Cite-Checking Manual - Santa Clara Law - Santa Clara University

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					 SANTA CLARA LAW REVIEW

           VOLUME 50




CITE-CHECKING MANUAL

            2009-2010




     Revised and Prepared by:
   Volume 50 Technical Department
       Santa Clara Law Review
 Santa Clara University School of Law
    Santa Clara, California 95053
I. Cite-Checking Overview

  A. Contact Information                             Pg. 3

  B. Distribution of Cite-Checking Assignments       Pg. 5

  C. The Due Date                                    Pg. 5

  D. The Technical Editor & Research Editor          Pg. 5

  E. The Cite-Checking Process                       Pgs. 6-7
     1. Preparation
     2. Substantive accuracy
     3. Technical (―Bluebook‖) accuracy
     4. Shepardization
     5. Grammar, spelling, style, continuity, etc.

  F. The Cite-Checking Report                        Pgs. 7-9
     1. Filling out the form
     2. Multiple citations in a footnote
     3. Marking up pages
     4. The completed assignment

  G. Credit for Completion and Evaluation of Work    Pgs. 9-10
     1. Production hours
     2. Cite-checking scores
                                       I. Cite-Checking Overview

    A. CONTACT INFORMATION – VOLUME 49 BOARD

                                           Executive Board
                              Brandon Douglass, Editor-in-Chief
                                  bfdouglass@scu.edu
                              Allie Ara, Managing Editor
                                  allie.ara@gmail.com
                              Kara Wild, Senior Technical Editor
                                  kara.wild@gmail.com
                                      (818) 281-4497
                              Hillary Mattis, Senior Comments Editor
                              Courtney Smith, Senior Articles Editor
                   Technical Editors                             Research Editors
    Alison Brosnan                                  Sabrina Chu
        abrosnan3@gmail.com                            sabrinaychu@gmail.com
    Phoebe Eustis                                   Christopher Fong
        pheustis@gmail.com                             cfong@scu.edu
    Darrin Gambelin                                 Cindy Koo
        dgambelin@yahoo.com                            cindybkoo@gmail.com
    Ariel Guggenheim                                Jackie Meilander
        ariel.guggenheim@gmail.com                     jdmeilander@gmail.com
    Danielle Johnson                                Quan Nguyen
        daniellejohnson3055@gmail.com                  qnguyen@scu.edu
    Kevin LeBlanc                                   Miguel Soto
        kj_leblanc@yahoo.com                           miguel_soto2000@yahoo.com
    Chris Merino                                    Mary Thurston
        cmerino@scu.edu                                m.k.thurston@gmail.com
    Efrain Staino
        efrain.staino@rocketmail.com
    Kristine Young
        kristine.lauren@gmail.com

** Please contact your assigned Technical Editor or the Senior Technical Editor directly if you have any questions
or problems. If an issue needs to be addressed with the Managing Editor or the Editor-in-Chief, please contact the
Senior Technical Editor.
    B. DISTRIBUTION OF CITE-CHECKING ASSIGNMENTS
     A cite-checking assignment is a portion of an article or comment that has been selected for
publication in the Law Review. A typical assignment contains anywhere from twenty to forty footnotes.
It can take from ten to twenty hours to complete a typical cite-checking assignment.

     Assignments are distributed by the Managing Editor or Senior Technical Editor to associates who
have completed the cite-checking training process. It is not necessary to request assignments; they will be
distributed as they become available. Associates will also be notified by e-mail when they are given an
assignment. NOTE: Cite-checking assignments will not be distributed during finals periods.

    When you have completed an assignment, follow the directions on the assignment file sent by the
Managing Editor and e-mail your completed files to the Technical Editor in charge of your specific
assignment.

   If there is a specific time when you will be unavailable—note that completion of coursework (e.g.,
Advocacy Briefs) does NOT constitute unavailability—for cite-checking, notify the Managing Editor in
advance. Do not wait until you have received an assignment.

    C. THE DUE DATE
    The due date for each assignment will be stated in the Managing Editor’s e-mail. Normally, associates
will have a minimum of eight days, including at least one weekend, to complete a assignment. Associates
may complete their cite-checking and submit their assignments earlier than the due date. However,
associates may not submit assignments later than the due date without making prior arrangements with
the Managing Editor. Associates play a very important role in the publication process. Cite-checking is
the first step in an extremely detailed and time-consuming technical production process, and it is vital to
the success of the Law Review that all associates meet their cite-checking deadlines. Always
communicate with the Managing Editor when scheduling problems arise.

    D. THE TECHNICAL EDITOR & RESEARCH EDITOR
    You will be interacting with many of the Technical Editors from the Volume 50 Board. One
Technical Editor is assigned to each article. That Editor will receive your completed cite-checking
assignment and incorporate your edits into the document.

    The name and e-mail of the Technical Editor assigned to the article will be listed in the Managing
Editor’s e-mail. The e-mail contact information for each of the Technical Editors is also included in
Section A of this manual. Contact the Technical Editor if you encounter any problems or have any
questions as you complete the assignment. The Technical Editor will be available to guide you through
the cite-checking process, and may, at the Editor’s discretion, hold ―office hours‖ before each cite-
checking assignment is due.
    Additionally, if you have questions about your final performance on a cite-checking assignment, the
assigned Technical Editor will make him/herself available to meet upon request.
    The name and e-mail address of the Research Editor assigned to the article will also be listed in the
Managing Editor’s e-mail. Contact the Research Editor if you have any questions about locating a
source.
    E. THE CITE-CHECKING PROCESS
    Cite-checking can be challenging. It requires substantial time and concentration. However, it is very
important to the Law Review production process and does not have to be frustrating. Some associates
attack assignments in marathon sessions; others break the job into discrete tasks and spread the work out
over the assigned period. There is no single correct approach to the task, but the importance of a
disciplined approach cannot be overstated. Proper cite-checking involves five distinct activities, detailed
below.

        a. Preparation

           Spot problems in advance by completing a short check:
                   Carefully note the due date and number of footnotes in the Managing Editor’s e-
                    mail. Make certain that you have no trouble opening either the article text file or the
                    cite-checking report file. Both will be available on the Law Review page on
                    Claranet. The Claranet password this year is dirtybird.
                   Read the full text of the article or the section in which your assigned footnotes fall.
                   Make sure the internal headings and subheadings in your section are consistent with
                    those in the rest of the article. Look up the internal cross-references contained in
                    your assigned footnotes and confirm that they support the related text.
                   Check for any unusual-looking sources that may be hard to locate or cite. Unusual,
                    or ―hard to find,‖ sources will be made available to you, typically placed on reserve
                    in a binder in the Heafey library. If you cannot locate a ―hard to find‖ source in the
                    binder, notify the Research Editor assigned to the article or the Senior Technical
                    Editor immediately.
                   Confirm the availability of all other cited materials. Check OSCAR for availability
                    of books and periodicals. (Note that OSCAR lists both Orradre,/Harrington Learning
                    Commons, and Heafey sources). If you discover a source that cannot be located and
                    is not in the ―hard to find sources‖ binder, notify the Research Editor assigned to the
                    article or the Senior Technical Editor immediately.

        b. Substantive Accuracy

          Verifying substantive accuracy is essentially fact-checking, a process that can be very
          subjective. The object is to verify both that all quotations are precise and that the author’s
          assertions can be reasonably construed from any material cited as support. Verifying the
          substantive accuracy of citations is probably the most important part of the cite-checking
          process.

          Look up the materials cited in each footnote. Read each source thoroughly enough to
          determine whether the author is properly utilizing that source.
                   Do the sources support the textual assertions?
                   Do the sources say what the author claims they say?
                   Do the sources provide the extent of support that the author suggests?
                   Is the cited material actually quoting another source?

          If a source is not listed in the footnotes—either because the author did not put it in, or because
          you are adding a new citation to the article—it is your responsibility to find the source. If you
          cannot find the source, notify your Research Editor, who will then have to find the source. As
          a general rule, an author’s quote will likely come from the same source as the citation before it;
          a simple ―find‖ search in the document could allow you to easily find it the supporting text you
          need (NOTE: You may use Lexis or Westlaw for this). If you need more help, contact the
          Technical Editor for the article.
          Make sure that all page references are accurate and complete. In most cases, the
          substantive accuracy, or lack thereof, will be readily ascertainable. If you come across a close
          call, note your concerns in the cite-checking report and the editors will investigate further.

          Do not use online legal research services such as Lexis and Westlaw to check substantive
          accuracy. They frequently contain errors, especially regarding page numbers and
          supporting authority. The hard copy should always be the ultimate source.

          It is acceptable to use HeinOnline for Law Review articles, as HeinOnline provides scanned
          .pdf     versions     of    the   articles.       To     access    HeinOnline,     go    to
          www.scu.edu/law/library/electronic_resources.html and click on ―HeinOnline‖ from the menu
          on the left. You must have your SCU ID card barcode number available to access the system if
          you are not logged into the campus network.

        c. Technical (“Bluebook”) Accuracy

          The form of each footnote must comply with all applicable rules of THE BLUEBOOK: A
          UNIFORM SYSTEM OF CITATION (18th ed.). Locate all applicable rules and verify that each
          citation conforms in every detail. List all non-conformities in the cite-checking report. See
          infra Sections I.F and II.B-C.

        d. Shepardize

          All case and statutory citations must be ―Shepardized.‖ Use Lexis or Westlaw to perform this
          activity. If you find negative history other than ―distinguished‖ (i.e. overruled, criticized,
          questioned, refused to follow), cut and paste the link to the page detailing the negative history
          and give a brief description (i.e. ―This case has a lot of red flags because several courts have
          rejected it…‖).

        e. Grammar, Spelling, Style, Continuity, Etc.

          Proofread all of your assigned pages. Suggestions and corrections are welcomed and
          encouraged; however, please exercise moderation. The articles belong to the authors and their
          voices should be left intact in most cases. Other than correction of actual mistakes, any
          changes should reflect a spirit of constructive criticism. Make these changes directly on the
          text provided in the cite-checking assignment. To do this, you will use the Track Changes
          function for your Word program. Every change that you make will be recorded by the
          program. For more information, see infra Section III.D.

    F. THE CITE-CHECKING REPORT
    The cite-checking report is the file through which you communicate the results of your cite-checking.
A properly completed cite-checking report contains the following information for each footnote in your
assigned pages:
           The exact text of the footnote
           Shepardizing results
           Location of the source (e.g., Heafey library, Orradre library, HeinOnline)
           Information about the Bluebook accuracy
           Information about substantive accuracy of the text in the article and/or footnotes
           Information about grammar and spelling of the footnote and accompanying text
           A corrected version of each footnote
     The Volume 50 Board has prepared a Microsoft Word template file containing blank forms that you
fill out as you check each citation. The template file can be downloaded from the Law Review page on
Claranet. A sample is also included in this manual. See infra Section III.B.

       a. Filling Out the Form

         The form contains the following sections:
                  Note: Type the number of the footnote as it appears in the assignment.
                  Original: Copy and paste the entire footnote from the online copy of the article.
                  Shepardized: If the citation is a case or a statute, you must Shepardize it. Type an
                   ―X‖ in the appropriate box to indicate what action you took. If you find any
                   negative history (other than ―distinguished‖), you must cut and paste the link and
                   include a brief summary of the negative history.
                  Source Found: Type an ―X‖ in the appropriate box to indicate whether or not you
                   were able to locate the source for the citation. If you found the source, indicate the
                   call number and location of the source. If you found the source somewhere other
                   than Heafey, indicate where. If you were unable to find the source, briefly explain
                   why not.
                  Bluebook Section – Correct/Incorrect: In the column headed ―Correct,‖ list the
                   numbers of all applicable bluebook rules that have been followed correctly. In the
                   column headed ―Incorrect,‖ list rules that have not been followed correctly. NOTE:
                   numbers only need to be listed once in their appropriate column. See the example in
                   “Cite-Checking Samples.”
                  Grammar and Spelling: Evaluate the substantive accuracy of the entire footnote
                   and the article of the text. Indicate any problems; if there are no problems, type
                   ―OK.‖
                  Corrected: Type a correct version of the entire footnote, incorporating all the
                   changes you made.

       b. Multiple Citations in a Footnote

         If you encounter a footnote that contains two or more citations, you must fill out the middle
         portion of the form (Shepardized, Source Found, and Bluebook Rules) for each citation
         individually. You need only include the grammar, spelling, and substantive accuracy section
         once for each entire footnote, and you need only give a single corrected version of the entire
         footnote. See the example in ―Cite-Checking Samples.‖

       c. Adding Footnotes

         If you find that you need to add a footnote because an author has left out a citation, for general
         clarity, or for any other reason, insert a new cite checking report page for the additional
         footnote. Make it as clear as possible to the Technical Editor where the suggested additional
         note goes in the text. For example, if a note needs to be added between notes 35 and 36 of an
         article, you may want to call the original note ―35a‖ on your cite checking report and then add
         a note ―35b,‖ noting in the body text of the article where note 35b goes. You may use
         whatever system works best for you so long as you make it explicitly clear to the Technical
         Editor what you are doing.
  d. Marking Up Pages

   In addition to a report for each citation, you must also neatly indicate all corrections to the text
   and footnotes on your assigned pages. To do this, activate Track Changes on your Word
   program and make all of your text edits. See infra Sections III.C and III.D for more
   information.

  e. The Completed Assignment

    When you have completed each assignment, you will be sending three files in an e-mail
    attachment to your Technical Editor. Label each file as follows: (1) Last Name, First Initial,
    Assignment Sheet; (2) Last Name, First Initial, Cite-Checking Report; (3) Last Name,
    First Initial, [Author’s Name] Article.

    Example:     Doe_J_Assignment_Sheet.doc
                 Doe_J_Cite-Checking_Report.doc
                 Doe_J_Orso_Article.doc


G. CREDIT FOR COMPLETION AND EVALUATION OF WORK
  a. Production Hours

   As you work on your cite-checking assignment, keep track of the amount of time (―production
   hours‖) you spend on the assignment. Before you turn in your completed cite-checking report
   and article text file, note the number of production hours you invested on the assignment sheet
   file you received from the Managing Editor. This number will vary widely among associates
   and assignments, but most associates will average anywhere from ten to twenty hours a
   assignment. Typically, as you become more familiar with the intricacies of cite-checking and
   the Bluebook rules, you will require less time to complete a assignment. However, obscure
   sources or technical contents can cause some articles to be more difficult to work with than
   others. You are on your honor to report accurately and truthfully the hours invested in each
   assignment. If you feel that the assignments are taking you an inordinate amount of time, your
   Technical Editor or the Senior Technical Editor can discuss with you ways to improve your
   cite-checking.

   The production hours you report are logged and credited against your production requirement.
   Every associate must successfully complete approximately fifty-five (55) hours of production
   work during the associate year. This usually equates three or four cite-checking assignments.
   The hours you spend cite-checking will also be counted toward your minimum number of
   hours the following year when you serve on the Law Review Board.

  b. Cite-Checking Scores

   Each cite-checking assignment is reviewed and evaluated by the Technical Editor assigned to
   the article. You will receive a separate score for each assignment, accompanied by an
   evaluation form that shows your scores in each area as well as additional comments from your
   Technical Editor. The scores are compiled and used as one of several factors to evaluate
   associates when filling positions on the next Board of Editors.

   The Technical Editor will score you in four separate areas:
        Bluebook usage
        Attention to detail
     Completeness and organization (basically, your ability to follow directions)
     Meeting the deadline

The highest possible score is 5.0; the lowest is 0.0. A passing score is 3.5 for each cite-
checking assignment. However, a score of 3.5 means that you are still missing 30% of the
Bluebook mistakes. All associates are capable of and should perform at or above a 4.0.
Failure to pass a cite-checking assignment endangers your long-term status on the Law
Review.

The following is a breakdown of cite-checking scores:
     4.5-5.0: Great cite checking!
     4.0-4.49: You have a solid grasp of the Bluebook rules and missed some ―sub-issues.‖
     3.5-3.99: You demonstrate basic knowledge of the Bluebook rules.
     3.5: The minimum passing score. Your Technical Editor will meet with you to discuss
        better cite-checking strategies.
     Below 3.5: You have very little Bluebook ability or a weak grasp of the Bluebook
        rules. Your Technical Editor or the Senior Technical Editor will meet with you to
        discuss common mistakes and ways to improve. Whenever possible, you will be given
        the opportunity to redo an assignment. However, since the publication process is
        highly schedule-sensitive, there may not always be adequate time to return the
        assignment to you for further work; your reported hours will thus be subject to review
        and adjustment. If circumstances mandate that the work be corrected by others, you
        will not receive credit for any of the claimed hours.
     Failure to turn in the assignment (without prior notification): DO NOT DO
        THIS! By now, you should be aware of the importance of cite-checking and the
        responsibilities associated with the candidacy process. Failure to turn in a
        assignment without notifying the Technical Editor and the Managing Editor is
        grounds for dismissal from the candidacy process.
II. Bluebook Overview

NOTE: This Handbook is intended for reference use by Associates and Editors of the SANTA CLARA LAW REVIEW.
Its purpose is to provide summarized information regarding the rules and conventions that govern cite-checking and
legal writing. This Handbook is not a substitute for THE BLUEBOOK: A UNIFORM SYSTEM OF CITATION (18th
ed.), and should not be used as such. Rather, consider it an overview of the Bluebook and a substantive index to
the various rules governing citations.


    A. Bluebook organization                                                                     Pg. 12

    B. Bluebook checklist                                                                        Pgs. 13-19

    C. Frequent mistakes                                                                         Pgs. 19-20
                                    II. Bluebook Overview

    A. BLUEBOOK ORGANIZATION
     At first glance, the Bluebook’s rules may seem confusing and complicated. Thus, until you master its
intricacies, it is critical to employ a highly methodical approach to cite-checking. There are rules
governing minutia as small as whether or not to italicize punctuation and when abbreviations are
permissible. Unfortunately, they are frequently hidden among the many useful examples and can be
easily missed.

    This overview of the Bluebook’s general organization will be helpful, but ultimately you will have to
learn by reading and re-reading the rules. When you do read them, be certain to read each rule in its
entirety, otherwise you will miss things.

         Rules One through Nine govern the general conventions of legal writing and apply to every
          situation. These rules must be reviewed for every footnote.
         Rule Ten includes all of the requirements for citation to case law.
         Rules Eleven through Fourteen apply to legislative and executive materials. Footnotes citing
          to constitutions, statutes, bills, reports, hearings, administrative adjudication, etc. must be
          checked for conformity to these rules.
         Rules Fifteen through Seventeen apply to books, periodical materials, and other secondary
          sources.
         Rule Eighteen applies to electronic media and other non-print resources. This is an important
          rule as many authors now cite to Internet sources.
         Rule Nineteen only applies to publication services such as CCH or BNA.
         Rule Twenty applies to materials from Foreign Countries.
         Rule Twenty-One applies to international materials, such as treaties and international law
          cases.
         Tables are contained in the pages at the back of the Bluebook (pp. 193-379), and should be
          used in conjunction with various rules. Always watch for references to the applicable tables,
          highlighted in blue typeface in the text of the Rules.

    Note that not every rule will apply to every footnote. Always check Rules One through Nine; Ten
through Twenty only apply to certain materials.
    B. Bluebook Checklist – Rules 1 through 9
       R. 1.1(a)        Text of the article – the footnote call number should appear at the end of the
                        sentence if the source supports (or contradicts) the entire sentence. The footnote
                        call number appears within the sentence next to the portion it supports if the
                        source supports (or contradicts) only that part of the sentence. The call number
                        comes after any punctuation mark, such as a period or comma. BB page 45.

       R. 1.1(b)        Footnotes – each citation must be in a footnote and exist as a sentence or as a
                        clause. Textual sentences within the footnote must be supported within the
                        footnote. BB page 45.

       R. 1.1(b)(i)     Citation sentences. BB page 45.

       R. 1.1(b)(ii)    Citation clauses. BB page 45.

       R. 1.2(a)        Introductory signals that indicate support. BB pages 46-47.

       R. 1.2(b)        Introductory signals that suggest a useful comparison. BB page 47.

       R. 1.2(c)        Introductory signals that indicate a contradiction. BB page 47.

       R. 1.2(d)        Introductory signals that indicate background material. BB page 47.

       R. 1.2(e)        Signals as verbs do not get italicized. BB pages 47-48.

       R. 1.3           Order of signals within a footnote. BB page 48.

       R. 1.4(a)-(j)    Order of authorities within each signal. BB pages 48-51.

       R. 1.5           Parenthetical information – phrases generally begin with a present participle; a
                        parenthetical phrase does not begin with a capital letter unless it is a quotation;
                        shorter parentheticals can be used when appropriate in context (without
                        participle); explanatory parenthetical phrase comes before subsequent history or
                        other authority. BB pages 51-52.

       R. 1.6           Related authority. BB page 52.

       R. 1.6(a)(i)     Use ―in‖ to introduce a citation when citing shorter works published in a volume
                        containing other works. BB page 52.

       R. 1.6(a)(ii)    Use ―reprinted in‖ for work that reprints a source originally published
                        elsewhere. BB pages 52-53.

       R. 1.6(a)(iii)   Other phrases may be used when appropriate (e.g., available at).          BB page
                        53.

       R. 1.6(b)        Prior or subsequent history of a case (rule 10.7) or of a statute (rule 12.6) should
                        be added to the main cite if relevant. BB page 53.



 REMINDER: This Handbook is not a substitute for THE BLUEBOOK: A UNIFORM SYSTEM OF CITATION
and should not be used as such.
R. 1.6(c)        Commentary – works that discuss or quote the primary authority can be added
                 to the main cite without parentheses as related authority. Use ―noted in,‖
                 ―construed in,‖ ―quoted in,‖ etc. BB page 53.

R. 2.1           Typeface in citations. BB page 54.

R. 2.1(a)        Case names – use ordinary roman type; procedural phrases (e.g., ex rel.) are
                 always italicized. BB page 55.

R. 2.1(b)        Books – author and title in large and small capitals. BB page 55.

R. 2.1(c)        Periodicals – author’s name in roman type; title in italics; name of periodical in
                 large and small capitals. BB page 55.

R. 2.1(d)        Introductory signals – use italics when used in a clause. BB page 55.

R. 2.1(e)        Explanatory phrases – use italics. BB page 55.

R. 2.1(f)        Punctuation – italicize commas, semicolons, etc., only when they are within
                 italicized material, but not when they follow it. BB page 56.

R. 2.2(a)        Main text – do not use citations within the text; use only roman type and italics.
                 BB page 56.

R. 2.2(a)(i)     Case name in italics. BB page 56.

R. 2.2(a)(ii)    Titles of publications, articles in italics. BB page 56.

R. 2.2(a)(iii)   Style – italics may be used for emphasis. BB page 56.

R. 2.2(b)        Footnote text may include citations in the sentence. BB page 56.

R. 2.2(b)(i)     Cases – if grammatically part of the sentence, put in italics. Otherwise, use
                 regular roman type. BB pages 56-57.

R. 2.2(b)(ii)    Other authorities – if only a title, use typeface as in rule 2.2(a)(ii). Otherwise,
                 use typeface conventions appropriate for particular type of citation. BB page
                 57.

R. 2.2(b)(iii)   Explanatory parentheticals – follow convention for case names in citation text
                 when a full clause is included. BB page 57.

R. 2.2(c)        Punctuation – italicize commas and semicolons, etc., only when the punctuation
                 falls within the italicized material, but not when it just follows the italicized
                 material. BB page 57.

R. 3.1(a)        Volumes. BB page 58.

R. 3.1(b)        Separately paginated numbered parts. BB page 58.

R. 3.1(c)        Supplements. BB page 58.

R. 3.2(a)        Page numbers – page numbers are placed before the date parenthetical. Use ―p.‖
                 or ―pp.‖ only for internal cross-referencing. Use ―at‖ only if page number may
            be confused with another part of citation. For general citations (e.g., a cite
            referring to an entire book), cite only the first page of source. Use pinpoint cites
            for citations to specific information within a source. When specifically referring
            to the first page of a work, cite the page number twice. BB pages 59-60.

R. 3.2(b)   Footnotes – when citing to footnotes within a source, cite to the page number,
            then cite to the note number using ―n.‖ and the footnote number, with no space
            between the ―n.‖ and the number. For multiple footnotes, use ―nn.‖ Cite only
            the page where the footnote began. BB page 60.

R. 3.2(c)   Endnotes. BB pages 60-61.

R. 3.2(d)   Graphical materials – for citing tables, figures, charts, graphs, etc. BB page 61.

R. 3.3      Section (§) and paragraph (¶ or para.) – do not use ―at‖ before a section or
            paragraph symbol. BB page 61.

R. 3.3(a)   Subsections. BB page 62.

R. 3.3(b)   Multiple sections and subsections. BB page 62.

R. 3.3(c)   Multiple paragraphs. BB page 62.

R. 3.4      Appended material. BB page 63.

R. 3.5      Internal cross-references – use ―supra‖ or ―infra‖ to refer to other portions of
            the text. Use ―note‖ and ―part‖ to refer to footnotes and other parts within the
            same piece, respectively. Use ―p.‖ and ―pp.‖ to refer to other pages within the
            same piece. BB page 63.

R. 4.1      Id. – do not use for internal cross-references. Always italicize id. and follow it
            with an italicized period, whether upper or lower-case. BB pages 64-65.

R. 4.2      Supra and hereinafter – generally not used to refer to cases, statutes,
            constitutions, or regulations. BB page 66.

R. 4.2(a)   Supra – after fully citing an authority, use ―supra‖ in subsequent citations. Use
            the author’s name, then a comma and the word ―supra,‖ followed by the
            footnote number of the full cite. BB page 66.

R. 4.2(b)   Hereinafter – for long names, bracket ―hereinafter‖ after the citation without
            placing a period after the year. Thereafter, use the abbreviated form and the
            supra form for cross-referencing. BB pages 66-67.

R. 5.1      Quotations: indentation, quotation marks, citation, and punctuation. BB page
            68.

R. 5.1(a)   50 or more words – indent without quotation marks. For quotes in the text of
            the article, the footnote number follows the last punctuation of the quote. For
            quotes in footnotes, the citation goes on the next line. BB page 68.

R. 5.1(b)   49 or fewer words – use quotes, commas, and periods inside quotes. Other
            punctuation goes inside the quote only if it is part of the quoted material. BB
            page 69.
R. 5.2           Alterations & Quotations Within Quotations. BB page 69.

R. 5.2(a)        Substitutions of letters or words – use brackets. BB page 69.

R. 5.2(b)        Omission of letters – indicate omission of letters from a common root word with
                 empty brackets. BB page 69.

R. 5.2(c)        Mistakes in original – put ―[sic]‖ after significant mistakes. BB page 69.

R. 5.2(d)        Changes to citations – use parenthetical clause to indicate added emphasis,
                 alterations to quoted text, or omissions. BB page 69.

R. 5.3(e)        Quotations within quotations – whenever possible, attribute to the original
                 source. BB page 70.

R. 5.3           Omissions in quoted material – use ellipses. An ellipsis (―. . .‖) indicates
                 omitted material within a quote. A space comes before and after each period in
                 the ellipsis. Ellipses should never begin a quotation. Ellipses are not used to
                 indicate an omitted footnote or citation, or to indicate words that are merely
                 altered. BB page 70.

R. 5.3(a)        Quoted language as phrase or clause – only use ellipses for omissions within the
                 phrase or clause, not before or after. BB page 70.

R. 5.3(b)        Quoted language as full sentence. BB page 70-71.

R. 5.3(b)(i)     Omission at beginning of quoted sentence – capitalize first letter of quote and
                 place letter in brackets. BB page 71.

R. 5.3(b)(ii)    Omission in middle of quoted sentence – insert ellipsis. BB page 71.

R. 5.3(b)(iii)   Omission at the end of quoted sentence – insert ellipsis, followed by final period
                 or other punctuation. BB page 71.

R. 5.3(b)(iv)    Do not indicate omissions after final punctuation. BB page 71.

R. 5.3(b)(v)     Omission at end of quoted sentence, when followed by further quote – insert
                 ellipsis and retain final punctuation. BB page 71.

R. 5.3(b)(vi)    Omission at the end and after the end of quoted sentence – use one ellipsis,
                 retain final punctuation, and follow Rule 5.3(b)(i), if necessary. BB page 71.

R. 5.3(c)        Omission of a footnote or citation – do not insert an ellipsis; use ―(footnote
                 omitted)‖ or ―(citation omitted)‖ immediately following the citation to the
                 quoted source. BB page 71.

R. 6.1           Abbreviations – do not use abbreviations that are not listed in the Bluebook.
                 Refer to the tables for possible abbreviations. BB page 72.

R. 6.1(a)        Spacing – do not use spaces between single capital letters. Numbers are treated
                 as single capital letters. BB page 72.
R. 6.1(b)        Periods – all abbreviations are followed by periods, except those with
                 apostrophes (e.g., ―Dep’t‖) and those widely recognized (e.g., CBS, FBI, etc.).
                 NOTE: ―U.S.‖ can be abbreviated only when being used as an adjective. BB
                 page 73.

R. 6.2(a)        Numerals – spell out the numbers zero to ninety-nine in text and in footnotes;
                 for larger numbers, use numerals. BB page 73.

R. 6.2(a)(i)     Exception – spell out any number at the beginning of the sentence. BB page 73.

R. 6.2(a)(ii)    Exception – it is permissible to spell out round numbers such as ―hundred,‖
                 ―thousand,‖ etc. BB page 73.

R. 6.2(a)(iii)   Exception – for a series of numbers less than and greater than 100, use all
                 numerals. BB page 73.

R. 6.2(a)(iv)    Exception – use numerals for numbers with decimals. BB page 73.

R. 6.2(a)(v)     Exception – use numerals for percentages or dollar amounts if material
                 repeatedly refers to such amounts. BB page 73.

R. 6.2(a)(vi)    Exception – use numerals when naming sections or subdivisions. BB page 73.

R. 6.2(a)(vii)   Exception – use a comma for numbers with five or more digits. BB page 73.

R. 6.2(b)        Ordinals (e.g., ―1st,‖ ―82d,‖ etc.) – rule 6.2(a) controls, unless part of a citation.
                 Do not use superscripts. BB page 74.

R. 6.2(c)        Section and paragraph symbols – when the first word of any sentence, must be
                 spelled out. Spell out ―section‖ and ―paragraph‖ in the main text and footnote
                 text, except for U.S. Code or federal regulation. Generally, use symbols in
                 citations. Put a space between the symbol and the numeral. BB page 74.

R. 6.2(d)        For percentages or dollar amounts, use ―%‖ or ―$‖ where it would be
                 permissible to use numerals, otherwise spell out. A symbol should never begin
                 a sentence. There should not be a space between ―$‖ or ―%‖ and the numeral.
                 BB page 74.

R. 7(a)          Style – italicize words or phrases for emphasis. BB page 75.

R. 7(b)          Foreign words and phrases – italicize foreign words or phrases that are not part
                 of common English usage. Most Latin words and phrases used in legal writing
                 are considered part of common English usage (except ―id.‖). BB page 75.

R. 7(c)          Letters representing hypothetical parties or places are italicized. BB page 75.

R. 7(d)          The letter ―l‖ is italicized in subdivisions of statutes or rules. BB page 75.

R. 7(e)          Mathematical formulas and variables are italicized. BB page 75.

R. 8             Capitalization. BB page 76.
R. 8(a)   Headings and Titles – words should be capitalized. Articles, conjunctions and
          prepositions with four or fewer letters are generally not capitalized, unless they
          begin a sentence or follow a colon. BB page 76.

R. 8(b)   Text – this rule applies to everything except headings and titles. BB page 76-
          78.

R. 9      Titles of Judges, Officials, and Terms of Court. BB page 78.



Tables

T.1              United States Jurisdictions
                 Page 193

T.2              Foreign Jurisdictions
                 Page 243

T.3              Intergovernmental Organizations
                 Page 332

T.4              Treaty Sources
                 Page 334

T.5              Arbitral Reporters
                 Page 335

T.6              Case Names
                 Page 335

T.7              Court Names
                 Page 337

T.8              Explanatory Phrases
                 Page 340

T.9              Legislative Documents
                 Page 341

T.10             Geographical Terms
                 Page 342

T.11             Judges and Officials
                 Page 348

T.12             Months
                 Page 348

T.13             Periodicals
                 Page 349

T.14             Publishing Terms
                 Page 373
  T.15                     Services
                           Page 373

  T.16                     Subdivisions
                           Page 378


C. FREQUENT MISTAKES

  1. Abbreviations in Case Names

    Table T.6 in the Bluebook lists words that frequently appear in case names. Abbreviate any
    word listed in this table unless it is the first word of the name of a party.

  2. Authors’ Names

    Include the full name of the author of a cited authority. It is your responsibility to find and list
    the full name of a cited author if not included by the article author.

  3. Capitalizing “C” in “Court”

    ―Court‖ (with a capital ―C‖) should be used only when naming any court in full or when
    referring to the United States Supreme Court. Any reference to ―the Court‖ should be to the
    U.S. Supreme Court; otherwise, references should be to ―the court.‖ See Bluebook Rule 8.

  4. Ellipses

    Ellipses are used to indicate omitted material. The use of ellipses is quite complex, particularly
    related to omissions at the beginning or end of quoted material or adjacent punctuation.
    Remember to put spaces between the periods in ellipses and review Bluebook Rule 5.3.

  5. “Five Id. Rule” for Case Citations

    When applying the ―Five Id. Rule,‖ count each footnote only once, even if it contains more
    than one ―id.‖ After the fifth footnote with ―id.‖ use a full citation.

  6. Italicize the Period in “Id.”

    The period in ―id.‖ should be italicized. Punctuation following ―id.‖ should not be italicized
    unless the word following the punctuation is also italicized.

  7. Ordinal Numbers

    Many word processing programs automatically replace ordinal numbers you type with
    superscript. For example, if you type ―Cal. 4th,‖ Microsoft word may automatically change it
    to ―Cal. 4th.‖ If your program does this, click ―undo‖ or turn the feature off.

  8. Quotations

    Direct quotes of fifty (50) words or more must be indented from the rest of the text without
    quotation marks. Quotes of forty-nine (49) or fewer words should not be indented and do
  require quotation marks. In law review footnotes, quotes of fifty words or more placed in a
  parenthetical are not indented. See Bluebook Rule 5.1.

9. Signals

  If the text directly refers to the cited material and it is completely clear that the information in
  the text came from the source of the cite, a ―see‖ signal is not required. In all other cases, a
  signal such as ―see‖ is required. See Bluebook Rule 1.2.

10.    Supra, Infra, Hereinafter

  The internal citation forms ―supra‖ and ―hereinafter‖ refer to other material within the article.
  As part of your substantive accuracy check, you must go to the source listed in the note
  containing a supra or hereinafter and verify that the information in the source the supra or
  hereinafter note refers to accurately reflects what the author has said in the text accompanying
  the note. (Please note that you do not have to check the Bluebook form of the note referred to
  by the supra note unless it is in your assigned assignment.).

  Once a particular work is referred to with supra, that form must be used throughout the article.
  You must pay attention and trace back authorities to see if they have been cited before. If they
  have, do not use a full cite—use supra.

  Do not use ―supra‖ or ―hereinafter‖ to refer to citations for cases, statutes, constitutions,
  legislative materials, or regulations. See Bluebook Rule 4.2.

11.    String Cites

  The Bluebook defines the order in which sources should be listed in string cites. Review
  Bluebook Rule 1.4.

12.    Subsequent History

  Authors frequently omit the subsequent history of cited cases. Include the history as described
  in Bluebook Rule 10.7.

13.    Wrong Reporter

  Use the tables at the back of the Bluebook to determine the appropriate reporter to cite. Table
  T.1 indicates which reporters to use in citations. It is your responsibility to cite to the correct
  reporter and convert the page numbers. Use print reporters, not electronic sources such as
  Lexis or Westlaw, as the page numbers in electronic sources are often incorrect.
III. Cite-Checking Examples

  A. Sample Cite-Checking Scoring Sheet   Pg. 22

  B. Sample Cite-Checking Form            Pg. 23

  C. Example                              Pgs. 24-42

  D. Track Changes Instructions           Pgs. 43-46
                              III. Cite-Checking Examples

A.      SAMPLE CITE-CHECKING SCORING SHEET
                             Santa Clara Law Review
                            Cite-Checking Scoring Sheet

        Associate:
Article/Comment:
        Footnotes:

                     Bluebook Usage (-.2 per error)                   x .4 =




                 Substantive Accuracy (-.2 per error)                 x .1=




            Format/Organization/Completeness/Neatness                 x .1=




     Deadline (met = 5; late but excused = 2.5; late unexcused = 0)




     Total Score:
 Technical Editor:
            Date:
B. SAMPLE CITE-CHECKING FORM

Note
Original:

Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                 SOURCE FOUND
    Not applicable                              Source found; location:
     No negative history                           Source not found; reason:
      Negative/questionable history:
   Bluebook section               Correct                                      Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure
2. Typeface
3. Pages, notes, etc.
4. Short cites
5. Quotes
6. Abbreviations, etc.
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.
10. CASES
   Correct reporter (T.1)
   Abbreviations (T.6)
11. Constitutions
12. Statutes
13. Legislative
14. Admin/exec.
15-18. Other sources
19-20. Foreign, int’l


Complete this part once for each footnote
                                        Footnote                                      Article Text
Grammar & Spelling
Substantive Accuracy

Corrected:
C. SAMPLE OF A COMPLETED PAGE AND CORRESPONDING CITE-
CHECKING REPORT
Note 1




Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                  SOURCE FOUND
                                                                                http://www.decentschool
 X Not applicable                              X Source found; location:
                                                                                s.org/court_papers.php
      No negative history                          Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                   Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(a)               1.2 should be ―see‖ not ―see generally‖
2. Typeface                  2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.        3.2
4. Short cites               4.1
5. Quotes                    n/a
6. Abbreviations, etc.       n/a
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    n/a
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            n/a
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         n/a
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                            Article text
Grammar and spelling         Okay                                 okay
Substantive accuracy         Should include pages 26-58           okay
Note 1(b)




Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                 SOURCE FOUND
                                                                               http://www.decentschool
 X Not applicable                            X Source found; location:
                                                                               s.org/court_papers.php
      No negative history                         Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                 Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure                          1.1(a), 1.2
2. Typeface                                     2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.                           3.2
4. Short cites                                  4.2
5. Quotes                    n/a
6. Abbreviations, etc.       n/a
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    n/a
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            n/a
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         n/a
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                           Article text
Grammar and spelling         n/a                                 okay
Substantive accuracy         n/a                                 okay
Note 2(a)




Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                    SOURCE FOUND
                                                                                  http://www.decentschool
 X Not applicable                               X Source found; location:
                                                                                  s.org/court_papers.php
      No negative history                            Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                    Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(a), 1.2
2. Typeface                  2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.        3.2
4. Short cites               4.1
5. Quotes                    n/a
6. Abbreviations, etc.                             6.2 – fifty should be spelled out in article text
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    8
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            n/a
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         n/a
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                              Article text
Grammar and spelling         Okay                                   okay
Substantive accuracy         Citation should be to pg. 58 not 56    okay
Note 2(b)




Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                 SOURCE FOUND
                                                                               http://www.decentschool
 X Not applicable                            X Source found; location:
                                                                               s.org/court_papers.php
      No negative history                         Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                 Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(a), 1.2
2. Typeface                  2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.        3.2
4. Short cites               4.1
5. Quotes                    n/a
6. Abbreviations, etc.
                                                6.2 – thirteen should be spelled out in footnote text;
                                                fifty should be spelled out in article text
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    8
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            n/a
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         n/a
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                           Article text
Grammar and spelling         Okay                                okay
Substantive accuracy         okay                                okay
Note 3(a)




Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                 SOURCE FOUND
                                                                               http://www.decentschool
 X Not applicable                            X Source found; location:
                                                                               s.org/court_papers.php
      No negative history                         Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                 Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(a), 1.2
2. Typeface                  2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.        3.2
4. Short cites               4.1
5. Quotes                    n/a
6. Abbreviations, etc.       n/a
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    n/a
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            n/a
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         16.7
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                           Article text
Grammar and spelling         Okay                                okay
Substantive accuracy         okay                                okay
Note 3(b)




Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                 SOURCE FOUND
 X Not applicable                            X Source found; location:         Hein Online
      No negative history                         Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                 Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(a), 1.2
2. Typeface                  2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.        3.2
4. Short cites               4.2
5. Quotes                    n/a
6. Abbreviations, etc.       n/a
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    n/a
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            n/a
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         16.7
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                           Article text
Grammar and spelling         Okay                                okay
Substantive accuracy         okay                                okay
Note 4




Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                 SOURCE FOUND
                                                                               http://www.decentschool
 X Not applicable                            X Source found; location:
                                                                               s.org/court_papers.php
      No negative history                         Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                 Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(a)              1.2 ―see‖ not needed when directly quoting
2. Typeface                  2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.        3.2
4. Short cites               4.2
5. Quotes
                                                5.1(b)(ii) I would omit this footnote and only put
                                                one in at the end of the sentence
6. Abbreviations, etc.       n/a
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    n/a
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            n/a
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         n/a
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                           Article text
Grammar and spelling         okay                                okay
Substantive accuracy         okay                                okay
Note 5




Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                 SOURCE FOUND
                                                                               http://www.decentschool
 X Not applicable                            X Source found; location:
                                                                               s.org/court_papers.php
      No negative history                         Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                 Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(a), 1.2
2. Typeface                  2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.        3.2
4. Short cites
                                                4.1 – if previous footnote is omitted then this should
                                                be the supra form
5. Quotes                    5.1, 5.2
6. Abbreviations, etc.       n/a
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    n/a
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            n/a
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         n/a
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                           Article text
Grammar and spelling         okay                                okay
Substantive accuracy         okay                                okay
Note 6(a)




Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                 SOURCE FOUND
 X Not applicable                            X Source found; location:         LB2825 .E68 1999
      No negative history                         Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                 Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(a), 1.2
                                                2.1 authors name should be in large and small
2. Typeface                  2.2
                                                capitals
3. Pages, notes, etc.        3.2
4. Short cites               n/a
5. Quotes                    n/a
6. Abbreviations, etc.       n/a
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    n/a
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            n/a
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         15.3, 15.4         15.1 final name should be set off with an ampersand
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                           Article text
Grammar and spelling         ok                                  ok
Substantive accuracy         ok                                  ok
Note 6(b)




Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                 SOURCE FOUND
 X Not applicable                            X Source found; location:         LB2825 .E68 1999
      No negative history                         Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                 Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(b), 1.2
2. Typeface                  2.1, 2.2
3. Pages, notes, etc.        3.2
4. Short cites               4.1
5. Quotes                    n/a
6. Abbreviations, etc.       n/a
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    n/a
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            n/a
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         15.9
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                           Article text
Grammar and spelling         ok                                  ok
Substantive accuracy         ok                                  ok
Note 7(a)




Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                 SOURCE FOUND
 X Not applicable                            X Source found; location:         KFC6801879
      No negative history                         Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                 Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(a), 1.2
2. Typeface                  2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.        3.3
4. Short cites               n/a
5. Quotes                    n/a
6. Abbreviations, etc.       n/a
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    n/a
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            11, T.10
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         n/a
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                           Article text
Grammar and spelling         okay                                okay
Substantive accuracy         okay                                okay
Note 7(b)




Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                 SOURCE FOUND
 X Not applicable                            X Source found; location:         KFC6801879
      No negative history                         Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                 Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(a), 1.2
2. Typeface                  2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.        3.3
4. Short cites               n/a
5. Quotes                    n/a
6. Abbreviations, etc.       n/a
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    n/a
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            11, T.10
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         n/a
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                           Article text
Grammar and spelling         okay                                okay
Substantive accuracy         okay                                okay
Note 8



Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                 SOURCE FOUND
 X Not applicable                            X Source found; location:         KFC6801879
      No negative history                         Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                 Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(a), 1.2
2. Typeface                  2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.        3.3
4. Short cites               n/a
                                                5.2(a) a letter changed from upper to lower case
5. Quotes                    5.1.
                                                must be enclosed in brackets
6. Abbreviations, etc.       n/a
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    n/a
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            11, T.10
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         n/a
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                           Article text
Grammar and spelling         okay                                okay
Substantive accuracy         okay                                okay
Note 9



Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                 SOURCE FOUND
 X Not applicable                            X Source found; location:         KFC6801879
      No negative history                         Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                 Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(a), 1.2
2. Typeface                  2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.        3.3
4. Short cites               n/a
                                                5.2(a) a letter changed from upper to lower case
5. Quotes                    5.1
                                                must be enclosed in brackets
6. Abbreviations, etc.       n/a
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    n/a
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            11, T.10
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         n/a
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                           Article text
Grammar and spelling         okay                                okay
Substantive accuracy         okay                                okay
Note 10



Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                 SOURCE FOUND
    Not applicable                           X Source found; location:         KFC30.5D4E3
 X No negative history                            Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                 Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(a), 1.2
2. Typeface                  2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.        3.3
4. Short cites               n/a
5. Quotes                    5.1, 5.2
6. Abbreviations, etc.       n/a
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    n/a
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            n/a
12. Statutes                 12, T.1
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         n/a
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                           Article text
Grammar and spelling         okay                                okay
Substantive accuracy         okay                                The statute says age six, not age five
Note 11(a)




Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                      SOURCE FOUND
    Not applicable                                X Source found; location:         KF135.P214
       No negative history                             Source not found; reason:
       Negative/questionable history:
                                         https://web2.westlaw.com/Find/default.wl?bhcp=1&cite=487+P%2E2d+
 X                                       1241&rs=LAWS2%2E0&strRecreate=no&sv=Split&vr=1%2E0
                                         This case has not been overruled, but several courts have
                                         distinguished, declined to follow, and called it into doubt.
Bluebook section              Correct                 Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure       1.1(a), 1.2
2. Typeface                   2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.         3.2
4. Short cites                n/a
5. Quotes                     n/a
6. Abbreviations, etc.        6.1
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.     n/a
10. CASES
                              10.1, 10.2.1(k),
                              10.4, 10.5
     Correct reporter (T.1)   T.1
     Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions             n/a
12. Statutes                  n/a
13. Legislative               n/a
14. Admin/exec.               n/a
15-18. Other sources          n/a
19-20. Foreign, int’l         n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                              Footnote                               Article text
Grammar and spelling          okay                                    okay
Substantive accuracy          okay                                    okay
Note 11(b)




Complete this part separately for each cite in the footnote
SHEPARDIZED                                     SOURCE FOUND
 X Not applicable                                X Source found; location:        Hein online
      No negative history                            Source not found; reason:
     Negative/questionable history:
Bluebook section       Correct                     Incorrect
1. Placement, Structure      1.1(a), 1.2, 1.3
2. Typeface                  2.1
3. Pages, notes, etc.                               3.2 needs a page number
4. Short cites               4.2
5. Quotes                    n/a
6. Abbreviations, etc.       n/a
7-9. Italics, caps, misc.    n/a
10. CASES                    n/a
    Correct reporter (T.1)   n/a
    Abbreviations (T.6)      n/a
11. Constitutions            n/a
12. Statutes                 n/a
13. Legislative              n/a
14. Admin/exec.              n/a
15-18. Other sources         16.7
19-20. Foreign, int’l        n/a

Complete this part once for each footnote
                             Footnote                              Article text
Grammar and spelling         okay                                   okay
Substantive accuracy
                             okay                                   okay
D. TRACK CHANGES INSTRUCTIONS

ENABLING TRACK CHANGES
You can enable the track changes feature in Microsoft Word by following these steps:

   Open the document to be edited as you would any other document (File > Open).
        o   If you are using Word 2007, make sure that the file is saved as a Word 2000-2003
            compatible file (i.e. with the .doc extension, not the default 2007 .docx extension).

Word 2000 – 2003:
From the Tools menu, select Track Changes (see below). From this point forward, Word will
automatically track any modifications made to the document.




After selecting Track Changes, a Reviewing tool bar (see tool bar beginning ―Final Showing
Markup‖ below) should appear, providing you with options for viewing your changes and
permitting you to insert comments.




If you keep the default ―Final Showing Markup‖ view selected, your additions will appear in
redline and any deletions will be noted (see below).




If you would prefer to keep your changes hidden and edit as you would any non-tracked
document, simply change the tool bar option to ―Final‖ (see below).
Word 2007:
From the ribbon, select the Review tab. Select the Track Changes button (see below). From
this point forward, Word will automatically track any modifications made to the document.




If you keep the default ―Final Showing Markup‖ view selected, your additions will appear in
redline and any deletions will be noted.


MAKING CHANGES TO THE TEXT AND FOOTNOTES

After you have successfully enabled the Track Changes feature, you can edit the document as you
see fit, either incorporating changes directly or transcribing from hard copy edits.

If you feel a footnote needs to be deleted, place a comment at the end of the phrase or sentence
where the footnote was deleted. In the comment, put the text of the original footnote. Then,
right-click on the deleted footnote and select ―Accept Change.‖ This will ensure that the footnote
numbering changes to account for the deletion.


INSERTING COMMENTS INTO THE TEXT

It is of paramount importance that you take the time to thoroughly annotate the text with your
comments to the author and to subsequent editors, as appropriate.

Place your cursor at the point where you want to place the comment or select the text you want to
make the comment about by highlighting it with your cursor (see below).
Word 2000-2003:
After placing the cursor, click on the Insert Comment button in the Reviewing tool bar (see
below).




If you are viewing your changes in the ―Final Showing Markup‖ mode, a comment box will
appear alongside the text (see below, Fig. A). Under the ―Final‖ viewing mode, a comment
reviewing pane will appear on the bottom of your window instead of a comment box (see below,
Fig. B). This will allow you to detail any notes more thoroughly than would otherwise be
possible on a hard copy.

                                            Fig. A




                                            Fig. B




Word 2007:
After placing the cursor, click on the New Comment button under the Review tab of the ribbon
(see below).
In the ―Final Showing Markup‖ mode, a comment reviewing pane will appear on the side of your
window (see below). This will allow you to detail any notes more thoroughly than would
otherwise be possible on a hard copy.

				
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