Wireless LAN Threats
Wireless - Higher Risk
• Current Laptops
• Communication Medium – AIR
• Easy Access
• Lack of Security Policy
• Tools Widely Available
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Denial of Service, Spoofing,
Easily compromised keys
Man in the Middle attacks
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Switch Bridge Bridge
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• User Roles not defined
• Rogue AP undetected
• Authentication, Authorization & Auditing Missing
• Encryption Missing
• No Monitoring and Reporting
• Bandwidth Management
• No Laptop Security Policy
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WLAN Tools Available
Aerosol is easy to use wardriving software for PRISM2 Chipset, ATMEL USB and WaveLAN Wireless cards on
Windows. Its lightweight, written in C, free, and uh, just works!
by AirCrack Team
aircrack is a 802.11 WEP key cracker. It implements the so-called Fluhrer - Mantin - Shamir (FMS) attack, along
with some new attacks by a talented hacker named KoreK. When enough encrypted packets have been gathered,
aircrack can almost instantly recover the WEP key.
by Dave Smith et al
AirFart is a wireless tool created to detect wireless devices, calculate their signal strengths, and present them to the
user in an easy-to-understand fashion. It is written in C/C++ with a GTK front end. Airfart supports all wireless
network cards supported by the linux-wlan-ng Prism2 driver that provide hardware signal strength information in
the "raw signal" format (ssi_type 3). Airfart implements a modular n-tier architecture with the data collection at
the bottom tier and a graphical user interface at the top.
AirJack is a device driver (or suit of device drivers) for 802.11(a/b/g) raw frame injection and reception. It is ment
as a development tool for all manor of 802.11 applications that need to access the raw protocol.
by The Shmoo Group
Airsnarf is a simple rogue wireless access point setup utility designed to demonstrate how a rogue AP can steal
usernames and passwords from public wireless hotspots. Airsnarf was developed and released to demonstrate an
inherent vulnerability of public 802.11b hotspots--snarfing usernames and passwords by confusing users with DNS
and HTTP redirects from a competing AP.
by The Shmoo Group
AirSnort is a wireless LAN (WLAN) tool which recovers encryption keys. AirSnort operates by passively
monitoring transmissions, computing the encryption key when enough packets have been gathered. AirSnort
requires approximately 5-10 million encrypted packets to be gathered. Once enough packets have been gathered,
AirSnort can guess the encryption password in under a second. Page 10 10
by Elixar, Inc.
AirTraf 1.0 is a wireless sniffer that can detect and determine exactly what is being transmitted over 802.11
wireless networks. This open-source program tracks and identifies legitimate and rogue access points, keeps
performance statistics on a by-user and by-protocol basis, measures the signal strength of network components,
and more. Developed as an open source program, AirTraf is available in a stand-alone Linux package.
by Brian Barto, Ron Sweeney
Dictionary Attack Tool against LEAP. anwrap is a wrapper for ancontrol that serves as a dictionary attack tool
against LEAP enabled Cisco Wireless Networks. It traverses a user list and password list attempting authentication
and logging the results to a file.
by Matthew Davidson, Jeffrey Strube
AP Hopper is a program that automatically hops between access points of different wireless networks. It checks for
DHCP and Internet Access on all the networks found. It logs successful and unsuccessful attempts.
by Don Park
Network Stumbler and Wireless Configuration client. AP Radar is a Linux/GTK+ based graphical netstumbler and
wireless profile manager. This project makes use of the version 14 wireless extensions in linux 2.4.20 and 2.6 to
provide access point scanning capabilities for most models of wireless cards. It is meant to replace the manual
process of running iwconfig and dhclient. It makes reconfiguring for different APs quick and easy.
by Jim Carter
Access Point Hunter. It can find and automatically connect to whatever wireless network is within range. It can be
used for site surveys, writing the results in a file.
by Frederic Bret-Mounet
Wireless (802.11) Access Point Sniffer for Windows 2000 only. It enables you to list all access points broadcasting
beacon signals at your location. This is not a finished product. It was only tested on DWL-650 & Linksys and
requires you to manually change the SSID to blank before running it.
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by Kirby Kuehl
APTools is a Win32/Unix 802.11b rogue access point detection tool that is able to locate access points over the
by Joshua Wright
Recovers weak LEAP passwords. Can read live from any wireless interface in RFMON mode. Can monitor a
single channel, or perform channel hopping to look for targets. This tool is released as a proof-of-concept to
demonstrate a weakness in the LEAP protocol. LEAP is the Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol,
intellectual property of Cisco Systems, Inc. LEAP is a security mechanism available only on Cisco access points to
perform authentication of end-users and access points. LEAP is written as a standard EAP-type, but is not
compliant with the 802.1X specification since the access point modifies packets in transit, instead of simply
passing them to a authentication server (e.g. RADIUS).
by Dachb0den Labs
bsd-airtools is a package that provides a complete toolset for wireless 802.11b auditing. Namely, it currently
contains a bsd-based wep cracking application, called dweputils (as well as kernel patches for NetBSD, OpenBSD,
and FreeBSD). It also contains a curses based ap detection application similar to netstumbler (dstumbler) that can
be used to detect wireless access points and connected nodes, view signal to noise graphs, and interactively scroll
through scanned ap's and view statistics for each. It also includes a couple other tools to provide a complete toolset
for making use of all 14 of the prism2 debug modes as well as do basic analysis of the hardware-based link-layer
protocols provided by prism2's monitor debug mode.
WEP cracker which uses the AP to decipher packets. Easiest one are ARP's. Takes 10-20s. Included within patches
for wlan-ng to inject packets in monitor mode (I'll try to do hostap for the next release). That's about it. Bits and
pieces are missing here and there (only decodes IP/ARP traffic), but it's pretty complete.
ClassicStumbler scans for and displays information about all the wireless access points in range. It will display
your signal strength, noise strength, signal to noise ratio, what channel your access point is on, if other access
points are interfering with yours, and whether or not those access points are providing encrypted, unencrypted,
computer-to-computer, or infrastructure type networks. For an AirPort capable Mac. Page 12 12
by DMZ Services, Inc.
Perl script uses the text output of netstumbler and generates IDW overlay images on top of terraserver satellite
by Chris Lightfoot
Inspired by EtherPEG, Driftnet is a program which listens to network traffic and picks out images from TCP
streams it observes. Fun to run on a host which sees lots of web traffic. In an experimental enhancement, driftnet
now picks out MPEG audio streams from network traffic and tries to play them. can also now use driftnet with
Jamie Zawinski's webcollage, so that it can run as a screen saver.
by Dachb0den Labs
Part of the BSD-AirTools suite, dstumbler is a wardriving/netstumbling/lanjacking utility for bsd operating
systems that attempts to provide features similar to netstumbler in a fast and easy to use curses based application. it
is part of the bsd-airtools package released by Dachb0den Labs, which provides a complete bsd based tool set for
802.11b penetration testing.
by Dachb0den Labs
Part of the BSD-AirTools suite, dweputils is a set of utilities that allows you to fully audit and secure a wep
encrypted network. it consists of a packet collection tool called dwepdump, which allows you to collect wep
encrypted packets using a prism2 card, as well as dwepcrack which allows you to recover wep keys using any of
the commonly used methods, and dwepkeygen a secure 40-bit key generator that creates keys that aren't vulnerable
to the Tim Newsham 2^21 attack using a variable length seed.
by Gerald Combs et al
Ethereal is a free network protocol analyzer for Unix and Windows. It allows you to examine data from a live
network or from a capture file on disk. You can interactively browse the capture data, viewing summary and detail
information for each packet. Ethereal has several powerful features, including a rich display filter language and the
ability to view the reconstructed stream of a TCP session. Live data can be read from Ethernet, FDDI, PPP, Token-
Ring, IEEE 802.11, Classical IP over ATM, and loopback interfaces (at least on some platforms; not all of those
types are supported on all platforms).
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by Sam Bushell, Peter Bierman, Stuart Cheshire
EtherPEG is a free program for the Macintosh that shows you all the JPEGs (and GIFs) going by on your network.
EtherPEG works by capturing unencrypted TCP packets off your local network, collecting packets into groups
based on TCP connection (determined from source IP address, destination IP address, source TCP port and
destination TCP port), reassembling those packets into order based on TCP sequence number, and then scanning
the resulting data for byte sequences that suggest the presence of JPEG or GIF data. EtherPEG works with any
TCP/IP network, including Ethernet networks and wireless networks like AirPort, as long as the data is not
encrypted. If the data is encrypted using IPSEC, or Virtual Private Network (VPN) products like PGPNet, or Web
Browser SSL encryption, then third-parties cannot view your data.
by Black Alchemy Enterprises
If one access point is good, 53,000 must be better. Black Alchemy's Fake AP generates thousands of counterfeit
802.11b access points. Hide in plain sight amongst Fake AP's cacophony of beacon frames. As part of a honeypot
or as an instrument of your site security plan, Fake AP confuses Wardrivers, NetStumblers, Script Kiddies, and
by Remco Treffkorn
gpsd is a daemon that listens to a GPS or Loran receiver and translates the positional data into a simplified format
that can be more easily used by other programs, like chart plotters. The package comes with a sample client that
plots the location of the currently visible GPS satellites (if available) and a speedometer. It can also use DGPS/ip.
by Fritz Ganter
Gpsdrive is a map-based navigation system. It displays your position on a zoomable map provided from a NMEA-
capable GPS receiver. The maps are autoselected for the best resolution, depending of your position, and the
displayed image can be zoomed. Maps can be downloaded from the Internet with one mouse click. The program
provides information about speed, direction, bearing, arrival time, actual position, and target position. Speech
output is also available.
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by Max Moser, Joshua Wright
Hotspotter was written to exploit this weakness in the Windows XP operating system. Hotspotter passively
monitors the network for probe request frames to identify the preferred networks of Windows XP clients, and will
compare it to a supplied list of common hotspot network names. If the probed network name matches a common
hotspot name, Hotspotter will act as an access point to allow the client to authenticate and associate. Once
associated, Hotspotter can be configured to run a command, possibly a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and other
scanning against the new victim.
by Alf Watt
iStumbler is a free, open source tool for finding wireless networks and devices with your AirPort equipped
Macintosh. iStumbler combines a compact user interface with a real time graph of signal strength and complete
debugging information such as network type, name and mac address. Real-time visual feedback of signal strength
and encryption allows you to quickly find open networks, perform site surveys or just have a look at your wireless
neighborhood. For MacOS
by Michael Rossberg et al
KisMAC is a free stumbler application for MacOS X, that puts your card into the monitor mode. Unlike most other
applications for OS X we are completely invisible and send no probe requests. KisMAC supports third party
PCMCIA cards with Orinoco and PrismII chipsets, as well as Cisco Aironet cards. This program is not intended for
people, who have not much knowledge about WiFi, but for professional users.
by Mike Kershaw
Kismet is an 802.11 layer2 wireless network detector, sniffer, and intrusion detection system. Kismet will work
with any wireless card which support raw monitoring (rfmon) mode, and can sniff 802.11b, 802.11a, and 802.11g
traffic. Kismet is fully passive and undetectable when in operation. Kismet automatically tracks all networks in
range and is able to detect (or infer) hidden networks, attack attempts, find rogue access points, and find
by The Packetfactory
A toolkit for 802.11 frame capturing, creation and injection.
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libwnet is a packet creation and injection framework for building raw 802.11b frames and injecting them on *BSD
based systems. Included in this base package are the following applications which make use of libwnet: dinject is a
command line 802.11b packet injection package based on nemesis; reinj is a proof-of-concept for the tcp/arp
reinjection attack to generate traffic on a weped network.
Lucent/Orinoco Registry Encryption/Decryption
by Anders Ingeborn
Lucent Orinoco Client Manager stores WEP keys in Windows registry under a certain encryption/obfuscation.
This tool can be used to encrypt WEP keys to reg value or to decrypt reg value into WEP key.
MacStumbler is a utility to display information about nearby 802.11b and 802.11g wireless access points. It is
mainly designed to be a tool to help find access points while traveling, or to diagnose wireless network problems.
Additionally, MacStumbler can be used for "wardriving", which involves co-ordinating with a GPS unit while
traveling around to help produce a map of all access points in a given area. MacStumbler requires an Apple Airport
Card and MacOS 10.1 or greater. MacStumbler doesn't currently support any kind of PCMCIA or USB wireless
by W. Slavin
Network Stumbler for Pocket PC 3.0 and 2002. Supports ARM, MIPS and SH3 CPU types.
by Sean Whalen
Mognet is a simple, lightweight 802.11b sniffer written in Java and available under the GPL. It features realtime
capture output, support for all 802.11b generic and frame-specific headers, easy display of frame contents in hex or
ascii, text mode capture for GUI-less devices, and loading/saving capture sessions in libpcap format. Mognet
requires a Java Development Kit 1.3 or higher, and a working C compiler for native code compilation. Your
wireless card must support monitor mode, which most (but not all) do.
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• Musatcha Advanced WiFi Mapping Engine
by Brad Isbell
This is a freeware client to WiGLE.net. It also acts as a Kismet client that can log (so you can effectively wardrive
with a Linksys wap54g or wrt54g running kismet). It supports NMEA GPS units (or you can get GPS data from
Netstumbler.) GPSd is in the works.
by Michael A. Waldron
Find WiFi hotspots with your Palm Tungsten C Handheld Computer.
by W. Slavin
Windows Utility for 802.11b based Wireless Network Auditing.
by Mike D. Schiffman
Disassociates all 802.11 network connections within range on the same channel as the card in the machine. Built
on top of libradiate.
by DataWorm Labs
Wi-Fi Surveying Tool for the Pocket PC. Wireless auditing software for PRISM and NDIS 5.1 compatible card
that runs on PocketPC 2002. Supports GPS.
A Tool to check the vulnerability of your WirelessLan AccessPoint. In case your AccessPoint is running a
vulnerable Firmware, you get access to all relevant details such as admin password, WEP keys, allowed MAC-
Addresses and some more.
by Jan Fernquist
Prismstumbler is a wireless LAN (WLAN) which scans for beaconframes from accesspoints. Prismstumbler
operates by constantly switching channels an monitors any frames recived on the currently selected channel.
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by KLC Consulting
SMAC is an easy-to-use Windows MAC Address Modifying Utility which allows users to change MAC address
for almost any Network Interface Card (NIC) on the Windows 2000, XP, and 2003 Server systems, regardless of
whether the manufactures allow this option or not. SMAC does not change the hardware burned-in MAC
addresses. It is not necessary. SMAC changes the "software based" MAC addresses on the Windows 2000, XP, and
2003 Server systems, and the new MAC addresses you change will sustain from reboots.
by Kostas Evangelinos
A nifty tool to use when looking to discover access points and save captured traffic. Comes with a configure script
and supports Cisco Aironet and random prism2 based cards.
Mapping program for Windows. StreetStumbler was designed from the ground up to be able to use both full and
summary EXPORTS of NetStumbler logs. Please consult NetStumbler on how to Export files.
by Michael Puchol, Sonar Security
StumbVerter is a standalone application which allows you to import Network Stumbler's summary files into
Microsoft's MapPoint 2004 maps. The logged WAPs will be shown with small icons, their colour and shape
relating to WEP mode and signal strength. As the AP icons are created as MapPoint pushpins, the balloons contain
other information, such as MAC address, signal strength, mode, etc. This balloon can also be used to write down
useful information about the AP, notes, etc.
by The Hacker's Choice
The THC LEAP Cracker Tool suite contains tools to break the NTChallengeResponse encryption technique e.g.
used by Cisco Wireless LEAP Authentication. Also tools for spoofing challenge-packets from Access Points are
included, so you are able to perform dictionary attacks against all users.
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by Reyk Floeter
A free implementation of some basic 802.11b attacks. This tool consists of the tools "deauth" and "auth". deauth
(Network DOS) (flood wireless networks with deauthentication packets and spoofed BSSID; authenticated stations
will drop their network connections). auth (Accesspoint DOS) (flood accesspoints with authentication packets and
random stations addresses; some accesspoints will deny any service after some flooding)
Wardrive CD (.iso)
by Wireless Nederland
Downloadable .iso with wardriving utilities. Based on Slackware. Contains AirSnort and Kismet. This distribution
can work with both USB and Serial GPS. Logs can be written to floppy or USB drive. Floppy and USB drive have
to be formatted in vfat format (Win98).
by WarGlue Team
This is a multiplatform general utility suite for use with existing network stumbling software, such as Kismet or
NetStumbler. The program will convert between multiple output logs, including the popular wi-scan format,
A new linux distribution for Wardrivers. It is available on disk and bootable CD. Its main intended use is for
systems administrators that want to audit and evaluate their wireless network installations. Should be handy for
by Cyrus Durgin et al
802.11 network tools - allow for detection of networks and services initially using wireless extensions for linux
and raw 802.11 frames. Initial support is for the wavelan/orinoco card and plan support for aironet cards.
by Jan Morgenstern
WaveMon is a ncurses-based monitor for wireless devices. It allows you to watch the signal and noise levels,
packet statistics, device configuration, and network parameters of your wireless network hardware. It has currently
only been tested with the Lucent Orinoco series of cards, although it should work (with varying features) with all
devices supported by the wireless kernel extensions written by Jean Tourrilhes.
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WaveStumbler is console based 802.11 network mapper for Linux. It reports the basic AP stuff like channel, WEP,
ESSID, MAC etc. It has support for Hermes based cards (Compaq, Lucent/Agere, ... ) It still in development but
tends to be stable. It consist of a patch against the kernel driver, orinoco.cs which makes it possible to send the
scan command to the driver via the /proc/hermes/ethX/cmds file. The answer is then sent back via a netlink socket.
WaveStumbler listens to this socket and displays the output data on the console. The patch should be applied
agains linux-2.4.17. It patches the whole linux/drivers/wireless to version 2.4.18-pre7 + the apscan code in
orinoco.c. This is a 100% experimental patch, but it seems to work quite good with a Orinoco Silver Card, so feel
free to try it out.
by Frank Echanique
WebStumbler is a simple application for turning NetStumbler summary files into HTML files.
by Michael Lauer et al
Wellenreiter is a wireless network discovery and auditing tool. Prism2, Lucent, and Cisco based cards are
supported. It is the easiest to use Linux scanning tool. No card configuration has to be done anymore. The whole
look and feel is pretty self-explaining. It can discover networks (BSS/IBSS), and detects ESSID broadcasting or
non-broadcasting networks and their WEP capabilities and the manufacturer automatically. DHCP and ARP traffic
are decoded and displayed to give you further information about the networks. An ethereal/tcpdump-compatible
dumpfile and an Application savefile will be automaticly created. Using a supported GPS device and the gpsd you
can track the location of the discovered networks.
by Dominik Blunk, Alain Girardet
WepAttack is a WLAN open source Linux tool for breaking 802.11 WEP keys. This tool is based on an active
dictionary attack that tests millions of words to find the right key. Only one packet is required to start an attack.
by Anton Rager, Paul Danckaert
WEPCrack is a tool that cracks 802.11 WEP encryption keys using the latest discovered weakness of RC4 key
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by Jose Ignacio Sanchez
Weplab is a tool to review the security of WEP encryption in wireless networks from an educational point of view.
Several attacks are available so it can be measured the efectiveness and minimun requirements of each one.
by Anton Rager
WEPWedgie is a toolkit for determining 802.11 WEP keystreams and injecting traffic with known keystreams.
The toolkit also includes logic for firewall rule mapping, pingscanning, and portscanning via the injection channel
and a cellular modem.
by Tim Newsham
This package contains two tools, one for cracking WEP keys and one for decrypting WEP packets. Wep_crack:
Given a pcap file containing a packet capture of WEP packets, this program will attempt to find the key used in
encryption. This is done by searching the key space using keys generated from dictionary words, or by
exhaustively searching through the key generation seeds. Keys are validated by decrypting a number of packets
and verifying their CRC. If the CRC validates for all packets, there is a high probability that the proper key was
used. Wep_decrypt is a program for decrypting captured 802.11 traffic that is protect with WEP traffic. It reads in
a pcap capture file, such as that generated by prismdump, and outputs another pcap capture file with decrypted
packets. By default it will read from stdin and ouput to stdout. The key to decrypt with can be specified as a string
of hex characters, optionally seperated by spaces or colons, or as a text string. If a text string is specified, the actual
keying material will be generated by the string in the (ad hoc) standard fashion used by many drivers.
by Eric Olinger
Wi-find is a wirelesss network detection tool that is written in C and is aiming for flexibility and clean easy to
understand code. It currently only suports prism2 based cards using the wlan-ng drive (the hostap might work also)
but the support is there to add more cards.
by Malcolm Hall
WiFiFoFum is a 802.11 scanner designed for PDAs running PocketPC 2003. It scans all 802.11 access points in
range and offers a list and a radar to view. It also offers GPS features to record the location of the access points.
The list can be saved to file.
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by Jérôme Poggi
WifiScanner is a tool that has been designed to discover wireless node (i.e access point and wireless clients). It is
distributed under the GPL License. It works with CISCO cards and prism cards with a hostap driver or wlan-ng
driver. An IDS system is integrated to detect anomaly like MAC usurpation.
by Loris Degioanni et al
WinDump is the porting to the Windows platform of tcpdump, the most used network sniffer/analyzer for UNIX.
WinDump is fully compatible with tcpdump and can be used to watch and diagnose network traffic according to
various complex rules. It can run under Windows 95/98/ME, and under Windows NT/2000/XP. WinDump uses a
libpcap-compatible library for Windows, WinPcap, which is freely downloadable from the WinPcap site.
WinDump is free and is released under a BSD-style licence.
by Isao Seki
Network stumbler for WaveLAN/IEEE wireless networking of NetBSD.
by Takehiro Takahashi
WPA Cracker is a dictionary/brute-force attacker against WiFi Protected Access (WPA). WPA takes two forms;
WPA Enterprise Mode and WPA PSK (Pre-Shared Key) Mode. WPA Cracker takes advantage of an inherently
vulnerable characteristics of the PSK implementation to provide users an insight that the security must be deployed
by Portland State University
wscan is a X-11/visual 802.11 wireless signal-strength display tool (version 2.0 includes AP scanning mode). You
can download a tar archive for it that allows you to build it on Linux or FreeBSD. There's also an ipkg/package for
linux/ipaqs running familiar.
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