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Appeasement and the Road To War.ppt

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					Appeasement and the Road
To War


The Spanish Civil War
1936-1939
The Origins of the Spanish Civil War

Aims:

•   To understand the political
    instability which existed in Spain in
    the 1930s.
•   To identify how the civil war began
    and who the two opposing sides
    where.
A Brief History of Spain
   During the 1500s Spain was the world’s
    strongest power.
   Spanish Empire covered most of South
    and Central America.
   Spanish language and religion was
    imposed on these colonies.
   By 1800s Spain had lost most of her
    colonies and become a third-rate power.
   Catholic Church have always had a
    powerful influence in Spanish Society.
   Between 1923-1931 Spain was a military
    dictatorship under General Primo De
    Rivera.
A Republican Government

   Spain became a republic under
    Manuel Azana in 1931.
   A number of reforms were
    introduced which threatened
    landowners, the army and the
    church.
War Begins
   On 17th July 1936 a group of army
    officers led by General Sanjurjo led a
    coup d’etat in Spanish Morocco (tried to
    seize power)
   Sanjurjo was killed in a plane crash and
    replaced by General Francisco Franco.
   The coup failed and three years of civil
    war followed.
   The Opposing Sides

 Righteous Republicans            Nasty Nationalists
Liberals, Socialists,           The armed forces,
Communists, Basque              large sections of the
and Catalan Separatists.        middle and upper
Groups with differing
aims but they all believe   v   classes, the Catholic
                                Church, the Falange
                                (Spanish Fascist
that Spain should
remain a democratic             Party).
country.                        Groups who all feel
                                threatened by
                                democracy.
The Opposing Sides
  REPUBLICANS             NATIONALISTS

    Democracy              Dictatorship

  Supported By:           Supported By:

   Soviet Russia                  Italy
   International                Germany
      Brigades

           Non-Intervention
           Britain and France
      Key Terms
            LEFT WING              RIGHT WING

      •   Democratic         •   Strong,
          government             authoritarian
      •   More government        government
          control of the     •   Government should
          economy                not interfere in the
                                 economy


Left Wing=Republicans       Right Wing=Nationalists
Progress of the Spanish Civil War
September 1936

Republicans held all eastern and
southern Spain, including the two key
cities of Madrid and Barcelona.
Nationalists have just over half of
Spain, in the south, west and North
West
Progress of the Spanish Civil War
March 1937

Nationalists capture land in the North
but fail to capture Madrid in the
winter of 1936-1937. During the summer
of 1937, Guernica is heavily bombed by the
German Condor Legion By the end of
1937 the fighting has reached a
stalemate.
Progress of the Spanish Civil War

July 1938

Nationalists capture the Basque lands
in the North. Nationalist advance in
the east cuts off Republican controlled
areas.
Progress of the Spanish Civil War

February 1939

Barcelona was captured by the
Nationalists in January. Madrid fell at
the end of March 1939 and the Civil
War was over.
Foreign Intervention

Aims:

•   To examine the motives behind
    foreign intervention.
•   To identify what types of aid was
    provided for both sides in the SCW.
The Republicans
Soviet Union
• Military advisers
• Equipment – 200 tanks, 1000 aircraft.
• Had to be paid for by the Republic.


International Brigades
• Left wing opponents of fascism
• 40,000 in total – never anymore than
  15,000 at one time.
• Over 2000 British men joined.
• 75% casualty rate
The Nationalists
Italy
• 40-50,000 troops
• Tanks, artillery, aircraft


Germany
• Junker planes airlifted Spanish troops
  from Morocco.
• Condor Legion – 600 aircraft/200 tanks.
  Played major role in bombing of Guernica
  1937
• 16,000 ‘military advisers’
Motives Behind Foreign Intervention -
Republicans

SOVIET UNION

•   Not fully committed to Republicans
•   Happy for Germany/Italy to be tied
    up in Spain.
•   Did not want to threaten Franco-
    Soviet Pact and lose an ally.
•   Knew GB/France would not tolerate
    Communist Government
Motives Behind Foreign Intervention -
Republicans

INTERNATIONAL BRIGADES

•   Came from a variety of countries –
    France, GB, Italy and Germany.
•   Little military training or experience
•   75% casualty rates
•   Socialists, TUs, Communists
Motives Behind Foreign Intervention -
Nationalists

GERMANY

•   Testing ground for new weapons
•   Keep Italy tied up in Spain – turn
    attention to Austria.
•   Secure supplies of war materials
•   Stop spread of communism
Motives Behind Foreign Intervention -
Nationalists

ITALY

•   Gain more influence in the
    Mediterranean
•   Support a friendly fascist
•   Military glory
Strategic Importance of Spain
   If Spain fell to the Nationalists,
    France would be surrounded by
    Fascist states.
   British and French had naval bases
    both on the Mediterranean and
    Atlantic.
   Spain had natural resources e.g.
    iron ore essential for the
    manufacture of weapons.
Why Did France Support Non-
Intervention?

The French were sympathetic to the
Republicans however:

•   Political instability in France – scared of a
    right wing backlash.
•   Concerned that any intervention would
    split French Cabinet and bring down
    government.
•   British made it clear they would not be
    happy if the French got involved.
Why Did the British Support Non-
Intervention?

•   Expected Franco to win.
•   Didn’t want to antagonise Mussolini
    or Hitler.
•   Worried that intervention might
    cause a general European war.
•   Suspiscious of Communist influence
    in Popular Front Government.
•   Wanted to protect British business
    interests.
The Non-Intervention Committee
   Set up in September 1936.
   France, Britain, Germany, Italy and
    Russia (27 countries in total) agreed not
    to intervene in the Spanish civil war.
   Suits both the British and the French.
   The French want to intervene but can’t.
    NIC will stop other countries.
   British don’t want to intervene but cannot
    publicly go against the democratically
    elected government of Spain.
Britain and France’s Policy of Non-
Intervention.

Aims:

•   Identify the reasons behind Britain
    and France’s policy of non-
    intervention.
•   Identify the one time when this
    policy of non-intervention was not
    followed.
The Non-Intervention Committee
   Set up a naval blockade to stop weapons
    getting into Spain.
   By 1937 ‘mystery submarines’ were
    sinking ships taking supplies to the
    Republic.
   Conference was held at Nyon in
    Switzerland to discuss the matter.
   British and French navies ordered to
    destroy submarines or aircraft attacking
    non-Spanish ships.
   The ‘piracy’ came to an abrupt end.
British Public Opinion
   Active participation in International
    Brigades to opposed Franco – only
    involved a minority of Britons.
   Conservative dominated National
    Government advocated non-intervention
    and had public support behind them.
   Labour party was divided – some
    supported neutrality, others advocated
    help for the Republicans, some supported
    the Nationalists due to religious
    sympathies.
British Public Opinion

   The bombing of Guernica in 1937
    reinforced the belief that ‘the
    bomber will always get through’.
    The government was worried that if
    war broke out in Europe, British
    cities would face air attacks that
    would cause huge death and
    devastation.

				
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