Cooking Methods Chapter 15 Section 15-1, 15-2and 15-3 Cooking Technique Dry Cooking – uses a metal and the radiation of hot air, oil or fat to transfer heat. No moisture is used to complete this cooking process. Any moisture that comes from the food evaporates, or escape, into the air. Baking is a dry cooking technique. Dry Heat Cooking Baking-completed in a closed environment, cooked usually in the oven. No fat or liquid is needed. Food is generally cooked uncovered. Larger pieces of food generally will carryover it’s cooking about 5- 10 minutes Dry Heat Cooking Roasting- Uses dry heat and a closed environment These foods are placed on a rack inside a pan this process will allow air to circulate around the food. Roasting involves longer cooking times than baking Like with baking you still can do carryover cooking Dry Heat Cooking Sautéing and stir frying- A quick dry heat method that uses a small amount of fat or oil in a shallow pan Most sautéed foods are serve with a sauce Dry Heat Cooking To sauté preheat your pan on high heat then add your fat or oil. When the fat reaches the smoking point add the food Avoid over crowding the pan because this cools down the temperature of the oil preventing the food to cook evenly Dry Heat Cooking Stir Frying- Similar to sautéing Uses a wok or a large pan that has sloping sides. Requires less cooking time than sautéing Requires constant stirring Dry Heat Cooking Frying (Deep Fat) During this process the food becomes sealed with the contact of the hot oil. The natural moisture in the food becomes steam, which bubbles up to the surface. Foods can be Dredged, breaded or battered for the frying process. Dry Heat Cooking Standard breading Procedure Flour- Batter-Flour Dip product in the flour first so that the egg wash or batter will coat the product being fried. Egg wash generally consist of 3 parts egg and 1 part water or milk Lastly recoat in flour or desired breading material Dry Heat Cooking Method Baste the cut of meat with oil prior to placing it on the grill. Do not move the meat once it is placed on the grill this will ruin the cross hatch marks that will be created Food can also be grilled on the griddle The griddle is a flat cooking surface that reached temperatures up to 350 degrees Dry Heat Cooking Method Broiling Cooking food under direct heat When broiling the temperature is controlled by how close the food is close to the heat source. Depending on the thickness of the food place it further away from the heat source and thinner closer Moist Cooking Method Moist Cooking Techniques Boiling A moist heat technique in which you bring liquid to the boiling point and keep it at that temperature while the food cooks. Water begins to boil at 212 degrees at sea level. Moist Cooking Method Blanching It is a quick way to partially cook food. This method can change the foods color, flavor and texture. Parboiling Similar to blanching The cooking time is longer than with blanching Used to tenderize meat fibers Moist Cooking Method Simmering This involves cooking food in liquids. When you simmer foods it cooks slowly and steadily in slightly cooler liquids that are heated between 185- 200 degrees. Poaching Gentle method of cooking food than simmering. Cooked in liquids at 150- 180 degrees Moist Cooking Method Steaming Involves cooking vegetables or foods in closed environment Steam is created when water reaches it boiling point and turns into vapor disperses as tiny drops in the air. Combination Cooking Method Braising Long and slow cooking process that can produce very flavorful results. Braising can make cuts of meat that are tough more tender. Stewing Stewing is when food is completely submerged in the liquid during the cooking process. What do you remember What is dry heat cooking? What is the difference between baking and roasting? What is the difference between sautéing and stir frying? Why should you not move meat once placed on the grill? What is broiling?