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2 Hello, my name is Luke Holler. I am a four year Oiler MUNer. The past years in MUN have challenged me to form my own opinion and have led me to a very successful understanding of the international community. I love the Dodgers, the color purple, and kittens. Also, I am the Spirit Commissioner of ASB and a dedicated football player. One of my favorite parts of MUN is not just performing well in committee but also dressing the part. I’m excited to see you all thinking on your feet and doing your best. I hope to see all of you learning a lot during this conference and taking the knowledge along to your future conferences. Hello, my name is Zane Hudak and I am a senior at Huntington Beach High School. This is my fourth year in Model United Nations and my third time chairing a MUN conference. I played football here at HBHS for four years, three of which were spent on the Varsity team. My senior year, I was captain of the team along with fellow chair, Luke Holler. I recently committed to Brown University on an academic “full-ride” scholarship after declining offers from Stanford and Oregon State. I plan on majoring in mechanical engineering at Brown University, and I cannot wait to live on the east coast. I enjoy long walks on the beach and playing Call of Duty and Counterstrike Source all night and then not going to school the next day. Hi, I’m Megan Steinkirchner and also a senior MUNer here at Huntington. It is my fourth year in the program and I’m really looking forward to our Surf City Conference. Besides MUN, I am also on ASB, part of National Honor Society, and a member of our Academy for the Performing Arts’ Ballet Ensemble. For this committee, we are looking for professional, well- researched, and powerfully speaking delegates to show true leadership and inspiration. Passion should be easily found in these topics because at every conference we fall back on Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to make our solutions work. But if there are problems within the NGOs themselves, then what hopes do we have? Your job is enhancing NGOs to become the most highly efficient and responsibly run resources so they can continue to carry out the solutions of international community. But it won’t be too serious, the procedure of this committee will allow for our a little more leeway than normal committees. Please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org for any questions along the way, we are more than happy to help! Procedure: This committee will run like a business meeting rather than a UN organ. You will all be representing your respective NGOs and are expected to be complete experts on them. To start, you will each give a one minute speech briefing the committee on your NGO, what its main goals are, what it is primarily used for, how/where it works, etc. Treat it like an “about me” speech for your NGO. We will hold regular informal caucuses for lobbying, writing, and collaborating with each other. Solution speeches will still be given, from the position of your NGO. A meeting with all other NGOs will never be entertained, considered, or discussed at any point as a solution. That is the exact reason you are in this committee. Instead of writing resolutions, delegates will be writing more in the form of reports. We will provide formats of these in committee. The goal of the papers is still the same so you will be prepared. Additionally, you will present these reports like proposals rather than in a formal caucus. Each group will get time to prepare a presentation during committee and we will provide the supplies to do so. If you have any pre-conference questions regarding procedure, feel free to email us. 3 Topic 1: Overspending and Allocation of Funds I. Background A widespread establishment of multilateral and large scale Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) began in the 1960’s after the establishment of the United Nations. This intricate web of NGOs is paramount to the lives of many around the world but organizations like UNICEF lack proper documentation and accounting systems in order to offset its 120,000 paid staff that travels around the world and work. Not only has this led to overspending, but also a decline because these organizations can no longer provide incentives to many of their volunteers. There became several other problems associated with these organizations like numerous cases of corruption and embezzlement. In 1995 the Security Council established the Oil-for-Food Program which was primarily directed by the World Food Program. When the World Food Program was having trouble with increasing food procurement for the global community, many new programs began to be funded. The World Food Program poured over $50 million into the Oil-for-Food Program and its main intent was to allow Iraq to sell their oil to the global market in exchange for many commodities and humanitarian supplies that would not increase Iraq’s military capacity but instead address the need of Iraqi citizens. The UN Security General at the time, Kofi Annan, dismissed the program after leaked financial documentation that stated around $2.2 billion was embezzled by the Iraqi government and UN officials. The World Food Program was assessed to have lost $500 million in the termination of the project which was ten times the amount the organization had put into funding the program. Many organizations such as the World Bank that once held substantial merit are faced with staggering debts ranging up to $5 billion. This international NGO was once looked to for much of the funding for programs and providing loans to underdeveloped countries, but it is now traumatized by its uncontrollable burden. 38% of all NGOs are facing debt of some sort and the problem lies in a credit type system that is enumerated by many. NGOs do not have a steady source of funding since most of their income is derived from donor countries which wavers from time to time. However, these NGOs still require funds in order to keep operations up and running, so in order to compensate they have to spend money they do not have. Not all NGOs are faced with massive amounts of debts but almost all struggle with overspending and providing documenting systems to properly evaluate the amount of funds that are present and where they are being spent. II. United Nations Involvement With the creation of the United Nations in 1945, many NGOs were formed in conjunction to carry out UN operations. One of the first large scale NGOs that was created, the Food and Agricultural Organization, was funded solely by the UN Permanent Committee which involved 41 member states. The FAO is now funded by its 191 members who have established a Program of Work and Budget. There has also been an emerging role of NGOs in conflict resolution within the UN. In 1968 the UN Economic and Social Council formalized its consultant relationship with NGOs. Although NGOs are not given any prominent status within the UN, such as the Security Council, many resolutions are passed across the table in order to provide adequate funding for many NGOs. Since the UN was created, it has established over 800 NGOs which act in separate spheres but all comply under the authority of the UN. Almost all of the UN’s funding is from assessed and voluntary contributions from its 192 member states. Within the UN charter there is a section which deals with all financing based on 4 Gross National Income. The UN is not adequately equipped to provide substantial funding to many NGOs and about 95% of funding for all NGOs comes directly from donor countries. This contributes primarily to numerous amounts of incentives that NGOs provide and many programs under these NGOs are heavily influenced by donor countries. III. Questions to Consider 1. Where does most of the funding for your NGO come from? 2. Does your NGO employ paid staff and how many personnel does your NGO currently have working under it? 3. Which programs created by your NGO cost the most and what is the upkeep for these programs? 4. Does your NGO have some sort of system to deter corruption and overspending on programs within your organization? 5. When was your NGO created and is it suffering from any type of debt? 5 Topic 2: Improving Networking Between Non- Governmental Organizations I. Background A non-governmental organization functions as an unbiased body with no affiliation to a government or its representatives. For decades, NGOs have been relied upon to provide relief and assistance to nations in all kinds of dilemmas. Most specialize in a particular area of work such as environmental protection, medical aid, governmental advisement, or providing labor and supplies. When disaster strikes, the international community looks to their support to relieve affected nations. But disorganization and lack of communication between NGOs can cause even more confusion in the area and delay much needed resources to its citizens. Mutual respect and collaboration of NGOs improves efficiency, cost, and achievements of their projects. Furthermore, when multiple NGOs cooperate with each other’s efforts they can affect a larger group of people, increase their strength, and provide well-rounded relief plans. There are over forty thousand international NGOs in existence today. It is excellent that they are so available and that the supply is not greater than the demand, there are some problems that accompany this. While the number of NGOs continues to grow, fundraising for these organizations becomes increasingly difficult. Now that so many organizations exist, it is much harder to find the capital necessary to finance their needs. Also, as competition between them grows, it can hinder their real goals and take time and energy away from providing for the international community. Networking is “making contacts, maintaining contacts, and using contacts”. Therefore, to improve this tactic specifically within the NGO population we must give attention to all three of these aspects. Steps must be taken to encourage NGOs to communicate with one another and create partnerships to be used in the future. It is necessary to develop methods for this communication to continue as regularly as possible. Lastly, NGOs must find a way to make these connections permanent and unconditional, at least for some time. This is so when crisis develop, there is less commotion and delay for a fully- equipped service commission to begin. II. United Nations Involvement “They have increasingly assumed the role of promoters of new ideas, they have altered the international community to emerging issues, and they have developed expertise and talent which, in an increasing number of areas, have become vital to the work of the United Nations, both at the policy and operational levels.” This is an official recognition that the United Nations has stated towards the work of NGOs. The United Nations has always been a home for NGOs to meet and share ideas. The 1982 UN Conference on Environment and Development, or Earth Summit, was a prime example of successful collaboration of NGOs. Over 2,400 organizations attended it in total. As a result of this conference, NGOs found positive reinforcement that their combination yielded powerful help. Also at this conference, revolutionary strategies were first implemented to supply all NGOs with more accessible information within themselves and to government heads, which in turn increased their appeal. The UN Department of Public Information has held conferences that are notorious for their opportunities for NGOs to network. It provides chances for them to create and lead workshops sessions to raise awareness for and enhance expertise in the topics they feel are most pertinent. The 2004 UNDPI conference also included sessions specifically on networking in NGOs. The International NGO Forum produced 6 treaties that encouraged networking by designating what actions the citizens would like NGOs to perform. These alternative treaties were confirmed by NGOs themselves. The UN works to accredit as many NGOs as reasonable to encourage their work and the progress that has already been made to encourage connections between them. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Human Affairs has stated its support for NGO networking because it can limit the other problems that arise in NGOs, such as misuse of funding or a surplus of vague organizations. Departments of the UN have published works to guide NGOs through risks and rewards of networking, stages of growth, route of information, representation, and other aspects of networking. There is evidence in almost all UN activity that encourages NGO networking and incentives to do so. III. Questions to Consider 1. Has your NGO had any problems with networking in the past, either within itself or with other NGOs? Why did this occur? 2. Why is it important for NGOs to work together and be aware of each other’s presence in international disasters and conflicts? 3. How can NGOs with different purposes benefit each other? 4. What are the successes that collaborative NGO groups have had? Specifically, why was this possible and how can we make this more prevalent? 5. How can we maintain network connections and ensure they aren’t too demanding of such organizations? 6. Does your NGO work with other organizations and what are the roles that your NGO plays on other organizations? Position paper format will be roughly the same: A. Background of the topic B. UN Involvement C. NGO experience with the topic (if any) and solutions Remember—use past experiences, corruptions, failures, and successes to make sure your solutions are realistic and workable on an international scale!
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