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The Three Isms

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					The Three Isms


      Modern Literature
           To which do you subscribe?
1.   All of my actions and experiences have already been
     determined ahead of time. Therefore, I have no control over
     what happens to me. Even though I feel like I make choices, it
     was already decided for me what decisions I would make.
2.   All of my choices are based on what I have experienced in the
     past. Therefore, I may stop or change something I do if I
     experience negative enough consequences. Similarly, I may do
     something new if I observe someone else gain rewards by
     doing that activity. As a result, life is a series of trial an error.
3.   I am my own person, and so I must take responsibility for the
     choice I make because in the end, I am the one who has to live
     with those choices. I do not make choices based on past
     experiences because those experiences no longer exist. For
     that matter, I don’t feel the need to adhere to rules or laws
     because they were created by someone else. If it appears that
     I am following the rules, it’s only because I have independently
     decided to act the way I do.
         Behaviorism

   Scenario #2
    Behaviorism
   Your choices               "Give me a dozen
    (behavior) is learned       health infants, well-
    through conditioning.       formed, and my own
    (Think Pavlov.)             specified world to them
   Your environment can        up in and I'll guarantee
    shape you through           to take any one of
    your behaviors.             them at random and
   Learned behavior            train him to become
    comes from                  any type of specialist I
    consequences and            might select--doctor,
    rewards.                    lawyer…beggar
                                man…thief." - JB
                                Watson, 1924
Determinism
   Scenario #1
           Determinism
                                               Everything is set for
                                                you to follow.
                                               You are born the way
                                                you will be.
                                               You make choices
                                                according to your plan.
   "Everything in nature is the result of
    fixed laws." --Charles Darwin
   "Everything is determined, the
    beginning as well as the end, by forces
    over which we have no control. It is
    determined for the insect as well as the
    star. Human beings, vegetables, or
    cosmic dust, we all dance to a
    mysterious tune, intoned in the distance
    by an invisible piper." - Albert Einstein
Existentialism


                    Scenario #3
           Existentialism
   "...the individual is defined only      People are more than
    by his relationship to the world         just biology and
    and to other individuals; he
    exists only by transcending              study.
    himself, and his freedom can be
    achieved only through the               Human kind will act
    freedom of others. He justifies          against programming
    his existence by a movement              and circumstances.
    which, like freedom, springs from
    his heart but which leads outside       Man is able to break
    of himself.“ ~ Simone de                 apart from the whole
    Beauvoir, 1948
                                             to form a self.
   "Forever I shall be a stronger to
    myself. In psychology as in logic,
    there are truths but no truth."
       ~ Albert Camus, 1955

				
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