# Proportion a concrete mix

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```					CIVL 1101                                       Proportioning and Mixing Concrete                                                1/3

Proportioning Concrete                                           Proportioning Concrete
 Concrete mix designs are often given by a ratio:                Concrete mix designs are often given by the following
ratio:

1:2:2
:                 :                                                 Coarse Aggregate – crushed rock
C      A      t        h d    k

Fine Aggregate – sand
Cement             Sand           Crushed rock
Cement
 Usually the ratio is in terms of weight of the components       In this case, the ratio implies 1 part (by weight) of
cement to 2 parts coarse aggregate to 2 parts fine
aggregate

Proportioning Concrete                                           Proportioning Concrete
 Part of your design for this project is to develop mix          Once a mix ratio is selected, you need to compute the
ratios that lead to high compression stresses at                 amounts of cement, water, and aggregates required
failure.
 To start, we need to estimate the volume of concrete
The two criteria f a successful mix ratio are:
 Th t      it i for          f l i     ti                             i d for the job.
required f th j b

(1) high compressive stress
 In your work, we used cylinder molds to form our

Proportioning Concrete                                           Proportioning Concrete
 The volume of a cylindrical mold is:                            How much concrete do we need to make 5 cylinders?
 hD   2
Volumecyclinder 
4                                                              6in 3in 2 
where D is the diameter of the cylinder and h is the
y                                 Volumecyclinder  5                       212 in 3
height                                                                                          4         
3 inches
                  
 The cylinders for Project 2 are
always 6 inches in height and 3                                  We need 5 cylinders
inches in diameter                                  6 inches                                 VolumeTotal  212 in 3
CIVL 1101                                            Proportioning and Mixing Concrete                                                                2/3

Proportioning Concrete                                                   Proportioning Concrete
 Next, we need to convert this volume to cubic feet and account         Next, we need to convert this volume to an equivalent weight of
for any errors                                                          concrete
 1ft 3               212in 3ft 3                                           150 lbs 
VolumeTotal  212 in 3                                             Weightconcrete  0.25ft 3                     37.5 lbs
 12in 3            1, 728in 3                                            ft
3

          
Make sure you have     To compute the amount of each component required for this mix,
enough factor           use the ratio of the each component to the sum of all components


VolumeTotal  0.123ft 3  MSYHEF                                         For a 1:2:2 mix, the weight of cement required is 1/5 of the total
weight

1

VolumeTotal  0.123ft 3  2                  0.25ft 3                   Weightcement     37.5 lbs 
5      
7.5 lbs

Proportioning Concrete                                                   Proportioning Concrete
 Next, we need to convert this volume to an equivalent weight of        Next, we need to convert this volume to an equivalent weight of
concrete                                                                concrete

 150 lbs                                                              150 lbs 
Weightconcrete  0.25ft 3                       37.5 lbs              Weightconcrete  0.25ft 3                     37.5 lbs
 ft                                                                    ft
3                                                                      3
                                                                      
 To compute the amount of each component required for this mix,          To compute the amount of each component required for this mix,
use the ratio of the each component to the sum of all components         use the ratio of the each component to the sum of all components

 For a 1:2:2 mix, the weight of fine aggregate required is 2/5 of        For a 1:2:2 mix, the weight of coarse aggregate required is 2/5 of
the total weight                                                         the total weight

2                                                                        2
Weightfine aggreagte     37.5 lbs                 15 lbs           Weightcoarse aggreagte     37.5 lbs                 15 lbs
5                                                                       5

Proportioning Concrete                                                   Proportioning Concrete
 Next, we need determine the amount of water required                    In summary, the weight of each component in 1:2:2 mix
with w/c = 0.45 is:
 The weight of water is specified by the w/c ratio

m n
 Cement                       .
7.5 lbs
 In this example, the w/c = 0.45                                          Fine aggregate              15 lbs
Coarse aggregate            15 lbs
 For this mix, the weight of cement is 7.5 lbs. Therefore, the            Water                       3.38 lbs       3 4 lbs
1
weight of water required is:

 In the lab we will round each weight to the nearest ¼
Weightwater  7.5 lbs  0.45                 3.38lbs                    pound increment.
CIVL 1101                                                    Proportioning and Mixing Concrete                     3/3

Proportioning Concrete                                                     Proportioning Concrete

 Typical mixing procedure:

1. Clean mixer
2. Add aggregates and mix for 2 minutes
The End
3. Add cement and mix for 2 minutes
4. Add ½ of the mixing water and mix for 2 minutes
5. Add remaining mixing water and mix for 5 minutes
(pay close attention to the concrete in the back of the mixer and make sure
that all the materials are well mixed and as homogeneous as possible)

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