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					Why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
           why taxonomy matters
         Short case studies that provide varied examples of
          taxonomy’s contribution to society.

         The benefits of timely, expert taxonomic inputs and
          information…

         …and the costs of weak, inaccessible or inexistent taxonomic
          expertise and resources.

         The cash benefit of taxonomy is presented where possible to
          show how taxonomy saves $millions.

         35 published online – so far. Contributions from throughout
          the world.

why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
         Why              why taxonomy matters


          provide an accessible collection of examples of
           taxonomy’s value to society that are convincing to
           funders and policy makers (and colleagues in
           conservation / environmental management /
           sustainable development!)

          encourage taxonomists to think more about the need to
           justify their work to the wider world.




why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
         taxonomy and invasive alien species

          A theme strongly featured by the case studies is
           invasive alien species (IAS).

          Case studies illustrate the role of taxonomy in IAS
           management in various sectors.

          Taxonomic expertise, surveys, information and analysis
           are of crucial importance to recognising and solving
           ecological, agricultural, trade, health and other
           problems caused by IAS.



why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
         misidentifications
          Without access to expert support,
          misidentifications are made, costing precious
          money and time when rapid decisions need to
          be made, for example at border posts and
          regulatory agencies.
          case study 22




why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
       case study 22
       major biocontrol agent nearly missed
       Contributed by: Christopher H. C. Lyal (UK); Banpot Napompeth (Thailand);
       Ian Cresswell (Australia)



              Problem:      Salvinia molesta is an aggressive aquatic
              fern and one of the world’s worst weeds. It has been
              introduced from its native Brazil to many areas of the
              world, where environmental damage caused by its
              spread has been enormous. It chokes lakes, reservoirs,
              slow-moving rivers, irrigation systems, rice paddies,
              fishponds etc with continuous meter-thick mats of
              dense vegetation. In addition to rendering the water
              useless for normal purposes its presence can lead to an
              increase in mosquito populations.


why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
       case study 22
       major biocontrol agent nearly missed
       Contributed by: Christopher H. C. Lyal (UK); Banpot Napompeth (Thailand);
       Ian Cresswell (Australia)

         Outcome / lessons:
          Initially the weed was thought to be Salvinia auriculata, and a
           weevil, Cyrtobagous singularis, was collected from Trinidad
           and released on the weed in Africa, where it failed to control
           it.
          The weed was then correctly identified as S. molesta, and a
           new species of Cyrtobagous was collected from this species in
           Brazil and released in Queensland, where it rapidly controlled
           the weed.
          Biological control was achieved only after the true
           identity of Salvinia had been recognized, its native
           range found, and a previously unknown herbivore
           discovered.
          Planned eradication programme in Thailand
           unnecessary, saving $5million.
why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
         correct name
          Only when a suspected IAS is correctly
          identified can effective control or mitigation
          measures be implemented, drawing where
          possible on best practice learnt from tackling
          the IAS elsewhere.
          case study 32




why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
       case study 32
       resolving the southeast asian termite paradox
       Contributed by: Laurence G. Kirton, Forest Research Institute Malaysia




              Problem:         The termite genus Coptotermes has a few
              species that are notorious as pests of timber on an
              international scale. They are responsible for enormous
              losses in buildings throughout the tropics and
              subtropics. However, there has been for many decades,
              till recently, a paradox in the pest status of these
              species. Coptotermes havilandi, which is a serious alien
              pest in parts of South and North America, is thought to
              have been introduced from Southeast Asia, yet it has
              never been accorded much importance as a pest in this
              region where the pest species are primarily C. gestroi
              and C. travians.

why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
        case study 32
        resolving the southeast asian termite paradox
       Contributed by: Laurence G. Kirton, Forest Research Institute Malaysia




         Outcome / lessons:
          A taxonomic study in Malaysia and neighboring countries
           showed that C. havilandi and C. gestroi were the same
           species.
          It was also shown that the true C. travians is a species of the
           forest.
          In Southeast Asia there is a single pest species, C. gestroi,
           that was introduced to various parts of the world.
          Numerous previous studies can now be pooled,
           facilitating the development of improved pest
           management strategies.

why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
         economical conservation
          Introduced species may not be invasive.
          Surveys and monitoring determine when
          interventions to eliminate introduced species
          are unavoidable.
          case study 7




why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
       case study 7
       surveys and monitoring prevent unnecessary
       control programmes
       Contributed by: Elecier Cruz, Parque Nacional Galápagos



              Problem:      Introduced (alien) species
              sometimes become invasive. In the Galapagos
              Island Archipélago de Colón Biosphere
              Reserve, the only introduced reptiles that have
              established reproductive populations in
              Galapagos are three gecko species of the
              family Gekkonidae. Are these species invasive;
              do they need to be controlled?


why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
       case study 7
       surveys and monitoring prevent unnecessary
       control programmes
       Contributed by: Elecier Cruz, Parque Nacional Galápagos



              Outcome / lessons:
          A monitoring study of the Gekkonidae showed that only
           Phyllodactylus reissi has the habitat preference of endemic
           geckos and needs to be considered as a potential invasive
           threat to the native fauna.
          Significant savings can be realised by monitoring introduced
           species and starting control programmes only if and when a
           species shows signs of becoming invasive.
          The influx of alien species can be tolerated, as long as
           there is taxonomic expertise and tools to support an
           efficient and effective monitoring system.


why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
         demand-driven
          Taxonomic capacity can be enhanced when
          pursued in a socio-economic context.
          case study 11




why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
       case study 11
       harmful algal blooms (HAB)
       Contributed by: Henrik Oksfeldt Enevoldsen (Denmark)



              Problem:       Coastal states across the world
              experience HAB with growing frequency and
              intensity, causing cause fish mortality in wild
              and aquaculture stocks as well as intoxication
              in humans consuming shellfish and negative
              impacts on tourism. The monitoring of harmful
              micro-algae requires sound taxonomic skills,
              research and new identification tools. Many
              institutions have, over the last 20 years, lost
              their taxonomic expertise in micro-algae.

why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
       case study 11
       harmful algal blooms (HAB)
       Contributed by: Henrik Oksfeldt Enevoldsen (Denmark)



              Outcome / lessons:
          Identification of micro-algae is a major challenge
           for agencies responsible for protecting seafood
           resources, the marine environment, and human
           health.
          International regulations mean that most countries
           have recognised the importance of taxonomic skills
           for monitoring and have requested assistance.
          Funding increased, including for basic research in
           phylogeny, ecology, etc. of micro-algae

why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species
         open call
          More case studies welcome

          Many themes yet to be illustrated – taxonomy
          has so many applications!

          See case study pages on BioNET web site
          for guidelines: www.bionet-intl.org



why
taxonomy matters
        invasive alien species

				
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posted:9/5/2011
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