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Tactile Picture Books Tactile Picture Books

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					How to Make

Tactile Picture Books




How to Make

Tactile Picture Books




              
Contents
Introduction: Learning and Joy of Discovery
from Tactile Books                                   3

Right Book at the Right Age                          5
     First Books                                      5
     Picture Books for Small Children                 6
     Books for Pre-School and School Children         6
Making Tactile Books                                  7
     Theme and Text                                   7
     Planning the Illustrations                       8
     Shape and Materials                              9
     Music and Sounds                                
     Smells                                          
     Safety First                                    2
Get Started: One Example of Making a Tactile Book    12
     Illustrating a Tactile Book Made of Cardboard   4




Contents
Introduction: Learning and Joy of Discovery
from Tactile Books                                   3

Right Book at the Right Age                          5
     First Books                                      5
     Picture Books for Small Children                 6
     Books for Pre-School and School Children         6
Making Tactile Books                                  7
     Theme and Text                                   7
     Planning the Illustrations                       8
     Shape and Materials                              9
     Music and Sounds                                
     Smells                                          
     Safety First                                    2
Get Started: One Example of Making a Tactile Book    12
     Illustrating a Tactile Book Made of Cardboard   4
Learning and Joy of Discovery from Tactile Books


We live in a world of pictures. From an early age we          tures the child may learn to understand opposites
are used to seeing pictures around us. Fairy tales            and experience the joy of discovery when finding
and picture books are essential for the develop-              new and surprising things in the pages.
ment of the child’s thinking and language. Book
stores and libraries are filled with all kinds of beau-       Tactile pictures not only make the stories more
tiful picture books for sighted children. But if we           enticing, but also enhance the blind child’s ability
start looking for books for a visually impaired child,        to gain information through touch. It is easier for a
we are soon faced with a problem. There are no                child familiar with tactile pictures to start examin-
such books in book stores or public libraries.                ing relief pictures used in text books as well as to
                                                              start learning Braille, as tactile picture books already
Tactile books are picture books for visually impaired         contain Braille print. Operating buttons and zippers
children. They are as important for the visually              and tying knots in the tactile pictures enhance the
impaired child as printed picture books are for               child’s fine motor skills. The feel of different materials
sighted children. With the help of tactile books the          and the sounds and smells they produce make the
child may join in and embark on fairy-tale adven-             child’s senses more receptive and help the child to
tures and get to know various objects and things.             conceptualize and interpret the surrounding world.
Tactile pictures help to present unfamiliar animals
or abstract phenomena, anything that intrigues                Children and adults should enjoy tactile books
the child and is new and exciting. With tactile pic-          together. Blind children are delighted to find differ-

                                                          



Learning and Joy of Discovery from Tactile Books


We live in a world of pictures. From an early age we          tures the child may learn to understand opposites
are used to seeing pictures around us. Fairy tales            and experience the joy of discovery when finding
and picture books are essential for the develop-              new and surprising things in the pages.
ment of the child’s thinking and language. Book
stores and libraries are filled with all kinds of beau-       Tactile pictures not only make the stories more
tiful picture books for sighted children. But if we           enticing, but also enhance the blind child’s ability
start looking for books for a visually impaired child,        to gain information through touch. It is easier for a
we are soon faced with a problem. There are no                child familiar with tactile pictures to start examin-
such books in book stores or public libraries.                ing relief pictures used in text books as well as to
                                                              start learning Braille, as tactile picture books already
Tactile books are picture books for visually impaired         contain Braille print. Operating buttons and zippers
children. They are as important for the visually              and tying knots in the tactile pictures enhance the
impaired child as printed picture books are for               child’s fine motor skills. The feel of different materials
sighted children. With the help of tactile books the          and the sounds and smells they produce make the
child may join in and embark on fairy-tale adven-             child’s senses more receptive and help the child to
tures and get to know various objects and things.             conceptualize and interpret the surrounding world.
Tactile pictures help to present unfamiliar animals
or abstract phenomena, anything that intrigues                Children and adults should enjoy tactile books
the child and is new and exciting. With tactile pic-          together. Blind children are delighted to find differ-

                                                          
ent objects and moving parts in the pages of the           picture by picture and book by book. Naturally,
book. However, the child will not be able to under-        using as correct shapes and materials as possible
stand them, if there is no adult to explain the con-       makes it easier for the child to learn and to under-
nection between the picture and real life. The pic-        stand.
tures depict reality, but they are not always the
same as the real things. A picture of a cow is not         More than anything, picture books bring joy and
the same as a real cow and neither is the car in the       adventure to the life of a visually impaired child!
book the same we can start driving. The shapes also
differ from the ones that we have in the real three-                                          Päivi Voutilainen
dimensional world. The child needs a lot of guid-
ance in interpreting the pictures, but knowledge           Working group: Irmeli Holstein, Vuokko Nyberg,
and experience gained from the books increases             Seija Räikkä, Anneli Salo, Päivi Voutilainen




                                                       4



ent objects and moving parts in the pages of the           picture by picture and book by book. Naturally,
book. However, the child will not be able to under-        using as correct shapes and materials as possible
stand them, if there is no adult to explain the con-       makes it easier for the child to learn and to under-
nection between the picture and real life. The pic-        stand.
tures depict reality, but they are not always the
same as the real things. A picture of a cow is not         More than anything, picture books bring joy and
the same as a real cow and neither is the car in the       adventure to the life of a visually impaired child!
book the same we can start driving. The shapes also
differ from the ones that we have in the real three-                                          Päivi Voutilainen
dimensional world. The child needs a lot of guid-
ance in interpreting the pictures, but knowledge           Working group: Irmeli Holstein, Vuokko Nyberg,
and experience gained from the books increases             Seija Räikkä, Anneli Salo, Päivi Voutilainen




                                                       4
Right Book at the Right Age

Whether children are sighted or visually impaired,
their age plays a role in what kinds of books they
find interesting. It is advisable to consider both the
reader’s age and stage of development when plan-
ning the theme of the book, the length of the text,
the amount and type of pictures and other details.
The layout of the book should be clear and colour-
ful. This guide will give you hints on making tactile
books for children of different ages.

First Books
First books for small children are picture books
with little or no text. Fabric is the best material for
these books. They can even consist entirely of soft           The pictures in these first books do not necessarily
pages. The pictures need not be large, as the read-           have to depict anything. They can for example pro-
er’s hands are tiny. One clear picture per page is            vide diverse stimuli for the senses and inspire and
sufficient with the name of the pictured object in            activate hand-eye cooperation. Clear colour con-
text. The pages of the book should be relatively              trasts are important. The books may contain a vari-
small, size A5, for example.                                  ety of surfaces and materials with different shapes
                                                              and feel. Familiar objects may also be attached to
                                                              the books.

                                                          5



Right Book at the Right Age

Whether children are sighted or visually impaired,
their age plays a role in what kinds of books they
find interesting. It is advisable to consider both the
reader’s age and stage of development when plan-
ning the theme of the book, the length of the text,
the amount and type of pictures and other details.
The layout of the book should be clear and colour-
ful. This guide will give you hints on making tactile
books for children of different ages.

First Books
First books for small children are picture books
with little or no text. Fabric is the best material for
these books. They can even consist entirely of soft           The pictures in these first books do not necessarily
pages. The pictures need not be large, as the read-           have to depict anything. They can for example pro-
er’s hands are tiny. One clear picture per page is            vide diverse stimuli for the senses and inspire and
sufficient with the name of the pictured object in            activate hand-eye cooperation. Clear colour con-
text. The pages of the book should be relatively              trasts are important. The books may contain a vari-
small, size A5, for example.                                  ety of surfaces and materials with different shapes
                                                              and feel. Familiar objects may also be attached to
                                                              the books.

                                                          5
                                                          things that the child may discuss with an adult.
                                                          Thus the child will learn new things and concepts.

                                                          Books for Pre-School and School Children
                                                          Children approaching pre-school age are able to
                                                          read and listen to longer fairy tales and stories.
                                                          They are also interested in books with information
                                                          and small tasks. There may be more complex pic-
                                                          tures and smaller details in these books. However,
                                                          the books should not be too heavy or difficult to
                                                          handle as the readers are still small.


Picture Books for Small Children
As the child develops and starts to speak, there
should be more text in the books. Illustrations
should still remain simple, but as varied as possi-
ble: different surfaces, shapes and objects on var-
ious backgrounds. A couple of pictures per page
are enough. The books may also contain sounds or
smells.
  The books can describe the child’s everyday life.
Some pictures can depict unfamiliar or abstract

                                                      6



                                                          things that the child may discuss with an adult.
                                                          Thus the child will learn new things and concepts.

                                                          Books for Pre-School and School Children
                                                          Children approaching pre-school age are able to
                                                          read and listen to longer fairy tales and stories.
                                                          They are also interested in books with information
                                                          and small tasks. There may be more complex pic-
                                                          tures and smaller details in these books. However,
                                                          the books should not be too heavy or difficult to
                                                          handle as the readers are still small.



Picture Books for Small Children
As the child develops and starts to speak, there
should be more text in the books. Illustrations
should still remain simple, but as varied as possi-
ble: different surfaces, shapes and objects on var-
ious backgrounds. A couple of pictures per page
are enough. The books may also contain sounds or
smells.
  The books can describe the child’s everyday life.
Some pictures can depict unfamiliar or abstract

                                                      6
   Tactile books for school children may contain
even more themes: they can depict adventures,
hobbies, feelings or everyday life, for example fam-
ily life or going to school. Also books that require
and develop logical thinking are popular.




Making Tactile Books

Theme and Text

The text of a tactile book can be either self-created
or borrowed from others. A printed book may be
used as a source. When a printed book is turned
into a tactile book, the illustrations must often be
reduced in number and simplified. The original
author and name of the book must always be men-
tioned. If the tactile books made are to be sold,
attention must be paid to copyright issues: a per-
mission of the copyright holder is needed. One’s
own text can be freely published.

                                                        7



   Tactile books for school children may contain
even more themes: they can depict adventures,
hobbies, feelings or everyday life, for example fam-
ily life or going to school. Also books that require
and develop logical thinking are popular.




Making Tactile Books

Theme and Text

The text of a tactile book can be either self-created
or borrowed from others. A printed book may be
used as a source. When a printed book is turned
into a tactile book, the illustrations must often be
reduced in number and simplified. The original
author and name of the book must always be men-
tioned. If the tactile books made are to be sold,
attention must be paid to copyright issues: a per-
mission of the copyright holder is needed. One’s
own text can be freely published.

                                                        7
   All kinds of poems, songs and rhymes develop            made into tactile illustrations. It is important that
the child’s memory in an entertaining way. Folk            the pictures match the text. A guiding line or rib-
tales and classic fairy tales are fun to read. They        bon can be placed at the bottom of the page to
offer food for thought, as well as lots of humour.         show which way the picture should be read.
When choosing a topic for the book it may be wise             Make a different picture for each page. Usually
to pick one that appeals to both boys and girls.           5 to 0 picture pages are enough to tell the story.
   Text and illustrations should be planned to suit        Pictures are at their best when they are simple: one
the child’s age and stage of development. Text             or two characters per page are enough. For the
length and the division of pages determine the
number of illustrated pages. A longer text may be
included in a separate attachment.
   The text should preferably be typed, with a min-
imum 6 point font size. If you write the text by
hand, use a textile marker. You can also add Braille
versions on top of the text.
   In addition to text, a recording with sound
effects, narration of the book or songs can also be
included.

Planning the Illustrations
Tactile pictures usually include far fewer details
than illustrations meant to be seen by eyes. When
planning the illustrations, begin by choosing pic-
tures that are essential to the story and can be

                                                       8



   All kinds of poems, songs and rhymes develop            made into tactile illustrations. It is important that
the child’s memory in an entertaining way. Folk            the pictures match the text. A guiding line or rib-
tales and classic fairy tales are fun to read. They        bon can be placed at the bottom of the page to
offer food for thought, as well as lots of humour.         show which way the picture should be read.
When choosing a topic for the book it may be wise             Make a different picture for each page. Usually
to pick one that appeals to both boys and girls.           5 to 0 picture pages are enough to tell the story.
   Text and illustrations should be planned to suit        Pictures are at their best when they are simple: one
the child’s age and stage of development. Text             or two characters per page are enough. For the
length and the division of pages determine the
number of illustrated pages. A longer text may be
included in a separate attachment.
   The text should preferably be typed, with a min-
imum 6 point font size. If you write the text by
hand, use a textile marker. You can also add Braille
versions on top of the text.
   In addition to text, a recording with sound
effects, narration of the book or songs can also be
included.

Planning the Illustrations
Tactile pictures usually include far fewer details
than illustrations meant to be seen by eyes. When
planning the illustrations, begin by choosing pic-
tures that are essential to the story and can be

                                                       8
most user-friendly angle characters are depicted
directly from the front or from the side. It is better
to use complete characters than partial ones. Tac-
tile pictures involving perspective are not advisa-
ble, as they are difficult to interpret.
   To make animal and human characters more rec-
ognisable, all limbs as well as both eyes, ears, wings
and the tail must be visible. Size ratio must reflect
the characters: the creature that is biggest in real
life must also be biggest in the picture. The easiest
way is to make the biggest animal first, for exam-
ple, and then adjust the sizes of the other charac-
ters accordingly.                                              Shape and Materials
   At times it is necessary to slightly alter reality
in order to make the picture more understanda-                 Tactile books can be made into different shapes. The
ble. It can be necessary to enlarge some objects               books can be shaped like an accordion, they may be
and shrink others. Some features might have to be              bound or consist of loose pages bound together
enhanced in an unrealistic fashion: for example, by            using holes and some string. The book may also con-
making them raised or from a different material,               sist of just loose pages. For tactile books with card-
the stripes of a tiger or a zebra or the dots on a lady-       board pages, it is best to use spiral binding.
bird can be made distinguishable by touch. Ready-                 The more tactile experiences in the book, the
made animals, possibly equipped with sound, may                more interesting it is for the reader. If you are going
also be used in the illustrations.                             to make a tactile book, get acquainted with different


                                                           9



most user-friendly angle characters are depicted
directly from the front or from the side. It is better
to use complete characters than partial ones. Tac-
tile pictures involving perspective are not advisa-
ble, as they are difficult to interpret.
   To make animal and human characters more rec-
ognisable, all limbs as well as both eyes, ears, wings
and the tail must be visible. Size ratio must reflect
the characters: the creature that is biggest in real
life must also be biggest in the picture. The easiest
way is to make the biggest animal first, for exam-
ple, and then adjust the sizes of the other charac-
ters accordingly.
                                                               Shape and Materials
   At times it is necessary to slightly alter reality
in order to make the picture more understanda-                 Tactile books can be made into different shapes. The
ble. It can be necessary to enlarge some objects               books can be shaped like an accordion, they may be
and shrink others. Some features might have to be              bound or consist of loose pages bound together
enhanced in an unrealistic fashion: for example, by            using holes and some string. The book may also con-
making them raised or from a different material,               sist of just loose pages. For tactile books with card-
the stripes of a tiger or a zebra or the dots on a lady-       board pages, it is best to use spiral binding.
bird can be made distinguishable by touch. Ready-                 The more tactile experiences in the book, the
made animals, possibly equipped with sound, may                more interesting it is for the reader. If you are going
also be used in the illustrations.                             to make a tactile book, get acquainted with different


                                                           9
materials and their char-
acteristics through touch.
Clear colours and good
colour contrasts are essen-
tial for children with par-
tial vision. Colours are also
important for the parents
or others describing the
pictures: they bring adjec-
tives into the conversation
which, in turn, enrich the
child’s vocabulary.
   For the surface of the
pages use a fabric with dis-
tinctive texture and col-
our. For example, a dark
and furry teddy bear illus-
tration should have a light
and smooth background, and a hard, light-coloured      for the sake of credibility: a mitten should not be
object should have a dark and soft background.         made of silk or a rubber boot from terry cloth. For
   When choosing materials it is important to          stuffing or padding, use hygienic materials. Even
remember that the illustrations are read by hand       though hard materials are durable and therefore
and sometimes even by mouth. Good surface              recommended, do not use any sharp or scratchy
contrasts and lifelike materials are also important    materials in the books as they may cause injuries.

                                                  0



materials and their char-
acteristics through touch.
Clear colours and good
colour contrasts are essen-
tial for children with par-
tial vision. Colours are also
important for the parents
or others describing the
pictures: they bring adjec-
tives into the conversa-
tion which, in turn, enrich
the child’s vocabulary.
   For the surface of the
pages use a fabric with dis-
tinctive texture and col-
our. For example, a dark
and furry teddy bear illus-
tration should have a light
and smooth background, and a hard, light-coloured      for the sake of credibility: a mitten should not be
object should have a dark and soft background.         made of silk or a rubber boot from terry cloth. For
   When choosing materials it is important to          stuffing or padding, use hygienic materials. Even
remember that the illustrations are read by hand       though hard materials are durable and therefore
and sometimes even by mouth. Good surface              recommended, do not use any sharp or scratchy
contrasts and lifelike materials are also important    materials in the books as they may cause injuries.

                                                  0
                                                          Music and Sounds

                                                          Sounds, such as rattling, tinkling, squeaking, siz-
                                                          zling, crunching and crackling make tactile books
                                                          even more appealing. Not every page needs to
                                                          make a sound, but the book should nevertheless
                                                          contain some source of sound, a small jingle bell,
                                                          for example. Even ordinary ingredients can cre-
                                                          ate interesting sounds: for example, potato starch
                                                          inside a piece of plastic sounds like snow and corn
                                                          grains sound like waves under a piece of fabric
                                                          glued onto cardboard surface. Hobby shops sell
                                                          flat whistles that may be hidden inside tactile ani-
                                                          mals to make them squeak. Some crunched up
                                                          papers and plastics as well as the padding used
                                                          in e.g. chocolate boxes make interesting rustling
                                                          sounds.
                                                             Even small musical boxes can be used in tactile
                                                          books, however battery-operated devices should
                                                          be avoided.
  Tactile illustrations that are meant for older chil-
dren may contain parts that enhance fine motor            Smells
skills, such as zippers, snap buttons, buttons, Vel-      Different scents or spices may be used in tactile
cro, pockets or wheels.                                   illustrations. Also some materials have their own

                                                         



                                                              Music and Sounds

                                                              Sounds, such as rattling, tinkling, squeaking, siz-
                                                              zling, crunching and crackling make tactile books
                                                              even more appealing. Not every page needs to
                                                              make a sound, but the book should nevertheless
                                                              contain some source of sound, a small jingle bell,
                                                              for example. Even ordinary ingredients can cre-
                                                              ate interesting sounds: for example, potato starch
                                                              inside a piece of plastic sounds like snow and corn
                                                              grains sound like waves under a piece of fabric
                                                              glued onto cardboard surface. Hobby shops sell
                                                              flat whistles that may be hidden inside tactile ani-
                                                              mals to make them squeak. Some crunched up
                                                              papers and plastics as well as the padding used
                                                              in e.g. chocolate boxes make interesting rustling
                                                              sounds.
                                                                 Even small musical boxes can be used in tactile
                                                              books, however battery-operated devices should
                                                              be avoided.
  Tactile illustrations that are meant for older chil-
dren may contain parts that enhance fine motor                Smells
skills, such as zippers, snap buttons, buttons, Vel-          Different scents or spices may be used in tactile
cro, pockets or wheels.                                       illustrations. Also some materials have their own

                                                         
characteristic smell. But, remember that strong
scents may cause allergic reactions. Scents and
smells also tend to fade away over time.

Safety First
A tactile book must always be safe for the child.
The books may not contain parts that loosen or
break easily. Small children often inspect the books
with their mouths, thus the pictures must neither
be toxic nor contain any small parts that may come
loose. Any objects that are meant to be loose or
moved around should be attached with a strong
ribbon. The ribbon must not be too long as not to
get caught around the child’s neck. Objects can
also be held in place by a piece of Velcro or a small         Get Started: One Example of
belt closed with a snap button.                               Making a Tactile Book
   Avoid toxic materials and glues and choose sur-
face materials that are easy to clean. If the book is
to be in a library loans collection, it must withstand        For the surface of the pages choose a single colour
vacuuming and wiping in between loans.                        fabric that repels dirt, and where the illustrations
                                                              are easy to attach. Choose the colour of the surface
                                                              material according to the illustrations to create col-
                                                              our contrasts. Every page does not need to be in
                                                              the same colour.

                                                         2



characteristic smell. But, remember that strong
scents may cause allergic reactions. Scents and
smells also tend to fade away over time.
Safety First
A tactile book must always be safe for the child.
The books may not contain parts that loosen or
break easily. Small children often inspect the books
with their mouths, thus the pictures must neither
be toxic nor contain any small parts that may come
loose. Any objects that are meant to be loose or
moved around should be attached with a strong
ribbon. The ribbon must not be too long as not to
get caught around the child’s neck. Objects can
also be held in place by a piece of Velcro or a small
                                                              Get Started: One Example of
belt closed with a snap button.                               Making a Tactile Book
   Avoid toxic materials and glues and choose sur-
face materials that are easy to clean. If the book is
to be in a library loans collection, it must withstand        For the surface of the pages choose a single colour
vacuuming and wiping in between loans.                        fabric that repels dirt, and where the illustrations
                                                              are easy to attach. Choose the colour of the surface
                                                              material according to the illustrations to create col-
                                                              our contrasts. Every page does not need to be in
                                                              the same colour.

                                                         2
   Inserting a sheet of cardboard or durable plas-        Indicate page numbers with a marker or with beads
tic inside the fabric pages makes the pages stur-       or buttons. Insert the cardboard inside the pages.
dier. If you use cardboard, cover it with self-adhe-    Tighten the page from the side reserved for binding
sive plastic to prevent it from bending and getting     and sew it shut. Turn the part left for binding inwards
wet. Round any sharp corners. Using the cardboard       and sew it. Finally, bind the pages together through
pages, draw the size of the pages on the reverse        holes punched in each page, tying them together.
side of the fabric. When you cut the fabric, it is
important to leave a seam allowance and to allow
space for binding of the book.
   Sew the illustrations firmly onto the background.
Fishing line is very durable in attaching objects. An
illustration may also be attached only partially or
left loose. A loose illustration should nevertheless
be attached to the book by some string and a piece
of Velcro.
   For the cover page, finish the illustrations and
the text before sewing the page and inserting the
cardboard. Turn the illustrated page inside out and
attach the drawn page with pins along the draw-
ing. Sew the page except for the side of the bind-
ing which is left open. Turn the page the right way.
Very large pictures or hard pictures that cannot be
turned are attached first after sewing and turning
the page the right way.

                                                    



   Inserting a sheet of cardboard or durable plas-        Indicate page numbers with a marker or with beads
tic inside the fabric pages makes the pages stur-       or buttons. Insert the cardboard inside the pages.
dier. If you use cardboard, cover it with self-adhe-    Tighten the page from the side reserved for binding
sive plastic to prevent it from bending and getting     and sew it shut. Turn the part left for binding inwards
wet. Round any sharp corners. Using the cardboard       and sew it. Finally, bind the pages together through
pages, draw the size of the pages on the reverse        holes punched in each page, tying them together.
side of the fabric. When you cut the fabric, it is
important to leave a seam allowance and to allow
space for binding of the book.
   Sew the illustrations firmly onto the background.
Fishing line is very durable in attaching objects. An
illustration may also be attached only partially or
left loose. A loose illustration should nevertheless
be attached to the book by some string and a piece
of Velcro.
   For the cover page, finish the illustrations and
the text before sewing the page and inserting the
cardboard. Turn the illustrated page inside out and
attach the drawn page with pins along the draw-
ing. Sew the page except for the side of the bind-
ing which is left open. Turn the page the right way.
Very large pictures or hard pictures that cannot be
turned are attached first after sewing and turning
the page the right way.

                                                    
     Illustrating a Tactile Book Made
     of Cardboard

     Also cardboard can be used as surface material for
     the pages of a tactile book. Cardboard books with
     unique tactile illustrations are best suited for pre-
     school aged or older children, as pictures glued onto
     cardboard are flatter and more difficult to interpret
     than pictures in fabric books. Nevertheless, even
     these books can contain things that can be grasped
     with fingers. For example, animal ears and tails can
     be attached only from the base with the other end
     left loose. Likewise, the ends of a scarf may be left for
     tying or a door to be opened and closed. With the
     help of a fastener, the hands of a clock may become
     movable. Many objects, such as windmills, may be
     made into functioning, flat miniature models.
        Even with cardboard books it is advisable to
     attach all possible parts by sewing and only then
     glue the finished illustrations to the pages.




4



 Illustrating a Tactile Book Made
 of Cardboard

 Also cardboard can be used as surface material for
 the pages of a tactile book. Cardboard books with
 unique tactile illustrations are best suited for pre-
 school aged or older children, as pictures glued onto
 cardboard are flatter and more difficult to interpret
 than pictures in fabric books. Nevertheless, even
 these books can contain things that can be grasped
 with fingers. For example, animal ears and tails can
 be attached only from the base with the other end
 left loose. Likewise, the ends of a scarf may be left for
 tying or a door to be opened and closed. With the
 help of a fastener, the hands of a clock may become
 movable. Many objects, such as windmills, may be
 made into functioning, flat miniature models.
    Even with cardboard books it is advisable to
 attach all possible parts by sewing and only then
 glue the finished illustrations to the pages.




4
Illustrations in This Guide
Front Cover: Marjatta Tuura: Omenapuun vuosi                Page 11
(“The Year of the Apple Tree”)                              Sanni Heinikainen: Opi pukemaan
                                                            (”Let’s Get Dressed!”)
Page 5
Minja Sulkumäki: Pintoja ja värejä                          Page 12
(”Surfaces and Colours”)                                    Tuija Herranen: Hämähäkki (”The Spider”)

Page 6                                                      Page 13
(left) Vuokko Nyberg: Etsi ja valitse                       Seija Räikkä: Lasten pääsiäiskirja
(”Find and Choose”)                                         (”Children’s Easter Book”)
(right) Katja Meriluoto: Sampo (”The Treasure Mill”)
                                                            Page 14
Page 7                                                      Sylvi Sarapuu: Muodot (”Shapes”)
Vuokko Nyberg: Inna pieni hapsihaiven
(”Inna the Tiny Dandelion Seed”)                            Back Cover: Tiziana Mantacheti: Leppäkerttu
                                                            lähtee vuorille (Ladybird Goes to the Mountain)
Page 8
Anneli Salo: Onkiretki (”Fishing Trip”)                     Photos: Celia Library’s collections

Page 10
Heidi Erjomaa: Lassen koulumatka
(”Larry Goes to School”)

                                                       5



Illustrations in This Guide
Front Cover: Marjatta Tuura: Omenapuun vuosi                Page 11
(“The Year of the Apple Tree”)                              Sanni Heinikainen: Opi pukemaan
                                                            (”Let’s Get Dressed!”)
Page 5
Minja Sulkumäki: Pintoja ja värejä                          Page 12
(”Surfaces and Colours”)                                    Tuija Herranen: Hämähäkki (”The Spider”)

Page 6                                                      Page 13
(left) Vuokko Nyberg: Etsi ja valitse                       Seija Räikkä: Lasten pääsiäiskirja
(”Find and Choose”)                                         (”Children’s Easter Book”)
(right) Katja Meriluoto: Sampo (”The Treasure Mill”)
                                                            Page 14
Page 7                                                      Sylvi Sarapuu: Muodot (”Shapes”)
Vuokko Nyberg: Inna pieni hapsihaiven
(”Inna the Tiny Dandelion Seed”)                            Back Cover: Tiziana Mantacheti: Leppäkerttu
                                                            lähtee vuorille (Ladybird Goes to the Mountain)
Page 8
Anneli Salo: Onkiretki (”Fishing Trip”)                     Photos: Celia Library’s collections

Page 10
Heidi Erjomaa: Lassen koulumatka
(”Larry Goes to School”)

                                                       5
Celia Library
P.O. Box 20
FIN-0000 IIRIS
Finland

Visiting address:
Marjaniementie 74, Itäkeskus,
0090 Helsinki

Tel: +58 9 2295 2200
E-mail: info@celialib.fi
www.celialib.fi



Helsinki 2008




Celia Library
P.O. Box 20
FIN-0000 IIRIS
Finland

Visiting address:
Marjaniementie 74, Itäkeskus,
0090 Helsinki

Tel: +58 9 2295 2200
E-mail: info@celialib.fi
www.celialib.fi



Helsinki 2008

				
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