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					Gender
          Chapter Ten

Essentials of Sociology
           Lindsey and Beach


                                 PowerPoint Design
                               Kent Bausman, Ph.D.
    National Population Estimate as
    of July 2001
   Males
    •139,813,108
   Female                                                                     49.1                    Male
                                                         50.9
    •144,983,779                                                                                       Female




     Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, National Population Estimates-Characteristics (Release Date January 23, 2003)

     from http://eire.census.gov/popest/data/national/tables/asro/US-EST2001-ASRO-01.php
    Gender and Gender Roles
   Gender
    • Social, cultural, and psychological traits
      associated with being male and female
    • Gender is learned
       •Not an innate characteristic
   Gender Roles
    • The expected attitudes and behaviors society
      associates with each sex
    • Examples
       •Boys don’t cry
       •Girls don’t fight
       •Men are expected to by the breadwinners in a household
       •Women are expected to be homemakers
    Theoretical Perspectives
    on Gender Roles
   Functionalism
    •Gender roles must serve some function
       •What function?
    •They maintain order by assigning different tasks
     to insure that work gets done
    •Is it necessary to maintain such divisions today?
   Conflict
    •Argues that in a capitalist society traditional
     gender roles work to maintain inequality
       •To argue that women are not suited for the job or
        as skilled is leverage for capitalists over workers
       •Guarantee unpaid labor (homemaking)
    Theoretical Perspectives on
    Gender Roles
   Symbolic Interaction
    •Gender is a social construction based
     upon how people define one another as
     masculine or feminine.
    •Gender gives us knowledge regarding
     how we should present ourselves and
     what roles we should play
      •Example the Bar/Singles scene, (hunter and
       prey analogy)
    Feminism
   A perspective and movement to end sexist views and
    behaviors leading to the empowerment of women
    • Liberal Feminism
       •The genders are equal and should not be denied
         opportunities based on gender
    • Socialist Feminism
       •Capitalism puts women in an inferior position
       •Need to apply socialist principles to the workplace and
         home
    • Radical Feminism
       •Women’s oppression is tied to male dominance
       •Resolve the problem of oppression through the creation
         of separate institutions
    • Multicultural Feminism
       •Women can not be free of oppression until women all over
         the globe are treated equally
       •Argues the equality of genders is a universal
    Attitudes Concerning Proper
    Gender Roles


   Should Women
    Run the Home
    While Men Run
    the Country?
    Gendered Social Institutions
   Family
    •Early   and powerful source of gender
     socialization (Parents begin before birth)
    •Gender learned as early as 2 years of age.
    •What or how does the family teach?
      •Role modeling
         •Mother engaged in the majority of homemaking
             duties
      •Toy purchases
         •Girls’ toys encourage domesticity;
         •Boys’ toys encourage self-reliance      and
             problem solving
Gender Socialization through
Toys

              Toys
           (Pretend)




              Toys
             (Play)


                          Picture Source: KB Toys
Gendered Social Institutions
   Education
    •Across all academic levels teachers respond
     differently according to the gender of the
     child
    •Girls perform better in school on average
     than boys
    •Boys standardized test scores better than
     girls
    •Boys more likely to enroll in advanced
     courses
    •Females are less likely to be portrayed in
     instructional materials
Gendered Social Institutions
   Media
    •Men occupy twice as many movie and TV
     roles as women
    •Women directed 7% of the top 100 movies
     of 2000
    •Females account for 16% of the
     characters in video games
    •Females account for 13% of the expert
     commentators used in the news
    •Women’s sport coverage is less than 10% in
     newspapers
Gender and the Workplace
Gender and the Workplace
Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in
constant (1998) dollars by sex and Percent of earnings compared to
men (1980-1998)

700

               620         620         624         615
600                                                            582                     598
                                                                           575

500
                                                               441                     456
                                       433         431                     434
400            398         412
                                                                                                    MEN $

300                                                                                                 WOMEN $

                                                                                                    % Men's Earnings
200

100
               64.3        66.6        69.3        70.1        75.8        75.4        76.3

  0
          1980        1983        1986        1989        1992        1995        1998

      Source: Bowler, Mary. 1999. “Women’s Earnings: An Overview.” Monthly Labor Review Online (December).
      U.S. Department of Labor. Washington, D.C: Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  Gender and the Workplace
  1998, Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
  workers by sex and race



Characteristi                  Women                            Men                   Women’s
     c                           $                               $                  earnings as a
                                                                                     % of men’s

  White                          468                           615                          76.1

  Black                          400                          468                          85.4

 Hispanic                        337                          390                          86.5


      Source: Bowler, Mary. 1999. “Women’s Earnings: An Overview.” Monthly Labor Review Online (December).
      U.S. Department of Labor. Washington, D.C: Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Gender and the Workplace
1998 Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers controlling for education

 Educational                     Women                        Men                 Women’s
  Attainment                       $                           $                earnings as
                                                                                a % of men’s
 H.S. Diploma                        396                      559                   70.9
     Only

     Some                            476                      643                         74.0
    College
   College                           707                      939                        75.3
   Graduate

     Source: Bowler, Mary. 1999. “Women’s Earnings: An Overview.” Monthly Labor Review Online (December).
     U.S. Department of Labor. Washington, D.C: Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Gender and the Workplace
Median usual weekly earnings and employment distribution of full-
time workers by occupation and sex, 1998 annual averages

   $1,000
    $900
    $800                                                                          Men
             $905
    $700                                                                          Women
    $600
    $500            $655
                            $606                           $587
    $400
                                                                          $456
    $300                           $419      $389                 $408
    $200                                                                       $327      $307
                                                    $206                                        $272
    $100
      $0
            Managerial and Technical Sales     Service      Percision      Operators, Farming, Forestry
             Professional       and          Occupations   Production    Fabricators and and Fishing
              Specialty    Administrative                                   Laborers
                              Support

    Source: Bowler, Mary. 1999. “Women’s Earnings: An Overview.” Monthly Labor Review Online (December).
    U.S. Department of Labor. Washington, D.C: Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Gender and the Workplace

				
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