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Local Government System in Swaziland

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					                                                                               31.7.2009
                              LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM
                                    IN SWAZILAND




1. DECENTRALISATION IN SWAZILAND

In Swaziland, the process towards democratic reform has been somewhat tentative.
Parliamentary elections were held in 1994 and local government ("council") elections
occurred in 1995. In neither election were political parties allowed to contest, as they are
illegal in Swaziland.1 The traditional elite's hold on power is pronounced as it controls most
land. Moreover, it controls the national development fund whilst also exerting great influence
on local rural affairs via the traditional chiefly Tinkundla system. 2

In the past ten years or so, there has been some change to the above depicted state of
affairs. Two more local government elections have been organised in 1998 and 2001. Also,
as a result of the changes in the developmental discourse and patterns of donor support,
burgeoning urban growth, deteriorating urban conditions and, perhaps most importantly, the
intangible influence of democracy in South Africa, the Government of Swaziland has revised
its stand on decentralisation and local government, establishing in the early 1990s the
program of urban governmental reform. 3 By 1995 a new Ministry of Housing and Urban
Development (HUD) was put in place and elections replaced the formerly appointed urban
councillors. Within the structure of the 1969 local government statutes, HUD expanded
substantially the effective authority of urban governments. 4 A revised Urban Government
Policy, substantially adding to the authority and resources of the urban areas was presented
to the Cabinet in 1995.

In 2005, Swaziland’s head of state, King Mswati III, ratified Swaziland’s new Constitution,
which came into force in 2006. The previous constitution was suspended in 1973 by Royal
Proclamation issued by King Sobhuza II. It is also then, when by the Royal Proclamation all
executive powers were vested in the Swazi monarch, and political parties were banned. The
new 2005 Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland provides that the current system of local
government in Swaziland will be reassessed and reformed. 5


2. LOCAL GOVERNMENT: POSITION AND STRUCTURE

The kingdom of Swaziland is a unitary state, with King Mswati III as the head of state. The
king yields a considerable amount of power, appointing both the prime minister and the
cabinet. There is a legislature sitting in the capital Mbabane. It is bicameral and consists of
the House of Assembly and the Senate. The 55 members of the House of Assembly get
elected by universal suffrage, whereas the senate is made of 20 members appointed by the



1
    Wunsch, sine anno.
2
    Ibid.
3
    Ibid.
4
    Ibid.
5
    Kuusi 2009, 6.



                                                                                              1
monarch. The King also appoints senior civil servants.6

The governmental system of Swaziland is a dual system of governance, in which modern
and traditional systems coexist. The modern half of the governance system is based on the
”Westminster” system of a bi-cameral Parliament, a judiciary, and an executive. The
Parliament consists of a mixture of elected and royally appointed members. The traditional
system of governance consists of traditional institutions of local government called tinkundla
(in singular form inkhundla) in the rural areas. 7

The King exercises his authority also as Ingwenyama, traditional leader and custodian of
Swazi Land and Custom.8

Swaziland is divided into four administrative regions – Hhohho, Manzini, Lubombo and
Shiselweni –, which are administered by regional administrations under the Deputy Prime
Minister’s Office and headed by Regional Administrators.9


2.1 Organisational Structure of Local Government

In Swaziland, local government is divided into rural and urban councils, both differently
structured. The urban councils are municipalities and the rural councils are the tinkundla. in
total there are 12 municipalities and 55 tinkundla. 10 The urban authorities, municipalities,
have substantially more autonomy than their rural counterpart, the tinkundla. The major
responsibilities of urban councils are in the areas of housing and town planning, the
environment and public sanitation.11

“The municipal councils are required to establish a finance committee. Apart from this they
have discretion in the establishment of other committees. The mayor is a part-time post,
limited to chairing council meetings and performing ceremonial functions. The remuneration
of councillors for the council and its committees is set by each local authority but must be
approved by the minister. The municipalities have the authority to hire and dismiss staff and
also hold revenue-raising and budget-setting powers. The tinkundla do not.”12

The urban councils are also usually better staffed compared to the tinkundla which have
minimal staff and are funded entirely by government grants. In each region there are
several tinkundla, which all have a development committee elected from the various
chiefdoms called Bucopho. Tinkundla is elected for a term of five years.13 Bucopho bring to
the tinkundla all matters of interest and concerns of their various chiefdoms, and take back
to the chiefdoms the decisions of the tinkundla. Allowances for Bucopho members are
determined by the deputy prime minister’s office.

The municipalities consist on average of 7,000 residents, ranging in size from 1,400 to
68,000 residents. The tinkundla have an average population of 18,000, ranging in size from
5 to 10 chiefdoms. Most of the Swazi population lives in tinkundlas. 14


6
  CLGF: Local Government System in Swaziland (sine anno); United Nations 2004, 5–6.
7
  World Bank 2008, 2–3.
8
  United Nations 2004, 5–6.
9
  World Bank 2008, 2–3.
10
   Ibid.
11
   Ibid.
12
   CLGF: Local Government System in Swaziland (sine anno).
13
   Ibid.
14
   Ibid.



                                                                                            2
Both the urban and rural local government representatives can be sub-divided into three
tiers. In the urban areas these are: city councils, town councils and town boards. The three
tiers of local government in the rural areas are: regional administration, tinkundla and
chiefdoms.15

Swaziland has had a system of urban local governments since 1964. The urban local
authorities currently comprise of two cities, three town councils and seven town boards. The
department of Urban Government in the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development is
responsible for the administration and regulation of urban local authorities.16

The areas of the urban local authorities are divided into wards, and the councillors are
elected from the wards under the first-past-the-post system on the basis of universal adult
suffrage. The term of office of the councillors is three years. 17

The councillors elect a Mayor from amongst themselves 18. The post of a Mayor is a part-time
post and is limited to chairing the council meetings and performing ceremonial functions.
The remuneration of the councillors is set by each urban local authority, but must be
approved by the Minister responsible for urban government. 19

The municipal councils (city councils) and town councils, and also the town boards if the
Minister so decides, are required to appoint a finance committee for regulating and
controlling the finances of the council. The municipal and town councils may appoint other
committees as they choose. Decisions of the municipal councils, town councils and the town
boards are made by the majority of councillors present at a full council meeting. 20




15
     United Nations 2004, 6.
16
     United Nations 2004, 6; World Bank 2008, 2–3.
17
     CLGF: Local Government System in Swaziland (sine anno).
18
     Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Section 7 according to Kuusi 2009.
19
     CLGF: Local Government System in Swaziland (sine anno).
20
     Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Sections 18-20 according to Kuusi 2009.



                                                                                           3
Figure of the Government System in Swaziland
Adapted from Peltola, 2008



                                           CENTRAL GOVERNMENT
                                                    King
                                                  Cabinet
                                                Parliament:
                                              - House of Assembly
                                                   - Senate


                                           REGIONAL GOVERNMENT
                                    -    the country is divided into four regions
                                                - Regional council
                                              - Regional administrator


                                                LOCAL GOVERNMENT


                                 Urban areas                                              Rural areas
                                 Urban council                                            Rural council
                              - Municipality x 12                                        - Tinkhundla x 55

        City council                Town council               Town board                        Bucopho
                                                                                                 (Board)


                                        Wards                                                Chiefdoms




2.2 Legal Basis of Local Government

For long, there was no constitution in Swaziland. This followed the suspension of the
constitution in 1973 by the king Sobhuza II. 21 The new Constitution was adopted in 2005,
but hasn’t brought many significant changes, for example political parties still remain
banned, although there has been debate on their current status.22

Implementing some of the provisions in the new Constitution will mean reforming the
present local government system in Swaziland. The Constitution provides that “Parliament
shall within five years of the commencement of this Constitution provide for the
establishment of a single country-wide system of local government which is based on the
tinkhundla system of government, hierarchically organised according to the volume or
complexity of service rendered and integrated so as to avoid the urban/rural dichotomy.”23
The Constitution prescribes that local government will be organised and administered, as far


21
     Issa 2004, 27.
22
     CIA World Fact book.
23
     Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland, 2005, Section 218 (1), according to Kuusi 2009.



                                                                                                             4
as practicable, through democratically established regional and sub-regional councils or
committees 24 . The Constitution further prescribes on the composition of the councils or
committees that “a local government area shall be administered by an elected or appointed,
or partly elected and partly appointed council or committee as Parliament may prescribe” 25.

There is legislation outside the framework of the constitution that regulates local
government. The urban local authorities are established and administered under the Urban
Government Act No. 8 of 196926. The Ministers authority over local authorities is strong. The
Minister responsible for urban government may by notice in the Gazette declare an area to
be either a municipality or a town. The Minister also establishes by a notice in the Gazette
either a municipal council (in practice commonly referred to as city councils) or a town
council in each municipality, and a town board in each town.

The position of the towns and town boards is slightly different than the position of the
municipalities and municipal and town councils under the Urban Government Act. Only some
of the provisions in the Sections of the Urban Government Act apply automatically to the
town boards as they do to municipalities and municipal councils and town councils (e.g.
sections on composition of councils and election regulations), and the rest of the Sections of
the Act (e.g. sections on municipal funds) apply to town boards only if the Minister declares
that any or all of the remaining provisions apply to a town or a town board by publishing a
notice in the Gazette.27


2.3 Local Government Elections

Even though political parties are banned, elections are still held in Swaziland. The areas of
the urban local authorities are divided into wards, and the councillors are elected from the
wards under the first-past-the-post system on the basis of universal adult suffrage. The
term of office of the councillors is three years. 28 The councillors elect a Mayor from amongst
themselves29.

Mayors are elected indirectly from amongst the councillors on an annual basis. The ward
system is used to consult residents on council matters. Decisions are made by full council
based on recommendations made by the various committees established under the Urban
Government Act.30

It should be noted that candidates for house of assembly - election are nominated by the
local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the
most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round.
The last general elections in Swaziland were held in September 2008. 31


2.4 Staff in Local Government


24
   Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland, 2005, Section 218 (3) according to Kuusi 2009.
25
   Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland, 2005, Section 220 (1) according to Kuusi 2009.
26
   According to CLGF, the Urban Government Act of 1969 was amended in 2001 and 2003. The present study uses a
copy of the Act obtained on the web site of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, which does not state
wether or not the amendments have been included in the copy.
27
   Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Sections 4, 5, 111 according to Kuusi 2009.
28
   CLGF: Local Government System in Swaziland (sine anno).
29
   Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Section 7 according to Kuusi 2009.
30
   Ibid.
31
   CIA World Fact Book.



                                                                                                             5
In Swaziland the local authorities are responsible for the employment of their staff. The
Urban Government Act however stipulates that the employment and conditions of service for
senior staff must be approved by the Minister. Under certain circumstances, especially when
capacity-building is required in an authority, central government staff will be deployed until
the local authority can assume property levying functions.

All councils are required to have a town clerk, a town engineer, clerk to council and a chief
health officer.

The head of the paid service is referred to as either the town clerk or chief executive officer.
Typically, in urban councils have department heads managed by the town clerk. The
tinkundla do not have managerial staff.32


2.5 Independent Scrutiny

In Swaziland, there is no local government ombudsman. The Urban Government Act does,
however, have a provision to deal with appeals from citizens. The Minister is generally the
adjudicator and may use his/her powers under the act to engage in an inspection, audit or
commission so that matters are adequately addressed. 33

In relation to local authority finances, there is a requirement for all local authorities to
submit their accounts and financial statements for external independent audit. The report
goes to both the council and the minister.34


3. LOCAL GOVERNMENT: POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

3.1 Public Service Delivery


The Urban Government Act of 1969 provides for the duties and powers of the municipal
(city) and town councils. The provisions on the duties and powers of councils apply also to
the town boards to the extent which the Minister responsible for urban government may
prescribe by a notice published in the Gazette35.

Under the 1996 Urban Government Act, local authorities in Swaziland have the power to
undertake following urban service functions:

                 a) Infrastructure – roads, drainage, footpaths, street lightning, water,
                    sewage, electricity, telecommunication and transport planning
                 b) Public facilities – bus terminals, cemeteries, sport facilities,
                    community centres, public toilets, parks and open space
                 c) Environmental services – solid waste, landfills, septic services and
                    environmental control
                 d) Regulatory/Law      enforcement      functions   –  local   ordinance
                    enforcements, licences, nuisance abatement, land use control,
                    building control, traffic and parking regulation
                 e) Economic     Development        –   land    development,   residential

32
     CLGF: Local Government System in Swaziland (sine anno).
33
     Ibid.
34
     Ibid.
35
     Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Section 113 (2) according to Kuusi 2009.



                                                                                               6
                      development, public information, markets and abattoirs
                 f)   Social and Human services – recreation, libraries, public health, day
                      care, children and family services and education36

Urban local authorities also have discretionary powers in the tourism promotion. 37

The urban councils may also exercise the powers that are listed in the Schedule to the Urban
Government Act in accordance with any other law relating to these powers. The Minister
responsible for urban government may by publishing a notice in the Gazette restrict a
particular council’s right to exercise the powers listed in the Schedule, vary the Schedule or
confer additional powers on a particular council.38 The powers listed in the Schedule include,
among other things, the following:

       General public services; to establish, acquire, maintain, promote, assist and control:
          cemeteries, crematoria, mortuaries and ancillary services, and to provide for the
           burial of bodies of destitute persons and unclaimed bodies;
          omnibus stations and related office accommodation, cafes, restaurants, refreshment
           rooms and other buildings;
          health centres and crèches;
          public halls, libraries, art galleries and museums;
          slaughter houses, cold storage facilities and premises for the inspection or processing
           of milk, meat or hides and skins;
          markets;
          botanical and zoological gardens;
          public baths and swimming pools;
          laundries and other places for washing clothes;
          canteens, social centres and clubs including such facilities for employees and staff;
          public lavatories and urinals;
          pounds for stray animals and clinics for the treatment of sick animals;
          camping and grazing grounds;
          lairages and dipping tanks;
          public weighing machines; and
          public monuments.

Other categories of powers listed in the Schedule include, among other things, to establish
and maintain public streets and places, to undertake private works and services, to maintain
and administer fire brigades, subject to the approval of the Minister responsible for urban
government undertake and administer housing schemes and engage in trading activities,
such as maintaining public transport services,

The municipal (city) councils and town councils may make by-laws for carrying out the
powers conferred on them by the Urban Government Act or any other law 39 . The town
boards may make by-laws if the Minister responsible for urban government allows them to



36
     Above information adopted from Issa 2004, 28-29.
37
     CLGF Local Government System in Swaziland (sine anno).
38
     Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Section 29 according to Kuusi 2009.
39
     Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Section 77 according to Kuusi 2009.



                                                                                                   7
do so by publishing a notice in the Gazette 40 . The by-laws have to be submitted to the
Minister responsible for urban government for approval 41.


4. DECISION   MAKING                  SYSTEMS         OF     LOCAL       GOVERNMENT:       RESIDENTS'
   PARTICIPATION

In addition to standing as a candidate in the local government elections, the citizens of
Swaziland can participate in local decision-making through the ward structure. Urban local
authorities are divided into wards, through which the voting of the councillors takes place.
The ward system is in particular designed to consult residents on council matters.


5. FINANCE

5.1 Revenue

The urban government policy provides for the local authority the right to collect local
revenues. The other source of revenue consists of the central government grants. The main
sources of revenue were in 2003/2004:

                      1)   Rates                               65%
                      2)   Service charges                      8%
                      3)   Government grants                   25%
                      4)   Other                                2%

Municipal councils are responsible for setting and collecting taxes and user fees.

Urban councils receive central government transfer payments according to a formula set in
policy. Both general and specific grants are allocated. The ministerial supervision of locally
raised taxes is conducted through examination of the overall budgets set by municipal
councils.42

The municipal (city) councils and town councils, and also the town boards if the Minister
responsible for urban government assigns them the power by a notice in the Gazette, have
powers to raise revenue and set budgets, but the tinkhundla do not have these powers. The
tinkhundla have very few staff members, and are funded entirely by government grants. 43

An urban council may charge fees for any service or facility provided by it or for any licence
or permit issued by it. All these fees are regulated by by-laws - which have to be submitted
to the Minister responsible for local government for approval – except where a specific
provision is made in respect of any fee in the Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969 or any
other law.44

The Urban Government Act provides that the revenues of the urban councils consist of,
among other things, different kinds of rates, fees, charges, rents, and government grants.45
The council may also borrow money with the approval of the Minister responsible for urban

40
     Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Section 113 according to Kuusi 2009.
41
     Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Section 79 according to Kuusi 2009.
42
     Ibid.
43
     CLGF, 208; Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Section 113 according to Kuusi 2009.
44
     Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Section 57 (1–2) according to Kuusi 2009.
45
     Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Section 86 according to Kuusi 2009.



                                                                                                    8
government46.


5.2 Expenditure

Every urban council must prepare a budget for a financial year, and submit it to the Minister
responsible for urban government for approval. The Minister may make financial regulations
to control the financial affairs of the councils 47 . The Minister also has power to direct a
council to make and levy a rate sufficient to liquidate an aggregate deficit revealed in the
final accounts of the council at the end of the financial year 48.

Municipal councils are permitted to set deficit budgets where they are able to ensure
sustainability.49

The main items of expenditure for local authorities were in 2003/2004:

                      1)   Infrastructure                        45%
                      2)   Solid waste management                20%
                      3)   Public amenities                      15%
                      4)   Plant equipment                       10%
                      5)   Capital investment                     5%
                      6)   Other                                  5%50


6. WOMEN IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Despite the efforts to decentralise its decision making-structures, the state of Swaziland is
not a particularly good performer in terms of women’s political representation. Currently
about 8 percent of the councillors are women and there is one female mayor. 51

Recently Swaziland has adopted a new constitution that came into force in 2006. The
Constitution recognises local authorities, and provides for a reform of local government
system within five years. The new constitution guarantees women equality under the law. 52

According to the Constitution there is no quota system in use at the local government
(tinkhundla) level. The Constitution still obliges the King when nominating the member for
the senate and, in some cases, for the parliament to take women into account. This quota
system has increased the number of female representatives at central government level. 53




46
     Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Sections 94–95 according to Kuusi 2009.
47
     Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Sections 91 and 93 according to Kuusi 2009.
48
     Urban Government Act No. 8 of 1969, Section 109 (3) according to Kuusi 2009.
49
     Ibid.
50
     CLGF: Local Government System in Swaziland (sine anno).
51
     CLGF: Local Government System in Swaziland (sine anno).
52
     Electoral Institute of Southern Africa, Swaziland: Women’s Representation Quotas, 2009.
53
     Electoral Institute of Southern Africa, Swaziland: Women’s Representation Quotas, 2009.



                                                                                               9
Female councillors in Swaziland
According to Simonen 2009



                     Local Authority Councillors 2007


                                      8%




                                                                        Women
                                                                        Men




                            92 %




7. SWAZILAND NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES (SNALA)

“The Swaziland National Association of Local Authorities (SNALA) is open for membership to
local politicians (councillors). It is a voluntary organisation funded through membership
subscriptions. The association is registered in law and is recognised for its operation in the
country.

The role of SNALA is to promote local democracy, facilitate a sound relationship with central
government, strengthen institutions and lobby on legislation affecting local government.” 54


8. LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND TRADITIONAL LEADERS

The traditional chiefs and chiefdoms play an important role in the environment of local
government in Swaziland.1

Approximately 80 per cent of Swaziland’s population lives in rural and semi-urban areas. The
administration of these areas falls in the authority of the Chiefs, who are traditional
authorities and the representatives of the King at the local level. The Chiefs administer the
areas of their chiefdoms in accordance with customary law by allocating land for family use
and have responsibility for the welfare of the people living in the area and for ensuring law
and order.55




55
   According to the World Bank poor system of accountability and land management practices are among the most
critical constraints to growth and poverty reduction especially in the rural areas in Swaziland. Currently
approximately 60 per cent of the country is still held in trust for the people by the King as Swazi Nation Land, on
which 75 per cent of the population live on subsistence agriculture. In accordance with the customary law, male
heads of households can acquire customary right of use of land, but may not own land within a chiefdom. Prior to
the new Constitution women could only acquire a customary right of use through a male relative of heir. Securing



                                                                                                                10
The office of a Chief is hereditary and non-salaried. The Chief is the head of the area in law,
economics, and ritual. 56 Each region is divided into several tinkhundlas, which are the
regions’ constituencies. There are currently more than 350 traditional chiefs grouped into 55
tinkhundlas, so one inkhundla (singular form of tinkhundla) consist of many chiefdoms 57. An
inkhundla is under the general administration of an executive committee called Bucopho,
which consists of persons elected from the chiefdoms within the inkhundla. The Bucopho
operates under the chairmanship of an elected Indvuna YeNkhundla, who supervises the
activities of the inkhundla and convenes and presides over meetings of the inkhundla. 58
Allowances for the Bucopho members are determined by the Deputy Prime Minister’s Office
59
  .




land tenure is one of the biggest challenges facing the majority of Swaziland’s poor. World Bank 2008, 13.
56
   United Nations 2004, 6.
57
   World Bank 2008, 13.
58
   Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland, 2005, Section 81 (1–3); Government of the Kingdom of Swaziland;
United Nations 2004, 6 according to Kuusi 2009.
59
   CLGF: Local Government System in Swaziland (sine anno).



                                                                                                         11
SWAZILAND: COUNTRY FACTS


Independence: 1968

Capital: Mbabane; note - Lobamba is the royal and legislative capital

Administrative     divisions:   4   districts;   Hhohho,   Lubombo,   Manzini,
Shiselweni

Population: 1,123,913 (2009 est.) Note - according to estimations over 33
% of the population is infected by HIV/Aids.

Infant mortality rate: 68 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Literacy: 81,6% (2003 est.)

Languages: English (official), siSwati (official)

Religions: Zionist (a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral
worship) 40%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 10%, Anglican, Bahai,
Methodist, Mormon, Jewish and other 30%

Local government elections held: The councillors are elected for a
three-year-term. The last general elections were held in September 2008.

GDP: $5.703 billion (2008 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2,7% (2008 est.)

GDP per capita: $5,100 (2008 est.)

Export commodities: soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton
yarn, refrigerators, citrus and canned fruit


Population without sustainable access to an improved water source:
38 % (2004 est.)
People living under 1 $ per day: 47,7 % (2008 est.)


Sources:
CIA World Fact book
UNDP Human Development Report




                                                                                 12
Adopted from CLGF’s The Local Government System in Swaziland
(x) = Discretionary service by the local authority


  SERVICE                        CENTRAL GOVERNMENT   LOCAL GOVERNMENT
  General admin.
  Police                                 x
  Fire Protection
  Civil Protection
  Criminal justice                       x
  Civil justice                          x
  Civil status register
  Statistical Office
  Electoral register                     x                   (x)

  Education
  Pre-school
  Primary school                         x
  Secondary school                       x
  Vocational and technical
  Higher education                       x
  Adult education                        x

  Social welfare
  Kindergarten and nursery
  Family welfare services                x
  Welfare homes                                              (x)
  Social security

  Public health
  Primary care                           x
  Hospitals                              x
  Health Protection

  Housing      and        Town
  Planning
  Housing                                                      x
  Town planning                          x                     x
  Regional planning                      x                     x

  Transport
  Roads                                  x                     x
  Transport
  Urban roads                                                  x
  Urban rail
  Ports
  Airports                               x

  Environment and public
  sanitation
  Water and sanitation                                         x
  Refuse    collection and                                     x
  disposal



                                                                         13
Cemeteries and crematoria       x
Slaughterhouses                 x
Environmental protection    x   x
Consumer protection

Culture,     leisure  and
sports
Theatre and concerts
Museums and libraries       x
Parks and open spaces            x
Sports and leisure              (x)
Religious facilities            (x)

Utilities
Gas services
District heating
Water supply
Electricity

Economic
Agriculture                 x
Economic promotion
Trade and industry          x
Tourism                     x   (x)




                                      14
SOURCES


Beall, Jo (2005): Decentralising Government and Centralising Gender in Southern Africa:
Lessons from the South African Experience, Occasional Paper 8, United Nations Research
Institute for Social Development.

CIA World Fact Book
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ke.html
Accessed 2.6.2009

Electoral Institute of Southern Africa, Swaziland: Women’s Representation Quotas.
Updated January 2009
http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/swaquotas.htm
Accessed 13.5.2009

Government of the Kingdom of Swaziland (2005): Local Government Reform and
Decentralisation Policy Document (draft), Swaziland: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister

Human Development Report 2007/2008, UNDP
http://hdrstats.undp.org/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_SWZ.html
Accessed 1.6.2009

Issa, Abdul-Hakim Ameir (2004): Decentralisation in SADC-countries – Transformation
and Challenges of Decentralisation, A Paper submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree
for LLM, Faculty of Law, University of Western Cape
http://etd.uwc.ac.za/usrfiles/modules/etd/docs/etd_init_6567_1175237927.pdf
Accessed 1.6.2009

CLGF (Commonwealth Local Government Forum): The Local Government System in
Swaziland (no date)
http://www.clgf.org.uk/userfiles/CLGF/File/2008_Country_Files/SWAZILAND.pdf
Accessed 1.6.2009

Wunsch, James (sine anno): Decentralisation, Local Governance and the Democratic
Transition in Southern Africa: A Comparative Analysis, African Studies Quarterly: The
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