INFERENCE by wuyunqing



A guess based on clues
     Inferring Time and Place
• Look for objects, example: telephone
• Look at weather conditions
• Look at style of clothing
                 Point of View
• Definition: How the author feels about an issue. Who is
  telling the story?
• Clues: words, actions
• Example: The kids were excited when they saw the
  snow, but the wife and I only groaned. Winter just
  means more headaches for me. That wet, heavy
  snow means a backache from shoveling the
  driveway. I might get stuck driving to work. We
  should move to Florida.

• Point of view on snow?
• From whose point of view is the paragraph written?
               Point of View
• First of all, I was late enough for work to get old
  Ramsey all ticked off. Then Washington Street
  was all torn up for repairs, so I had to detour and
  don’t you think that doesn’t get the passengers
  all shook up. I must’ve explained that detour at
  least five hundred times. And rush hour—
  everybody in a sweat to get home. The last
  straw was this woman who’s so loaded down
  with groceries that she can’t get to her money.
  When I tell her to get a move, she just stares at
  me like some dummy. And then she finally pays
  the fare, all in pennies.
               Point of View
• I knew the driver was the mean type when I got
  on the bus, but I didn’t know how mean until this
  woman and her little boy got on a few stops
  later. She was tired looking and a little sad, and
  the kid was crying and cranky. She was carrying
  two bags of groceries, so it was really hard for
  her to get the money out of her purse. It looked
  to me like she was hurrying as fast as she could,
  but I guess the driver didn’t think it was fast
  enough because he really got mad and yelled at
  her. I felt so sorry for her that I wanted to give
  her my seat.
             Point of View
• The woman waited while her small son
  struggled up the high steps onto the bus.
  He was crying, and the woman looked
  overtired. Can waiting do that to a
  person? Waiting in doctors’ offices in
  unemployment lines, for the mail to bring a
  welfare check. She didn’t really care
  anymore. The boy could cry, the bus
  driver could yell. These were only minor
  irritations in the grand scheme of things.
     Tone—Author’s Attitude
• Clues: choice of words
• Imagine how these words would be said
• Examples: formal, informal, serious,
  matter-of-fact, sympathetic, sarcastic
           Examples of Tone
• I love summer vacations. There’s always so
  much to do that you don’t have time for during
  the school year—like relaxing around the house
  or working outside and getting a nice suntan, for
  instance. You can sleep till noon if you want to,
  without having a nerve-shattering alarm clock jar
  you out of a sound sleep to go to school. Or you
  can get up early and go for a barefoot walk while
  the dew is still on the grass.
               Author’s Tone
• I love summer vacations. There’s so much to do
  that you don’t have time for during the school
  year—like hanging around the house watching
  the living-room carpet grow, for instance. Or
  mowing lawns and pulling weeds just for the fun
  of getting a sunburn and blisters on your blisters.
  It’s great! You can sleep till noon and get a
  gorgeous headache if you want to, or get up
  early and go for a walk while the pearly dew is
  still on the grass and catch triple pneumonia
  from getting your sneakers soaked.
• By the time I was ten years old I had mastery
  over all the big-time sports moves: the spit in the
  mitt; the fluid infield chatter; the three bounces
  and deep breath before a free throw. I went in
  for athletic clothes in a big way. I always looked
  good because, in truth, I wasn’t really good
  enough. I didn’t care enough about winning.
  Given a choice between winning and looking
  good, I always preferred looking good.

• Tone? Clues?
  Mood—Reader’s attitude toward
  the subject, characters, or writer
• How do you feel after reading a passage?
  – Mysterious, joyous, gloomy, depressing,
• What makes you feel this way?
  – Author’s attitude and tone
• He was eating a sandwich hungrily. He had eaten
  nothing since morning. He had been too excited to eat.
  He finished the sandwich, and taking a flask from his
  pocket, he took a short sip. Then he returned the flask
  to his pocket. He paused for a moment, considering
  whether he should risk a smoke. It was dangerous. The
  flash might be seen in the darkness and there were
  enemies watching. He decided to take the risk.
• Tone? Serious
• Mood? Tense

•   Taken from ―The Sniper‖
• Definition: Making fun of human
  weaknesses, poking fun at society in
• Purpose: Correct or change the subject of
  the attack.
• Clues: humor, exaggeration
  Satire Example—Dave Berry
• The Federal Budget Surplus Crisis has become
  so bad that there is talk of letting you keep
  slightly more of your own money. That is
  correct: The government has been taking so
  much of your money that even Congress is
  having a hard time spending it all. Not that
  Congress isn’t trying! In fact, Congress, faced
  with the quick build-up of your money, has come
  up with some truly creative things to spend it on.
  My favorite is the Greyhound Bus Museum.
        Inferring the Future
• What is the pattern?
• What have characters done in the past?
• Has anything changed?
             Infer the Future
• I started out life as a pretty baby and learned to
  be a pretty girl from a pretty mother. Then at ten
  years of age I suffered one of the worst cases of
  chicken pox I have ever heard of. My entire
  body, including the inside of my ears and in
  between my toes, was covered with pustules
  which I scratched off my face, leaving
  permanent scars. A cruel school nurse told me I
  would always have them—tiny cuts that looked
  as if a mad cat had plunged its claws into my
  skin. I grew my hair long and hid behind it for
  the first years of high school. This is when I
  learned to be invisible.
           Situational Irony
• Definition: The reader expects one result
  and something else happens.

• Example: A family leaves for the beach on
  a hot sunny morning, but by the time they
  reach the beach, it is raining.
            Situational Irony
• Last night I missed two free throws which would
  have won the game against the best team in the
  state. The farm town high school I play for is
  nicknamed the ―Indians‖, and I’m probably the
  only actual Indian to play for the team with such
  a mascot. This morning, I picked up the sports
  page and read the headline: ―Indians Lose
  Again‖. Go ahead and tell me none of this is
  supposed to hurt me very much.
             Verbal Irony
• Definition: Saying the opposite of what is
• Clues: Does the comment make sense in
  the context of the story? If not, it may be
  very irony.
• Would the situation call for verbal irony?

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