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									SUSTAINABLE URBAN DESIGN CONCEPT FOR TSUNAMI RISK AREA
 CASE STUDY : TOWN IN THE SOUTHWEST COAST ACEH REGION



                            BY :
         Nurlisa Ginting and Achmad Delianur Nasution


                                                        1
Sustainable Development



  “Sustainable development is development that
   meets the needs of the present without
   jeopardizing the ability of future generation to
   meet their own needs” World Comission on
   Environmental and Development (Brundtland
   Comission, 1987).



                                                  2
Sustainable Urban Design

Nine principle for “sustainable society” :
1. Respect and care for community of life
2. Improve the quality of human life
3. Conserve the Earth’s vitality and diversity
4. Minimize depletion on renewable resources
5. Keep within the Earth’s carrying capacity
6. Change personal attitudes and practices
7. Enable communities to care for their own
    environments
8. Provide an international framework for integrating
    development and coservation
9. Create global alliance                           3
Objective of Urban Design

The purpose of Urban Design (Spreiregen 1985) :
1. To make the extend of the city comprehensible
2. To make the city human
3. To relate urban forms to natural settings
4. To weave new centers into the urban fabric
5. To complement the monumental with the mundane
6. To complement the urban with nature
7. To create key focal sites
8. To make the city a harbor of Diversity
                                                   4
Tsunami :Guiding and Preventing
Principles
1.   Recognize the risk of tsunami
2.   Avoid new development in the affected areas to reduce
     the future victims
3.   Arrange new development in the affected areas and
     minimizing the loss of damage in the future.
4.   Plan and build the new building in reducing the
     damaged.
5.   Protect developed areas from the Tsunami affected with
     the reconstruction, redesign and reoccupied.
6.   Special prevention needed in arranging and redesign of
     the infrastructure and public facility to reduce the
     damaged.
7.   Evacuation Planned


                                                              5
Natural Dimension of Urban Design
  McHarg (1989), Lewis, and other eloquent exponents of the
 environment planning movement have brought into focus the
 evolving philosophy that ecological processes provide
 indispensable basis for planning and design.
 The dependence of one life process on another; the
 interconnected development of living and physical process of
 earth, climate, water, plants, and animals; the continuous
 transformation and recycling of living and non-living materials;
 these are the elements of the self-perpetuating biosphere that
 sustain life on earth and which give rise to the physical
 landscape. They become the central determinants of form for all
 human activities on the land.
 The “Form Follow Function” principle could not be the sole basis
 for environmental design. Today, “Design with Nature” principle
 is part of design practices which is more appropriate to the
 evolvement process of nature.
                                                                6
Human Dimension of Urban Design
in Tsunami Risk Area
 The concept of modern lifestyle which is based on moral code of
 Islam, is one among concepts mentioned by Prof. Ghani Salleh
 from University Sains Malaysia in the “Urban Recovery After
 Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster” seminar on January 29, 2005
 which was organized by Architecture Program of Postgraduate
 School of University of North Sumatera.


                                              Industry




                                  Housing      Mosque     Buisness District




                                               School
                                                                   7
   Physical Dimension of Urban Design
   in Tsunami Risk Area
City Shape
  A number of City Shape Concepts for areas which is in
  jeopardy of tsunami:
- Redeveloping new town in the area of low possibility to be hit
  by tsunami wave, for example: in remote areas from sea coast,
  in highland areas , or in wall-surrounded areas.
- Creating natural barrier to tsunami waves that physically could
  be mangrove trees or strong plants.
- Applying Compact city shape by an intensive and high
  integrated land use which could also prevent natural
  destruction extensively, at once.
                                                            8
 Physical Dimension of Urban Design
 in Tsunami Risk Area
Urban Element
Land Use
  At the macro level, land use in sea coast area suggested to be the coastal
  boundary line (300-500 m), which is used to be the green area and natural
  drainage area so it could be the buffer or protection against tsunami wave.
  According to the field work in the west coast of Aceh, the destruction effects of
  tsunami wave generally lessened in the distance of 250 meters from the sea
  coast.

Vehicles Circulation
 The perpendicular major circulation from coastal area towards the hill is designed
  wide open and leads directly to the evacuation point to assist community to
  evacuate when tsunami comes.




                                                                            9
Physical Dimension of Urban Design
in Tsunami Risk Area
Pedestrian Ways
  The shape of compact city creates possibilities to plan transportation mode that prioritize the
   pedestrian, hence, the use of un-renewable fossil fuels such as gasoline, could be reduced as
   minimum as possible.
   Furthermore, the pedestrian patterns could be able to generate socialized lifestyle in urban
   community.


Building Form and Massing
 The orientation of building would be better to face the sea or able to receive quick warning of
   vulnerabilities from the sea. Building construction should be focused on earthquake
   resistance structures or temporarily withstand during the people try to find more secure place.

Open Space
  Open spaces, squares and mosque courtyards turned to be evacuation areas in
   emergency situation.




                                                                                         10
Physical Dimension of Urban Design
in Tsunami Risk Area
Activity Support
  Fishery and its activity supports are part of community livelihood and in
  principal, the location has to be remained in the coastal area to support
  the community to run their daily activities.

Information
  Information, as part of community facilities, is set at public places and
  coastal areas.

Preservation
  The persistent buildings after the tsunami, especially public buildings
  could be reoccupied as long as the construction strength remains
  structurally accepted.
  This would be memorial buildings and have economic advantage.

                                                                            11
Survey of Towns in the Southwest Coast
Aceh Region
• Survey was managed by a voluntary architects
  team from Architecture Department of
  Postgraduate Program of North Sumatera
  University and Indonesian Institute of Architects
  (IAI) in collaboration with Emergency Architect,
  Perancis.
• The survey was conducted on January 20 – 26,
  2005; covering towns and villages in coastal
  districts along southwest coast of Aceh regions
  between Meulaboh and Blang Pidie towns.
                                                      12
   Survey of Towns in the Southwest Coast
   Aceh Region
                                                                                                                                                  KAJEUNG




                                                                                                SUNGAI MAS
                                                                                                SUB REGENCY




• The Regencies of West Aceh, Nagan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 SEUNAGAN TIMUR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 SUB REGENCY

                                                                                                                                                      PANTE CEUREUMEN
                                                                                                                                                      SUB REGENCY



                                                                    KUALA BHEE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                KEUDE LNTEUNG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      BEUTONG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                BUNGONG PULO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      SUB REGENCY
                                                  WOYLA                                                                                                                                                                                                   JEURAM
                                                  SUB REGENCY                                                                                     PATE CEUREUMON

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            SEUNAGAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            SUB REGENCY

                                         ARONGAN LAMBALEK
                                         SUB REGENCY




  Raya and Southwest Aceh.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                KUALA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 SIMPANG PEUT
                                                  DRIEN RAMPAK                                                                                                                                                                    SUAK PUNTONG                                  SUB REGENCY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  VILLAGE
                                                                                               BANDA LAYUNG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               DARUL MAKMUR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          KUALA BARO
                                                                                                          BUBON
                                                                                                                             KEUON ARON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          VILLAGE                    LANGKAK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     VILLAGE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               SUB REGENCY
                                                                                                          SUB REGENCY                                                                                                                            KUALA TUHA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 VILLAGE
                                                                                                                              KAWAY XVI                                                                                                           KUBANG GAJAH              PADANG PANJANG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  VILLAGE
                                                                                                                              SUB REGENCY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       KUALA TRANG
                                                                                 SAMATIGA                                                                                                                                                              VILLAGE
                                                                                 SUB REGENCY                                                                                                                                                                                                            SUKA MAKMUR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              COT RAMBONG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              VILLAGE

                                                                                 SUAK TIMAH

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  KUALA TADU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  VILLAGE



                                                                                                  JOHAN PAHLWAN
                                                                                                  SUB REGENCY
                                                                                                                          MEURUBO
                                                                                                                          SUB REGENCY

                                                                                               MEULABOH

                                                                                                                             MEUREUBO




• The Regency towns:
             (1)Kuala
             (2)Manggeng                                                                                                                                                                           TUTU




             (3)Tangan-tangan                                                                                                                                  TEUNOM




                                                                                                                                                                              SUAK TIMAH
                                                                                                                                                                                            PASI
                                                                                                                                                                                                           PUNGKI


                                                                                                                                                                                                                       JEURAM
                                                                                                                                                                                   MEULABOH




             (4)Susoh                                                                                                                                                                                     KUTANIBONG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    TADUK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                SEUMAYAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             LAMAINONG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       KUTA BAHAGIA




             (5)Keuda Batee                                                                                                                                                                                                     SUSOH                                       BLANG PIDIE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   TANGAN TANGAN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         MANGGENG




             (6)Johan Pahlawan
             (7)Merbau                             BABAHROT




                                      BABAHROT SUB REGENCY




             (8)Samatiga
                                                                                                                KUTA BAHAGIA


                                                                                                                                                                        BLANG PIDIE SUB REGENCY


                                            KUALA BATEE SUB REGENCY
                                                                 LAMA TUHA VILLAGE




                                                                                                         PULO KAYU VILLAGE
                                                                                                                                                    BLANG PIDIE

                                                                                                              PADANG BARU VILLAGE         SUSOH
                                                                                                                 KEDAI SUSOH VILLAGE




             (9)Arongan Lambalek
                                                                                                                    PALAK KARAMBEE VILLAGE

                                                                                                       SUSOH SUB REGENCY                                           TANGAN-TANGAN SUB REGENCY


                                                                                                                                                                         TANJUNG BUNGA




                                                                                                                                                                                   MANGGENG SUB REGENCY




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13
                                                                                                                                                                                 MANGGENG




             (10) Darul Makmur
THE TYPOLOGY OF TOWNS AND SETTLEMENTS
OF SOUTHWEST ACEH REGION BEFORE THE
DISASTER

• Ribbon shape city
• It was shaped by the ‘barriers’: coastal zone
  on one hand, and hilly land on the other.
• The growth of town follows the linier
  pattern of road.
• The orientation of physical formation of
  town is roads.
• The towns are back on to the sea.

                                              14
THE ARCHITECTURE TYPOLOGY OF TOWNS IN SOUTHWEST ACEH
REGION


• A neighborhood pathway in
  each of every two (2) housing
  lots which is more-or-less
  parallel to the coastal line.

• Pathways between
  settlements which oriented to
  sea and to the road.

• With an interval of three-
  blocks-of-housing, there is an
  artery road which its position
  is also functioned as the
  boundary between flat ground
  and hill.                                     15
      Site Section of Town / Settlements of Aceh West Coast




• At the coastal boundary line which is the government property
  (about 150 m coastal line), settlements orientation is to the sea in a
  dispersive pattern. the spread.
• There are also a number of Fishermen Activity Centres at this
  boundary line.
• At the back of this boundary line there is a linier pattern settlement
                                                                    16
  oriented to the road.
Neighbourhood pathway in
settlement area and the typology of
Architecture

                                      17
The Architecture typology of towns in Southwest Aceh Region




         ROAD



                   Settlement   Housing orientation is to the
                                pathway not to the sea.
                                Dominant housing spacious,
                                more-or-less 30m2
      TO THE SEA
                                Single-floor houses.
                                Materials are mainly wood
                                                                18
                                and cement plaster.
Survey of Towns in the Southwest Coast
Aceh Region
By many variations in different locations, the totally
destroyed buildings is in the distance of 250 meters from
the coastal line.




          The condition of town around Meulaboh Mosque


                                                            19
Survey of Towns in the Southwest Coast Aceh
Region




                         Buildings in the coastal
                         boundary line are oriented
                         to the road and backed on
                         to the sea.
                                                      20
    Land Use Design Concept
    Land Use Pattern
    Land use planning for coastal towns regions aftermath of the earthquake
    and tsunami disaster is based on the estimation of building location and
    activities safeness to the tsunami hazard, as follows:
•   The seaport and wave-breaker planned to be built at the seashore areas
    which is directly contact to the sea.
•   The area within the coastal boundary line and the edge of the road is
    planned a greenery area consists of vegetations to absorb and resist wave
    energy. This area could also become a public open space.
•   The artery road is planned in the boundary between coastal and hilly
    zones.
•   Settlement is placed in the hilly area with earthquake-resistant
    construction.
•   The area between the artery road and settlement area in the hilly zone, is
    planned to be a greenery area.
•   Mosque is placed in the center of neighbourhood.
                                                                        21
Circulation Design Concept
    Circulations
•   The perpendicular major circulation from coastal area towards
    the hill is designed wide open and leads directly to the
    evacuation point in higher area to assist community to evacuate
    when tsunami comes.
•   Hierarchy and circulation pattern are oriented to the major
    circulation line.
•   The Circulation structures follow the natural contours
    form.
•   The circulation in the neighbourhood is mainly for
    pedestrian.
•   The circulation to the coastal areas as the place of
    livelihood should be good, acceptable and clear.
                                                                  22
Building Design Concept
Building
• Building orientation is better face to the sea or
  enable in quick information acceptance regarding
  to the danger from the coast.
• Wooden house construction is better in earthquake
  resistance or enough to hold up until the people
  save themselves to the save place
• Public facility building construction such as
  mosque should be made by the earthquake
  resistance, therefore its could be used as an
  evacuated areas.

                                                  23
Recommendation :
                                                      Open Space
New Town Planning                  New Town Area
                                                      and Mosque
A compact and harmonize town                         as a town
shape with contours.                                  center
The main road to be the
evacuation facilities from the sea
area towards the hill.
The new town is close to the
former one.
Open spaces to be the evacuation
point on the top of the hill.
Sea orientation.
                                                   Old Town Area
The areas inside Coastal Boundary
Area become Greenery and as center
of fishermen activities and tourism.
Settlements on the hilly zone.
Artery road becomes coastal                                 24
boundary line.
   Recommendations : Land Section




                     250-300 meters



Wave breaker: men-made or natural mangrove forest.
Road as the physical indication of the coastal boundary area.
Settlements in a higher level of land.
Changing contours at the minimum level.
                                                                 25

								
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