Docstoc

Clause elements

Document Sample
Clause elements Powered By Docstoc
					Grammar Introduction

   What is grammar?




                       1
          What is grammar?
• Prescriptive grammar deals with what is
  correct or incorrect
“…[English]…is taught so bloody badly”
                                 Prince Charles, 1989



• Descriptive grammar deals with the
  effect different linguistic choices can have
  on communication in different contexts

                                                    2
   Example of a prescriptive grammar rule – a
    sentence should not end in a preposition



1. This is the house (which) he lives in.

2. This is the house in which he lives.




                                                3
    There are rules of grammar and
             rules of style

Did you see the man near the table with the hairy legs?


This sentence does not break any grammatical
 rule but it is not effective communication




                                                    4
     Why learn grammar?

     ” An increased knowledge of the
grammatical resources of the language will
 provide the language user with conscious
  mastery over a range of possibilities for
    constructing sentences effectively”
                              Collins and Hollo (pp18-19)




                                                            5
  What are these possibilities?
• Choice of vocabulary

• Grammatical choices

• Choice of style

 All of these will influence how the
 reader/listener interprets your message.
                                            6
             Choice of vocabulary




A young man walks through chest deep flood water after looting a
grocery store in New Orleans on Tuesday, Aug. 30, 2005. Flood waters
continue to rise in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina did extensive
damage when it made landfall on Monday. (AP Photo/Dave Martin)
                                                                    7
             Choice of vocabulary




Two residents wade through chest-deep water after finding bread and soda
  from a local grocery store after Hurricane Katrina came through the area
  in New Orleans, Louisiana.(AFP/Getty Images/Chris Graythen)

                                                                             8
       Grammatical choices
Active
The police killed the demonstrators
 S          V         O
Passive
The demonstrators were killed (by the police)
     S                   V


                                           9
                Choice of style
Open the window!

Open the window please

Could you open the window please?

Would you mind opening the window please?

It certainly is hot in here.

                                            10
       Language structure
This course deals with how sentences are
put together and how different
combinations and choices are used, what
affects these choices and what effect the
choices have on interpretation and
understanding. To do this we analyse
sentences and look at common language
errors for non-native speakers of English.

                                         11
      Different levels of analysis
•   Discourse
•   (Sentence)
•   Clause (S, P/V, O, C, A)
•   Phrase (NP, VP, PP)
•   Word (Word class)
•   Morpheme (-s, -able, un- etc)


                                     12
               Word Class
•   Nouns
•   Verbs
•   Adjectives
•   Adverbs
•   Prepositions
•   Pronouns
•   Conjunctions
•   Determiners
                            13
                    Nouns
They typically denote people, places & objects
Fredrik, France, table

But can be more abstract things
Unemployment, calmness, stupidity

We can test if they are nouns
The stupidity (of my friends)
Such stupidity
His stupidity

                                                 14
                   Verbs
   They typically express actions, activities
   as well as states and relationships
   There are six inflectional forms:
Present               talk       break
3rd person            talks      breaks
Past                  talked     broke
Infinitive            to talk    to break
Present participle talking       breaking
Past participle       talked     broken
                                                15
               Adjectives
They denote a characteristic or quality

They can be predicative (post-modifying)
My cat is fat
or attributive (pre-modifying)
That is a fat cat



                                           16
               Adjectives
They are gradable

My cat is fat                  Positive
My cat is fatter than yours    Comparative
Her cat is the the fattest     Superlative

more beautiful, the most beautiful

                                             17
                 Adverbs
  They typically have the meaning of
  manner, time, place etc. and they typically
  modify verbs
look carefully
but can also modify adjectives
absolutely lovely
other adverbs
very carefully
and whole clauses
Unfortunately, we have to leave early.
                                            18
      The other word classes
• Prepositions of, in, at, under, to after, by

• Pronouns you, it, mine

• Conjunctions and, or

• Determiners the, a/an, these, some

                                                 19
Show what word class these words
           belong to
                  Noun   Verb
   love
   verify
   escape
   unemployment
   run
   mother
   cousin
   worry
                                20
           Phrase structure
• Noun phrase NP – the noun is the head
My four friends in the car want to come too.

• Verb phrase VP – the verb is the head
 I have been thinking about leaving.

• Preposition phrase PP
My four friends in the car want to come too.
                                               21
              Clause structure
    When we analyse sentences, we talk about
    clause elements. The names for these differ in
    different grammar books but for this course we
    have used the following terms
•   Subject              S     subjekt
•   Predicator           P/V predikat
•   Object               O     objekt
•   Complement           C     predikatsfyllnad
•   Adjunct/Adverbial    A     adjunkt
                                                     22
        Subject & Object
The subject and object usually consist of a
nominal phrase (a phrase in which the
head word is a noun)
My four friends
or a nominal clause (a clause with a
nominal function)
taking the opportunity
to climb the Eiffel Tower
what we need
                                          23
How do we identify the subject?
• Tag question
Jean is your sister, isn’t she?
• Substitute with a nominative pronoun
• Inversion
Is she your sister?
• Subject-verb agreement
Are they your sisters?

                                         24
Predicator – (also V verb element)
The predicator contains the verb element
and can either be a main verb only or
contain auxiliary verbs (hjälpverb) as well.
play
have played
would have played



                                           25
 Complement - sometimes called
             predicative
Complements can consist of nominal
phrases
My friend was a maths teacher
nominal clauses
That is what I mean
or adjectives
This is beautiful

                                     26
             Complement
Subject complements, which tell us about
the subject of the sentence, occur after a
copular verb (bindeverb) eg. be, feel,
remain, become, get

Object complements come after complex
transitive verbs eg appoint, call, consider,
make and tell us something about the
object
                                               27
    Adjuncts - sometimes called adverbials
    They can move position more readily than other
    elements. They can have a number of different
    meanings. They can express:
•   Time
•   Manner
•   Reason
•   Space
•   Opinion
•   Degree
•   Frequency
                                                 28
              Adjuncts
These have a number of different
characteristics. They can be adverbs or
preposition phrases.

Unfortunately
within the next two years
on the floor

                                          29
                 Adjuncts
Quite often it is possible that there can be more
than one position for an adjunct in a sentence
Last week we moved to a new flat
We moved to a new flat last week
Adjuncts are usually not obligatory elements,
which means they can be left out and we will still
have an acceptable sentence
We moved to a new flat


                                                 30
        Match the following pairs
Column 1                                Column 2
C   Clause structure                    A. noun phrase
B   Word class                          B. Conjunction
A   Phrase structure                    C. complement



     Correct - Click anywhere to           Incorrect - Click anywhere to
               continue answer:
                   Your                               continue

                  You did not answer this question
                    You answered this correctly!
                            completely
                  The correct answer is: question
                    You must answer the                  Submit       Clear
                           before continuing
                                                                              31
        Match the following pairs
Column 1                                Column 2
C   Clause structure                    A. Preposition phrase
A   Phrase structure                    B. adverb
B   Word class                          C. subject



     Correct - Click anywhere to           Incorrect - Click anywhere to
               continue answer:
                   Your                               continue

                  You did not answer this question
                    You answered this correctly!
                            completely
                  The correct answer is: question
                    You must answer the                  Submit       Clear
                           before continuing
                                                                              32
This is an example of a preposition
phrase: in the middle of next week
A) True
B) False




Correct - Click anywhere to           Incorrect - Click anywhere to
          continue answer:
              Your                               continue

             You did not answer this question
               You answered this correctly!
                       completely
             The correct answer is: question
               You must answer the                  Submit       Clear
                      before continuing
                                                                         33
This is an example of a noun phrase:
     My cousin who is a actress
 A) True
 B) False




 Correct - Click anywhere to           Incorrect - Click anywhere to
           continue answer:
               Your                               continue

              You did not answer this question
                You answered this correctly!
                        completely
              The correct answer is: question
                You must answer the                  Submit       Clear
                       before continuing
                                                                          34
       Name 3 word classes
A) noun
B) subject
C) preposition
D) predicator
E) complement
F) adjective
Correct - Click anywhere to           Incorrect - Click anywhere to
          continue answer:
              Your                               continue

             You did not answer this question
               You answered this correctly!
                       completely
             The correct answer is: question
               You must answer the                  Submit       Clear
                      before continuing
                                                                         35
       Grammar introduction
    Your Score {score}


     Max Score {max-score}


Number of Quiz {total-attempts}
     Attempts



       Question Feedback/Review Information Will
                     Appear Here


                                                   Continue   Review Quiz

                                                                       36

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:9/5/2011
language:English
pages:36