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Ch. 19 The French Revolution

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									             The French Revolution
                        Chapter 22



         1789-1815
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
Europe 1750-1789
Holy Roman Empire
               Revolution and France

• Old Regime – existing
  system of Feudalism

• People divided into
  three estates, or classes
   – First Estate
   – Second Estate
   – Third Estate
                     First Estate
• Clergy of Roman
  Catholic Church
• Spurned
  Enlightenment
  ideas

• Owned 10% of the
  land
• 2% of income to
  taxes
                      Second Estate
• Rich nobles
• Held high offices
  in government
• Spurned
  Enlightenment
  ideas
• Owned 20% of
  the land
• Paid almost no
  taxes
                       Third Estate
• Consisted of three
  groups
  – Bourgeoisie
  – City Workers
  – Peasants

• 98% of population
• 80% of France are
  peasants
                                 Third Estate
• Peasants paid nearly half of
  their income in taxes, dues
  to nobles, and tithes to the
  church
• Taxes on everyday items
  such as salt and soap.

• Growing resentment
  towards 1st and 2nd Estates
• Spreading of Enlightenment
  ideas
80
70
60
50
40                                1787
                                  1788
30
20
10
0
     % of Income Spent on Bread
 Weak Government
• King Louis XVI inherited
  debt
• Borrowed to help
  American colonies defeat
  the British
• Crop failures and bread
  shortages
• Paid no attention to the
  crisis
• Marie Antoinette –
  overspending and uncaring
                    Estates General

• France faced bankruptcy and Louis XVI
  called Estates General
• An assembly of representatives from all
  three estates

• Met on May 5, 1789 at Versailles
• First time in 175 years
                    Estates General

• Clergy and Nobles were always able to out
  vote the Third Estate – one vote per Estate
• Third estate wanted each delegate to have
  a vote – gives them the advantage

• The King ordered the vote the old way
• Third Estate abolishes power and name
  themselves National Assembly
                 Tennis Court Oath

• June 17, 1789 Third Estate votes to
  establish the National Assembly
  proclaiming the end of monarchy and
  the start of representative government

• Tennis Court Oath – indoor tennis
  court where delegates would stay until
  they made a new constitution
• Infamous Paris      The Bastille
  prison
• Mob storms the
  Bastille to get
  supplies and gun
  powder
• Great symbol of
  Revolution
• Bastille Day July
  14 – similar to
  July 4
• Senseless panic        Great Fear --
  spread through
  France
• Peasants became
  mobs and terrorized
  nobles
• Peasants storm
  Versailles to attack
  the King and Queen
• Royal family flees
  and power is
  changing hands
• National Assembly
  tries to ease the   Reform
  fears
• Nobles say they
  have always
  believed in life,
  liberty, property

• Feudal system
  abolished
• Now everyone is
  equal…?
              Legislative Assembly

• Limited Constitutional Monarchy
• Legislative Assembly has power to
  make laws
• Power to approve or veto any action
  the monarchy may take
• Still same problems as before
                  Legislative Assembly
• Three divisions

• Radicals
• Moderates
• Conservatives
• Sat on the left side of   Radicals
  the hall
• “Left-wing”

• Opposed the king and
  any monarchy
• Wanted sweeping
  changes and that people
  have full power
                       Moderates

• Sat the the center
• “Centrists”

• Wanted some
  changes
• Not as many as
  radicals
                          Conservatives

• Sat on the right side
• “Right-wing”

• Upheld the idea of a
  limited monarchy
• Wanted few changes in
  government
            National Convention

• New name of
  Government

• Begins September
  1792
French Politics During the First
        Years of the Revolution

• How would you describe them?
• What would life be like for the
  majority of the people?

• One paragraph answer supported by
  information from class
            War with Austria 1792

• French radicals wanted to spread their
  ideas
• Austria and Prussia wanted Louis XVI
  back on throne
• Legislative Assembly declared war on
  Austria
• Prussia joined Austria in war
            King Louis XVI Executed
• Political clubs – The
  Jacobins – wanted to
  remove the King
  permanently
• National Convention
  officially abolished the
  monarchy
• Louis tried for treason and
  found guilty
• Guillotined January 21,
  1793
                         The Terror
• The Jacobins had
  internal enemies as
  well as foreign wars
• Maximilien
  Robespierre
  assumes control
• Closes churches,
  changes calendar
  (no Sundays),
• “Republic of
  Virtue”
             Committee of Public Safety
• Robespierre – de facto
  Dictator
• Reign of Terror
• “Enemies of the state”
• Tried in AM guillotined in
  PM
• Marie Antoinette guillotined
• Most afraid of other
  revolutionaries
• 30,000–40,000 killed –
  mostly peasants
                   End of Robespierre
• National Convention and
  other leaders knew they
  were not safe
• Executed on July 28, 1794
• Public opinion shifted to
  the Right
• The Directory 1795        Death Mask of
• Corruption is rampant     Robespierre
 French Governments 1789-1795
         • The Old Regime

      • The National Assembly

     • The Legislative Assembly

     • The National Convention

French Governments 1789-1795 Assignment

								
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