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Wireless Threats


									   Wireless LAN Threats

                  Vikas Khanduri
Wireless - Higher Risk
•   Current Laptops

•   Communication Medium – AIR

•   Easy Access

•   Lack of Security Policy

•   Tools Widely Available

                                 Page 2   2
Wireless Threats

       Denial of Service, Spoofing,
        and Eavesdropping
       Easily compromised keys
       War Chalking
       Management Nightmare
       Ignorance
       Man in the Middle attacks
        Monkey Jack
       Authentication missing

                                       Page 3   3



Secured            Network

                                                   Remote Site
          Switch               Bridge     Bridge

                                                          Page 4   4
Monkey Jack

              Page 5   5
Monkey Jack

              Page 6   6
Authentication Missing

                         Page 7   7
Authentication Missing

                         Page 8   8
Weak Security
•   User Roles not defined
•   Rogue AP undetected
•   Authentication, Authorization & Auditing Missing
•   Encryption Missing
•   No Monitoring and Reporting
•   Bandwidth Management
•   No Laptop Security Policy

                                               Page 9   9
WLAN Tools Available
•   Aerosol
    by Sniph
    Aerosol is easy to use wardriving software for PRISM2 Chipset, ATMEL USB and WaveLAN Wireless cards on
    Windows. Its lightweight, written in C, free, and uh, just works!
    by AirCrack Team
    aircrack is a 802.11 WEP key cracker. It implements the so-called Fluhrer - Mantin - Shamir (FMS) attack, along
    with some new attacks by a talented hacker named KoreK. When enough encrypted packets have been gathered,
    aircrack can almost instantly recover the WEP key.
    by Dave Smith et al
    AirFart is a wireless tool created to detect wireless devices, calculate their signal strengths, and present them to the
    user in an easy-to-understand fashion. It is written in C/C++ with a GTK front end. Airfart supports all wireless
    network cards supported by the linux-wlan-ng Prism2 driver that provide hardware signal strength information in
    the "raw signal" format (ssi_type 3). Airfart implements a modular n-tier architecture with the data collection at
    the bottom tier and a graphical user interface at the top.
    by abaddon
    AirJack is a device driver (or suit of device drivers) for 802.11(a/b/g) raw frame injection and reception. It is ment
    as a development tool for all manor of 802.11 applications that need to access the raw protocol.
    by The Shmoo Group
    Airsnarf is a simple rogue wireless access point setup utility designed to demonstrate how a rogue AP can steal
    usernames and passwords from public wireless hotspots. Airsnarf was developed and released to demonstrate an
    inherent vulnerability of public 802.11b hotspots--snarfing usernames and passwords by confusing users with DNS
    and HTTP redirects from a competing AP.
    by The Shmoo Group
    AirSnort is a wireless LAN (WLAN) tool which recovers encryption keys. AirSnort operates by passively
    monitoring transmissions, computing the encryption key when enough packets have been gathered. AirSnort
    requires approximately 5-10 million encrypted packets to be gathered. Once enough packets have been gathered,
    AirSnort can guess the encryption password in under a second.                                Page 10                       10
•   AirTraf
    by Elixar, Inc.
    AirTraf 1.0 is a wireless sniffer that can detect and determine exactly what is being transmitted over 802.11
    wireless networks. This open-source program tracks and identifies legitimate and rogue access points, keeps
    performance statistics on a by-user and by-protocol basis, measures the signal strength of network components,
    and more. Developed as an open source program, AirTraf is available in a stand-alone Linux package.
    by Brian Barto, Ron Sweeney
    Dictionary Attack Tool against LEAP. anwrap is a wrapper for ancontrol that serves as a dictionary attack tool
    against LEAP enabled Cisco Wireless Networks. It traverses a user list and password list attempting authentication
    and logging the results to a file.
    AP Hopper
    by Matthew Davidson, Jeffrey Strube
    AP Hopper is a program that automatically hops between access points of different wireless networks. It checks for
    DHCP and Internet Access on all the networks found. It logs successful and unsuccessful attempts.
    AP Radar
    by Don Park
    Network Stumbler and Wireless Configuration client. AP Radar is a Linux/GTK+ based graphical netstumbler and
    wireless profile manager. This project makes use of the version 14 wireless extensions in linux 2.4.20 and 2.6 to
    provide access point scanning capabilities for most models of wireless cards. It is meant to replace the manual
    process of running iwconfig and dhclient. It makes reconfiguring for different APs quick and easy.
    by Jim Carter
    Access Point Hunter. It can find and automatically connect to whatever wireless network is within range. It can be
    used for site surveys, writing the results in a file.
    by Frederic Bret-Mounet
    Wireless (802.11) Access Point Sniffer for Windows 2000 only. It enables you to list all access points broadcasting
    beacon signals at your location. This is not a finished product. It was only tested on DWL-650 & Linksys and
    requires you to manually change the SSID to blank before running it.

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•   APTools
    by Kirby Kuehl
    APTools is a Win32/Unix 802.11b rogue access point detection tool that is able to locate access points over the
    "wired" network.
    by Joshua Wright
    Recovers weak LEAP passwords. Can read live from any wireless interface in RFMON mode. Can monitor a
    single channel, or perform channel hopping to look for targets. This tool is released as a proof-of-concept to
    demonstrate a weakness in the LEAP protocol. LEAP is the Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol,
    intellectual property of Cisco Systems, Inc. LEAP is a security mechanism available only on Cisco access points to
    perform authentication of end-users and access points. LEAP is written as a standard EAP-type, but is not
    compliant with the 802.1X specification since the access point modifies packets in transit, instead of simply
    passing them to a authentication server (e.g. RADIUS).
    by Dachb0den Labs
    bsd-airtools is a package that provides a complete toolset for wireless 802.11b auditing. Namely, it currently
    contains a bsd-based wep cracking application, called dweputils (as well as kernel patches for NetBSD, OpenBSD,
    and FreeBSD). It also contains a curses based ap detection application similar to netstumbler (dstumbler) that can
    be used to detect wireless access points and connected nodes, view signal to noise graphs, and interactively scroll
    through scanned ap's and view statistics for each. It also includes a couple other tools to provide a complete toolset
    for making use of all 14 of the prism2 debug modes as well as do basic analysis of the hardware-based link-layer
    protocols provided by prism2's monitor debug mode.
    by KoreK
    WEP cracker which uses the AP to decipher packets. Easiest one are ARP's. Takes 10-20s. Included within patches
    for wlan-ng to inject packets in monitor mode (I'll try to do hostap for the next release). That's about it. Bits and
    pieces are missing here and there (only decodes IP/ARP traffic), but it's pretty complete.
    by alksoft
    ClassicStumbler scans for and displays information about all the wireless access points in range. It will display
    your signal strength, noise strength, signal to noise ratio, what channel your access point is on, if other access
    points are interfering with yours, and whether or not those access points are providing encrypted, unencrypted,
    computer-to-computer, or infrastructure type networks. For an AirPort capable Mac.                  Page 12              12
    by DMZ Services, Inc.
    Perl script uses the text output of netstumbler and generates IDW overlay images on top of terraserver satellite
    by Chris Lightfoot
    Inspired by EtherPEG, Driftnet is a program which listens to network traffic and picks out images from TCP
    streams it observes. Fun to run on a host which sees lots of web traffic. In an experimental enhancement, driftnet
    now picks out MPEG audio streams from network traffic and tries to play them. can also now use driftnet with
    Jamie Zawinski's webcollage, so that it can run as a screen saver.
    by Dachb0den Labs
    Part of the BSD-AirTools suite, dstumbler is a wardriving/netstumbling/lanjacking utility for bsd operating
    systems that attempts to provide features similar to netstumbler in a fast and easy to use curses based application. it
    is part of the bsd-airtools package released by Dachb0den Labs, which provides a complete bsd based tool set for
    802.11b penetration testing.
    by Dachb0den Labs
    Part of the BSD-AirTools suite, dweputils is a set of utilities that allows you to fully audit and secure a wep
    encrypted network. it consists of a packet collection tool called dwepdump, which allows you to collect wep
    encrypted packets using a prism2 card, as well as dwepcrack which allows you to recover wep keys using any of
    the commonly used methods, and dwepkeygen a secure 40-bit key generator that creates keys that aren't vulnerable
    to the Tim Newsham 2^21 attack using a variable length seed.
    by Gerald Combs et al
    Ethereal is a free network protocol analyzer for Unix and Windows. It allows you to examine data from a live
    network or from a capture file on disk. You can interactively browse the capture data, viewing summary and detail
    information for each packet. Ethereal has several powerful features, including a rich display filter language and the
    ability to view the reconstructed stream of a TCP session. Live data can be read from Ethernet, FDDI, PPP, Token-
    Ring, IEEE 802.11, Classical IP over ATM, and loopback interfaces (at least on some platforms; not all of those
    types are supported on all platforms).
                                                                                                      Page 13                 13
•   EtherPEG
    by Sam Bushell, Peter Bierman, Stuart Cheshire
    EtherPEG is a free program for the Macintosh that shows you all the JPEGs (and GIFs) going by on your network.
    EtherPEG works by capturing unencrypted TCP packets off your local network, collecting packets into groups
    based on TCP connection (determined from source IP address, destination IP address, source TCP port and
    destination TCP port), reassembling those packets into order based on TCP sequence number, and then scanning
    the resulting data for byte sequences that suggest the presence of JPEG or GIF data. EtherPEG works with any
    TCP/IP network, including Ethernet networks and wireless networks like AirPort, as long as the data is not
    encrypted. If the data is encrypted using IPSEC, or Virtual Private Network (VPN) products like PGPNet, or Web
    Browser SSL encryption, then third-parties cannot view your data.
    by Black Alchemy Enterprises
    If one access point is good, 53,000 must be better. Black Alchemy's Fake AP generates thousands of counterfeit
    802.11b access points. Hide in plain sight amongst Fake AP's cacophony of beacon frames. As part of a honeypot
    or as an instrument of your site security plan, Fake AP confuses Wardrivers, NetStumblers, Script Kiddies, and
    other undesirables.
    by Remco Treffkorn
    gpsd is a daemon that listens to a GPS or Loran receiver and translates the positional data into a simplified format
    that can be more easily used by other programs, like chart plotters. The package comes with a sample client that
    plots the location of the currently visible GPS satellites (if available) and a speedometer. It can also use DGPS/ip.
    by Fritz Ganter
    Gpsdrive is a map-based navigation system. It displays your position on a zoomable map provided from a NMEA-
    capable GPS receiver. The maps are autoselected for the best resolution, depending of your position, and the
    displayed image can be zoomed. Maps can be downloaded from the Internet with one mouse click. The program
    provides information about speed, direction, bearing, arrival time, actual position, and target position. Speech
    output is also available.

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•   Hotspotter
    by Max Moser, Joshua Wright
    Hotspotter was written to exploit this weakness in the Windows XP operating system. Hotspotter passively
    monitors the network for probe request frames to identify the preferred networks of Windows XP clients, and will
    compare it to a supplied list of common hotspot network names. If the probed network name matches a common
    hotspot name, Hotspotter will act as an access point to allow the client to authenticate and associate. Once
    associated, Hotspotter can be configured to run a command, possibly a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and other
    scanning against the new victim.
    by Alf Watt
    iStumbler is a free, open source tool for finding wireless networks and devices with your AirPort equipped
    Macintosh. iStumbler combines a compact user interface with a real time graph of signal strength and complete
    debugging information such as network type, name and mac address. Real-time visual feedback of signal strength
    and encryption allows you to quickly find open networks, perform site surveys or just have a look at your wireless
    neighborhood. For MacOS
    by Michael Rossberg et al
    KisMAC is a free stumbler application for MacOS X, that puts your card into the monitor mode. Unlike most other
    applications for OS X we are completely invisible and send no probe requests. KisMAC supports third party
    PCMCIA cards with Orinoco and PrismII chipsets, as well as Cisco Aironet cards. This program is not intended for
    people, who have not much knowledge about WiFi, but for professional users.
    by Mike Kershaw
    Kismet is an 802.11 layer2 wireless network detector, sniffer, and intrusion detection system. Kismet will work
    with any wireless card which support raw monitoring (rfmon) mode, and can sniff 802.11b, 802.11a, and 802.11g
    traffic. Kismet is fully passive and undetectable when in operation. Kismet automatically tracks all networks in
    range and is able to detect (or infer) hidden networks, attack attempts, find rogue access points, and find
    unauthorised users.
    by The Packetfactory
    A toolkit for 802.11 frame capturing, creation and injection.

                                                                                                   Page 15               15
•   LibWnet
    by h1kari
    libwnet is a packet creation and injection framework for building raw 802.11b frames and injecting them on *BSD
    based systems. Included in this base package are the following applications which make use of libwnet: dinject is a
    command line 802.11b packet injection package based on nemesis; reinj is a proof-of-concept for the tcp/arp
    reinjection attack to generate traffic on a weped network.
    Lucent/Orinoco Registry Encryption/Decryption
    by Anders Ingeborn
    Lucent Orinoco Client Manager stores WEP keys in Windows registry under a certain encryption/obfuscation.
    This tool can be used to encrypt WEP keys to reg value or to decrypt reg value into WEP key.
    by Korben
    MacStumbler is a utility to display information about nearby 802.11b and 802.11g wireless access points. It is
    mainly designed to be a tool to help find access points while traveling, or to diagnose wireless network problems.
    Additionally, MacStumbler can be used for "wardriving", which involves co-ordinating with a GPS unit while
    traveling around to help produce a map of all access points in a given area. MacStumbler requires an Apple Airport
    Card and MacOS 10.1 or greater. MacStumbler doesn't currently support any kind of PCMCIA or USB wireless
    by W. Slavin
    Network Stumbler for Pocket PC 3.0 and 2002. Supports ARM, MIPS and SH3 CPU types.
    by Sean Whalen
    Mognet is a simple, lightweight 802.11b sniffer written in Java and available under the GPL. It features realtime
    capture output, support for all 802.11b generic and frame-specific headers, easy display of frame contents in hex or
    ascii, text mode capture for GUI-less devices, and loading/saving capture sessions in libpcap format. Mognet
    requires a Java Development Kit 1.3 or higher, and a working C compiler for native code compilation. Your
    wireless card must support monitor mode, which most (but not all) do.

                                                                                                    Page 16                16
•   Musatcha Advanced WiFi Mapping Engine
    by Brad Isbell
    This is a freeware client to It also acts as a Kismet client that can log (so you can effectively wardrive
    with a Linksys wap54g or wrt54g running kismet). It supports NMEA GPS units (or you can get GPS data from
    Netstumbler.) GPSd is in the works.
    by Michael A. Waldron
    Find WiFi hotspots with your Palm Tungsten C Handheld Computer.
    by W. Slavin
    Windows Utility for 802.11b based Wireless Network Auditing.
    by Mike D. Schiffman
    Disassociates all 802.11 network connections within range on the same channel as the card in the machine. Built
    on top of libradiate.
    by DataWorm Labs
    Wi-Fi Surveying Tool for the Pocket PC. Wireless auditing software for PRISM and NDIS 5.1 compatible card
    that runs on PocketPC 2002. Supports GPS.
    by MobileAccess
    A Tool to check the vulnerability of your WirelessLan AccessPoint. In case your AccessPoint is running a
    vulnerable Firmware, you get access to all relevant details such as admin password, WEP keys, allowed MAC-
    Addresses and some more.
    by Jan Fernquist
    Prismstumbler is a wireless LAN (WLAN) which scans for beaconframes from accesspoints. Prismstumbler
    operates by constantly switching channels an monitors any frames recived on the currently selected channel.

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•   SMAC
    by KLC Consulting
    SMAC is an easy-to-use Windows MAC Address Modifying Utility which allows users to change MAC address
    for almost any Network Interface Card (NIC) on the Windows 2000, XP, and 2003 Server systems, regardless of
    whether the manufactures allow this option or not. SMAC does not change the hardware burned-in MAC
    addresses. It is not necessary. SMAC changes the "software based" MAC addresses on the Windows 2000, XP, and
    2003 Server systems, and the new MAC addresses you change will sustain from reboots.
    by Kostas Evangelinos
    A nifty tool to use when looking to discover access points and save captured traffic. Comes with a configure script
    and supports Cisco Aironet and random prism2 based cards.
    by kg4ixs
    Mapping program for Windows. StreetStumbler was designed from the ground up to be able to use both full and
    summary EXPORTS of NetStumbler logs. Please consult NetStumbler on how to Export files.
    by Michael Puchol, Sonar Security
    StumbVerter is a standalone application which allows you to import Network Stumbler's summary files into
    Microsoft's MapPoint 2004 maps. The logged WAPs will be shown with small icons, their colour and shape
    relating to WEP mode and signal strength. As the AP icons are created as MapPoint pushpins, the balloons contain
    other information, such as MAC address, signal strength, mode, etc. This balloon can also be used to write down
    useful information about the AP, notes, etc.
    THC LEAPcracker
    by The Hacker's Choice
    The THC LEAP Cracker Tool suite contains tools to break the NTChallengeResponse encryption technique e.g.
    used by Cisco Wireless LEAP Authentication. Also tools for spoofing challenge-packets from Access Points are
    included, so you are able to perform dictionary attacks against all users.

                                                                                                    Page 18               18
•   void11
    by Reyk Floeter
    A free implementation of some basic 802.11b attacks. This tool consists of the tools "deauth" and "auth". deauth
    (Network DOS) (flood wireless networks with deauthentication packets and spoofed BSSID; authenticated stations
    will drop their network connections). auth (Accesspoint DOS) (flood accesspoints with authentication packets and
    random stations addresses; some accesspoints will deny any service after some flooding)
    Wardrive CD (.iso)
    by Wireless Nederland
    Downloadable .iso with wardriving utilities. Based on Slackware. Contains AirSnort and Kismet. This distribution
    can work with both USB and Serial GPS. Logs can be written to floppy or USB drive. Floppy and USB drive have
    to be formatted in vfat format (Win98).
    by WarGlue Team
    This is a multiplatform general utility suite for use with existing network stumbling software, such as Kismet or
    NetStumbler. The program will convert between multiple output logs, including the popular wi-scan format,
    between platforms.
    by Fred
    A new linux distribution for Wardrivers. It is available on disk and bootable CD. Its main intended use is for
    systems administrators that want to audit and evaluate their wireless network installations. Should be handy for
    wardriving also.
    Wavelan Tools
    by Cyrus Durgin et al
    802.11 network tools - allow for detection of networks and services initially using wireless extensions for linux
    and raw 802.11 frames. Initial support is for the wavelan/orinoco card and plan support for aironet cards.
    by Jan Morgenstern
    WaveMon is a ncurses-based monitor for wireless devices. It allows you to watch the signal and noise levels,
    packet statistics, device configuration, and network parameters of your wireless network hardware. It has currently
    only been tested with the Lucent Orinoco series of cards, although it should work (with varying features) with all
    devices supported by the wireless kernel extensions written by Jean Tourrilhes.
                                                                                                    Page 19               19
•   WaveStumbler
    by Patrik
    WaveStumbler is console based 802.11 network mapper for Linux. It reports the basic AP stuff like channel, WEP,
    ESSID, MAC etc. It has support for Hermes based cards (Compaq, Lucent/Agere, ... ) It still in development but
    tends to be stable. It consist of a patch against the kernel driver, orinoco.cs which makes it possible to send the
    scan command to the driver via the /proc/hermes/ethX/cmds file. The answer is then sent back via a netlink socket.
    WaveStumbler listens to this socket and displays the output data on the console. The patch should be applied
    agains linux-2.4.17. It patches the whole linux/drivers/wireless to version 2.4.18-pre7 + the apscan code in
    orinoco.c. This is a 100% experimental patch, but it seems to work quite good with a Orinoco Silver Card, so feel
    free to try it out.
    by Frank Echanique
    WebStumbler is a simple application for turning NetStumbler summary files into HTML files.
    by Michael Lauer et al
    Wellenreiter is a wireless network discovery and auditing tool. Prism2, Lucent, and Cisco based cards are
    supported. It is the easiest to use Linux scanning tool. No card configuration has to be done anymore. The whole
    look and feel is pretty self-explaining. It can discover networks (BSS/IBSS), and detects ESSID broadcasting or
    non-broadcasting networks and their WEP capabilities and the manufacturer automatically. DHCP and ARP traffic
    are decoded and displayed to give you further information about the networks. An ethereal/tcpdump-compatible
    dumpfile and an Application savefile will be automaticly created. Using a supported GPS device and the gpsd you
    can track the location of the discovered networks.
    by Dominik Blunk, Alain Girardet
    WepAttack is a WLAN open source Linux tool for breaking 802.11 WEP keys. This tool is based on an active
    dictionary attack that tests millions of words to find the right key. Only one packet is required to start an attack.
    by Anton Rager, Paul Danckaert
    WEPCrack is a tool that cracks 802.11 WEP encryption keys using the latest discovered weakness of RC4 key

                                                                                                        Page 20             20
•   Weplab
    by Jose Ignacio Sanchez
    Weplab is a tool to review the security of WEP encryption in wireless networks from an educational point of view.
    Several attacks are available so it can be measured the efectiveness and minimun requirements of each one.
    by Anton Rager
    WEPWedgie is a toolkit for determining 802.11 WEP keystreams and injecting traffic with known keystreams.
    The toolkit also includes logic for firewall rule mapping, pingscanning, and portscanning via the injection channel
    and a cellular modem.
    WEP_Tools (wep_crack/wep_decrypt)
    by Tim Newsham
    This package contains two tools, one for cracking WEP keys and one for decrypting WEP packets. Wep_crack:
    Given a pcap file containing a packet capture of WEP packets, this program will attempt to find the key used in
    encryption. This is done by searching the key space using keys generated from dictionary words, or by
    exhaustively searching through the key generation seeds. Keys are validated by decrypting a number of packets
    and verifying their CRC. If the CRC validates for all packets, there is a high probability that the proper key was
    used. Wep_decrypt is a program for decrypting captured 802.11 traffic that is protect with WEP traffic. It reads in
    a pcap capture file, such as that generated by prismdump, and outputs another pcap capture file with decrypted
    packets. By default it will read from stdin and ouput to stdout. The key to decrypt with can be specified as a string
    of hex characters, optionally seperated by spaces or colons, or as a text string. If a text string is specified, the actual
    keying material will be generated by the string in the (ad hoc) standard fashion used by many drivers.
    by Eric Olinger
    Wi-find is a wirelesss network detection tool that is written in C and is aiming for flexibility and clean easy to
    understand code. It currently only suports prism2 based cards using the wlan-ng drive (the hostap might work also)
    but the support is there to add more cards.
    by Malcolm Hall
    WiFiFoFum is a 802.11 scanner designed for PDAs running PocketPC 2003. It scans all 802.11 access points in
    range and offers a list and a radar to view. It also offers GPS features to record the location of the access points.
    The list can be saved to file.

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    by Jérôme Poggi
    WifiScanner is a tool that has been designed to discover wireless node (i.e access point and wireless clients). It is
    distributed under the GPL License. It works with CISCO cards and prism cards with a hostap driver or wlan-ng
    driver. An IDS system is integrated to detect anomaly like MAC usurpation.
    by Loris Degioanni et al
    WinDump is the porting to the Windows platform of tcpdump, the most used network sniffer/analyzer for UNIX.
    WinDump is fully compatible with tcpdump and can be used to watch and diagnose network traffic according to
    various complex rules. It can run under Windows 95/98/ME, and under Windows NT/2000/XP. WinDump uses a
    libpcap-compatible library for Windows, WinPcap, which is freely downloadable from the WinPcap site.
    WinDump is free and is released under a BSD-style licence.
    by Isao Seki
    Network stumbler for WaveLAN/IEEE wireless networking of NetBSD.
    WPA Cracker
    by Takehiro Takahashi
    WPA Cracker is a dictionary/brute-force attacker against WiFi Protected Access (WPA). WPA takes two forms;
    WPA Enterprise Mode and WPA PSK (Pre-Shared Key) Mode. WPA Cracker takes advantage of an inherently
    vulnerable characteristics of the PSK implementation to provide users an insight that the security must be deployed
    by Portland State University
    wscan is a X-11/visual 802.11 wireless signal-strength display tool (version 2.0 includes AP scanning mode). You
    can download a tar archive for it that allows you to build it on Linux or FreeBSD. There's also an ipkg/package for
    linux/ipaqs running familiar.

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