Chapter 29.ppt - PowerPoint

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					        Chapter 29
The Contemporary Western World
          Since 1973
Map 29.1: The New Europe
The Revolutionary Era in the
Soviet Union
 The Brezhnev Years
    The Brezhnev Doctrine
    Economic emphasis on heavy industry
    Patronage system
    By the early 1980s, the Soviet Union was in poor shape
 The Gorbachev Era
    Problems of rigid and centralized planning
    Perestroika (restructuring)
    Glasnost (openness)
    Political reforms
     • Call for a new Soviet parliament, 1988
     • Congress of People’s Deputies elected 1989
    1988-1990 nationalist movements erupt
    Lithuania declares independence, 1990
The End of the Soviet Union
 Gorbachev arrested, August 19, 1991; coup fails
 Ukraine votes for independence, December 1991, others follow
 December 25, 1991, Gorbachev resigns and turns power over to Boris
 Yeltsin, president of Russia
 Yeltsin introduces a free market economy
    Yeltsin wins the presidency of Russia in 1996 but resigns in 1999
    Brutal war against Chechnya
 Vladimir Putin replaced Yeltsin when he resigned
    Vows to return breakaway state of Chechnya
    In 2001 launches reforms including unrestricted sale and purchase of land
    Reform did not resolve Russia’s economic problems
Eastern Europe: The Collapse of
the Communist Order in Poland
 Edward Gierek becomes Poland’s leader in 1971
   Economic problems
   1980: protests erupt in response to increased food
 Lech Walesa (b. 1943)
 Free parliamentary elections, 1988
 December, 1990; Walesa elected President
 November, 1995; Alexander Kwasniewski elected
The Collapse of the Communist
Order: Hungary & Czechoslovakia
   Jano Kadar in power for more than 30 years
   Moves slowly toward legalizing small private
   The Democratic Forum won the elections of 1990
   Were committed to a democratic government and free
   market economy
   Communist government collapsed in 1989
   Vaclav Havel was in control of the government
   Ethnic problems will lead to a peaceful division
Collapse of the Communist Order
    Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu established dictatorial regime
    Crushed demonstrations in Timisoara that led to other demonstrations
    Army will not support Ceausescu
    Ceausescu and his wife were arrested, tried and executed
    Todor Zhivkov (leader of Bulgarian Communist Party, 1954 – 1989)
    Protests result in Zhivkov’s ouster
    1991: election of new government led by the United Democratic Front
 The Reunification of Germany
    Unrest due to economic problems
    Communist government falls, November 1989
    Berlin Wall comes down
    Politically unified, October 3, 1990
The Berlin Wall 1961 -1989
The Disintegration of Yugoslavia
 Death of Tito in 1980
 League of Communists
 In 1990 republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia,
 Herzegovina, and Macedonia worked toward a federal
 Slbodan Milosevic rejects these efforts without new border
 arrangements to accommodate Serb minorities
 Slovenia and Croatia declare independence
    Yugoslavian army sent to attach Croatia
    Army becoming more and more a Serbian Army
 1992 Serbs turn on Bosnia-Herzegovina
    Ethnic cleansing
    NATO strikes back
Map 29.2: The Lands of Former Yugoslavia
War in Kosovo
 War erupted in 1999
 Ethnic Albanians
 Stripped of autonomous status in 1989
 Kosovo Liberation Army
 US and NATO intervene
 Milosevic refused to sign agreement and NATO
 resumes air strikes
 Milosovic ousted from office in fall elections,
   Brought to trial by an international tribunal for war
   crimes against humanity
Germany Restored
 Willy Brandt (1913-1992), 1969-1974
 Ostpolitik, “opening toward the east”
   Treaty with East Germany, 1972
 Helmut Schmide (b. 1918)
   Technocrat; concerned with economic
 Helmut Kohl (b. 1930)
   Problems of union
Great Britain: Thatcher and Thatcherism
   Problems of Northern Ireland
   Direct rule from London, 1972
 Conservatives gain political power, 1979
 Political changes of Prime Minister Margaret
 Thatcher (b. 1925)
   Broke power of the labor unions
   Austerity to control inflation
   Hard line toward communism
   Rebuilds the military
   Anti-tax riots force Thatcher to resign, November 1990
 Tony Blair (b. 1953), Labour Party, 1957
Uncertainties in France
 François Mitterrand (1916-1995) , 1981-
   Economic difficulties
   Socialistic policies
   Economic weaknesses of the 1990s
 Move to conservatism, Jacques Chirac
 elected 1995
Confusion in Italy
 Coalition Politics
 Economic recession in the 1970s, economic
 growth in the 1980s
 Political Corruption
 Silvio Berlusconi
The Unification of Europe
 1973: European Economic Community (EEC) becomes
 European Community (EC) when Great Britain, Ireland,
 and Denmark join
 2000: EC contains 370 million people
 1994: EC renames itself European Union (EU) and focuses
 on political unification
 2002: Introduction of common currency (euro)
 Toward a United Europe: May 2004: Czech Republic,
 Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland,
 Slovakia, Slovenia, and Cyprus join EU
Map 29.3: European Union, 2004
The United States: The American
Domestic Scene 1968 - 1981
 Richard Nixon (1913-1994) elected in 1968
   Ends Vietnam war, 1973
   Watergate scandal
   Resignation, August 9, 1974
 Jimmy Carter (b. 1924), 1976-1980
   Stagflation – high inflation and unemployment
   Oil embargo, 1973
   53 hostages held by Iran
The United States: The American
Domestic Scene 1982 - Present
 Ronald Reagan (b. 1911), 1981-1989
   Reverses the welfare state
   Military buildup
   Supply-side economics
 George H. Bush (b. 1924), 1989-1993
   Economic downturn
 Bill Clinton elected 1992
 George W. Bush
   Economic policies
Presidents Bush, Reagan, Carter,
Ford, Nixon in Historic Photo
Contemporary Canada
 Pierre Trudeau (1919-2000), elected in
 Brian Mulroney (b. 1939), elected in 1984
   René Lévesque
   Parti Québécois
The End of the Cold War
 During the late 1980s, US and Soviet Union
 move to slow down arms race
 1989-1990: Political upheaval in Eastern
 Europe upset postwar status quo
 The Gulf War
 September 11, 2001: al-Qaeda attacked
 United States
 March 2003 – : Iraq War
An Age of Terrorism?
 Terrorist methods
 Munich Olympic Games, 1972
 Left and right wing terrorist groups
 Militant nationalism
 Terrorist Attack on the United States
   September 11, 2001
   Osama bin Laden
The West and Islam
 The Israeli-Palestinian conflict fueled anti-
 American sentiment in the Muslim world
 Rise of Islamic governments in Iran and
 Impact of the Persian Gulf War
 Impact of the Iraq War
Briefing on Iraq, with Bush Sr.
New Directions and New Problems
in Western Society
  Transformation in Women’s Lives
     • Decline in the birthrate
     • Rise in the work force
  The Women’s Movement
    Women’s studies
    Anti-nuclear movement/Ecology
    International women’s conferences
Guest Workers and Immigrants
 Europe experienced a severe labor shortage
 in the 1950s and 1960s
 Guest Workers
 Backlash against foreign workers
 1980s: Influx of refugees
 Impact of immigrants on social services
 New limits on immigration
The Environment and the Green
 Problems in the environment
 Chernobyl, 1986
 Green Parties
Western Culture Today
  Postmodern Thought
     Ferdinand de Saussure (1857 – 1913)
     Jacques Derrida (1930 – 2004)
     Rejection of object-based artworks
     Gabriel Garcia Márquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude
     Milan Kundera, The Unbearable Lightness of Being
Religion & Technology
 Varieties of Religious Life
   The growth of Islam
   Pope John Paul II, 1978-
 The World of Science and Technology
   Military-Industrial Complex
     • German rockets; jets
     • British work in computers
     • J. Robert Oppenheimer and the Atomic Bomb
   Dangers of science and technology
   New conceptions of the Universe
Popular Culture: Image and
   Music videos
 Film: Fantasy and Epics
 The Growth of Mass Sports
 Globalization of Popular Culture
Toward a Global Civilization?
 Problems are global not just national
 Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
Discussion Questions
 How might we see Brezhnev as a transition
 between the old Soviet regime and the changes
 brought by Gorbachev?
 What steps did Czechoslovakia take to gain
 freedom from communism and then a peaceful
 split of the country?
 Why did the end of the Cold War prove so painful
 for Yugoslavia?
 How does the “war on terrorism” differ from
 previous international struggles?
Web Links
 The United Nations
 Nationmaster: Europe
 Europa: Gateway to the European Union
 Frontline: Truth, War, and Consequences

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