Those Worthless VFR Flight Plans

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					                                 J A N U A R Y / F E B R U A R Y   2 0 0 1

A V I A T I O N   S A F E T Y   F R O M   C O V E R    T O    C O V E R

                   Page One:

                   Those “Worthless” VFR Flight Plans
                                                                                                                      J A N U A R Y / F E B R U A R Y   2 0 0 1

                                                                                                                          V O L U M E   4 0   •   N U M B E R   1

                                                                             F E AT U R E S
Rodney E. Slater, Secretary of Transportation
Jane F. Garvey, FAA Administrator
Thomas E. McSweeny, Associate Administrator
   for Regulation and Certification
                                                                                  1          Those ‘Worthless’ VFR Flight Plans
L. Nicholas Lacey, Director,
   Flight Standards Service                                                       3          To Enter “B” or Not to Enter “B”…
Michael L. Henry, Manager,
   General Aviation and Commercial Division
Phyllis Anne Duncan, Editor
                                                                                  4          Big Deal
Louise C. Oertly, Senior Associate Editor
H. Dean Chamberlain, Forum Editor                                                 6          Attention Pilots
A. Mario Toscano, Associate Editor/Designer
Deidra Shaw, Administrative Assistant                                             8          Hazardous Chemicals in the Aviation Workplace
                                                                                 13          Cessna Fatal Spin Accident
The FAA’s Flight Standards Service, General
Aviation and Commercial Division, Publications
Branch, AFS–805, Washington, DC 20591; tele-
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phone (202) 267–8212, FAX (202) 267–9463; pub-
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calling the attention of airmen to current technical,
regulatory, and procedural matters affecting the safe
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policy and rule interpretations, all printed material                            22          Super Bowl XXXV Special Air Traffic Procedures
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should not be construed to have regulatory effect.
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    ✳✳✳✳✳✳✳✳✳✳✳✳✳✳3–DIGIT 342
    FAN SMITH212J JUN02 R 1 423✳
    JOHN SMITH                                                                                                            FRONT COVER: Cessna 182
    212 MAIN ST
    FORESTVILLE MD 20747                                                                                                      Skylane (Cessna photo)

                                                                                                                      BACK COVER: A Kolb FireFly in
                                                                                                                        flight. (Mario Toscano photo)

              A   D O T / F A A        F L I G H T       S T A N D A R D S     S A F E T Y    P U B L I C A T I O N
Those “Worthless” VFR Flight Plans
                                                    by Andy Applegate

       n this go and do faster world          you or even know you’re missing? If         This is not to say that you can’t file a
       that we live in, day in and day        you, however, had taken the time to         flight plan for a trip that is only fifteen
       out, the last thing on many pi-        file a VFR flight plan with Lansing Au-     miles from your point of departure—
       lots’ minds is filing a flight plan,   tomated Flight Service Station (AFSS)       YOU CAN! VFR flight plans give you
especially if they are flying in a VFR en-    or filed it over the direct user access     an added insurance of safety that, if
vironment. Reliance on inventions like        terminal system (DUATS, which is tied       by chance something drastic hap-
LORAN and GPS have caused some                in with the Flight Service Station’s        pened during your flight, someone will
pilots to just jump in the airplane and       messaging system) and activated it          be waiting on the other end to hear
takeoff without performing all the usual      soon after your departure, search and       from you. And can you believe that it
preflight planning activities before they     rescue units would be out within hours      doesn’t cost you a penny? That’s
go. Now imagine that you didn’t con-          to start locating your accident scene.      right. IT’S FREE!
duct any preflight planning or file a               VFR flight plans are not required          There is a discouraging step that
VFR flight plan from your home airport        by the Federal Aviation Regulations         everyone who does file a VFR flight
to go to your favorite vacation spot in       (FAR) to be on file with a Flight Service   plan sometimes forgets to perform—
the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.              Station (FSS). However, it has been a       CLOSING THE FLIGHT PLAN. No-
Along the way you run into bad                recommended policy that a flight plan       body likes to be called by the FAA late
weather or get off course and run out         should be filed for every crosscountry      in the evening or at night while you are
of fuel and, unfortunately, end up            flight where your intended point of         tucked in bed to make sure you made
crashing somewhere between here               landing is more than 50 nautical miles      it home from the airport. There are
and there. Who’s going to look for            from the original point of departure.       several embarrassing excuses that are

                                                                                     JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2001                        1
                                                                                         property. This is also called a ramp
                                                                                         search. If no one can be contacted at
                                                                                         the airport, local law enforcement per-
                                                                                         sonnel are requested to check for your
                  Now that you’ve landed, will you                                       aircraft. In addition, flight service sta-
                  remember to close your flight plan?                                    tions and air traffic control facilities
                                                                                         within the area transmit a request over
                                                                                         the appropriate frequencies asking
                                                                                         every airborne aircraft to monitor the
                                                                                         emergency frequency (121.5 MHz,
                                                                                         243.0 MHz, or 406 MHz) and listen for
                                                                                         emergency communications or a
                                                                                         transmission from the emergency lo-
                                                                                         cator transmitter (ELT) on board your
                                                                                              If an hour has elapsed since the
                                                                                         original ALNOT transmission, the des-
                                                                                         tination FSS contacts the AFRCC and
                                                                                         provides all the pertinent information
                                                                                         about your flight to the RCC officer. If
                                                                                         your aircraft has not been located by
made up by pilots who forgot, were            even if no contact has been made           this time, the U.S. Air Force assumes
distracted, or were too busy to close         with your aircraft.                        complete responsibility for locating
their flight plan. Because of this mis-             If the replies to the QALQ request   your aircraft and may initiate a ground
take and the resulting embarrassment,         are all negative—meaning that no FAA       and air search for your aircraft utilizing
a pilot may never file a VFR flight plan      facility in the nearby area has located    the Civil Air Patrol.
again. What follows is what happens           your aircraft or 30 minutes have                If by now you still have decided
when your flight plan does not get            passed since the transmission of the       that filing a VFR flight plan is not worth
closed for any particular reason.             QALQ—the destination FSS transmits         your pain and agony, utilizing the air
     Once you activate your flight plan,      an information request (INREQ) to the      traffic control system to receive VFR
the time that you listed under BLOCK          departure FSS, to every flight watch       traffic advisories and flight following
10, Estimated Time Enroute, of the            FSS along your route of flight, to other   are strongly encouraged. They may
FAA Flight Plan Form is used to deter-        FSS’s or ARTCC’s along your route of       not have all your necessary informa-
mine your ETA (estimated time of ar-          flight, and to the Air Force Rescue Co-    tion for search and rescue operations,
rival). If 30 minutes have elapsed            ordination Center (AFRCC) located at       but at least, if you do decide to make
since your ETA at your destination air-       Langley AFB, Virginia. On receipt of       a forced landing, they have a good
port, your aircraft is considered over-       an INREQ message, every facility be-       idea of where you might have landed
due, and search and rescue (SAR)              gins a check of facility records to de-    and can reduce the amount of time
procedures are instigated. At that            termine whether radio contact was          that it takes to find you.
point your destination’s FSS is respon-       made with your aircraft. At the con-            More and more fatal flights, where
sible for locating your aircraft. The first   clusion of these checks, a reply mes-      search and rescue operations are
action that is taken is to send a QALQ        sage is transmitted to the destination     being conducted, end up becoming
message to every FAA facility at an air-      FSS describing the results of the          just search missions because the pilot
port where you may have landed. (A            search.                                    neglected to file a flight plan or receive
QALQ message is a request for infor-                If the replies to the INREQ are      flight following from ATC. These serv-
mation concerning the overdue air-            negative or one hour after the trans-      ices are provided to you at no cost
craft.) In addition, this message is          mission of the INREQ message, the          should you decide to slow down, take
also sent back to your departure’s            destination FSS transmits an alert no-     a minute, and use them. Overall it can
FSS as well as every Air Route Traffic        tice (ALNOT) to every FAA facility         mean the difference between life or
Control Center (ARTCC) within the             within 50 miles of your aircraft’s pro-    death and comfort to you and your
area. Any facility that receives a            posed route of flight. These facilities    families.
QALQ must briefly check with every            then conduct a communications                                 5
controller and examine recent flight          search of every airport within their im-       Mr. Applegate is an Air Traffic
strips to determine whether any con-          mediate vicinity. In most cases, the       Controller at Detroit Willow Run Air-
tact has been made with the overdue           airport manager, FBO, or operator is       port, an Aviation Safety Counselor for
aircraft. Each of these facilities is re-     telephoned, and this individual con-       the Detroit FSDO, and a search and
quired to answer the QALQ request,            ducts a visual search of the airport       rescue pilot for the Civil Air Patrol.

 2     FAA Aviation News
To Enter “B” or Not to Enter “B”…

     Many pilots assume that VFR “flight following” offers more ATC services than it does. A general aviation
 pilot reports entering Class B airspace without a clearance, after mistakenly believing that VFR flight following
 service would provide the necessary clearance.

     I requested flight following as I proceeded direct to XYZ. I was given a code and radar identification was con-
 firmed. I was on a heading of 180 degrees, when the controller asked me, “Where are you going?” I confirmed XYZ
 and then he told me I was not cleared into the Class B airspace and I should turn left to 150 degrees. I expected since
 I was requesting flight following and I was in radar contact, if the controller had not given me a Class B clearance,
 he would have vectored me around the area or told me to stay clear of Class B until advised.

     VFR flight following provides traffic advisories, not clearances or traffic separation, and only as controller
 workload permits. Pilots are responsible for monitoring their position and making a timely request for clear-
 ance into the Class B area. Often, the controller providing traffic advisories can coordinate the issuance of a
 clearance upon request from the pilot.

     In the next incident, ATC was trying to provide advisories, but an apparent malfunction in the aircraft radio
 interfered with the controller’s efforts, nearly putting the reporter in harm’s way.

     In cruise, using VFR flight following, flying direct to a fix using LORAN, I inadvertently flew into an active
 Restricted Area. I had the volume on the radio turned low, although I believe it was still at an audible level. After
 not hearing radio chatter for a while, I called Center and was informed that I was in a hot Restricted Area. Center
 said they had been trying to contact me but had been unable. I did experience several other problems with reception
 on that radio, and wound up using [the #2 radio].

    I climbed to 11,500 feet to get out of the area. I had become complacent about following my position on the charts,
 knowing that Center would help keep me clear of Restricted Areas. I should have tracked my position more closely
 without relying on ATC.

      The reporter used LORAN as the primary navigation source, and relied on ATC for “back-up.” Making
 full use of all resources, including charts and other navigational aids, will help keep pilots out of “hot” areas.

     This report appeared in NASA’s Aviation Safety Reporting System’s (ASRS) Callback.

                                                                              JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2001                        3
    Big Deal!
     by Bill O’Brien

   t was 0846 on a Tuesday morning          to call a bureaucrat in Washington and       weekend surveillance work at the air-

I  in early October. I was se-
   questered in my DC cubicle of
   power trying half-heartedly to tease
some common sense out of some
meaningless wall charts that were left
                                            tell me what a fine job the FAA is doing.
                                            So I sat there, pen in hand, patiently
                                            waiting for the bomb to be dropped.
                                                 It wasn’t long in coming. “Mr.
                                            O’Brien, I got a bone to pick with you.”
                                                                                         port. Also, I told him I would recom-
                                                                                         mend to the FSDO’s Aviation Safety
                                                                                         Program manager to give some avia-
                                                                                         tion safety programs on the privileges
                                                                                         and limitations of pilot-performed
over from the previous day’s “brain         He voiced his complaint in a slow,           maintenance.
storming session.” I was pondering          steady controlled voice that could only           I told him if nothing positive hap-
an extraordinarily well thought out half-   be uttered through clenched teeth. His       pened in a month, then he had the
baked idea, when it happened. I got         issue was that the FAA was allowing          right to call me back and give me hell.
my first irate phone call of the day.       pilots to work on their own airplanes at     He seemed satisfied with this tele-
     After the obligatory, “Hello, how      a GA airport that will remain nameless.      phone pact with a DC devil, and we
are you?” we exchanged names and            He claimed a lot of this illegal work was    parted on good terms.
my caller told me that he was a GA          done in the owners’ hangars on the                While I waited for the West Coast
mechanic who works in northern              weekends behind closed doors.                to go to work, I began thinking about
California. I immediately did the time           His main gripe was the work the         pilot-performed maintenance. There
zone math and came up with three            pilots were doing was not only the pre-      are two major problems that are
hours difference. Out of habit, honed       ventive maintenance called out in            always occurring. The first is the pilot
by experience, I hastily picked up my       appendix A of FAR Part 43, but every-        usually does not have the proper tools,
pen and found some notepaper and            thing else including engine swaps,           the current data, or the expertise to do
was ready to copy because deep in my        sheet metal work, radio and STC              the job. The second problem is that
bones I knew this call was important.       installations, or whatever else you can      pilots rarely make a maintenance entry
     How so? I will bet you a dollar to     imagine. I told him that I would contact     in the aircraft’s log book even though it
a donut that no mechanic in any time        the local flight standards district office   is required by the regulations.
zone has ever gotten up at 0546, just       (FSDO) and ask them to step up the                Now pilot/owners reading this

 4     FAA Aviation News
always will say what’s the Big Deal!         related failure could have happened         developed the handout on the follow-
“It’s my airplane; it’s my hide on the       long before the accident, but again we      ing pages that explains to pilots what
line,” or “I know what I can do or not!”     are not sure, so we put it down as          they can and can’t do when they hold
and “Why sign a logbook and give the         another unknown.                            a wrench in their hands. All a mechan-
Feds the rope to hang me.” My                     These are worst case accident          ic has to do to become a partner with
response is: Regulations and work-           scenarios, the unknowns. It’s bad           me in this pilot educational process is
manship aside, the Big Deal is what          because the mechanic is left with a         to hang this chart anywhere pilots
happens to the people you leave              nagging doubt that he or she could          gather, such as the airport restaurant
behind. When there is an accident,           have killed those people, could have        or pilot lounge. If you are up for a walk
especially a fatal one, and mainte-          made that fatal mistake, might be           on the wild side perhaps you can hand
nance is determined to be a factor, the      responsible. Mechanics, who experi-         this chart out at FAA pilot safety meet-
FAA inspector performing the accident        enced this ongoing nightmare, tell me       ings and answer maintenance ques-
investigation always goes to the last        that this cold feeling of “maybe it was     tions at the same time. There is an
entry in the logbook. Many times the         my fault” never goes away. The worry        outside chance that you might get
last entry was an annual inspection, up      lies just below the conscience level of     some tough questions, but education
to six or seven months before the acci-      thought, but always making its pres-        is not a risk free business.
dent. In addition, the aircraft could        ence known by robbing oneself of                 Just a final word to those mechan-
have 50 to 60 additional hours on the        inner peace. Other mechanics have           ics who suffer from feelings of doubt
Hobbs meter.                                 told me the uncertainty is like an old      similar to what I have just described.
      Now imagine if you will, you are       troubling memory, poorly hidden             Be at peace, my friend. On this ball of
working in your hangar and a Fed             somewhere in the back of one’s mind.        dust we are not granted the power to
shows up, takes you aside, and quiet-             But even the deepest buried,           change the past, but we can influence
ly tells you that an airplane you worked     scabbed over, nagging doubt can             the future. Talk to other mechanics or
on six months ago was involved in a          come roaring back into one’s life           friends or a counselor about what you
fatal accident. While that bit of horrify-   when the memory is triggered by a           feel, get it off your chest. But if you feel
ing news is slowly sinking in, the FAA       visual cue. It can happen as simply as      uncomfortable about talking about this
inspector then asks you if he/she could      looking over one’s shoulder and see-        to your friends or peers, give me a call.
see the work order for the aircraft in       ing a similar make and model aircraft       Just say when I pick up the phone that
question.                                    as the fatal taxi up to the hangar door.    you want to talk about a Big Deal. I will
      Despite a well-deserved reputation     These flashbacks give a mechanic a          not ask for your name or where you are
mechanics have for being stoic individ-      small taste of hell, and hell, my           calling from, it will be a conversation
uals in a very demanding career field,       friends, is a thing to avoid. And that is   between two mechanics who have
when the work order is handed over,          why, pilots, mechanics consider it a        shared a similar experience.              3
no mechanic has ever failed to ask me        Big Deal that pilots who work on air-
in a low, strained voice, “Do you know       craft should follow the rules and                Bill O’Brien is an Airworthiness
what went wrong?” I usually can’t            record that work.                           Aviation Safety Inspector in Flight
answer him right away. I heard his                So, in the interest of safety and my   Standards at FAA headquarters in
question just fine, but it’s the haunted     sworn duty to explain and defend the        Washington, DC. He can be reached
eyes that steal my attention. Those          Federal Aviation Regulations, I have        at (202) 267-3796.
eyes are screaming at me, “Did I make
a mistake? Did I kill those people?”
      Many times with the help of eye-
witnesses, I garnered enough facts to
indicate that the pilot did perform addi-
tional maintenance on the aircraft. But
since the pilot never recorded anything
in the logbook, we never know what
work was actually done. So we have
an unknown. Other times the investi-
gation determined that the aircraft was
operated for a considerable number of
hours so the accident might be caused
by an operational incident like a hard
landing, high G loading, or damage
caused by something as simple as
hangar rash on a wing. So the trigger-
ing factor that caused maintenance-

                                                                                    JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2001                        5
     Here is the definitive word on the regulations which permit pilot to perform maintenance.

     For aircraft operated under FAR Part 91 with a FAA Standard Airworthiness Certificate:

     1. Private pilots or higher are permitted by Part 43 (Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding, and
        Alterations) section 43.3(g) of the Federal Aviation Regulations to only perform “preventive” maintenance on
        any aircraft owned by or operated by that pilot and not used under Parts 121, 127, 129, and 135.

     2. Part 1 defines “Preventive Maintenance” as simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of
        small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations.

     3. Thirty-two preventive maintenance job functions are identified in appendix A of Part 43.

     4. Pilots, like mechanics, are required to be trained to perform the preventive maintenance tasks before accom-
        plishing the tasks alone.

     5. Private pilots or higher are required by section 43.7 to approve an aircraft for return to service after preventive
        maintenance is performed.

     6. The approval for return to service logbook entry for preventive maintenance must have the following informa-
        tion to comply with section 43.9:
        • Date of completion of work
        • Description of work performed
        • Data used to perform the work
        • Signature and certificate number of the pilot approving the aircraft for return to service. Sample entry
             should read as follows:

              Powerplant Logbook for Swiftfire 200 N2195T

              November 30, 2000, Tach 2445.7 hours.
              Drained oil and replaced with 8 quarts of (name brand of oil). Removed oil filter and
              replaced with a new (name brand of) oil filter and safetied. Cleaned spark plugs and
              regapped and installed new spark plug gaskets. Spark plugs installed using recommended
              torque. Spark plug leads secured. Replaced air filter with a new (name brand of) filter. All
              work done in accordance with current Swiftfire 200, and (name engine make and model)
              current maintenance and parts manuals. Operational run-up and leak check okay.

                  Patrick Poteen, Private Pilot
                  Certificate #180359122

     7. The pilot’s name and certificate number constitutes an “approval for return to service statement” only for the
        preventive maintenance work performed. [ref: section 43.13(a(4)]

6   FAA Aviation News
    8. The performance standard for quality of work the pilot must meet is found in section 43.12,
       Performance rules. The standards are:
       • Use the methods, techniques, and practices found in the current manufacturer’s maintenance
           manual or instructions for continued airworthiness.
       • Use the recommended tools, equipment, and test equipment to accomplish the work in accor-
           dance with standard industry practices.
       • If special tools are required to perform a task, then that tool or its equivalent must be used to
           accomplish that task.
       • The work performed must be of such a quality that the condition of the part worked on is equal
           to the original or properly altered condition.


    The pilot is required by section 21.303 of the Federal Aviation Regulations to use replacement parts pro-
duced by the manufacturer or parts produced under a Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) or Technical
Standard Order (TSO). The pilot can also use standard aviation parts such as aircraft hardware, safety wire,
etc. Do not use automotive or marine parts because these are considered suspected unapproved parts and
once installed on your aircraft the airworthiness certificate may not be valid.

     There is one other rule in Part 43 that is argumentatively the most important rule in the entire part. The
rule is section 43.12 (Maintenance records, falsification, reproduction, or alteration). Paraphrasing the rule
language, the rule prohibits any individual from making a fraudulent or intentionally false entry in any required
aircraft maintenance record. The rule also prohibits the alteration or reproduction of aviation records for
fraudulent purpose. If a pilot is found guilty of violating section 43.12, his/her pilot certificate can be sus-
pended or revoked by the FAA.

    Any questions? Please contact your nearest FSDO or call Bill O’Brien at (202) 267-3796.

                                                                           JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2001                    7
        Chemicals in the
        Aviation Workplace
        by Flight Safety Foundation Editorial Staff

     Editor’s Note:                        ids, coolants, and fuels.                 ate, goggles, face masks, and respira-
                                               Inappropriate exposure to or inges-   tors should be worn to reduce the
    The following article is being         tion of toxic substances may lead to      probability of exposure or inhalation.
reprinted with permission from the         illness or injury, ranging from short-
Flight Safety Foundation’s July-August     term effects such as headache, short-     Acetone
1997 “Aviation Mechanics Bulletin.”        ness of breath, and dizziness to paral-
The information is being provided as a     ysis, kidney failure, cardiovascular          Acetone is a clear, colorless,
general over view of some of the           disease, blindness, respiratory ail-      volatile liquid with a sweet odor. It is
chemicals aviation workers may be ex-      ments, and even death.                    used as a solvent in many aviation ap-
posed to while working on or around            Reactions to a particular chemical    plications. Individual products may
aircraft. By printing the article, FAA     may vary, depending on the duration       refer to acetone as dimethyl ketone,
Aviation News magazine makes no            of exposure, dosage, personal factors     methyl ketone, 2-propane, or beta-ke-
claims as to the accuracy of the infor-    (for example, those who are asth-         topropane. Upon exposure, acetone
mation, terminology used, or the           matic, have heart trouble, or smoke       enters the bloodstream and is circu-
statements made in the article. The        tobacco), type of exposure (by breath-    lated throughout the body. Limited
important role FAA and the U.S. Oc-        ing or physical contact), whether ex-     exposure is generally not injurious be-
cupational Safety and Health Adminis-      posure was to more than one chemi-        cause the liver is capable of turning
tration (OSHA) play in the workplace       cal, and how quickly and effectively      small amounts of acetone into harm-
are not addressed in the article. FAA      action is taken to counteract the         less byproducts. Larger concentra-
Aviation News is printing the article to   toxin’s effects. Among the most           tions are more serious. Breathing
remind everyone that each person has       widely encountered hazardous chemi-       moderate to high levels of acetone for
a responsibility for his or her own        cals in aviation maintenance facilities   even a short time can cause nose,
safety when working with any type of       are acetone, ammonia, asbestos, car-      throat, lung, and eye irritation; short-
chemical on or around an aircraft.         bon monoxide, chlorofluorocarbon          ening of the female menstrual cycle;
Each worker needs to know, under-          113 (CFC-113), ethylene glycol, meth-     headaches; light-headedness; confu-
stand, and follow the safety issues        ylene chloride, and methyl ethyl ke-      sion; increased pulse rate; nausea;
and safe handling procedures pub-          tone (MEK). Below is a brief descrip-     vomiting; unconsciousness; and
lished for using any type of chemical.     tion of each of these chemicals, along    coma. Physical contact with acetone
This article is a reminder of that re-     with general symptoms from exposure       does not cause skin cancer; no deter-
sponsibility.                              and first-aid action.                     mination has been made if breathing
                                               As a general rule, prompt profes-     acetone for long periods will lead to

         viation maintenance facilities    sional medical attention should be ob-    other forms of cancer.
         use a number of substances        tained any time a person is inappropri-       Medical tests (breath, blood, or
         containing chemicals that         ately exposed to a hazardous              urine samples) to confirm exposure to
         regulatory agencies have la-      chemical. Workers should not wear         acetone are available, but these tests
beled as toxic. These include sol-         contact lenses when working with          must be performed within two days
vents, cleaning agents, hydraulic flu-     hazardous chemicals; where appropri-      after exposure because acetone is

 8      FAA Aviation News
naturally flushed from the body after      skin, and the length of time that           of breath upon exertion, may not ap-
that time.                                 passes before the area is flushed with      pear for seven to 30 years after expo-
                                           water.                                      sure. The risk of lung cancer for to-
Acetone First Aid                             Ammonia reacts violently with, and       bacco smokers who have been
                                           should be stored away from, strong          exposed to asbestos is 92 times
   • Eyes: If acetone comes in con-        oxidizers, chlorine, bromine, acids,        higher than for smokers who have not
     tact with the eyes, they should       gold, silver, calcium, and hypochlorite     been exposed.
     be irrigated immediately with         bleaches.                                      In the United States and in other
     large amounts of water, occa-                                                     countries, there are several require-
     sionally lifting the lower and        Ammonia First Aid                           ments for the handling and storage of
     upper lids to further remove the                                                  asbestos, including:
     chemical.                                • Eyes: If ammonia contacts the
   • Skin: Skin contaminated with               eyes, they should be irrigated            1. Advanced training must be pro-
     acetone should be washed im-               immediately with water for 15                vided for personnel who are to
     mediately with soap and water.             minutes, holding the eyelids                 handle asbestos;
     If clothing has become contami-            open and away from the eye-               2. A regulated, marked, enclosed,
     nated with acetone, the clothing           balls. Speed and thoroughness                isolated area must be estab-
     should be removed and the skin             are very important.                          lished for asbestos storage and
     underneath should be washed              • Skin: Skin contaminated with                 handling;
     with soap and water.                       ammonia should immediately be             3. The asbestos must be kept wet
   • Inhalation: A person who has               flushed with water. If ammonia               with special surfactant and
     inhaled acetone vapor should               penetrates the clothing, it                  water while handling; and
     be moved immediately into fresh            should be removed and the skin            4. Local exhaust ventilation with
     air. If breathing has stopped,             underneath should be flushed                 negative pressure air filtration
     mouth-to-mouth resuscitation               with water. Ointment should not              and high-efficiency particulate
     should be performed. The af-               be applied to ammonia burns;                 filters must be used in areas of
     fected person should be kept               burned areas should not be                   asbestos removal.
     warm and at rest, and medical              rubbed.
     attention obtained immediately.          • Inhalation: A person who               Asbestos First Aid
   • Ingestion: Immediate medical               breathes large amounts of am-
     attention should be obtained.              monia should be moved imme-                Because there are virtually no
                                                diately into fresh air. If breathing   symptoms evident at the time of expo-
Ammonia                                         has stopped, mouth-to-mouth            sure to asbestos, there are no first aid
                                                resuscitation should be per-           recommendations.
    Ammonia is used in the aviation in-         formed. Oxygen may be admin-               Nevertheless, certain preventive
dustry as a cleaning agent, particularly        istered. The affected person           and surveillance measures should be
in fuel cells. Its noxious fumes, which         should be kept warm and at             taken in the aviation workplace. Care
can be severe eye irritants should pro-         rest.                                  should be used in handling compo-
vide a warning of exposure. When in-          • Ingestion: Vomiting should not         nents containing asbestos. Where
haled, ammonia irritates the mouth,             be induced. A glass of milk or         materials containing asbestos are
nose, throat, and lungs. Continued              water should be given to the af-       present, periodic sampling and analy-
exposure by breathing can lead to               fected person to drink.                sis for airborne asbestos should be
headaches, loss of the sense of smell,                                                 conducted to ensure that particulate
and vomiting. The most severe effect           If symptoms of exposure to ammo-        levels remain within safe minimums.
of ammonia inhalation is a buildup of      nia persist, immediate medical atten-
fluid in the lungs that can lead to suf-   tion should be sought.                      Carbon Monoxide
focation and death.
    A person exposed to high levels of     Asbestos                                        Carbon monoxide (CO) has been
ammonia should be kept under obser-                                                    described as one of the most com-
vation by medical personnel for at              Asbestos, which primarily affects      mon industrial hazards and is also a
least three days, because the buildup      the lungs, may be found in aviation         danger to those in aviation mainte-
of fluid in the lungs might cause a de-    brake linings, electrical insulation, and   nance. The U.S. National Institute of
layed reaction.                            friction components. It is classified as    Occupational Safety and Health
    Skin contact with ammonia causes       a carcinogen. Few or no symptoms            (NIOSH) reports that several workers
burns, the severity of which depends       are evident at the time of exposure.        have died in or near refueling trucks as
on the concentration of the ammonia        Asbestosis, a disease that manifests        a result of CO poisoning.
solution, the moisture content of the      as scarring of the lungs and shortness          When inhaled, CO takes the place

                                                                                  JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2001                     9
of oxygen in the bloodstream, reduc-         Wiring a ventilation fan to operate      edness, and unconsciousness. Heavy
ing the supply of oxygen to the body’s    whenever the engine is running will         concentrations can cause death by
cells. CO is colorless, odorless and      usually build positive pressure in a        cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat)
tasteless, properties that make it par-   closed cab, minimizing in-seepage of        or asphyxiation in as little as one
ticularly difficult to detect.            CO. But NIOSH cautions that there           minute.
    One of the characteristic signs of    are circumstances in which such an              Training of maintenance personnel
CO poisoning is a cherry-red color of     arrangement might draw CO into the          should include the hazards of working
the skin and lips. Any of the following   vehicle. Workers in enclosed areas          with CFC and should provide instruc-
symptoms can signal moderate CO           should be alert to ventilation prob-        tion on the use of supplied-air respira-
poisoning: headaches, tightness           lems, and, if CO poisoning is sus-          tors (SAR) or a self-contained breath-
across the chest, nausea, drowsiness,     pected, they should vacate the area         ing apparatus (SCBA). There is no
inattention, or fatigue. If exposure      immediately.                                known antidote to CFC exposure nor
continues, a lack of coordination,                                                    are there any laboratory tests to con-
weakness, or confusion may develop.       Carbon Monoxide First Aid                   firm whether an individual has been
Breathing high concentrations of CO                                                   exposed.
can lead to unconsciousness, even            • In mild CO poisoning, half of the          Asthmatics are particularly cau-
before other symptoms are evident,             CO accumulated in the body will        tioned against CFC exposure. Taking
and can kill in minutes.                       be eliminated in four hours or         epinephrine,          norepinephrine,
    Because CO remains in the blood            five hours of breathing CO-free        dopamine, isoporteranol, and medica-
for several days, a gradual increase           air.                                   tions containing catecholamines in-
in the level of CO in the body may           • A person who has inhaled large         creases an asthmatic’s risk of CFC
occur. The health hazards of CO ex-            amounts of CO should be                poisoning. Exposure to CFC will also
posure are increased for individuals           moved into fresh air at once. If       aggravate existing cardiovascular dis-
who smoke tobacco or have heart                breathing has stopped, mouth-          ease (involving the heart and blood
damage.                                        to-mouth resuscitation should          vessels).
    To reduce workers’ exposure to             be performed. The affected                 CFC are being phased out
CO while operating equipment,                  person should be kept warm             throughout the world as commercially
NIOSH recommends the use of diesel-            and at rest. In severe cases,          practicable alternatives have been de-
powered equipment. A diesel engine             the affected person should be          veloped. Preventative workplace
generates less CO than a gasoline en-          given 100-percent oxygen to            measures should include the provision
gine, and the strong odor of diesel ex-        breathe.                               of adequate ventilation and exhaust
haust provides a more pronounced                                                      systems and the avoidance of CFC
warning of possible CO presence.          Chlorofluorocarbon                          use in closed spaces.
    Also important is the proper main-
tenance of all vehicles to prevent CO         Chlorofluorocarbon 113 (CFC-113)        CFC First Aid
from entering the cab while the engine    is used primarily in aircraft mainte-
is running. These measures include:       nance for cleaning of metals and elec-         • Eyes: If CFC come in contact
                                          tronic assemblies. Smaller quantities            with the eyes, the eyes should
   • Fit tight rubber boots around        are used in aerosol propellants, coat-           be irrigated immediately with
     pedals and levers in the vehicle     ings, adhesives, thermal stressing (to           water for at least 15 minutes,
     cab.                                 locate faulty components in failed               occasionally lifting the lower and
   • Put snug-fitting grommets in         electronic circuit boards), as a diluting        upper lids.
     holes through the firewall;          agent, and as a lubricant carrier.             • Skin: Contaminated skin should
   • Close rust holes in the cab floor    CFC’s are commonly referred to by the            be washed with soap and water.
     pans or elsewhere;                   trade names Freon 113®, Genetron               • Inhalation: The health hazard
   • Ensure that heater and fresh air     113®, Halocarbon 113®, or Refriger-              from inhalation of CFC’s is
     intakes are remote from the ex-      ant 113®, or generically as 1,1,2                acute. A person who has
     haust discharge;                     trichloro- 1,2,2 trifluoroethane fluoro-         breathed a large amount of
   • Check regularly for leaks in ex-     carbons.                                         CFC’s should be moved into
     haust system components;                 CFC’s are noncombustible, color-             fresh air at once. If breathing
   • Tighten or replace components        less, nearly odorless, and have only             has stopped, mouth-to-mouth
     to stop leaks; and,                  slight irritant effects on the skin. CFC         resuscitation should be per-
   • Provide vehicle cabs with con-       have a relatively low toxicity in low            formed. Oxygen should be
     tinuous CO monitors, including       concentrations, which can create the             given. The affected person
     alarms to warn operators before      misconception that CFC’s are safe.               should be kept warm and at
     concentrations of CO reach               Symptoms of inhalation exposure              rest. Immediate medical atten-
     dangerous levels.                    to CFC include dizziness, light-head-            tion should be obtained.

10 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
   • Ingestion: Ingestion is not con-       major medical problems. Neverthe-              movements. Other symptoms of se-
     sidered a route of entry for           less, the cleaning of closed, unventi-         vere exposure include dizziness, nau-
     CFC’s.                                 lated fuel tanks can expose an indi-           sea, tingling, and numbness in the
                                            vidual (through inhalation) to                 fingers and toes. In most cases,
Ethylene Glycol                             concentrated levels of fumes. Reac-            these effects stop shortly after expo-
                                            tions include slurred speech, blurred          sure ends. Methylene chloride is a
     Ethylene glycol is a colorless,        vision, headache, drowsiness, and              carcinogen, and smokers are at in-
slightly viscous liquid with a mild odor.   dizziness. In the most severe cases,           creased risk to the effects of expo-
It is used mainly as a coolant and air-     long-term exposure to jet fuel or avia-        sure to methylene chloride.
craft deicing agent, but is also found      tion gas vapors has caused deaths
in paints and hydraulic fluids. Ethylene    from suffocation.                              Methylene Chloride First Aid
glycol is not an inhalation hazard, un-
less it is heated and vapors form; it is    Fuels First Aid                                   • Eyes: If methylene chloride
not toxic, unless it is ingested.                                                               contacts the eyes, the eyes
     There are three stages of toxic ex-       • Eyes: If fuel contacts the eyes,               should immediately be irrigated
posure to ethylene glycol. Stage I oc-           they should immediately be irri-               with water for at least 15 min-
curs up to 12 hours after exposure;              gated with large amounts of                    utes, occasionally lifting the
the individual may appear inebriated,            water, occasionally lifting the                lower and upper lids.
drowsy, dizzy, or unable to coordinate           lower and upper lids.                        • Skin: Skin exposed to methyl-
voluntary muscle movements. Stage II           • Skin: Skin contaminated with                   ene chloride should promptly be
occurs 12 hours to 24 hours after ex-            fuel should immediately be                     washed with soap and water. If
posure and can lead to heart arrhyth-            flushed with water. If liquid fuel             the methylene chloride pene-
mia or congestive heart failure. In              penetrates the clothing, it                    trates the clothing, it should be
Stage III, which begins 24 hours after           should be removed and the skin                 removed and the skin under-
exposure, kidney failure is a possible           underneath flushed with water.                 neath washed with soap and
outcome.                                       • Inhalation: A person who                       water.
                                                 breathes large amounts of fuel               • Inhalation: A person who has
Ethylene Glycol First Aid                        fumes should be moved to fresh                 inhaled large amounts of meth-
                                                 air at once. If breathing has                  ylene chloride should be moved
   • Eyes: If ethylene glycol contacts           stopped, mouth-to-mouth re-                    into fresh air at once. If breath-
     the eyes, they should immedi-               suscitation should be per-                     ing has stopped, mouth-to-
     ately be irrigated with large               formed. The affected person                    mouth resuscitation should be
     amounts of water, occasionally              should be kept warm and at                     performed. The affected person
     lifting the lower and upper lids.           rest.                                          should be kept warm and at
   • Skin: Skin contaminated with              • Ingestion: Immediate medical                   rest.
     ethylene glycol should immedi-              attention should be obtained,                • Ingestion: Immediate medical
     ately be flushed with water. If                                                            attention should be obtained.
     ethylene glycol penetrates the         Methylene Chloride
     clothing, it should be removed                                                        Methylethyl Ketone
     and the skin underneath flushed             Methylene chloride is used as a
     with water.                            solvent in paint strippers and degreas-             Methylethyl ketone (MEK) is used
   • Inhalation: A person who               ing agents, as a propellant in aerosols        in aviation maintenance facilities as a
     breathes large amounts of ethyl-       and in metal cleaning and finishing. A         solvent, primarily in paints and glues.
     ene glycol vapors should be            colorless liquid with a mild sweet odor,       The EPA has labeled it the “single
     moved into fresh air at once. If       it is also known as dichloromethane.           most widely used hazardous air pollu-
     breathing has stopped, mouth-          Upon skin contact, methylene chloride          tant in aerospace applications.” Nev-
     to-mouth resuscitation should          causes intense burning and mild skin           ertheless, it is not considered particu-
     be performed. The affected             redness.                                       larly toxic unless there is exposure to a
     person should be kept warm                  People differ in their ability to smell   very high concentration for an ex-
     and at rest.                           methylene chloride, so it is possible          tended period. Also known as 2-bu-
   • Ingestion: Immediate medical           to be unknowingly exposed. Symp-               tanone, MEK is a colorless, flammable
     attention should be obtained.          toms of low exposure are slightly im-          liquid with a sharp, sweet odor that is
                                            paired hearing and vision. At higher           similar to that of acetone.
Fuels                                       levels of exposure, methylene chlo-                 In the aviation industry, the most
                                            ride acts like an anesthetic, reducing         common exposure to MEK is by
  Jet fuel (kerosene) and aviation          one’s ability to remain steady or per-         breathing its fumes, which cause mild
gasoline may not appear to pose             form tasks that require precise hand           irritation to the eyes, nose, and

                                                                                      J A N U A R Y / F E B R U A R Y 2 0 0 1 11
throat. Skin contact can lead to dry-        tetrachloroethylene, toluene, toluene               ing the MSDS;
ing, scaling, and cracking. Mild ex-         diisocyanate, and xylene.                       • Describes how employees can
posure may also manifest in                       In the United States, the U.S. Oc-             obtain access to the MSDS
headache, dizziness, incoordination,         cupational Safety and Health Adminis-               when employees are in their
nausea, and vomiting. High levels of         tration (OSHA) requires manufacturers               work areas;
exposure to MEK, though not com-             of toxic chemicals to issue a material          • Describes how the MSDS are to
mon, can cause depression of the             safety data sheet (MSDS) for each                   be maintained (in notebooks or
central nervous system, coma, and            chemical. The MSDS describes first                  in a computer terminal);
death. MEK has not been classified           aid, storage, handling, transportation,         • Outlines procedures to follow
as a human carcinogen.                       firefighting, and spill and disposal pro-           when MSDS are not received at
                                             cedures for that chemical.                          the time of the first shipment;
MEK First Aid                                     OSHA’s Hazard Communication                    and,
                                             Standard (HCS) requires that manu-              • Describes alternatives to MSDS
   • Eyes: If MEK contacts the eyes,         facturers, importers, or distributors of            in the workplace.
     the eyes should immediately be          hazardous chemicals or products sup-            The HCS says that employees
     irrigated with water for at least       ply a copy of the appropriate MSDS to       “who may be ‘exposed’ to hazardous
     15 minutes, occasionally lifting        their customers. MSDS are to be pro-        chemicals when working must be pro-
     the lower and upper lids.               vided automatically, and it is the re-      vided information and training prior to
   • Skin: Skin contaminated with            sponsibility of the producers and im-       their initial assignments...and when-
     MEK should be washed                    porters of the material—not the             ever the hazard changes.” Exposure
     promptly with soap and water.           persons who receive their products—         can be through any route of entry (in-
     If MEK penetrates the clothing,         to make the hazard determination.           halation, ingestion, skin contact, eye
     the clothing should be removed          Further, the supplier is required to up-    contact).
     and the skin under neath                date the MSDS with the next ship-               It is the responsibility of OSHA
     washed with soap and water.             ment, if new and significant informa-       compliance officers to determine “if
   • Inhalation: A person who has            tion about the hazards of a particular      [the employees] have received train-
     inhaled a large amount of MEK           chemical have come to light.                ing, if they know [whether] they are ex-
     should be moved into fresh air               The HCS directs the employer to        posed to hazardous chemicals, and if
     at once. If the person is uncon-        maintain copies of the MSDS for each        they know where to obtain substance-
     scious, cardiopulmonary resus-          hazardous chemical or product. It           specific information on labels and
     citation (CPR) may be neces-            also requires that MSDS be readily ac-      MSDS,” according to OSHA.
     sary. Oxygen may also be                cessible to employees in their work             The following checklist will help an
     given.                                  areas. These MSDS may be main-              organization determine whether it is in
   • Ingestion: The affected person          tained on computer, microfiche, or          compliance with HCS directives. The
     should be given two glasses of          other alternatives to paper copies as       organization should have:
     water to drink, with an emetic          long as there are no barriers to imme-
     (an agent that induces vomiting),       diate employee access.                         • Obtained a copy of the rules
     if possible. Liquids should not              OSHA says that the HCS “covers              from HCS;
     be given if the affected person is      chemicals in all physical forms—liq-           • Read and understood the re-
     unconscious.                            uids, solids, gases, vapors, fumes,              quirements;
                                             and mists—whether they are ‘con-               • Assigned responsibility for
    Those who work in maintenance            tained’ or not. The hazardous nature             tasks;
facilities servicing agricultural aircraft   of the chemical and the potential for          • Prepared an inventory of chemi-
should also be aware of the hazards          exposure are the factors that deter-             cals;
of pesticides and insecticides. Gen-         mine whether a chemical is covered             • Ensured that containers are la-
eral information on handling and             [by the HCS].” If it is not hazardous or         beled;
storage of these chemicals is also           if there is no potential for exposure,         • Obtained the MSDS for each
provided by special interest groups          the chemical is not covered by HCS.              chemical;
such as the American Crop Protec-                 In the United States, proper em-          • Made MSDS available to work-
tion Association.                            ployee access to the current MSDS                ers;
    Many other hazardous chemicals           for each chemical in the workplace is          • Conducted training of workers;
are found in the aviation maintenance        a critical step in HCS compliance.             • Prepared a written program;
workplace. These include, but are not        The company should have a written              • Established procedures to main-
limited to, cadmium, chromium,               program that:                                    tain a current program; and
cyanide, lead, mercury, phenol, phos-                                                       • E s t a b l i s h e d p ro c e d u re s t o
phoric acid, trichloroethylene, tricre-         • Designates a person responsi-               evaluate the program’s effec-
sylphosphate (TCP), sulfuric acid,                ble for obtaining and maintain-             tiveness.                               3

12 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
    Cessna Fatal Spin Accident
    Based upon a fatal Canadian spin training accident, the FAA’s Aircraft Certification Office (ACO) in
    Wichita, KS, asked that the following article be published. The ACO coordinated this information with
    Canadian Aviation Authorities. It is being published without editing by the FAA Aviation News staff.

        his report was submitted for         tributed to the conditions that allowed          the pedals, torque tube cable
        publication by the FAA Aircraft      the rudder to jam. Recovery from a               arms, and the return spring arm
        Certification Office, ACE-           spin may not be possible with the rud-           with the surrounding structure
        118W, located in W ichita,           der jammed beyond the normal rudder              or other control system compo-
Kansas.                                      travel stop limits.                              nents (the accident aircraft
     Alert to owner/operators of                  To prevent reoccurrence of the              showed signs of rudder cable
Cessna Model 150 and 152 series air-         rudder jamming in this way, the                  attachment bolt interference
planes manufactured after 1966:              Cessna Aircraft company is currently in          with the adjacent aileron cable
     In 1998, a Cessna Model 152 was         the process of investigating possible            pulley).
involved in a fatal stall/spin accident. A   design changes to the rudder stops.
flight instructor and student pilot were     [Editor’s Note: As off-the-shelf parts         • The condition of the rudder horn
performing a spin maneuver and were          would not do what they needed,                   stop plate. The stop plate
unable to recover. When the aircraft         Cessna was forced to design new                  should contact the stop bolt
involved in the accident was inspect-        parts and expects to have them in                head squarely. The lip at the
ed, investigators found the rudder to        stock and a Service Bulletin issued to           forward edge of the stop plate
be jammed. During a 50-hour check            the field by January 2001.]                      should not contact the stop bolt
the day before the accident, the right            With or without these design                head prior to contact with the
pedal rudder bar return spring and its       changes, operators/maintenance                   contact face of the plate.
lever arm were found to be broken.           personnel should be aware of the                 Ensure the integrity of the stop
These broken pieces of the rudder            importance of maintaining integrity              plate lip.
control system were removed without          of the rudder control system, includ-
replacement. On completion of the            ing the pedal return springs. A                • Correct rigging of the rudder
50-hour checks, the airplane was             number of important items to keep                control system, including:
returned to service with no reference to     in mind while inspecting the rudder
the outstanding defect recorded in the       control system are:                              •   Proper adjustment of the
logbook.                                                                                          rudder travel stop bolts.
     Accident investigators, after exam-         • The condition of the rudder                •   Correct adjustment of rud-
ining the accident aircraft and other              structure (no damage or distor-                der cable length (to provide
152’s (swept-tail 150’s have the same              tion—especially in the area of                 correct rudder pedal posi-
design of rudder control system), have             rudder horn attachment).                       tion and correct cable ten-
determined that, under certain condi-                                                             sion through return spring
tions, it is possible to jam the rudder          • The condition of the rudder horn               tension).
past its normal travel limit. The jam              (A number of in service rudder             •   Proper nose gear steering
occurs when the stop plate on the rud-             horns have been found bent or                  tube (bungee) length
der horn is forced aft of the stop bolt            distorted, thus not allowing the
head. The forward edge of the stop                 stop plate to contact the stop           As described above, even small
plate can then become lodged under                 bolt head squarely or allowing       deviations can contribute to tragedy.
the head of the stop bolt causing the              the stop plate to contact the
rudder to jam in this over-travel posi-            side of the tailcone structure           The complete Transportation
tion.     The rudder control system                above or below the stop bolts).      Safety Board of Canada (TSB) safety
includes right and left pedal rudder bar                                                report is available on the Internet at
return springs, which maintain tension           • The condition of the rudder          <
on the rudder cables. Accident inves-              pedals and rudder pedal torque       1998/a98q0114/ea98q0114.html>.
tigators believe that the missing rudder           tubes. Check for free move-          The TSB’s report number is
pedal return spring, in addition to                ment of the rudder pedals, and       A98Q0114. The date of the accident
extreme rudder pedal inputs, con-                  verify there is no interference of   was July 18, 1998.                  5

                                                                                   J A N U A R Y / F E B R U A R Y 2 0 0 1 13
      A Long Time Ago
                                                  by Patricia Mattison

         nce upon a time, a long time       Canyon from dirt and rock to a verita-      walked and ate until the day was over.
         ago, there was a pilot who had     ble rainbow of color. A sight to be-        Now it was Monday; a carbon copy of
         just received a shiny new com-     hold, and what better way to start out      the first as was Tuesday. By Wednes-
         mercial pilot certificate. The     a New Year?                                 day, spouses back home were getting
ink was still wet on that certificate,            The flight to the Canyon went as      a little more than concerned. As a
when the pilot and a couple of friends      planned. No bumps, no weather to            matter of fact, they were getting down
decided to take a trip for business and     contend with, just all around beautiful.    right ornery.
pleasure. Plans for the trip included a     The pilot had a business in Tusayan              Questions such as, “When are
sight seeing venture over the Grand         and needed to check out the book-           you coming home?” “How long must
Canyon with a stop at the town of           keeping. One of the friends was soon        you wait?” “Why did you go?” were
Tusayan at the canyon’s rim. That           to be a pilot and came along for the        asked every time a call was made to a
was the business part of the trip.          experience. As a matter of fact, the        respective home. At this point even
     The aircraft of choice was a Piper     student pilot’s check ride was going to     the major air carriers had not been
Cherokee which the new commercial           take place the following week. The          able to get into the airport. So the
pilot owned. It was more than ade-          other friend had an interview with a        choice of taking a trip home on a big
quate and comfortable for the three of      prospective employer in Tusayan. As         bird was not an option. Finally, the
them and over night baggage on              soon as the airplane was on the             decision was made to return the next
board. The airplane had been on a           ground and after checking into the          day — no matter what.
lease back arrangement and was in           hotel, business was conducted. After             By Thursday morning, the snow
dire need of a little tender loving care,   all, that’s why the trip occurred in the    had stopped. The canyon had a
so a wash and wax job was in order.         first place.                                white blanket of snow that gave the
The attitude indicator gyro had been              The next morning, the flight home     area a dreamlike quality. It was
acting up showing a 10 degree turn to       was planned over breakfast. Both the        beautiful, made even more so by the
the left, even on level ground, and the     commercial pilot and the almost pilot       fact the sun was shining. The pilot
number two radio, both nav and com,         friend (APF for ease in writing) did the    called the Prescott FSS at six o’clock
worked when they felt like it. Aside        planning and worked the math for the        in the morning to get weather. The
from those two discrepancies, for a         return trip. The day began to look a        good news was that the weather
VFR flight the airplane was good to         bit cloudy, and soon an overcast took       was going to remain the same until
go. The pilot was not instrument            the place of scattered clouds. Both         later in the afternoon when it would
rated yet and so had to remain VFR          the pilot and APF had called the            start up right where it left off on
anyway.                                     Prescott flight service station (FSS)       Wednesday. So after a rushed pack-
     It was winter—January, as a mat-       earlier that morning.                       ing job and an even more rushed
ter of fact—and weather along the                 It was low overcast at the time of    breakfast, the trio set out for the air-
route, at the destination, and for the      the call, but it became obvious that        port with the intention of leaving that
return the next day was going to be         Prescott had not called Tusayan for         morning for home.
spectacular—cold and clear. Spirits         weather information. According to                Arriving at the airport the pilot
were high when the pilot and friends        FSS at Prescott, any weather that was       looked for the key to the airplane,
loaded the baggage compartment.             on the way to Tusayan was not sup-          where it had been placed several days
Conversation was all about the adven-       posed to arrive until much later that af-   ago, in the pocket of a well-worn
ture before them. And so the trip           ternoon. The canyon has been known          jacket reserved for flying. It wasn’t
began.                                      to create a lot of its own weather and      there. Nor was it in any of the bag-
     The afternoon flight departed from     so the pilot decided to wait it out and     gage. Nor in the car used while at the
Southern California. A purposeful act       try again later in the day. Then it         canyon. So a return trip was made to
designed to allow the friends to ob-        snowed. That was Sunday.                    the hotel to see if it had been over-
serve the glory of a sunset at the                On Sunday at the canyon, every-       looked. Nope, not there either. Pock-
Grand Canyon: The absolute pristine         thing—what little there is of it—closed     ets were searched again and again.
look of snow on the rim and the blaze       up tighter than a drum, and so they         Purses dumped out all to no avail.
of color as the sunset changed the          waited and talked and visited and           Back to the airplane to see if the key

14 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
had been dropped. No joy. One more                       as possible. The pilot had decided to        bly only a snow squall.” The sur-
look in the jacket pocket and—lo and                     level off at 7,500 feet because the          rounding territory in that area was
behold—there was the key. Whew, a                        clouds were at 10,000 feet and the           mountainous, of this the pilot was
sign of relief came from the trio. Now                   terrain was going to drop off as they        quite sure. The pilot had made this
to preflight and file the flight plan.                   approached Prescott.                         trip many times before and was inti-
        The pilot had not filed a flight plan                  Looking towards Prescott, after        mately aware of the terrain surround-
earlier, thinking that the job could be                  leveling off, a strange sight came into      ing the canyon.
done after the preflight. However, by                    view. “What’s that ahead,” asked the               Plotting their position on the chart
then the phone lines were busy to                        pilot of the APF.                            placed them precariously close to
Prescott FSS. It was now about 10                              “I don’t know,” said the APF. “I’ve    those mountains. On the top of the
o’clock. “To heck with it,” thought the                  never seen anything like it before, I        mountains were enormous high-ten-
pilot, “I’ll file inflight.” So the baggage              don’t know what to think of that.            sion power lines that supplied power
was loaded and the anxious group                         Maybe it’s blowing dust or some-             to Flagstaff from Lake Mead. By now
climbed aboard the airplane for the                      thing.”                                      you are probably wondering what the
trip home.                                                     The rolling cloud appeared to be       rear seat passenger is doing all this
        “Clear,” shouted the pilot and,                  approaching the canyon from the              time. Aside from questioning if living
turning the key, tried to start the en-                  south. “I think I’ll forget going to         for much longer was an option, the
gine. A pitiful sound emitted from                       Prescott and return to Grand Canyon          passenger was looking down at the
the engine, rather like a groan, fol-                    Airport,” the pilot decided.                 trees, which were rapidly rising to
lowed by a whimper. “Try again,”                               “Why don’t you tur n toward            meet the airplane’s belly.
thought the pilot. This time it was                      Peach Springs VOR and we’ll go to                  The little airplane had a covering
weaker still. It would hardly turn                       Kingman and close the door,” offered         of ice that had accumulated so quickly
over at all. So the pilot had a friend                   the APF.                                     it seemed impossible. Ice on the prop
turn the prop to loosen the oil, then                          It looked clear, but overcast, off     was breaking off hitting the tail with a
tried again to start the airplane. Fi-                   toward the Kingman area. No snow             terrible clatter. Because of the weight
nally after much coaxing and about                       or anything, so the pilot turned toward      of the snow and the loss of lift on the
a half an hour of trying, the little en-                 the Peach Springs VOR. It was a re-          wings, maintaining altitude was begin-
gine finally fired up. Cold, thick Cal-                  ally low overcast along the route. The       ning to be a problem.
i f o r n i a o i l a t t h e b e l o w f re e z i n g   clouds seemed to be descending                     Ice and snow covered the win-
canyon hadn’t helped the situation.                      even further.                                dows, all except for a small space at
        The runway was covered with                            “It’s sure getting dark. I think       the pilot’s side window and a circle on
snow at the non-towered airport, but                     we’re returning to Grand Canyon,”            the front windscreen where the
the taxiway had been plowed and was                      said the pilot. Just as the pilot began      heater/defroster cleared the ice. Not
being used as a runway. The airport                      a turn toward the Canyon, there was a        being able to see very far down the
was at 6,606 feet and the air was                        flake of snow, followed by a few more.       wings, the pilot realized that there was
cold. Actually, it was below freezing.                   Then the sky opened up and, faster           probably an ice accumulation. Hoping
The plan was to fly to Prescott; and                     than you can imagine, visibility went to     that the wing wouldn’t stall, the pilot
then to Phoenix, where it was warm,                      zero.                                        started a shallow turn to the left to re-
to have lunch with some friends; then                          The pilot leveled the airplane’s       turn toward Grand Canyon and away
on to California. And, of course to file                 wings after a moment of panic and            from the mountains.
a flight plan as soon as Prescott could                  tried to think of what to do next. Con-            Just as the pilot began to bank
be reached by radio.                                     sider the chain of events so far, if you     left, a momentary clearing revealed the
        Immediately after the airplane                   will. No flight plan was filed so no-        mountain peak with power lines at eye
rotated into the cold air, the door                      body knew where they were. The               level less than a city block away—im-
popped open with a blast of freez-                       door was open; snow and wind were            minent disaster straight ahead.
ing air. “What next,” said the pilot.                    blowing in making the cockpit a se-                “What are you doing?” shouted
“I’ll go around and land and close                       verely cold nightmare. No winter sur-        the APF, “You can go ahead and get
the door.” The pilot had taken off                       vival gear was on board, not even            out of this.” Obviously, the APF had
the ubiquitous jacket and put it into                    heavy jackets, and, to top it all off, the   not seen the mountains or the power
the baggage compartment, now the                         pilot had no instrument rating. Even if      lines. With that said the APF began to
door was open and it was cold and                        the pilot had an instrument rating, the      change the only good radio to
windy in the airplane.                                   airplanes instruments were not all that      Flagstaff, which was behind several
        “No, let’s not,” said the APF, “let’s            they were supposed to be—only one            thousand foot high mountains.
go to Prescott and land there to close                   nav/com radio and an attitude indica-              “Keep your hands off my radios,”
the door.” The pilot agreed, albeit re-                  tor that lied.                               shouted the pilot, “I’m going to de-
luctantly, as the APF stuffed a jacket in                      The APF is saying in a small voice,    clare a mayday.”
the door and held the door as closed                     “Just go straight ahead, this is proba-            “Don’t shout at me,” scowled the

                                                                                                 J A N U A R Y / F E B R U A R Y 2 0 0 1 15
APF. “If you call a mayday we’ll get                     Canyon VOR in IMC conditions. We               chain that, if a link were broken early
into trouble.”                                           have ice accumulation and are not              on, need not lead to a potential acci-
      “We’re already in trouble,” said the               sure that we can make it back to               dent. The pilot and friends got a seri-
pilot in a trembling voice. “Now we                      Tusayan Airport.”                              ous case of get-home-itis. The pilot
need help.”                                                   “Roger, Cherokee 1234A, contact           allowed the APF to influence the out-
      With a sarcastic tone the APF said                 LA Center on frequency….”                      come of the flight by not exercising
“Boy! You’re scared, aren’t you.”                             Dialing up the frequency, the last        pilot in command responsibility. At the
      “No,” said the pilot, “I’m not                     thing in the pilot’s mind was getting in       first indication of trouble—the door
scared, I’m terrified.”                                  trouble. To the contrary, it was getting       coming open—the pilot should have
      The rear seat passenger, who up                    out of the trouble they were in at the         turned back. If that action had oc-
until now had been eerily quiet said, “I                 moment.                                        curred, the pilot would have seen the
think you had better try to get some                          “LA Center, this is Cherokee              approaching storm and stayed on the
altitude. There is a tree below with a                   1234A.”                                        ground.
squirrel in a branch that has a flea on                       “Cherokee 1234A, state your                    When the approaching roll
its back.”                                               present position and altitude.”                cloud of snow was seen and if it
      About that time the treetops                            “Cherokee 1234A is almost to              had been recognized for what it
began to brush the tires of the little air-              Supai Canyon inbound on Grand                  was, the pilot should have turned
plane. The pilot could see down a bit,                   Canyon 045 degree radial, at 7,000             back to the airport.
but not ahead at all. Below the air-                     feet, but I’m having trouble maintain-              At the first indication of snow,
plane was a dirt road that sliced                        ing altitude.”                                 while approaching Peach Springs
through the forest. A slight turn to the                      “Cherokee 1234A Squawk 7700               VOR, the pilot should have turned
left placed the airplane over the road                   and ident.”                                    back. The only thing that did have
and away from the trees, at least for                         “You are right where you thought          some bearing on the fact that the trio
the moment.                                              you were,” said the controller. “Con-          didn’t perish was that the pilot had
      “I can land on the road if I have                  tinue on present heading, you should           knowledge of the terrain and had an
to,” determined the pilot. “We would                     break out of the snow in about ten             idea of where they were in space.
be safe, but cold. What if I misjudge                    minutes. Once you are in the clear the         Then, the pilot called “ mayday,” de-
and crash? We will all freeze to death                   airport should be directly ahead of            spite what the APF—who didn’t have
if we survive,” the pilot thought. “No                   you.”                                          a clue—said about getting in trouble.
one knows where we are. I have to                             The pilot acknowledged the trans-         When in doubt, get help.
do something to get us out of this                       mission with a thankful reply.                      After landing at the airport the
mess I gotten us into.”                                       Head turned toward the window,            pilot had the urge to get down on bent
      Tuning the only good radio to                      the APF had been very quiet for the            knee and kiss the snowy ground.
121.5 in hopes of reaching                               past few minutes. The rear seat pas-           After tying the aircraft down and call-
Prescott FSS, the pilot attempted                        senger had not mumbled a word since            ing Prescott FSS for a serious discus-
c o n t a c t t o d e c l a re t h e i r p l i g h t .   the statement about the squirrel. The          sion, the trio bought tickets home on a
“Mayday, mayday, mayday,” the                            tip end of Supai Canyon passed                 commercial air carrier—the first into
distraught pilot announced into the                      below the wing as the plane flew to-           Tusiyan in almost a week. Seems that
m i c ro p h o n e . “ C h e ro k e e 1 2 3 4 A          wards safe haven. The wind was re-             the big boys are pretty smart folks.
mayday.” No answer.                                      ally blowing from the south at alti-                The pilot received a stern talking
      Again the pilot repeated the                       tude—all four hundred feet of it—as            to from the local FSDO’s Accident Pre-
mayday, only to be answered by si-                       the little plane crabbed into the wind         vention Specialist the next week and
lence. The pilot recalled that a flight                  to maintain the radial.                        was asked to write a letter describing
instructor had said that if you are                           Then as suddenly as it began,             the whole story to the FAA. (Yes, we
low, too low to be received by FSS,                      the sky was clear over the airport             know they are Safety Program Man-
to try to transmit through the near-                     and a ray of sunshine beamed down              agers now, but we did begin this arti-
est VOR. The pilot had tuned in the                      on the runway. The pilot thought,              cle with a long time ago.) Bet that the
Grand Canyon VOR and was track-                          “This is really very dramatic. I won-          pilot didn’t let a similar situation hap-
ing inbound on the 045 degree ra-                        der when the music from ‘The High              pen again. Live and learn they say—
dial. The pilot repeated the mayday                      and Mighty’ begins.”                           the important word is learn. Living in
call again using the Prescott radio                           Calling LA Center the pilot re-           this case was just because of pure
and Grand Canyon VOR frequency.                          ported field in sight and the reply was,       luck and a little help from friends at
      “Cherokee 1234A, state your                        “Well done. Now, after you land,               ATC and FSS.
emergency,” said the blessedly calm                      someone in Prescott FSS wants to                                  5
voice.                                                   talk to you.”                                       Patricia Mattison is the Safety
      “Cherokee 1234A is at 7,000 feet                        All’s well that ends well. Situa-         Program Manager at the Juneau (AK)
on the 045 degree radial of Grand                        tions like this start with a small link to a   Flight Standards District Office.

16 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
        Depression: A Recoverable Stall
                                               by Glenn R. Stoutt, Jr., M.D.

          irst, the bad news is that de-              Sometimes wanting to sleep or             Most of us have a happiness set
          pression is now so common                   lie down most of the day.            point just as we have a set point in
          that it is called “the common            • Pervasive feelings of sadness         weight or basal metabolism (the least
          cold of psychiatry.” Between                and grief, maybe leading to a        amount of energy required to maintain
10 and 20 million people in our privi-                feeling of helplessness. If it       vital functions in an organism at com-
leged and affluent country suffer from                progresses to hopelessness,          plete rest). But, things can add up
it to the degree that they need treat-                suicide is a major threat. If the    until we have “too much on our emo-
ment. Suffer is surely the proper                     patient mentions suicide, con-       tional plate.” Just as an aircraft can
word. One man in ten and one in four                  sider it a psychiatric emer-         stall from too great an angle of attack,
women will be affected (afflicted) by it              gency. Get help—fast. Suicide        too little power, too heavy a load, a
at some time during their lifetime.                   is the eighth cause of death in      person can develop a “mental stall.”
      Depression covers a huge spec-                  adults and is number three in        Most of our mood pattern and defi-
trum. It does not just refer to the days              adolescents and young adults,        nitely our tendency toward depression
when we feel “blue,” have the “blahs,”                both boys and girls.                 is hereditary. But, regardless of this,
or “down in the dumps.” Everyone                   • Noticeable change of appetite,        loss of a loved one, loss of a job, fi-
has days like this. The question to ask               usually decreased, with some         nancial problems, divorce, illness, al-
in evaluating depression is, “What is                 resulting weight loss.               coholism and drug abuse, unhappy
the degree of impairment in one’s life             • Irritability (this, more than sad-    marriages, and nowhere jobs can
that depression is causing?”                          ness, is the major symptom in        push a person into depression. This
      The American Psychiatric Associ-                children and adolescents.).          type of depression is called Exoge-
ation has clearly defined some of the              • Feelings of undeserved guilt,         nous Depression (caused from outside
cluster of symptoms that occur in clin-               worthlessness, or sinfulness.        factors), whereas Endogenous De-
ical depression (the type that definitely          • Inability to concentrate or think     pression (from internal causes) is
needs treatment) and major depres-                    clearly.                             probably inherited, probably chemical
sion (one so severe that the patient               • Indecisiveness.                       in nature, and often unavoidable (but
may have to be hospitalized and cer-               • Illogical thought patterns and        not untreatable). Endogenous depres-
tainly has difficulty carrying on even a              misinterpretation of reality.        sion may suddenly develop for no ap-
fairly normal life):                               • All sorts of physical symptoms        parent reason.
      • Feeling depressed most of the                 can be caused by depression:              Think of the brain as a skull-en-
        day, starting on awakening.                   headaches, stomachaches,             closed, three-pound, electrochemical
        Worse in the morning; gets bet-               and backaches (the big three).       analog computer. This leads us to
        ter as the day goes on. The                • Sometimes there is agitation,         some of…
        feeling of depression may be                  pacing the floor, inability to sit
        overwhelming, disabling, domi-                still. This is called agitated de-   The Good News
        nating, and devastating.                      pression.
      • Loss of interest in activities that        Another category, called Dys-               Depression is not only the most
        usually cause enjoyment (the          thymic Disorder (“Depression Lite”), is      common mental disorder but also the
        ten-dollar word is anhedonia, or      used to describe people who do not           most treatable with an 80-90 percent
        lack of fun). Social withdrawal.      have major depressive symptoms, but          success rate. The foundation of all
      • Tearful.                              who seem to have been mildly de-             treatment is a combination of psy-
      • Fatigue, loss of energy.              pressed all their life, in a low-level       chotherapy (talk therapy) and psy-
      • Change in sleep patter ns.            funk. They might not even recognize          chopharmacology—both complement
        Trouble in falling asleep. Wak-       it. (“I’ve always been this way.”) But       each other.
        ing up early two or more hours        their family and friends note that they          Psychopharmacology is the new
        in the morning and not being          never have much fun or excitement,           wave of psychiatry. One of the newer
        able to get back to sleep.            and always seem “down.”                      texts contains over 500 pages de-

                                                                                      J A N U A R Y / F E B R U A R Y 2 0 0 1 17
scribing some of the medications used               bly responsible for the “runners’   that you are trapped in a world almost
in treating mental disorders.                       high.” Large-muscle activity        totally devoid of reason. Laughter is
     The most common medications                    (thighs) may help discharge feel-   how you release the anxiety you feel
used today to treat depression—we                   ings of pent-up frustration,        about this.”-Dave Barry
all know someone on them—are the                    anger, and hostility. (Anger             Joy is defined in all dictionaries,
Selective Serotonin Reuptake In-                    turned inwardly is a major cause    but tells us nothing about what it really
hibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin is a                    of fatigue and depression.) The     is. If you want to know what pure fun,
chemical the brain needs for main-                  downside of this wonderfully ef-    joy and happiness are, just watch a
taining a good mood—SSRIs keep                      fective treatment is that most      young Labrador retriever play in the
the level from being depleted.                      depressed people just don’t         field for an hour, running for the hell of
Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil are among                 have the energy or motivation to    it, chasing leaves and butterflies, and
the most prescribed SSRIs. The FAA                  get up and exercise.                then come running to you when you
does not presently certify persons               3. Forgive yourself. Don’t try to      call, shaking all over, slobbering and
who use mood-altering medication.                   be perfect. Remember that           licking your face. Unconditional love;
The reasoning is twofold: the underly-              there are more than six billion     dogs don’t carry grudges.
ing condition that requires the med-                people on Earth, and hundreds            A criminal was sentenced to 20
ication and the potential adverse side              of thousands of them can do         years. He said, “Judge there’s no
effects from the medication itself.                 even better what you do best.       way I can do 20 years!” The judge
The good news is that the FAA is will-           4. Open up more. Men just don’t        looked down for a couple of seconds
ing to return virtually all clinically de-          want to admit of anything that      and said, “Well, just do the best you
pressed pilots back to flying after                 takes away from the macho           can.”
successful treatment.                               image. Depression is thought             Do the best you can and try to
     If depression seems likely, or even            of as a wimp disorder. Men          have more fun in your life. If you find
if you are just not enjoying your life as           may just tough it out until the     no humor in things—can’t laugh (es-
you used to, seek out a therapist                   Smith & Wesson cure seems           pecially at yourself) and enjoy life—re-
whom you like and develop a thera-                  the only solution. Harvard          member that you can usually find the
peutic alliance. (True story: “My psy-              Medical School psychologist         right answer if you ask the right per-
chiatrist is great, but she’s an awfully            Dr. William Pollack said, “Men      son. This person is probably a com-
hard person to talk to.”) You cannot                are limited pretty much to a        petent mental-health professional. In
analyze or intellectualize your prob-               menu of three strong feelings:      the meantime, spend a lot of time with
lems away alone or even see them                    rage, triumph, and lust. Any-       people who love you, your family and
objectively—seek a mental-health pro-               thing else and you risk being       good friends.
fessional.                                          seen as a sissy.” Men (pilots?)          Yours for good mental and physi-
                                                    have a tendency to self-de-         cal health and safe flying,
Four Ways to Strengthen                             struct. The Macho Marlboro                              5
Your Defenses                                       Man would do better to open             Dr. Stoutt is a partner in the
                                                    his feelings up, show some inti-    Springs Pediatrics and Aviation Medi-
    1. Avoid booze. Alcohol abuse is                macy, and admit that things are     cine Clinic, Louisville, KY, and has
       probably just an attempt at self-            not going well for him. Women       been an active AME since 1960. No
       medicating feelings of depres-               outlive us by an average of         longer an active pilot, he once held a
       sion. Alcohol always makes                   seven years. Some of this may       commercial pilot’s license with instru-
       depression worse. It is used                 be not only from estrogen, but      ment, multiengine, and CFI ratings.
       not so much to feel good as it               also from a willingness to talk
       is to avoid feeling bad. Many                intimately to friends about              Note: The views and recom-
       depressed people with hang-                  problems—even to admit that         mendations made in this article are
       overs jump out of hotel win-                 they have problems.                 those of the author and not neces-
       dows on Sunday mornings.                                                         sarily those of the Federal Aviation
       Avoid it.                             Humor!                                     Administration.
    2. Exercise more. All studies posi-      Our Emotional Parachute
       tively stress the use of exercise.                                                   This article originally appeared in
       Exercise releases endorphins—            “Sense of humor is a measure-           the Summer 2000 The Federal Air
       the body’s joy juice. It is proba-    ment of the extent to which you realize    Surgeon’s Medical Bulletin.

18 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
 121.5 MHz

by H. Dean Chamberlain

       t is official. The U.S. Department        Currently, there are aircraft that    regulatory equipage requirement in
       of Commerce has announced            are not required by regulation to have     their new aircraft, or, if they already
       the termination date of the satel-   an ELT installed but which will have to    own an aircraft, do they replace their
       lite-based        monitoring    of   install one in the near future. The rea-   current 121.5 MHz ELT with another
121.5/243 MHz distress alerts. The          son is Congress mandated in Public         cheap FAA approved 121.5 MHz ELT
date is February 1, 2009.                   Law 106-181, the Wendell H. Ford           knowing that in 2009, they will lose
     What does the announcement             Aviation Investment and Reform Act         satellite coverage?
mean to the vast majority of aircraft       for the 21st Century (AIR-21), the              The option is to install an FAA ap-
owners and operators? At the mo-            equipage of certain types of turbojet-     proved 406 MHz ELT. Although much
ment, nothing. The hundred plus             powered airplanes with ELT’s. FAA is       more expensive, a 406 MHz ELT offers
thousand aircraft owners who cur-           in the process of modifying the current    greater performance and benefits, and
rently have 121.5 MHz emergency lo-         ELT rule, FAR §91.207, to implement        it will be the only one which will be re-
cator transmitters (ELT) installed will     the new public law. Owners of turbo-       ceived by the Cospas-Sarsat satellite
not, until the termination date, see any    jet-powered aircraft will have to review   system after February 1, 2009. More
difference in SAR services provided by      the effective dates of the new rule        importantly, SAR authorities respond
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric        once issued and the specific require-      almost immediately to 406 MHz alerts.
Administration (NOAA), the United           ments of the rule change.                  Another advantage of the 406 MHz
States Air Force (USAF), and the                 Another category of aircraft own-     ELT is that the satellite system pro-
United States Coast Guard (USCG).           ers who will have to make an informed      vides near instantaneous alerting on
As background, NOAA operates the            decision are those buying new aircraft     406 MHz.
U.S. portion of the Cospas-Sarsat           for operations that currently require an        The same is not true of the 121.5
system in the United States with            ELT and those aircraft owners who          MHz system.
NASA support. The USAF and USCG             might have to replace their current             The safety issue is that after the
maintain the United States Rescue           121.5 MHz ELT between now and              termination date, the only monitoring
Coordination Centers (RCC) which co-        2009. The decision these owners will       of 121.5 MHz ELT’s will be ground-
ordinate the actual SAR activities.         have to make is one that could possi-      based by air traffic facilities or fixed-
However, after the termination date,        bly save their lives. At issue for these   based operators with the capability to
aircraft owners will have to make an        owners is do they install a cheap FAA      receive that frequency or by over-flying
informed decision as outlined below.        approved 121.5 MHz ELT to meet the         aircraft that might be monitoring that

                                                                                  J A N U A R Y / F E B R U A R Y 2 0 0 1 19
frequency. If a 121.5 MHz ELT                 rent regulation still permits the use of   system’s decision to terminate the
equipped aircraft crashes after the ter-      121.5 MHz ELT’s to meet the latest         space-based monitoring of 121.5
mination date, it could be days before        equipage requirement. FAA has no           MHz alert beacons, aircraft owners
anyone detects the 121.5 MHz ELT              plans to mandate the installation of       have to decide how they want to
signal assuming the ELT survived the          406 MHz ELT’s at this time. However,       equip their aircraft. Do they continue
crash and is functioning as designed.         Congress could mandate the installa-       to install 121.5 MHz ELT’s knowing the
Even today, it may take hours for a           tion of 406 MHz ELT’s in future legisla-   risks they must accept in 2009, or do
121.5 MHz ELT crash alert to be taken         tion as many in the SAR community          they upgrade to a 406 MHz ELT with
seriously by NOAA and a Rescue Co-            want. A stated goal of the SAR com-        all of its benefits?
ordination Center because of the              munity is to eliminate the usage of all         It is your choice. The clock has
number of false alerts the Cospas-            121.5 MHz alerting devices on land, at     started. February 1, 2009 is not that
Sarsat System receives daily. Unless          sea, and in the air.                       far away.
there is supporting data such as a re-
ported missing aircraft or a flight plan
                                                   As a result of the Cospas-Sarsat
that has not been closed, the RCC’s
wait for multiple satellite passes to ver-
ify that a 121.5 MHz alert is in fact a
real alert.                                         Why Space-Based 121.5
     One way VFR pilots can increase
their chances of a rapid alert response            MHz ELT Monitoring Will
today and after 2009, especially in air-
craft equipped with 121.5 MHz ELT’s,
is to always file a flight plan. VFR flight
                                                       Be Terminated
plans, especially those with short
route segment times, provide one of
                                                        • Recommended by the International Maritime
the best means of alerting SAR au-
thorities in the event of an accident.                    Organization and the International Civil Aviation
Individual segment flight plans are bet-                  Organization
ter than filing one extended period                     • High rate of false alerts (more than 98% in U.S.
flight plan when flying to multiple air-                  alone) and impact on SAR resources locating false
ports on a long, round-robin type of
flight plan. The reason is air traffic only
responds to overdue VFR flight plans.                   • The unprotected 121.5 MHz frequency was never
An aircraft that crashes off the end of                   intended for space-based monitoring and interfer-
the departure runway at the beginning                     ence causes SAR problems and false alerts
of a flight on a long round robin type of               • Crash-activated G switch can activate in rough
flight will not be missed until the end
                                                          turbulence and during hard landings
of the filed flight plan estimated time of
arrival which could be hours later. If                  • Benefits of 406 MHz ELT
the pilot had filed a segment flight                      • More transmitter power
plan, the aircraft would be declared                      • Dedicated and protected emergency frequency
missing much earlier.                                     • Near instantaneous satellite detection
     An unclosed VFR flight plan be-
                                                          • More accurate location calculation in a smaller
yond an aircraft’s expected time of ar-
rival also provides evidence to SAR                           search area
authorities that a 121.5 MHz ELT alert                    • Faster SAR response
along that route may in fact be an ac-                    • Digital unit
tual alert. This permits SAR forces to                    • Positioning data and owner data encoded
respond quicker than if the only evi-
                                                        • Advantages of 406 MHz ELT to SAR
dence of a crash is an activated ELT.
Plus the flight plan provides important                   • Owner or aircraft identification data encoded
rescue information, especially in the                         in unit allows easier resolution of false alerts
case of a 121.5 MHz ELT alert.                                and without expending SAR resources
     FAA permits the use of 121.5 MHz                     • Position data means more efficient use of SAR
and 406 MHz ELT’s to meet its regula-
tory requirement. The recent Con-
gressional mandate changing the cur-

20 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
                                                                                                                                  Louise Oertly photo
        MRE’s AND AIRCRAFT DON’T MIX         by H. Dean Chamberlain

        ust about the time you think       manner.                                     risk on an aircraft should be left at
        you have heard it all, life man-        Without knowing all of the details     home. Regardless of what you think
        ages to surprise you one more      of the incident, I am familiar with the     of airline food, please don’t try cook-
        time. The most recent sur-         heating units contained in military         ing your own meal onboard. Years
prise was an article about a seem-         Meals, Ready to Eat (MRE) rations.          ago, a chartered airliner was de-
ingly impossible event reported in the     The water activated heating units are       stroyed by fire when a foreign passen-
FAA-funded, NASA-managed Avia-             designed to heat an MRE to about            ger decided to make tea using a stove
tion Safety Reporting System (ASRS).       165 degrees Fahrenheit. Intended for        in the middle of an isle.
According to the ASRS report’s syn-        field use, the heating units are de-             The same prohibition is true if you
opsis, the cabin crew of an airliner       signed to heat an MRE when no other         are a camper traveling to an outdoor
detected a burning plastic smell in        means are available. They are not de-       camping site. Please make sure any
the cabin. Later, they found out the       signed to heat an MRE, or whatever          of the gear you are traveling with is
smell was caused by a soldier who          food the solder was heating, in flight in   approved by the airline for carriage on
had cooked food he had brought on          your average Mark 1 airliner.               the aircraft. Fuel containers, back-
board the plane using a military Meal,          Although airline food is notorious     packing type stoves, and other fire
Ready to Eat (MRE) chemical heating        for its lack of taste and quality, one      starting materials all need to be
unit. The crew found the MRE heat-         should not bring an MRE onboard to          cleared by airline security and haz-
ing package in the trash during a          replace or supplement if you are plan-      ardous materials specialists before
cabin cleanup. It had been stuffed in      ning on using the packaged MRE              they can be transported. In some
an airsick bag along with the trash        heater to heat the MRE. Cold MRE’s          cases, to paraphrase one U.S. Postal
from the meal. The person reporting        are fine, but their chemical heating        Service safety poster, some things
the incident found the heating unit        units are not appropriate to bring on-      were never meant to be flown in a
hot over an hour and a half after the      board.                                      passenger aircraft.
person covered the unit with water              With all of today’s concerns about          All passengers need to know the
and ice in a lavatory sink. According      aircraft safety and security, anything      safety rules and abide by them regard-
to the report, the soldier reported        that can cause a potential safety con-      less of what they might think of the
cooking other meals on aircraft in this    cern or pose any type of hazardous          onboard food.                       5
                                                                                  J A N U A R Y / F E B R U A R Y 2 0 0 1 21
                                                                                                                                    Photos courtesy of Tampa International Airport
                                               by H. Dean Chamberlain

         uper Bowl XXXV will be played       controllers and Flight Standards Ser-       reservation program for all domestic,
         in Tampa, FL, on Sunday Jan-        vice’s aviation safety inspectors on        nonscheduled IFR arrivals and depar-
         uary 28, 2001. Although it is       game day.                                   tures to and from Tampa International
         too early, when this is being            Will the event generate as much        Airport, St. Petersburg/Clearwater Air-
written, to tell which football teams will   total air traffic as say the annual Sun     port, Albert Whitted Airport, Vanden-
be playing in the game, FAA will be          ‘N Fun EAA Fly-in in nearby Lakeland?       berg Airport, Peter O’Knight Airport,
one of the players monitoring the            Probably not, but for those air traffic     and Clearwater Executive Airport.
game. FAA has been planning for              controllers working in Tampa on Janu-            A slot reservation will be required
months on how to control the air traffic     ary 28, things could get busy as pilots     for all domestic, nonscheduled IFR ar-
over and around the game to ensure           planning on flying into Tampa or want-      rivals starting on January 25 until Jan-
the safety of those attending, those         ing to fly over or near the stadium start   uary 28 from 0700-2300 hours EST
living in the vicinity of the Raymond        calling in. Patience may be the best        each day.
James Stadium, and those onboard             teammate in Tampa that day.                      The number of arrival slots is
the aircraft. What makes this Super                                                      based upon airport and airspace ca-
Bowl unique from an FAA prospective          CLASS B AIRSPACE AND                        pacity. There is no advantage in can-
is that the stadium is located within        SUPER BOWL XXXV                             celing IFR and proceeding VFR.
the Tampa Class B surface area and                                                            VFR arrivals should plan on exten-
only a few blocks from Tampa Interna-            FAA has issued special air traffic      sive delays.
tional Airport.                              procedures (SATP) for the period Jan-            Slot reservations will be required
     Now think of the many aircraft not      uary 25-29 in Tampa. Special proce-         for all domestic, nonscheduled IFR de-
only flying into the airport and other       dures will be in effect for helicopter      partures on January 28 from 0700
local airports with their distinguished      operations at Tampa International Air-      until 0300 EST the following morning
guests onboard to watch the game,            port and St. Petersburg/Clearwater In-      and from 0700 until 1500 hours EST
but of the many aircraft, airships, and      ternational Airport, and for all aircraft   on January 29.
helicopters that normally fly around         operations in the vicinity of Raymond            Slot reservations will be available
such a major public sporting event           James Stadium.                              beginning on Monday, January 22, at
towing banners or providing overhead             All pilots planning on flying in the    0700 hours EST. Reservations will not
camera shots for the TV networks.            Tampa Bay area during this period           be assigned more than 72 hours in
Add in the normal air traffic to Tampa       need to review the published Notice to      advance.
International, and you can start to see      Airmen (NOTAM). Key provisions of                The NOTAM explains how to
the challenge facing FAA air traffic         the NOTAM include details on a slot         make the reservations, which can be

22 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
made either online at
<> or by call-
ing 800-875-9755.
     Once a slot reservation
has been made, a slot confir-
mation number will be issued.
The slot confirmation number
must be included in the re-
marks section of the flight
plan. Pilots are expected to
meet their flight plan arrival
times within plus or minus 15
     A slot reservation confir-
mation number is no guaran-
tee that aircraft parking is
available, but the NOTAM
contains information on how
pilots can obtain parking.
     Only in case of an emergency will      Tampa Bay’s Raymond James Stadium—home of Super Bowl XXXV is located within the
air traffic modify its slot requirements.   Tampa Class B surface area. (H. Dean Chamberlain photo)

                                            formation and operating hours for all       aircraft. The Tampa Air Traffic Control
     No helicopter landings or depar-       of the airports supporting the antici-      Tower Letter asks all pilots flying into
tures will be permitted at or in the        pated increase in aircraft into the         and out of the Peter O’Knight Airport
vicinity of Raymond James Stadium.          Tampa Bay area. The NOTAM also              during the event to be extremely vigi-
All passenger shuttle and itinerant heli-   contains complete post-game depar-          lant and to use caution. The Peter
copters will have to use two tempo-         ture procedures.                            O’Knight Airport and the Gasparilla
rary helicopter landing pads located at                                                 parade area are below the Tampa
Tampa International Airport. The            LOCAL EVENTS ADD TO THE                     Class B airspace.
NOTAM provides information on spe-          AIR TRAFFIC DURING SUPER
cial routing and operating procedures       BOWL WEEK                                   SAFETY IS NO ACCIDENT
for helicopters flying into Tampa Inter-
national Airport.                                In addition to the Super Bowl, a            Because of the number of aircraft
                                            major Tampa Bay annual celebration,         expected in the Tampa Bay area dur-
BANNER TOWING/                              Gasparilla Pirate Festival, has been        ing this period, all pilots should in-
ADVERTISING/MEDIA                           rescheduled for Super Bowl Week to          crease their awareness for other traffic
AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS                         add to the festivities in the Tampa         both in the air and on the ground.
                                            Bay area. What this means to pilots         Parking will be tight. Pilots should
    For those wanting to operate in         flying into the area is an increase in      make parking reservations to ensure a
the vicinity of the Raymond James           the traffic and types of aircraft flying    space. Pilots of aircraft affected by
Stadium, the NOTAM contains infor-          in the area as well as various types of     the procedures outlined in the NOTAM
mation about what equipment they            aircraft flying as part of Gasparilla.      should review and following the proce-
must have, the dates for the required       The Tampa Air Traffic Control Tower         dures in the NOTAM to minimize any
safety briefing they must attend spon-      Letter to Airmen No. 00-07 issued on        delays encountered. VFR traffic can
sored by air traffic control, and the       November 15 notes the expected in-          expect delays because of the volume
special Aircraft Letter of Agreement        crease in air traffic during this week in   of operations.
they must sign before being permitted       the Tampa Bay area as well as the in-            With the cooperation, support,
to operate within that area.                crease in air traffic in the vicinity of    and vigilance of all of the pilots flying
                                            the Peter O’Knight Airport and over         into and out of the Tampa Bay area
TEMPORARY TOWER                             Hillsborough Bay for the Gasparilla         during this week, everyone will have a
                                            Pirate Festival Parade on Saturday,         safe flight and for those attending the
    A temporary air traffic control         January 27. Included in the expected        game, a chance to watch a great foot-
tower will be established at Vanden-        air traffic near the Peter O’Knight Air-    ball game.
berg Airport during this period. The        port and over flying the parade route            Keep the blue side up.
NOTAM contains complete tower in-           are several large, high-speed military                         3

                                                                                   J A N U A R Y / F E B R U A R Y 2 0 0 1 23

             ill an aircraft fly if it’s       pack sack, fishing gear, and a               perched on a needle point. Its

many pilots.
             overloaded? Of course
             it will. In fact, it’s a way
             of life (or death) for too

     It’s probably not hard to under-
                                               day’s abundant catch. It was
                                               asking too much of this air-
                                               craft, overloaded and with a
                                               16-foot canoe tied to the float
                                               strut, to take off from the three-
                                                                                            movements were large and
                                                                                            hard to control. Suddenly, it
                                                                                            dawned on me that the cargo
                                                                                            had shifted aft on takeoff.”
                                                                                            Luckily this pilot was able to
stand, once having discovered that an          quarter mile lake. The pilot’s               carry out a heart pounding safe
aircraft can fly overloaded, that there        luck didn’t last because once                landing with a center of gravity
will be opportunities and temptations          airborne he couldn’t coax it to              beyond the aft limit.
to do just that. Of course, the margin         clear the trees on the gently
of safety is reduced.                          rising shore.                            • The pilot of an overloaded float
     The real problem? That “extra”                                                       Twin Otter crashed trying to
passenger has more than just                • Loaded for a cargo haul, the                out climb a mountain after
weight—he/she has a wallet. Of ten            aircraft was ready to go when               complying with the tour direc-
crashes recently reviewed, in which           the operator got a last minute              tor’s request for a low, circling
overloading and/or center of gravity          change to add four passen-                  look at a fish hatchery in a nar-
limits were clearly identified, all but       gers. The three available seats             row valley. One of 18 occu-
one were commercial flights. Six of           were set up to accommodate,                 pants was killed and two seri-
the accidents were fatal. Here’s a            but a party of seven adults and             ously injured.
sampling of what other pilots have ex-        a baby arrived with baggage
perienced, so please make a concen-           and several cases of beer.                 Whatever your aircraft type, it
trated effort to ensure that you don’t        One passenger climbed into            does have a certified maximum all-up
do the same.                                  the copilot seat while the three      weight. The engineers who designed
                                              extras settled themselves at          it knew their aerodynamics. Any at-
    • The pilot falsified the weight          the back amongst the cargo.           tempts to defy the aircraft’s physical
      and balance sheet to indicate           On takeoff the pilot struggled        limitations are usually exercises in futil-
      the aircraft was loaded within          to lift the tail. Once airborne,      ity. Know your specific load. Ensure
      limits. With nine passengers            the tail-heavy aircraft climbed       that it is distributed evenly and prop-
      on board, the light twin would          steeply to 100 feet, stalled,         erly tied down. And don’t succumb to
      not stay airborne and ran off           and fell heavily to the runway.       customer pressure to stuff in that little
      the end of the runway.                  The center of gravity was dan-        extra bit for their convenience. That
                                              gerously beyond the aft limit.        extra bit could cost you your life.
    • The float Cessna 172’s load                                                                       5
      was a pilot and two passen-           • “After takeoff, the aircraft began         From the Transport Canada Avia-
      gers, small outboard motor,             porpoising mildly as if it were       tion leaflet, Take Five for Safety.

24 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
• Remain Within 10 NM

      I know that the procedure turn is
rapidly disappearing in this new GPS                           SAMPLE:
era but may I please find out why the
maximum procedure turn completion
distance shown on NOAA/FAA instru-
                                                       NOT FOR NAVIGATIONAL USE
ment approach charts is 10 miles?
Looking at all of the data that I can
find on procedure turns, it appears
from FAA studies in the past that quite
a number of larger or high perform-
ance aircraft cannot complete a pro-
cedure turn within 10 miles of the fix
unless the pilots are reminded to stay
within 10 miles just before executing
the procedure turn. Looking at TERPS
it appears that the area protected for
obstacle clearance is well in excess of
10 miles (up to about 17 miles) and,
according to FAA Order 7030.1A, air
traffic controllers are instructed to pro-
tect the same area to avoid other traf-
fic in non-radar environments. It ap-
pears that someone has failed to
realize that the area protected in
TERPS was changed many years ago
(way back in the 1950’s or 1960’s
when I was too young to hold a pilot li-
cense) from a box and the procedure
designers are still putting in a distance
for the old standard which requires pi-
lots to rush into procedure turns in
higher performance aircraft if for no
other reason then someone has de-
cided that the chart should state 10
miles. This strikes me as being some-
what contradictory to the current view
that pilots should be flying stabilized
approaches to avoid CFIT accidents
these days. Is there some other rea-
son that I don’t know about to restrict
these turns to 10 miles or should they       Service, National Flight Inspection Di-
not be 17 miles as determined in past        vision, Washington, DC June 1968; 4)          The U.S. Terminal Procedures,
FAA studies?                                 Course Reversal Flight Simulator Eval-    Southwest Volume 1 of 2, published
      References: 1) TERPS - Current         uation - January 1968 Final Report -      by NOAA/NOS contains the phrase
Edition; 2) FAA Order 7030.1A “Pro-          Flight Standards Service, Washington,     “Remain within 10 NM” in the profile
tected Airspace for Instrument Ap-           DC; 5) TERPS - Third Edition - Sep-       view of the NDB RWY 35 approach at
proach Procedures” - March 27,               tember 1, 1956; 6) TERPS Fourth Edi-      Holyoke, Colorado. The Jeppesen
1969; 3) Project Report Project Num-         tion Proposed - Date Unknown              approach depiction simply indicates
ber 68-460-7 “Procedure Turn Com-                 Clive Berryere (Pilot/Engineer)      “10 NM.” In either case, what does
pletion Distance” - Flight Standards              Saint-Laurent, Quebec, Canada        this 10 NM limit for procedure turn

                                                                                  J A N U A R Y / F E B R U A R Y 2 0 0 1 25
(PT) completion mean to the pilot fly-     tended to 15 NM when operationally          main within that distance from the PT
ing the procedure?                         required and noted on the procedure.        fix/facility.
      First, the distance allowed for PT         During testing to determine what
completion is a compromise between         airspace to protect, the FAA asked pi-      • Addendum to Surface
providing enough room for the pilot to     lots to fly PT’s within the stated PT         Tension
fly a course reversal maneuver and         distance. The results of the testing
limiting the amount of airspace which      showed that for various reasons, in-             For your information, here are a
must be protected when an aircraft is      cluding winds, the aircraft actually        few additional comments to the “Sur-
cleared for the PT. This compromise        went beyond the stated limitation. To       face Tension, Part 2” article that ap-
limits the size of the PT to the mini-     account for this overshoot, the pro-        peared in the November/December
mum required. This is critical in con-     tected airspace recognized in the pro-      issue.
gested airspace. The standard PT           cedure design includes a buffer area             Sectional charts now contain in-
completion distance is 10 NM, but this     to assure pilots who reasonably at-         formation on runways for which a
may be reduced to five NM for proce-       tempt to stay within the stated dis-        right hand traffic pattern is used
dures supporting only Category A air-      tance will not encounter other IFR air-     (e.g., “RP 23” indicating a right pat-
craft or helicopters, and may be ex-       craft or obstructions.                      tern for runway 23.) This is a fairly
                                                 The pilot should use every naviga-    new feature of sectional charts and is
                                           tional tool, including DME, to assure       very helpful.
        FAA AVIATION NEWS                  the aircraft remains within the pub-             Also, at non-towered airports,
    welcomes comments.                     lished distance. The NDB RWY 35             when pilots transmit their position or
    We may edit letters for                approach at Holyoke is typical of many      intentions, sometimes it not unusual to
    style and/or length. If we             approaches with procedure turns             get no response. This can mean no
    have more than one letter              where timing is the only means of dis-      one else is using the airport or that the
    on the same topic, we will             tance determination. If ground speed        aircraft’s radios or audio panel has not
    select one representative              estimates are incorrect, the buffer area    been configured properly to transmit
    letter to publish. Because             is intended to provide adequate pro-        or receive. Confirm the audio panel
    of our publishing sched-               tection while the aircraft is at or above   and radio switch and frequency set-
    ules, responses may not                the PT completion altitude of 5,000         tings and get a radio-check if possi-
    appear for several issues.             feet. The final approach area protect-      ble. This has been a common prob-
    We do not print anony-                 ing descent to the minimum descent          lem noted by pilots reporting
    mous letters, but we do                altitude of 4,240 feet begins at 10 NM      non-towered surface transgressions to
    withhold names or send                 from the PT fix/facility.                   the Aviation Safety Reporting System
    personal replies upon                        Pilots flying high performance air-   (ASRS).
    request. Readers are                   craft need to constrain airspeed to as-          Mike Lenz
    reminded that questions                sure completion of the PT within the             FAA
    dealing with immediate                 specified distance. The Aeronautical             Runway Safety Program Staff
    FAA operational issues                 Information Manual, paragraph 5-48 a
    should be referred to their            .2. states, “When the approach proce-       • The Hovering Airport
    local Flight Standards                 dure involves a procedure turn, a max-
    District Office or Air Traffic         imum speed of not greater than 200               I read with interest “Safety Re-
    facility. Send letters to H.           knots (IAS) should be observed from         minders? Canyon Calisthenics” in the
    Dean Chamberlain,                      first overheading the course reversal       September issue of FAA Aviation
    FORUM Editor, FAA AVIA-                IAF through the procedure turn ma-          News. Of particular interest was
    TION NEWS, AFS-805,                    neuver to ensure containment within         “…an airport in the West whose eleva-
    800 Independence Ave.,                 the obstruction clearance area.”            tion is almost 4,000 feet AGL.” A very
    SW, Washington, DC                           With the advent of the Global         interesting concept!
    20591, or FAX them to                  Positioning System, area navigation                   George H. Urich
    (202) 267-9463; e-mail                 routes are replacing procedure turns,                 Canadaigua, NY
    address:                               but PT’s will be around for a long
                                           time yet. Instrument pilots must be              It’s the new FAA concept to have              aware of the charted procedure turn         more airports—the hovering airport.
                                           completion distance and maneuver            Obviously, it should have read “4,000
                                           their aircraft in such a manner to re-      feet MSL.” Thanks for the catch.

26 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s

     As of October 1, 2000, the former           The April 1 date does not, how-        on America Online (AOL)™. For AOL
National Oceanic and Atmospheric            ever, preclude airports from immedi-        ™ members, use the keyword “FLY”
Administration’s (NOAA) Office of           ately submitting PFC applications or        then enter the Wright Hall chatroom.
Aeronautical Charting and Cartogra-         amended applications requesting the         The online meeting qualifies as a
phy is now the FAA’s National Aero-         authority to collect the higher PFC         safety seminar under the FAA’s
nautical Charting Office (NACO). Or-        amount beginning on that date. The          “WINGS” program. For more details
ganizationally located in the Air Traffic   FAA will review and rule on applica-        about the online safety meeting, you
Services (ATS), Aviation System Stan-       tions in advance of the effective date.     can contact the Tampa FSDO’s web-
dards (AVN), the redesignated NACO               These new PFC levels are author-       site at <>.
organization will remain in its current     ized under the Wendell H. Ford Avia-
physical location and keep its current      tion Investment and Reform Act for              2001 SCHEDULE
telephone numbers: 1-800-638-8972           the 21st Century (AIR-21), signed into
or (301) 436-8301. The office is open       law on April 5, 2000. Prior to AIR-21,      January 3    Accident Review 2000
Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 4:30       the highest authorized PFC level was        January 17   PROPer Care
p.m. It is closed on Federal holidays.      $3 per enplaned revenue passenger.          January 24   Cabin Heat Cautions
     The transfer from NOAA to FAA               Under the law both before and          January 31   Checklists
was legislated in the FAA Reauthoriza-      after enactment of AIR-21, PFC’s are
tion Bill for FY 2000.                      imposed based on the number of de-          February 7 High Altitude Operations
                                            partures by the passenger, with a           February 21 Private Pilot Certification
PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGE                   maximum imposition of two PFC’s, for        February 28 Aviation Trivia Contest
INCREASE START DATE                         one-way flights and four PFC’s for
                                            roundtrip itineraries.                      March 7      Altimetry: How High Am I?
     This announcement is of particular                                                 March 14     The Dangerous CFI
interest to anyone who uses airlines.       DOCS ONLINE                                 March 21     Managing Your Fuel
The FAA has announced that April 1,                                                                  System
2001, would be the earliest start date           The FAA’s Civil Aeromedical Insti-     March 28     Spring Forth from
for new $4 and $4.50 passenger facil-       tute’s (CAMI) website lists the names                    Hibernation
ity charge (PFC) levels.                    and pertinent data on all of its aviation
     After thorough consultation with       medical examiners (AME). To find the        NEW GOVERNMENT
government and industry experts, FAA        name of an AME in your neighbor-            PUBLICATIONS
established the uniform industry-wide       hood, you can search CAMI’s website
start date to give airline ticketing and    at <>. Once you                 The Government Printing Office
computer reservations system                enter the website, select “Aeromedical      (GPO) has announced the availability
providers time to implement repro-          Education” and then “Directory of Avi-      of two publications from NASA. The
gramming to accommodate the higher          ation Medical Examiners.” You can           first is Astronautics and Aeronautics,
level.                                      search for AME’s by name, country,          1991-1995: A Chronology. The 779-
     “An earlier start date for PFC lev-    region, state, county, city, and Zip        page book’s stock number is 033-
els above $3 is not practical because       Code.                                       000-01230-6. Its ISBN number is 0-
existing airline ticketing and computer                                                 16-050408-2. Its cost is $43
reservation systems must be repro-          FAA SAFETY FORUMS AT                        domestic ($53.75 foreign). The sec-
grammed to accommodate fractional           AMERICA ONLINE                              ond book is titled Hypersonics Before
dollar levels, higher PFC amounts, and                                                  the Shuttle: A Concise History of the
other changes introduced by AIR-21,”            The following is the 2001 pro-          X-15 Research Airplane. The 128-
said Woodie Woodward, Acting Asso-          posed schedule of FAA aviation safety       page book provides an Air Force view
ciate Administrator For Airports.           forums produced by FAA Aviation             of the design, development, and oper-
     Once the required programming          Safety Inspector and Safety Program         ation of the X-15 including lessons
changes are made, industry also must        Manager, Buz Massengale, from the           learned. The stock number is 033-
conduct a testing and validation pe-        Tampa Flight Standards District Office.     000-01227-6. Its ISBN number is 0-
riod to ensure that all programs func-      Each Wednesday, Massengale holds            16-050363-9. The cost is $12 do-
tion properly both independently and        his online safety meeting starting at       mestic ($15 foreign).
in relation to other domestic and inter-    9:30 p.m. Eastern time. The meetings              The books can be ordered from
national systems.                           are held in the “Wright Hall” chatroom      the Superintendent of Documents,

                                                                                   J A N U A R Y / F E B R U A R Y 2 0 0 1 27
P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA
15250-7954. The books can also be
ordered online at <http://bookstore.>. Telephone orders can be
called into (202) 512-1800 M-F from         will be offered, as well as demonstra-         contained in NTSB press release SB-
7:30 am to 5 pm EST. The fax order-         tions on computerized weather re-              00/05 dated Feb. 25, 2000. The
ing number is (202) 512-2250. Pre-          sources, the FAA Alaska Region’s               press release can be found on the
payment is required by check, VISA,         Capstone avionics training simulator           NTSB website at <>.
MasterCard, Discover/NOVUS, or              and the Vertigon spatial disorientation
GPO Deposit Account.                        machine. The conference is intended            27th ANNUAL MIDWEST
                                            to draw a wide and diverse audience.           GENERAL AVIATION
INAUGURAL GREAT LAKES                            The conference supports an                MAINTENANCE SEMINAR
AVIATION CONFERENCE AND                     agreement between the FAA and
TRADE SHOW                                  MDOT’s Bureau of Aeronautics to                     The 27th Annual Midwest General
                                            bring the aviation community to-               Aviation Maintenance Seminar will be
     Aviation firms and individuals         gether to promote operational safety           held February 21 and 22 at Lewis Uni-
wanting to meet with pilots, air traffic    and industry advancements. To that             versity located in Romeoville, Illinois.
controllers, mechanics, students, and       extent, Eastern Michigan University,           This free seminar offers training, ex-
other aviation enthusiasts—and all          Western Michigan University, Jack-             hibits, and demonstrations in the latest
under one roof—will want to attend          son Community College, Transport               maintenance practices. It is an excel-
the first-ever Great Lakes International    Canada, and the Detroit Aviation               lent opportunity for maintenance tech-
Aviation Conference in East Lansing,        Safety Counselor Organization are              nicians, managers, and flight opera-
Michigan, January 26-28, 2001.              joined in a collaborative effort with          tions personnel to update their training
     “This is an excellent opportunity to   the FAA and MDOT Aeronautics to                and view the latest products offered in
confer with the people who care about       plan this conference.                          the field. Training classes meet FAA’s
staying on top of the very latest equip-         For further information, contact          annual inspection authorization re-
ment and techniques for assuring safe       Philip Tartalone at the Michigan Depart-       newal requirements.
and effective air travel,” said Michigan    ment of Transportation Bureau of Aero-              The seminar is sponsored by
Department of Transportation (MDOT)         nautics by phone at (517) 335-9880 or          Lewis University, the Illinois Depart-
Bureau of Aeronautics Director Bill         by e-mail at <>.         ment of Transportation’s Division of
Gehman. “We are pleased to partner          Information also is available via the Web at   Aeronautics, and the FAA. For more
with the state’s aviation schools, the      <>.         information contact Don Cramer or
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),                                                     Kami Paine at (217) 785-8516.
Transport Canada, and Aircraft Techni-      NO CHANGE IN NTSB 1999 GA
cal Publishers to provide an impres-        ACCIDENT DATA
sive educational weekend that ad-                                                                SUBSCRIPTION PRICE
dresses every facet of the aviation              In October the National Trans-                      INCREASE
community.”                                 portation Safety Board reported no
     W ith a “New Technologies”             change in its preliminary 1999 general                 The U.S. Gover nment
theme, the weekend conference at            aviation accident (GA) data released in           Printing Office has just in-
Michigan State University’s Kellogg         February. In that report, NTSB listed             formed us that they have in-
Center will feature a broad array of        628 GA fatalities vice 623 GA fatalities          creased the price of the FAA
speakers and topics. The format will        in 1998. The number of GA accident                Aviation News magazine. The
include main speakers, breakouts, and       in 1999 was 1,908. In 1998, the num-              annual subscription price is
several opportunities for aviation sup-     ber of GA accidents was 1,909. Fatal              now $28.00 domestic ($35.00
pliers to interact with conference at-      accidents dropped to 342 in 1999                  foreign)—an increase of $8.00
tendees on the very latest in aviation      from 365 in 1998.                                 a year or 40%. We apologize
equipment and services.                          The GA accident rate per 100,000             to our readers for the inconven-
     Conference headliners include          flight hours for 1999 was 7.05. In                ience this may cause, but the
Scott Crossfield, the first person to fly   1998, the GA accident rate was 7.12.              FAA has no control on the pric-
at Mach 2 and Mach 3 speeds, and                 The complete NTSB 1999 accident              ing of the magazine. However,
Ron Machado, popular aviation hu-           report for all categories of aviation and         we do promise to continue to
morist and educator. Eight hours of         modes of transportation can be found on           provide you with useful aviation
aviation maintenance programs de-           the NTSB website at <http://                      safety information, as always.
signed for airframe and power plant>.
technicians and maintenance students             The complete aviation report is

28 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
Editor’sfrom the pen of Phyllis-Anne Duncan
                        Over the Edge
     Here I am at that juncture again where my art designer is bugging me for this column so that this issue can be sent
to the printer, and I have 14 irons, unrelated to magazine production, in the proverbial fire. As of this writing, we still
don’t know who’s going to be President for the next four years, which certainly outstrips my writer’s block in the
scheme of things.
     Let’s see, this morning I took a phone call from an irate training center manager (and rightly so) wanting to know
why we hadn’t approved his two core curricula. I went to a staff meeting and got tasked to analyze an issue, which
doesn’t even fall within the general aviation purview. There were phone calls about the previous day’s midair between
an F-16 and a C-172. A contractor was here interviewing employees so that we can come up with a listing of exactly
what it is we do (nope, don’t go there), and I missed a meeting that had been on my calendar for three weeks.
     No, this is not some stiff-necked, DC bureaucratic whining. Actually, it is, but that’s not the point of this. The point
is, at about 1300 I realized that there were a couple of biological needs that I hadn’t attended to, I was harried on what
is normally a slow day (Friday), and I snapped at a secretary. A lot of things piled up at once, and I was completely dis-
tracted, my mind off in a dozen different directions, then the thought struck me—at least I’m on the ground. What if,
after the day I’d had with all its frustrations, I’d decided to go flying? Probably not a good move on my part, but it got
me to thinking about what it means to be ready to fly beyond the regulatory requirements for currency.
     Of course, it takes a body that is healthy, but it also takes having your head in the game and your mind not pulled
in different directions. And it takes feeling right about yourself in the world. In this issue, we have an article on depres-
sion, its symptoms and manifestations, and the treatment for it. On the surface, that might not seem like an aviation
safety issue, but it is. If you’re depressed, your head isn’t in the cockpit; it’s on whatever it is that’s making you de-
pressed or it’s wondering why life just isn’t going your way. That means a significant part of your ability to make aero-
nautical decisions is impaired. Depression is a major problem in this day and age, and as the article on page 17 indi-
cates, most people affected by it can overcome it and without losing medical certification. The cultural or sociological
reasons behind why depression has increased markedly in the last few decades is not the subject here; rather, it’s ad-
mitting to yourself that depression might be affecting you. If it is affecting you, it won’t be long before it will somehow
affect your flying, and it can put an end to your flying in a way you might not even want to think about—an accident, for
     What I’m trying to say here, facing a spate of holidays (I’m writing this in early November) which sees the numbers
of suicides increase, is that being physically ready to fly may not be enough. Again, you have to have your head—
sound, hale, and healthy itself—in the game.
     I’m not trying to be preachy, and I actually have some right to urge people who are on that edge to step back
and get some help. I’ve been there, one foot hovering over that long drop. My own father walked up to that edge.
He didn’t step back.
     I stepped back from the edge because I swallowed the stubborn Scots/Irish pride, which taught me to tough
things out, and said, “I need to talk to someone about what’s going on with me.” It was truly the hardest thing I’ve ever
had to do, but it was also the best thing I could have done. I was so far down that I actually grounded myself—some
sense was rattling about in my beleaguered head—and in the long run, it wasn’t for long. Flying, it turned out, was an
incentive for me to face the demons and exorcise them because I missed being in the air.
     So, don’t skip over the article on page 17 because it might make you uncomfortable (if it does, it might be striking
close to home) or it’s not about aviation safety. It is. Let’s face it, holidays are some of our roughest times emotionally.
Post-holiday time can be a big let-down. You may have lost someone you love. Your business may be tanking, or
your life just doesn’t feel right. Whatever it is, get some help. Don’t let depression take your head out of flying, and
don’t lose your life—literally. What dreams may come over that edge is something none of us wants to see for a long,
long time.
     May this new year be healthy and happy for us all—regardless of who finally became President!
     ‘Til next time…
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