind that these products won’t identify all accessibility problems, and may misidentify others.
Two products that assist designers in making their web pages more accessible are Bobby and
LIFT.

Bobby/WebXACT

This product was initially developed as “Bobby” by the Center for Applied Special Technology
but has now been spun off into a suite of tools offered by Watchfire. It offers free testing of
individual pages and a desktop application for testing entire sites.

LIFT

Lift is a product that scans for multiple usability and accessibility issues on web sites. It includes
a version that works with Dreamweaver, and another that operates as a web application.
                       Now read each question and circle the best answer.

1. The main thrust of this article is?               5. Website accessibility features can
                                                        assist?
   A. How to make web pages more
      attractive.                                        A.   Blind people.
   B. How to make web pages easier to                    B.   Colorblind people.
      read for users with vision problems.               C.   Deaf people.
   C. How to make web pages load faster.                 D.   All users.
   D. How to make web pages more
      secure.                                        6. Font sizes should be fixed at a relatively
                                                        large size so they are easy to read.
2. Which of the following is NOT a
   disability accommodation by                           A. True.
   accessibility practices?                              B. False.

   A. Have a high contrast between the               7. Bobby was developed by?
      background and the text.
   B. Use alt tags on images.                            A.   Microsoft.
   C. Rely on bright colors to get your                  B.   Gene Liebel.
      message across.                                    C.   Watchfire.
   D. Ensure your design can                             D.   Center for Applied Special
      accommodate expandable font size.                       Technology.

3. What do screen readers do?                        8. The use of accessibility tools are
                                                        regulated by the government.
   A. Substitute images for text.
   B. Enlarges text to a user-selected                   A. True, but compliance is voluntary
      size.                                              B. True, the penalties are defined by
   C. Replaces images with written                          the federal government.
      descriptions.                                      C. False, but more and more designers
   D. Translate text into sound.                            are using them anyway.
                                                         D. The article does not say.
4. What tool can you use to test a web site
   for accessibility?

   A.   Bobby.
   B.   Watchfire.
   C.   LIFT.
   D.   Microsoft Accessibility Suite

Web Accessibility focuses on making sites friendlier to users with a wide range of disabilities.
What specific design features would you use to increase accessibility for all users?

As you write, be sure to:

Include your own ideas                        Give specific examples to support your
statements
Write neatly and clearly                      Use any personal experiences
Use only the space provided on back of this page

								
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