Using sources: the nitty gritty!
How do you punctuate in-text sources?
Mechanics of Quotations: Read these and highlight two new points.
1. Copy the quote exactly
2. Use ellipses ( …), to leave words out
3. Use brackets ([ ]), to insert or change words
4. Use quotation marks if the quote is less than 4 lines
5. Indent, double space, and do not use quotations marks, if it is more than 4 lines
6. Separated Quotations (He notes that “there is… .”) No comma or colon and no capital
7. Integrated Quotations (He notes, “There is….”) Comma or colon and capital letter.
8. In the parenthesis directly after the quote put the page number (but no “p.” or “pg.”) and the
author’s last name if you did not already state it. Then put the period.
To incorporate quotations:
1. Give the source’s full name the first time you use it.
2. Introduce the quotation with an introductory phrase (don’t use “says”)
List of introductory phrases: (Use the present tense – circle three good ones)
Argue Establish Emphasize Find Point out
Note Suggest Add Explain Believe
Declare Observe Propose Conclude Agree
Insist Maintain Disagree
3. Cite the source in your list of works cited.
NOTES ON PARAPHRASING
1. Restate main idea in your own words.
2. Make sure the paraphrase means the same thing as the quote
3. Place “ “ around key words from the original
4. Cite the source in your list of works cited.
What do you think of these sections? Revise each to make it better. Be creative.
1. Languages are difficult to really master. Jackson states “English is the hardest language to
2. Citations are useful, says Suttman, a linguist at UCSC. (p. 34).
3. “Fast food, says Eric Schlosser, is now so commonplace that it has acquired
an air of inevitability, as though it were somehow unavoidable, a fact of modern life”
(2002, p. 7).
4. In “People's Republic of China” Kim Dramer points out that “Music is the most ancient of the
arts. The Chinese believe it has the power to transform and elevate people's minds.” (Dramer
Write one correctly punctuated quote for your essay.
Creating a “Works Cited page”
How do you make a correct Works Cited page (Bibliography)?
Avoid plagiarism, give the reader information to identify the sources,
and give credit to the authors of your sources
1. Arrange entries in alphabetical order. Do not number the entries.
2. Double-space the entire list. Do not add extra spaces between entries.
3. Begin each entry at the left and indent the subsequent lines of individual entries
What information should you include?
Author. Title. Journal Book Database Medium.
Last Capitalize Information. Publication information. Print, Web, Film,
name, first, last, and information. CD, DVD, Radio,
first important (City name Television,
name. words. only) Performance,
*italics/”” **Dates Interview, Email
*-Italicize Books, plays, films, newspapers, Web sites, journals, magazines, pamphlets
Use quotation marks for works within larger works: articles, stories, pages in Web sites
**For all dates use the European format (23 Dec. 2010.)
Author or Editor. Title of entire Web site. Version number. Publishing institution or
organization, Date of page or last update. Web. Date of access. <complete URL if page cannot
be found using a search engine>.
If no author or editor: start the citation with the title of the Web page.
If you have the title of the Web page put it in quotations
If no date is given: n.d.
If no publisher is given: n.p.
Author. Title. City of publication: Publisher, Publication year. Print.
Electronic Journal and magazine articles from a subscription database
Author. “Article title.” Title of publication volume.issue (publication year): Page range,
starting page with hyphen. Database name. Web. Date of access.
Printed Journal article
Author. “Article title”. Title of publication Volume (Publication year): page-page. Print.
Bartleby.com: Great Books Online. Bartleby.com, 2008. Web. 1 Aug. 2008.
Committee on Scholarly Editions. “Guidelines for Editors of Scholarly Editions.” Modern
Language Association. MLA. 25 Sept. 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2007.
Liu, Alan, ed. Home page. Voice of the Shuttle. Dept. of English, U of California, Santa Barbara,
n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2007.
“Maplewood, New Jersey.” Map. Google Maps. Google, 23 July 2007. Web. 23 July 2007.
“The Scientists Speak.” Editorial. New York Times. New York Times, 20 Nov. 2007. Web. 20
Target Corporation. Target Corporation Annual Report 2007. Target, 2007. Web. 8 Aug. 2008.
Yager, Susan, narr. “The Former Age.” By Geoffrey Chaucer. Chaucer Metapage. Ed. Mark E.
Allen et al. U of North Carolina, 13 Feb. 2007. Web. 30 Nov. 2007.
Journal/magazine published on the Web
Wood, Michael. “The Last Night of All.” PMLA 122.5 (2008): 1394-402. Web. 22 Jan. 2008.
Print Non-Periodical Publications Book with one author
Johnson, Roberta. Gender and Nation in the Spanish Modernist Novel. Nashville: Vanderbilt UP,
Buss, A. H. Self-Consciousness and Social Anxiety. San Francisco: Freeman, 1991. Print.
Book with 2 or 3 authors
Welsch, Roger L., and Linda K. Welsch. Cather’s Kitchens: Foodways in Literature and Life.
Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1987. Print.
Booth, Wayne C., Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research. 2nd ed.
Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2003. Print.
Book with no author listed on the title page
The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2003. Print.
Brochure, pamphlet, or press release – treat them as you would a book; add day and month to date for a
Modern Language Association. Modern Language Association Announces New and Improved
MLA Language Map. New York: MLA, 18 Apr. 2006. Print.
Work in an anthology or edited book
Allende, Isabel. “Toad’s Mouth.” Trans. Margaret Sayers Peden. A Hammock beneath the
Mangoes: Stories from Latin America. Ed. Thomas Colchie. New York: Plume, 1992. 83-
Entry/article from an encyclopedia or reference work
Mohanty, Jitendra M. “Indian Philosophy.” The New Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia.
15th ed. 1987. Print.
Government document – with and without a known author
New York State. Commission on the Adirondacks in the Twenty-First Century. The Adirondack
Park in the Twenty-First Century. Albany: State of New York, 1990. Print.
Additional Types of Resources Television or radio show or episode
“The Phantom of Corleone.” Narr. Steve Kroft. Sixty Minutes. CBS. WCBS, New York, 10 Dec.
“Shakespearean Putdowns.” Narr. Robert Siegel and Linda Wertheimer. All Things Considered.
Natl. Public Radio. WNYC, New York, 6 Apr. 1994. Radio.
Interview – published/broadcasted and personal
Pei, I. M. Personal interview. 22 July 1993.
Reed, Ishmael. Telephone interview. 10 Dec. 2011.
List of Citations – Bibliography – Works Cited
Directions: How is this bibliography? How many errors can you find? Fix them.
Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory.
28 Nov. 2003.
10 May 2006
"How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow.com. <http://www.ehow.com/h
ow_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html>.10 May 2006
Karl Stolley. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The OWL at Purdue. 10 March
2009. Purdue University Writing Lab. 12 May 2006
Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford U.P., 1967.
Landsburg, Steven E. Who Shall Inherit the Earth? Slate. 1 May 1997. 1
March 2009 <http://www.slate.com/Economics/97-05-01/ Economics.asp>.
PRACTICE: Try this group activity. You will drag and drop items to create a bibliography.
For more information: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/557/15/