• Fearing communists, anarchist, and socialists,
America turned against these common people.
• Raids were executed by the Attorney General A.
Mitchell Palmer who hunted down the radicals and
“reds” in response to fears of a growing socialist
populace in the US.
• McCarthy and Nixon were also some
who hunted down communist and accused
• On April 15, 1920, two men robbed and
murdered a paymaster and his guard as they
transferred $15,776 from the Slater and Morrill
• Three weeks later, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo
Vanzetti were accused and arrested for this
crime, despite the little evidence against them.
• They were convicted, but their appeals lasted 6
• Both men were executed for their "crimes."
• Warren G. Harding was elected to the Presidency in the
1920s in which he urged a "return to normalcy."
(Policies of the “Guilded Age”)
• Generally conservative, especially regarding taxes,
tariffs, immigration restriction, labor rights, and
business regulation. (laissez-faire)
• Harding's administration was marked by corruption and
scandal. (Teapot Dome Scandal)
• Died of a stroke in office in August 1923.
Underwood Tariff of 1913 Fordney-McCumber Tariff
Republicans wanted to keep a prosperous home
market for American business, so the tariff was
raised in 1922.
When European nations retaliated and raised the
tariffs, all trade was hurt.
• After W.W.I, farmer’s prosperity made a
downfall in selling large amount of
agricultural goods overseas because Europe
was now at peace and they could grow their
• They began to overproduce causing prices
• The tractor helped to produce even more
agricultural goods and put farmers into debt.
• After his death, Calvin Coolidge soon took the place of
Harding, but did little as vice president.
• When he assumed the presidency after Harding's death,
he acted quickly to repair the damage of the Harding
administrations scandals and to secure the 1924
• He was easily elected over Democrat John W. Davis
and Progressive Robert M. La Follette.
• Near the end of his second term, Coolidge decided not
to run for president again and retired from politics.
• His policies included federal tax cuts and high tariffs,
but he lost favor during the Great Depression.
• Effect of WWI on technology.
• Scientific management: "Taylorism"
• Rapid increase in worker productivity
• Psychology of consumption
• Relations between the federal government
and big business
• The 1920s saw the growth of the culture of
consumerism--many Americans began to
work fewer hours, earn higher salaries,
invest in the stock market, and buy
everything from washing machines to
Model T Fords.
• Annual automobile
production rose from 2
million during the 1920s
to 5.5 million in 1929.
• By the late 1920s, there
was one automobile for
every five Americans.
• Mass Production &
Assembly Lines were
improved and became
• Cost-- The price of automobiles
declined steadily until the mid-
1920s so that many well-paid
working families could now afford
to purchase a car.
• Credit-- In 1925, Americans made
75% of all automobile purchases on
the installment plan.
“Possess today and pay tomorrow.”
• Motion picture production became one of the
ten largest industries in the United States during
• In 1922, theaters sold 40 million tickets a week.
• By 1929, that number had grown to 100 million
• The first commercial
radio station went on
the air in the 1920s in
• By 1922, 3 million
Young ladies cut their hair
Times Sure and became “flappers”.
Do Change They danced the Charleston
with bobbed hair and
short skirts. They even
went to the “Speakeasies
and drank illegal alcohol.
• These writers, looking for freedom of thought and action,
changed the face of modern writing. Realistic and
rebellious, they wrote what they wanted and fought
censorship for profanity and sexuality. They incorporated
Freudian ideas into their characters and styles.
• Some Include:
– F. Scott Fitzgerald - The Great Gatsby
– Ernest Hemingway - The Sun Also Rises &
A Farewell to Arms
– Sinclair Lewis – Main Street
– William Faulkner - The Sound and the Fury
• Jazz originated in New Orleans and was
brought to northern cities with migrating
Black-Americans who moved north to get
jobs during W.W.I.
• Gave birth to Jazz:
– Handy Morton
– Joseph King Oliver
• Was later picked up by Louis Armstrong
& then by white impresarios.
• The largest black community in the
world that was inspired in literature,
painting, and music took place in
Harlem of New York City.
• This showed the pride in black culture
and also showed whites that “New
Negro” or Black American was a full
citizen and a social equal to whites.
Leaders of Harlem
– Langston Hughes or
“The Poet Laureate of
– Claude Mc Cay
• Musicians & Singers:
– Bessie Smith or
“Empress of the Blues”
– Louis Armstrong
• The 18th Amendment was
implemented by the Volstead
Act in 1919.
• Popular in the Midwest &
• Unpopular in Eastern Cities
• Cause an increase in crime
(fought over Bootleg Trade)
• In 1924, Congress shut down the long
period of unrestricted immigration to
America. (Immigration Act of 1924)
• National-origins quotas set at 2%
• It froze American’s existing racial composition
• Revival of KKK which was anti-Catholic, anti-Black, anti-
Jewish, anti-pacifist, anti-communist, anti-bootlegger
• Conservative Reaction against the forces of diversity and
modernism that were changing American culture.
• Manifestation of the intolerance and prejudice plaguing
some Americans of the 1920s
• “Old-time religion” –
literary reading of the
Bible as scripture
• Teaching of Darwinism
evolution prohibited in
• “Monkey Trial” – John
T. Scopes, a biology teacher, was convicted and
fined for $100.00 of teaching evolution to his
students. The fine was later threw out because of a
• Having served as secretary of commerce under
both Harding and Coolidge, Hoover was elected
to the presidency in 1928, helped by the
prevailing prosperity in the country.
• Hoover had been in office just a few months
when the Great Depression began.
• In 1932, he lost the presidential election to
Franklin D. Roosevelt.
• When the “Bull” market began to rise, many people
started to buy stock on margin.
• Black Thursday, October 24th, 1929, 13,000,000
shares were sold.
• There was not enough collateral to back up stock
• The next day, October 25th, J.P. Morgan and many
bankers bought huge blocks of shares to stabilize the
The Beginning of
What was Thought to be
• On October 29, 1929, 16,400,000 shares
took a downturn for the worse.
• The stock market began to collapse
• Over the next two months, 40 billion dollars
worth of stock disappeared into thin air.
• The Great Depression soon followed as
thousands of banks closed their doors.
Section 23 & 24 Notes