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The Roaring Twenties

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					The Roaring
 Twenties
• Fearing communists, anarchist, and socialists,
  America turned against these common people.
• Raids were executed by the Attorney General A.
  Mitchell Palmer who hunted down the radicals and
  “reds” in response to fears of a growing socialist
  populace in the US.
• McCarthy and Nixon were also some
  who hunted down communist and accused
  many.
• On April 15, 1920, two men robbed and
  murdered a paymaster and his guard as they
  transferred $15,776 from the Slater and Morrill
  Shoe factory.
• Three weeks later, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo
  Vanzetti were accused and arrested for this
  crime, despite the little evidence against them.
• They were convicted, but their appeals lasted 6
  years afterward.
• Both men were executed for their "crimes."
• Warren G. Harding was elected to the Presidency in the
  1920s in which he urged a "return to normalcy."
  (Policies of the “Guilded Age”)
• Generally conservative, especially regarding taxes,
  tariffs, immigration restriction, labor rights, and
  business regulation. (laissez-faire)
• Harding's administration was marked by corruption and
  scandal. (Teapot Dome Scandal)
• Died of a stroke in office in August 1923.
                       Tariffs

Underwood Tariff of 1913   Fordney-McCumber Tariff

          27%                        38.5%



   Republicans wanted to keep a prosperous home
  market for American business, so the tariff was
  raised in 1922.
  When European nations retaliated and raised the
  tariffs, all trade was hurt.
• After W.W.I, farmer’s prosperity made a
  downfall in selling large amount of
  agricultural goods overseas because Europe
  was now at peace and they could grow their
  own.
• They began to overproduce causing prices
  to fall
• The tractor helped to produce even more
  agricultural goods and put farmers into debt.
• After his death, Calvin Coolidge soon took the place of
  Harding, but did little as vice president.
• When he assumed the presidency after Harding's death,
  he acted quickly to repair the damage of the Harding
  administrations scandals and to secure the 1924
  presidential nomination.
• He was easily elected over Democrat John W. Davis
  and Progressive Robert M. La Follette.
• Near the end of his second term, Coolidge decided not
  to run for president again and retired from politics.
• His policies included federal tax cuts and high tariffs,
  but he lost favor during the Great Depression.
•   Effect of WWI on technology.
•   Scientific management: "Taylorism"
•   Rapid increase in worker productivity
•   Psychology of consumption
•   Relations between the federal government
    and big business
• The 1920s saw the growth of the culture of
  consumerism--many Americans began to
  work fewer hours, earn higher salaries,
  invest in the stock market, and buy
  everything from washing machines to
  Model T Fords.
• Annual automobile
  production rose from 2
  million during the 1920s
  to 5.5 million in 1929.
• By the late 1920s, there
  was one automobile for
  every five Americans.
• Mass Production &
  Assembly Lines were
  improved and became
  very self-evident.
• Cost-- The price of automobiles
  declined steadily until the mid-
  1920s so that many well-paid
  working families could now afford
  to purchase a car.
• Credit-- In 1925, Americans made
  75% of all automobile purchases on
  the installment plan.
  “Possess today and pay tomorrow.”
           Motion Pictures




• Motion picture production became one of the
  ten largest industries in the United States during
  the 1920s.
• In 1922, theaters sold 40 million tickets a week.
• By 1929, that number had grown to 100 million
  a week.
• The first commercial
  radio station went on
  the air in the 1920s in
  Pittsburgh.

• By 1922, 3 million
  American households
  had radios.
             Young ladies cut their hair
Times Sure   and became “flappers”.
Do Change    They danced the Charleston
             with bobbed hair and
             short skirts. They even
             went to the “Speakeasies
             and drank illegal alcohol.
• These writers, looking for freedom of thought and action,
  changed the face of modern writing. Realistic and
  rebellious, they wrote what they wanted and fought
  censorship for profanity and sexuality. They incorporated
  Freudian ideas into their characters and styles.
• Some Include:
   – F. Scott Fitzgerald - The Great Gatsby
   – Ernest Hemingway - The Sun Also Rises &
                            A Farewell to Arms
   – Sinclair Lewis –      Main Street
   – William Faulkner - The Sound and the Fury
• Jazz originated in New Orleans and was
  brought to northern cities with migrating
  Black-Americans who moved north to get
  jobs during W.W.I.
• Gave birth to Jazz:
  – Handy Morton
  – Joseph King Oliver
• Was later picked up by Louis Armstrong
  & then by white impresarios.
• The largest black community in the
  world that was inspired in literature,
  painting, and music took place in
  Harlem of New York City.




• This showed the pride in black culture
  and also showed whites that “New
  Negro” or Black American was a full
  citizen and a social equal to whites.
          Leaders of Harlem
• Writers:
   – Langston Hughes or
     “The Poet Laureate of
     Harlem”
   – Claude Mc Cay
• Musicians & Singers:
   – Bessie Smith or
     “Empress of the Blues”
   – Louis Armstrong
• The 18th Amendment was
  implemented by the Volstead
  Act in 1919.
• Popular in the Midwest &
  South
• Unpopular in Eastern Cities
• Cause an increase in crime
  (fought over Bootleg Trade)
• In 1924, Congress shut down the long
  period of unrestricted immigration to
  America. (Immigration Act of 1924)
• National-origins quotas set at 2%
• It froze American’s existing racial composition
• Revival of KKK which was anti-Catholic, anti-Black, anti-
  Jewish, anti-pacifist, anti-communist, anti-bootlegger
• Conservative Reaction against the forces of diversity and
  modernism that were changing American culture.




• Manifestation of the intolerance and prejudice plaguing
  some Americans of the 1920s
• “Old-time religion” –
  literary reading of the
  Bible as scripture
• Teaching of Darwinism
  evolution prohibited in
  public schools
• “Monkey Trial” – John
  T. Scopes, a biology teacher, was convicted and
  fined for $100.00 of teaching evolution to his
  students. The fine was later threw out because of a
  technicality.
• Having served as secretary of commerce under
  both Harding and Coolidge, Hoover was elected
  to the presidency in 1928, helped by the
  prevailing prosperity in the country.
• Hoover had been in office just a few months
  when the Great Depression began.
• In 1932, he lost the presidential election to
  Franklin D. Roosevelt.
• When the “Bull” market began to rise, many people
  started to buy stock on margin.
• Black Thursday, October 24th, 1929, 13,000,000
  shares were sold.
• There was not enough collateral to back up stock
  margin.
• The next day, October 25th, J.P. Morgan and many
  bankers bought huge blocks of shares to stabilize the
  market.
                      The Beginning of
                    What was Thought to be
                           the End
• On October 29, 1929, 16,400,000 shares
  took a downturn for the worse.
• The stock market began to collapse
• Over the next two months, 40 billion dollars
  worth of stock disappeared into thin air.
• The Great Depression soon followed as
  thousands of banks closed their doors.
American Pageant
Section 23 & 24 Notes
http://cvip.fresno.com/~jsh33/roar.html
http://www.snowcrest.net/jmike/20sdep.html

				
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