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Complex sentences with relative clauses

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					Complex sentences with
relative clauses
Think about it
   What is a relative clause? Write an
    example of a relative clause in your
    notebook.
   How well do you know how to use
    relative clauses? Write down any
    questions you have in your notebook.
What is a relative clause?
   A relative clause, also called an adjective
    clause, modifies a noun. A relative clause can
    modify any noun in the sentence: a subject,
    an object, or an object of a preposition.
   A relative clause begins with a relative
    pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, that,
    where, when, why).
   Sometimes the pronoun can be omitted. We
    will examine these cases later in the lesson.
   Sometimes commas are required. We will
    examine these cases later in the lesson.
Forming relative clauses:
relative pronouns as subjects
   A relative pronoun can be the subject of
    the relative clause.
       The politician is extremely happy.
       She won by a landslide. 
       The politician who won by a landslide is
        extremely happy.
            This relative clause modifies the subject of the
             main clause.
Forming relative clauses:
relative pronouns as subjects
       I saw the driver of the blue van.
       He caused the accident. 
       I saw the driver of the blue van, who caused the
        accident.
            This relative clause modifies the object of the main
             clause.
   When the relative pronoun is the subject of
    the relative clause, use who, which, or that as
    the pronoun.
   When the relative pronoun is the subject of
    the relative clause, it cannot be omitted.
Forming relative clauses:
relative pronouns as objects
   A relative pronoun can be the object of
    the relative clause.
       The seafood wasn’t very good.
       We ate the seafood last night. 
       The seafood that we ate last night wasn’t
        very good.
            This relative clause modifies the subject of the
             main clause.
Forming relative clauses:
relative pronouns as objects
       I like Francine very much.
       I met her at the tennis club last year. 
       I like Francine, whom I met at the tennis
        club last year, very much.
            This relative clause modifies the object of the
             main clause.
   When the relative pronoun is the object
    of the relative clause, use who(m),
    which, that, or omit the pronoun.
Forming relative clauses: relative
pronouns as objects of prepositions
   A relative pronoun can be the object of a
    preposition in the relative clause.
       The movie won an Academy Award.
       I was talking to you about the movie. 
       The movie I was talking to you about won an
        Academy Award. or
       The movie about which (that) I was talking to you
        (about) won an Academy Award.
            This relative clause modifies the subject of the sentence.
Forming relative clauses: relative
pronouns as objects of prepositions
     Last Tuesday, Jamie ran into an old friend.
     She had gone to college with her. 
     Last Tuesday, Jamie ran into an old friend
      with whom she had gone to college. or
     Last Tuesday, Jamie ran into an old friend
      she had gone to college with.
          This relative clause modifies the object of the
           main clause.
Forming relative clauses: relative
pronouns as objects of prepositions
   When the relative pronoun is the object of a
    preposition in the relative clause, you have
    several choices:
       begin the clause with the preposition +
        whom/which
       begin the clause with who, whom, which, or that,
        and put the preposition at the end of the clause
       omit the pronoun and put the preposition at the
        end of the clause.
Summary of relative pronouns as subjects,
objects, and objects of prepositions
relative pronouns relative pronouns relative pronouns
as subjects       as objects        as objects of
                                    prepositions



who (people)      who(m) people     prep + whom/which
which (things)    which (things)    who(m)…prep
that (things)     that (things)     which…prep
do not omit       can be omitted    that…prep
                                    can be omitted but
                                    do not omit prep
Levels of formality
   more formal                     less formal
       for subjects                    for subjects
            who, which                      that
       for objects                     for objects
            whom                            who
                                             that
       for objects of                       omission of pronoun
        prepositions                    for objects of
            prep + whom/which           prepositions
                                             who
                                             that
                                             omission of pronoun
Try it yourself!
   Complete the following sentences with
    relative clauses:
   We live in a society that
   A hero is a person who
   A dictionary is a book that
        Model sentences
   In the model sentences section of your notebook, write
    three model sentences to help you practice relative
    clauses:
       a sentence in which the relative pronoun is the subject of the
        relative clause
       a sentence in which the relative pronoun is the object of the
        relative clause
       a sentence in which the relative pronoun is the object of a
        preposition in the relative clause
   Write more than one possible formation for each sentence.
   Your relative clauses can modify the subject, object, or
    object of a preposition in the main clause.
Relative clauses with whose
   The relative pronoun whose shows
    possession.
       I know the pharmacist.
       His wife works for Raytheon. 
       I know the pharmacist whose wife works
        for Raytheon.
            This relative clause modifies the object of the
             sentence.
   Whose cannot be omitted.
Try it yourself!
   Do Exercise 2, p. 129 Grammar
    Troublespots.
Essential and nonessential
relative clauses
   An essential relative clause limits the
    meaning of the noun it modifies. It
    identifies or defines that noun in some
    way.
       The man who is standing over there is a
        famous actor.
       Which man?
       The man who is standing over there.
Restrictive and non-restrictive
relative clauses
   A non-essential relative clause gives
    additional or extra information that is
    not needed to identify the noun.
       Mr. Stevens, who is standing over there, is
        the mayor of our town.
Restrictive and nonrestrictive
relative clauses – pronoun use
   Do not use the pronoun that in a non-
    essential relative clause. Use who or
    which instead.
       X Mars, that is the fourth planet from the
        sun, is smaller than Earth.
       Mars, which is the fourth planet from the
        sun, is smaller than Earth.
Restrictive and nonrestrictive
relative clauses – comma use.
   Use commas to isolate non-essential
    relative clauses. Do not use commas
    with essential relative clause.
       Mars, which is the fourth planet from the
        sun, is smaller than earth.
       The planet that has the largest rings is
        Saturn.
Model sentences
   Write two model sentences of your
    own:
       a sentence with an essential relative clause
       a sentence with a non-essential relative
        clause.
   Use the correct pronoun
   Use commas appropriately
Try it yourself!
   Do ex. 1, p. 128, Grammar
    Troublespots.
Beyond the basics – clauses of
time, place & reason
   When, where, and why can introduce relative
    clauses after nouns referring to time, place,
    and reason, as in these examples:
   They are used in the same way as preposition
    + which.
       Do you see a bench where (on which) we can sit
        down?
       July 4, 1776 is the day when (on which) the
        Declaration of Independence was signed.
       Do you know the reason why (for which) I joined
        the team?
Beyond the basics – modifying
a clause
   Relative clauses beginning with which
    can modify a clause, not just a noun.
    Use commas.
       He always comes late, which really annoys
        me.
Beyond the basics –
expressions of quantity
   Relative clauses may contain an expression of
    quantity with of (e.g. some of, many of).
    Use whom, which, and whose in with
    expressions of quantity.
   Use commas.
       The article contained a number of errors, most of
        which the editor was able to catch.
       He has three brothers, none of whom have been
        as successful as he has.
       We discussed the candidate, one of whose
        strengths was his experience working with
        computers.

				
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