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									#2 2008   Profession Lawyer

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           #2, 2008   1
          #2 2008                                                  P RO F E S S I O N L A W Y E R
          profesia advokati
          ssip `saqarTvelos advokatTa asociaciis~ Jurnali
                                                                     goCa svaniZe:
          JOURNAL OF GEORGIA BAR ASSOCIATION
                                                                     `axla arCevanis
          redaqtori                                                  winaSe vdgavarT~          5
          nino ZiZiguri
                                                                     GOCHA SVANIDZE:
          redaqtoris moadgile
          irma beqauri                                               “We are facing
                                                                     a choice now”             12
          nomerze muSaobdnen:
          leila koSkaZe
          beqa Wedia                                                 zurab ZlieriSvili
          inga alaviZe                                               savaWro Cveulebebisa
          fotouzrunvelyofa                                           da tradiciebis roli
          daviT xizaniSvili                                          saqonlis
          saredaqcio kolegia:                                        saerTaSoriso
          daviT asaTiani, kaxa aslaniSvili,                          nasyidobis
          iuri gabisonia, irakli dvaliZe, beqa Wedia,                xelSekrulebis
          pativcemuli mosamarTle din b. finelisi
                                                                     ganmartebisas        16
          Editor                                                     ZURAB DZLIERISHVILI
          NINO DZIDZIGURI
                                                                     The role of trade
          Editor Deputy                                              customs and traditions
          IRMA BEKAURI
                                                                     for the definition of
          The issue was prepared by:                                 international goods
          LEILA KOSHKADZE
          BEKA CHEDIA
                                                                     sales contracts        30
          INGA ALAVIDZE
                                                                     nino boWoriSvili
          Photo support by
          DAVIT KHIZANISHVILI                                        iurisdiqciis
                                                                     ganxorcieleba
          Editorial Board:
          DAVIT ASATIANI, KAKHA ASLANISHVILI, IURI GABISONIA,
                                                                     adamianis uflebaTa
          IRAKLI DVALIDZE, BEKA CHEDIA,                              da ZiriTad
          Honorable Judge DEAN B. PINELES                            TavisuflebaTa dacvis
                                                                     evropuli konvenciis
                                                                     pirveli muxlis
                                                                     mniSvnelobiT         31
                                                                     NINO BOCHORISHVILI
\ 2008,   saqarTvelos advokatTa asociacia
          GEORGIA BAR ASSOCIATION
                                                                     Implementation of
                                                                     jurisdiction in terms
                                                                     of article 1 of the
                                                                     European Convention
                                                                     for the Protection of
                                                                     Human Rights and Basic
                                                                     Freedoms                 42
          akrZalulia aq gamoqveynebuli masalebis gadabeWdva,
          gamravleba an gavrceleba komerciuli mizniT,
          saqarTvelos advokatTa asociaciis werilobiTi nebarTvisa
                                                                     robizon xurcilava
          da wyaros miTiTebis gareSe
                                                                     gancxadebis Setana
          dabeWdilia `si-ji-es~-Si
                                                                     gadaxdis brZanebis
          Printed in CGS
                                                                     miRebis mizniT
          tiraJi 1000 CIRCULATION                                    (warmoebis aRZvra)       43
misamarTi/ADDRESS:                                                   ROBIZON KHURTSILAVA
Tbilisi, v. barnovis 75 BARNOVI str., TBILISI
tel./TEL: (+995 32) 22 46 54, 18 34 46                               Filing an application for
www.gba.ge                                                           receipt of a payment
                                                                     order (initiation of
          ISSN 1512-049X                                             proceedings)              49
    maka salxinaSvili
    nikoloz SublaZe

    ojaxSi Zaladobis
    aRkveTis, ojaxSi
    Zaladobis msxverplTa
    dacvisa da daxmarebis
    administraciuli
    samarTalwarmoebis
    Taviseburebani       50
    MAKA SALKHINASHVILI
    NIKOLOZ SHUBLADZE
    Peculiarities of
    the administrative
    proceedings for
    elimination of domestic
    violence, protection of
    and support to its
    victims                   55        saqarTvelos advokatTa
                                             asociaciis Jurnali
    revaz gogSeliZe
                                           `profesia-advokatis~
    saproceso funqciis
                                         gamocema ganxorcielda
    gagebisaTvis sisxlis
    samarTlis procesSi        56             germaniis teqnikuri
                                                 TanamSromlobis
    REVAZ GOGSHELIDZE
                                              sazogadoebis (GTZ)
    For the understanding
    of the procedural                    finansuri mxardaWeriT.
    function in a criminal                 winamdebare JurnalSi
    proceeding                72    warmodgenili da ganxiluli
                                           mosazrebebi ekuTvnis
    irina aqubardia
                                           uSualod avtors(ebs).
    sisxlis samarTlis
    procesis monawileTa                      germaniis teqnikuri
    usafrTxoebis                   TanamSromlobis sazogadoeba
    uzrunvelyofis                                  (GTZ) ar iRebs
    Sesaxeb             74           pasuxismgeblobas Jurnalis
    IRINA AKUBARDIA                   Sinaarsobriv sisworesa da
    On the provision of security                    mosazrebebze.
    for the participants
    of criminal proceedings 83

    iuri gabisonia
    damcvelis statusi
    axali sisxlis samarTlis
    saproceso kodeqsis              The publication of the Magazine
    proeqtis mixedviT     84
                                    of the Georgian Bar Association
    IURI GABISONIA
                                          “Profession-Advocate” was
    The status of the defense
                                     implemented though funding by
    under the new draft Code
                            94                 the German Technical
    of Criminal Procedure
                                         Coorporation (GTZ) finacial
    oqmebi                    95    support. The views and opinions
                                      expressed herein are those of
    sakanonmdeblo                        the authour(s). Accordingly,
    cvlilebebi                98      GTZ shoud not be constructed
                                               as responsible for the
    saqarTvelos                               exect contet and views
    advokatTa asociaciis
                                                    of the magazine.
    wevrTa sia           110


4   profesia advokati
                                     `axla arCevanis
                                  winaSe vdgavarT~
advokatTa asociaciis Tavmjdomaris movaleobas ukve ori Tvea praqti-
kosi advokati goCa svaniZe asrulebs. igi acxadebs, rom Tavmjdomaris
movaleobis Sesruleba, misi survilis miuxedavad, asakis gamo daekisra.
marTalia, uaxloes momavalSi asociaciis Tavmjdomaris arCevnebi
gaimarTeba, magram goCa svaniZe praqtikuli saqmianobisgan CamoSorebas
ar apirebs. igi Tvlis, rom am mcire xnis ganmavlobaSi Tavis kolegebTan
erTad mniSvnelovani saqme gaakeTa _ erTad SeimuSaves programa minimumi,
romliTac safuZveli Cauyares Zlieri institutis Seqmnas.

`an unda SevqmnaT mZlavri, damoukidebeli korporaciuli struqtura, an
saerTod uari vTqvaT asociaciis arsebobaze. Cven didi dro davkargeT
da ufleba aRar gvaqvs isev inertulebi viyoT,~ _ acxadebs advokatTa aso-
ciaciis Tavmjdomaris movaleobis Semsrulebeli goCa svaniZe, romel-
Tan interviusac qvemoT gTavazobT.




_ didi xani ar aris, rac asociaciis Tavmjdomaris mova-
leobas asrulebT, Tumca, praqtikosi advokati xarT, rom-       `an unda SevqmnaT
lisTvisac kargad aris cnobili am sistemaSi arsebuli si-      mZlavri, damoukidebeli
tuacia. sainteresoa, Tqveni, rogorc Tavmjdomaris mova-       korporaciuli
leobis Semsruleblis gegmebi?                                 struqtura, an saerTod
                                                             uari vTqvaT asociaciis
_ minda mcire ganmarteba gavakeTo. Tavmjdomaris movale-      arsebobaze. Cven didi
obis Semsrulebeli Cemi surviliT, an raime damsaxurebis gamo  dro davkargeT da
ar gavmxdarvar, amis mizezi Cemi asaki gaxda. asociaciis wes-ufleba aRar gvaqvs isev
debis mixedviT, Tu Tavmjdomares uwydeba uflebamosileba,      inertulebi viyoT,~
misi movaleobis Sesruleba ekisreba aRmasrulebeli sabWos
yvelaze asakovan wevrs. wesiT, es funqcia unda Seesrulebina
yvelaze Rvawlmosil advokats rusudan pitavas, romelic Tavisi surviliT
gadadga aRmasrulebeli sabWos wevrobidan. analogiuri gadawyvetileba
miiRo zurab tabiZemac da rigiTobiT am funqciis Sesruleba me damekisra _
rogorc giTxariT, Cemi asakidan gamomdinare. uaris Tqmis SemTxvevaSi,
kvorumis ararsebobis gamo advokatTa asociacia daSlis safrTxis winaSe
idga da amitomac, iZulebuli gavxdi, davTanxmebuliyavi.

- rogoria am institutis ganviTarebis Tqveneuli xedva?


                                                       #2, 2008           5
               - me asociaciis aRmasrulebeli sabWos wevri viyavi da manamdec vicodi, ra
               problemebi arsebobda, ra iyo saWiro imisTvis, rom mZlavri, qmediTi korpo-
               raciisTvis Cagveyara safuZveli. wina wlebSi asociaciis aRmasrulebel
               sabWoSi araerTgvarovani damokidebuleba iyo sxvadasxva sakiTxisadmi. pro-
               cesebi inertulad mimdinareobda, dinebaze iyo miSvebuli, arsebobda uam-
               ravi problema, Tumca mizezTa gamo, maT mosagvareblad raime qmediTi Ro-
               nisZiebebi ar ganxorcielebula. aRsaniSnavia, rom amJamad aRmasrulebel
               sabWoSi erTsulovnebaa. migvaCnia, rom uamravi saqmea gasakeTebeli, romelic
               axali xelmZRvanelobis arCevnebamde unda movaswroT. marTalia, ar viciT,
               vis airCevs advokatTa korpusi, vin iqneba aRmasrulebeli sabWos axal
               SemadgenlobaSi, magram Zalian didi survili gvaqvs, rom asociaciis axal
               Semadgenlobas safuZveli Cayrili davaxvedroT _ SevqmnaT garkveuli
               infrastruqtura, romlis ganviTarebac momavalSi gagrZeldeba. mokled,
               programa minimumi gvaqvs.

   wina wlebSi asociaciis
    aRmasrulebel sabWoSi      _ albaT, programa minimumis nawilia aRmasrulebel sab-
          araerTgvarovani     WoSi axlaxans ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebi.
       damokidebuleba iyo
 sxvadasxva sakiTxisadmi.      _ aqamde asociaciis aRmasrulebeli sabWo struqturul da-
     procesebi inertulad       namats warmoadgenda, romelsac ar gaaCnda realuri xelmZ-
  mimdinareobda, dinebaze      Rvanelobis uflebamosileba, misi uflebebi Zalze SezRu-
iyo miSvebuli, arsebobda       duli gaxldaT, Tavmjdomaris gazrdili uflebebis xarjze.
 uamravi problema, Tumca       aRmasrulebeli sabWo sakuTari iniciativiT ver wyvetda
          mizezTa gamo, maT    mTel rig sakiTxebs, rac dakavSirebuli iyo kanonSemoqme-
                               debiT procesSi advokatTa asociaciis monawileobasTan. ma-
      mosagvareblad raime
                               galiTad, adre kanonSemoqmedebiT procesSi asociaciis sa-
 qmediTi RonisZiebebi ar
                               xeliT monawileobda mxolod asociaciis Tavmjdomare, ro-
         ganxorcielebula.
                               melic rigi mizezebis gamo aqtiurad ver iyo am saqmeSi Car-
aRsaniSnavia, rom amJamad
                               Tuli. amitomac, parlamentis komitetebSi sakanonmdeblo
    aRmasrulebel sabWoSi
                               iniciativebis ganxilvaSi ver vmonawileobdiT. amis gamo,
            erTsulovnebaa.
                               xelisufleba ver iRebda informacias dacvis sferoSi arse-
                               buli problemebis Sesaxeb. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imasac, rom
               amgvari informaciis miRebis survili xelisuflebas maincdamainc ar gaaC-
               nda, adamianis uflebaTa dacvis sakiTxi mxolod saxalxo damcvelis insti-
               tutis anabrad iyo darCenili. arada, aRmasrulebeli sabWos wevrebs aqtiuri
               monawileoba unda mieRoT kanonSemoqmedebiT procesebSi. migvaCnia, rom am
               kuTxiT unda Seicvalos situacia, unda gadavideT Cveni organizaciis ko-
               leqtiur marTvaze, rac saSualebas mogvcems gavaaqtiuroT advokatTa kor-
               pusi. miviReT mniSvnelovani gadawyvetileba, romlis safuZvelzec gaizarda
               aRmasrulebeli sabWos funqciebi. axali sistemiT, sxvadasxva mimarTule-
               bebs kurirebas gauweven aRmasrulebeli sabWos wevrebi. erT-erTi aseTi

           6   profesia advokati
mimarTulebaa sakanonmdeblo cvli-
lebebisa da sasamarTlo praqtikis
ganzogadeba, romelsac me vxelmZ-
Rvanelob. saxelmwifosTan urTier-
Tobis sakiTxebs zviad korZaZe uxel-
mZRvanelebs, es mimarTuleba advo-
katTa asociaciis struqturisa da
saqmianobis maregulirebeli saka-
nonmdeblo normebis reviziasac ax-
dens. saerTaSoriso urTierTobebs
uxel-mZRvanelebs daviT asaTiani,
regionebTan da asociaciis wevreb-
Tan urTierTobas _ daviT lanCava,
advokatTa uflebebis dacvis mimar-
Tulebas _ zaza xatiaSvili, testi-
rebasa da swavlebas _ roin migri-
auli. es aris Cvens mier SemuSavebu-
li koleqtiuri mmarTvelobis sqe-
ma, romlis mixedviTac, asociaciis
saqmianobaSi aRmasrulebeli sabWos
wevrebic aqtiur monawileobas mi-
iReben.

vfiqrob, rom es aris Cvens mier mi-
Rebuli yvelaze mniSvnelovani gadawyvetileba, riTac saZirkveli unda
Caeyaros Zlier, gamarTul organizacias. asociaciis momavalma arCevnebma
unda gadaWras umniSvnelovanesi amocana _ unda Seiqmnas mZlavri, damouki-
debeli korporaciuli struqtura, romelic aiRebs sazogadoebis winaSe
pasuxismgeblobas samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos umTavresi elementis, marT-
lmsajulebis gamarTul muSaobaze.



_ roca vsaubrobT imaze, rom marTlmsajuleba saqarTveloSi gaumarTa-
via da amis mizezad prokurorebisa da mosamarTleebis arakvalifici-
urobasa da araobieqturobas vasaxelebT, faqtia, rom procesis erTi
rgoli advokaticaa, romelTa araprofesionalizmic zog SemTxvevaSi
TvalSisacemia.

_ advokatTa korpusic iseTivea, rogoric nebismieri sxva profesiis adami-
anTa gaerTianeba _ masSi arian rogorc profesionali da pirovnuli Rir-
sebebiT gamorCeuli adamianebi, aseve uRirsebic da araprofesionalebic.
marTalia, upirvelesad, sakuTari Tavi unda gavakritikoT, magram unda

                                                       #2, 2008            7
        vTqva, rom advokaturis rolis dakninebis mcdelobaSi dRevandeli xeli-
        suflebis roli arcTu umniSvneloa. advokati sisxlis samarTlis procesSi
        gaxda praqtikulad braldebulis Tanamonawile. advokati kanoniT gaxades
        usamarTlo marTlmsajulebis monawile da realur dacvas igi ver axor-
        cielebs. xelisuflebam mizanmimarTulad daiwyo aqeT svla _ maxinji,
        usamarTlo kanonebis miRebiT da SemdgomSi am kanonebis aRsrulebisas daS-
                             vebuli mankieri praqtikiT advokatis roli maqsima-
axali sistemiT, sxvadasxva   lurad ignorirebulia. magaliTad, saproceso SeTanx-
mimarTulebebs kurirebas      meba. nacvlad imisa, rom igi miznad isaxavdes danaSa-
gauweven aRmasrulebeli       ulis gaxsnisTvis braldebulis realur TanamSrom-
sabWos wevrebi               lobas gamoZiebasTan, es sakanonmdeblo norma bralm-
                             deblisTvis braldebulze ukanono zemoqmedebis ins-
                             trumenti gaxda da advokats ar gaaCnia aranairi samar-
        Tlebrivi berketi, riTac win aRudgeba am usamarTlo da ukanono situacias.
        ufro metic, zogjer advokati iZulebulia Tvali daxuWos konkretul sisx-
        lis samarTlis saqmeebSi arsebul ukanonobaze, raTa misi dacvis qveS myof,
        xSir SemTxvevSi udanaSaulo adamians pirobiTi sasjelis an fuladi jari-
        mis nacvlad ukanonod patimroba ar Seufardon.

        saqarTveloSi dacvis ufleba ar aris uzrunvelyofili, Tundac imitom,
        rom advokati ar aris marTlmsajulebis monawile damoukidebeli piri.

        miuxedavad yovelive zemoTqmulisa, advokatTa nawili iCens gasaocar
        Seupovrobasa da profesionalizms, misabaZi principulobiT Tavdauzogavad
        Sromobs konkretul sisxlis samarTlis saqmeebze, rac arsebul viTarebaSi
        gmirobaa. ufleba ar maqvs am adamianebs ar gamovexmauro da pirovnuli Ta-
        nadgoma ar gamovucxado. asociacia valdebulia am advokatebs gverdiT da-
        udges, magram ar unda dagvaviwydes umTavresi _ ar gvaqvs ufleba gavcdeT
        kanoniT dadgenil normebs. qmedeba, romelic mimarTulia ukanonobis wina-
        aRmdeg, magram cdeba kanonierebis CarCos, sikeTes ar moitans.



        _ faqtia isic, rom advokatTa asociacias arasdros ucdia arsebuli
        situaciis winaaRmdeg wasuliyo.

        _ advokatTa asociaciam dRemde ver SesZlo usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg
        brZolis efeqtiani meqanizmis Seqmna. ar vsaubrob gaficvebsa da protestis
        sxva ukidures formebze, asociacias es unda gaekeTebina sakanonmdeblo
        doneze, advokatTa poziciis argumentirebuli dasabuTebiT. Cveni yvelaze
        didi minusi aris is, rom am mimarTulebiT dRemde araferi gakeTebula. didi
        imedi maqvs, rom momavalSi swored advokatura gaxdeba is Zala, romelic
        nebismieri xelisuflebis pirobebSi samarTlebriv tiranias civilizebuli,

    8   profesia advokati
samarTlebrivi meTodebiT, inteleqtualurad SeebrZoleba. amas mxolod
Tavmjdomare ver gaakeTebs, unda gavaqtiurdeT yvelani, raTa Cveni sazo-
gadoebrivi funqcia SevasruloT. arada, faqtia, advokatebi dRes sazoga-
doebrivad aqtiurebi ar arian. visargebleb SemTxveviT da aqve Cems sur-
vilsac gavamJRavneb. aucilebelia, rom advokatebma Seqmnan damoukidebeli
profkavSirebi, raTa daculi iyos maTi uflebebi.



_ garkveuli nawili profesionali advokatebisa, arsebuli situaciis
gamo uars ambobs sisxlis samarTlis procesSi monawileobaze, imis gamo,
rom dacvas realurad ver axorcielebs.

_ gldanis axal, saCvenebel cixeSi Tu ar xarT namyofi, naxeT da yvelafers
pasuxi gaecema. cixis mimdebare, daculi teritoria idealurad aris mowes-
rigebuli. SemoRobili, moasfaltebulia, magram Tu iq Sesvla SeuZliaT
mxolod sasjelaRsrulebis sistemis TanamSromlebs, braldebulis axlo-
bels an advokats oRroCoRro, atalaxebuli, dangreuli sad-
gomisken agzavnian manqanis gasaCereblad. arada, am adgilis
moxreSva did problemas ar warmoadgenda. ai, ase afasebs sa-     asociaciis momavalma
xelmwifo advokaturas _ iq arsebuli situacia zustad asa-         arCevnebma unda gadaWras
xavs xelisuflebis damokidebulebas. Tumca, xelisuflebis          umniSvnelovanesi amocana -
zogierT warmomadgenels, romlebic dRes mizanmimarTulad           Seiqmnas mZlavri,
muSaoben advokatis rolis dakninebaze, samwuxarod, aviwy-        damoukidebeli
deba mTavari _ is adamianebi, vinc guSin xelisuflebaSi iyvnen,  korporaciuli struqtura,
dRes advokatis klientebi arian da esenic aq movlen. somer-      romelic aiRebs
set moems aqvs aseTi fraza: mosamarTles, rodesac igi men-       sazogadoebis winaSe
toruli toniT kiTxulobs ganaCens, minda, tualetis qaRal-         pasuxismgeblobas
di davudo win da gavaxseno, rom isic adamiania.                 samarTlebrivi
                                                                saxelmwifos umTavresi
                                                                elementis,
_ xelisufleba acxadebs, rom arsebuli xarveziani kanon-          marTlmsajulebis
mdebloba swordeba, rom reformis axali talRa daiwyo.             gamarTul muSaobaze.
sainteresoa, Tqveni azri, axal sisxlis samarTlis sapro-
ceso kodeqsTan dakavSirebiT, miT umetes, arsebobs mosaz-
reba, rom advokatis funqcia kidev ufro izRudeba.

_ saqarTvelo unikaluri qveyanaa, jer erTi reforma ar dasrulebula da
imave dargSi meore iwyeba. Cveni kanonmdebloba iseTi xarveziania, rom misi
gasworeba SeuZlebelia, igi unda Seicvalos da sruliad axali Seiqmnas.

detalebs ar CavuRrmavdebi da vityvi mTavars, rom reformebi, romelic
saqarTveloSi ganxorcielda, bolomde gaazrebuli ar yofila da sistemur

                                                          #2, 2008           9
     xasiaTs ar atarebda. Cemi azriT, qveynis politikuri xelmZRvaneloba, ad-
     rindelic da dRevandelic dasavleTis TvalSi keklucobs, `warmatebiT~ iT-
     visebs gamoyofil Tanxebs, magram Sedegi, rac realurad reformam qveyanas
     unda misces, naklebad ainteresebT.

     ar SemiZlia magaliTisTvis ar gavixseno 1998-99 wels ganxorcielebuli
     reforma, rodesac seriozuli cvlileba moxda samoqalaqo procesSi. samo-
     qalaqo procesSi marTlac SejibrebiTobis principi damkvidrda da uari
     vTqviT sabWour, e.w. obieqturi WeSmaritebis Ziebisa da dadgenis amao
     mcdelobaze. mosamarTleTa marTlac, maRalprofesiuli korpusi mzad iyo
     axleburad, reformis Sesabamisad emuSava. Tumca, moxda is, ramac marTl-
     msajulebis mTliani paralizeba gamoiwvia. xelisuflebis agresiulma nawil-
     ma, ara konkretuli korumpirebuli mosamarTleebis, aramed mTlianad mosa-
     marTleTa korpusis winaaRmdeg daiwyo kampania, rasac mohyva is, rom mo-
     samarTleebma masobrivad datoves Tanamdebobebi da reformis procesma,
     romelic SesaZloa warmatebulad gagrZelebuliyo, mniSvnelovnad Selaxa
     adamianis uflebebi.

     rac Seexeba advokatis funqciebis SezRudvas, minda xazi gavusva, rom ad-
     vokatTa uflebebis da zogadad dacvis uflebis SezRudva ZiriTadad xdeba
     sisxlis samarTlis procesSi. sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsSi aris
     Tavi _ braldebuli da misi damcveli. advokats calke Tavi arc ki eZRvneba.
     am SemTxvevaSi konceftualurad mniSvnelovania saxelmwifos damokidebu-
     leba dacvasTan mimarTebaSi _ advokati braldebulTanaa gaigivebuli, rac
     safuZvelSive mcdaria.

     advokatTa asociacia apirebs aqtiur monawileobas kanonSemoqmedebiT
     procesSi. Sejerdeba advokatTa poziciebi, Seiqmneba jgufebi, romlebic
     imuSaveben sxvadasxva sakanonmdeblo iniciativebze da yvela sakiTxTan
     dakavSirebiT parlaments warvudgenT Cvens pozicias. nebismieri kanonis mi-
     Rebis mizanSewonilobas an mizanSeuwonlobas davasabuTebT argumentirebu-
     lad. Cven didi dro davkargeT da ufleba aRar gvaqvs isev inertulebi viyoT.



     _ asociaciisadmi misi wevrebis didi nawilis damokidebuleba uaryofi-
     Tia, miiCneven, rom asociacia calke organizmia, romelTanac maTi urTi-
     erToba mxolod sawevros gadaxdiT Semoifargleba. gamodis, rom wev-
     rebsa da asociacias Soris seriozuli gaucxoebaa.

     _ advokatTa asociacia aerTianebs 3 aTas adamians, romelTac erTmaneTisgan
     gansxvavebuli midgomebi aqvT. am etapze warmatebulad unda CaiTvalos is,
     rom advokatis statusis miReba, SeCereba da Sewyveta advokatTa asociaciis

10   profesia advokati
kompetenciis sferos ganekuTvneba. garda amisa, samwuxarod, ganvlili ori
wlis manZilze mniSvnelovani araferi gakeTebula. mjera, rom axali xel-
mZRvaneloba, momavali arCevnebis Semdgom, kidev ufro metad daxvewavs
struqturas da es gaucxoebac, rac realurad arsebobs, momavalSi aRar
iarsebebs. am problemaze Cven, advokatebma unda vifiqroT da Cvenve unda
daviwyoT sistemis reforma, Tanac, rac SeiZleba male.



_ axlovdeba advokatTa asociaciis Tavmjdomaris arCevnebi. pirveli ar-
Cevnebi Zalze daZabul reJimSi, xelisuflebis CareviT gaimarTa. rogor
fiqrobT, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom xelisufleba amjeradac ecdeba Tavis
kandidaturis gayvanas, raTa es instituti daiqvemdebaros?

_ 2005 wlis arCevnebma moitana is, rom es advokatTa asociacia   advokatTa asociacia
amgvari inertuli da araaqtiuri yofiliyo. Sedegad miviReT        apirebs aqtiur
ukontrolo samarTlebrivi bakqanalia _ es realobaa da yve-        monawileobas
la Cvengans amaSi mcire Tu didi wvlili miuZRvis.                kanonSemoqmedebiT
                                                                procesSi. Sejerdeba
ver getyviT, am arCevnebSi ramdenad aqtiuri iqneba xelisuf-     advokatTa poziciebi,
leba _ me ar var winaswarmetyveli da momavlis prognozirebas     Seiqmneba jgufebi,
ver gavakeTeb. Tumca, vfiqrob, rom asociaciis momavali Tav-
                                                                romlebic imuSaveben
mjdomare iqneba Rirseuli adamiani, is, visac advokatTa kor-
                                                                sxvadasxva sakanonmdeblo
pusi ndobas gamoucxadebs. yovel SemTxvevaSi, me amis didi
                                                                iniciativebze da yvela
imedi maqvs da vfiqrob, rom advokatTa korpusi Tavs daaRwevs
                                                                sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT
inertulobas da Tavisi principuli da ukompromiso damoki-
debulebiT mniSvnelovan wvlils Seitans samarTlebrivi sa-         parlaments warvudgenT
xelmwifos formirebaSi.                                          Cvens pozicias.



_ rodisaa arCevnebi daniSnuli?

_ TariRi gamocxaddeba uaxloes momavalSi da yvela wevrs, visac guli Ses-
tkiva am profesiaze vTxov, mivides arCevnebze da gamoxatos pozicia.



_ sainteresoa, apirebT Tu ara Tqveni kandidaturis dayenebas, an hyavs
Tu ara amJamindel aRmasrulebel sabWos Tavisi kandidati?

_ marTalia axla davTanxmdi Tavmjdomaris movaleobis Sesrulebas, magram
is, rom momavalSic viyo asociaciis Tavmjdomare aseTi mizani ar mamoZra-
vebs. vfiqrob, rom mTavaria, ganvaxorcieloT programa-minimumi, SevqmnaT
jerovani infrastruqtura da Tavmjdomaris Rirseuli kandidaturac
aucileblad gamoCndeba.

                                                          #2, 2008         11
     “We are facing a choice now”
     Practicing advocate, Gocha Svanidze has been acting as the Chairman of the
     Georgian Bar Association for two months now. He says that the duties of the
     Chairman were imposed on him. Under the GBA charter, when the previous
     Chairman left to study in the United States. Election of a new Chairman will be held
     in the nearest future; however, Gocha Svanidze is not planning to give up practice.
     He believes that during this short period of time he and his colleagues on the
     Executive Council have attained a significant achievement – they have developed
     a program for creating a stronger institution.

     “We either have to establish a solid and independent corporative structure, or
     finally refuse existence of the Association. We have lost much time and we no
     longer have the right to remain inert” Gocha Svanidze, acting Chairman of the
     Georgian Bar Association said. His interview is below:




            Mr. Svanidze, it is not very long since you have taken over the Chairman’s duties;
            however, you are still a practicing advocate who knows the existing situation in this
            system very well. Your plans, as the acting Chairman, are interesting.

     I would like to make a slight clarification. I did not become acting Chairman because of my will or
     any merit, the reason for this is my age. Under the Charter of the Association, if the authority of the
     Chairman is terminated, the eldest member of the Executive Council has to implement the
     Chairman’s duties. Since other older members have resigned from the Executive Council, I had to
     agree, because otherwise the Association would have faced the threat of falling apart due to the
     failure to fulfill the quorum requirement. Therefore I was obliged to agree.



            What is your vision for the development of this institution?

     I have been a member of the Executive Council and I knew which problems we were facing and
     what was necessary for creating a solid and efficient corporative entity. In the previous years,
     there were diverse approaches towards various issues in the Executive Council. There were
     numerous problems, but due to certain reasons no efficient measures were taken to resolve them.
     It should be noted that, currently, there is unanimity in the Executive Council. We believe that there
     is a lot to do before the new leadership is elected. We strongly wish that we prepare a foundation
     for the new leadership – create certain infrastructure the development of which will be continued in
     the future. In other words, we have a program for going forward.



            The recent changes implemented in the Executive Council are probably part of this
            program?


12   profesia advokati
Until now, the Executive Council represented a structural addition having no real leadership authority.
Its rights were rather limited due to the extended authority of the Chairman. The Executive Council
could not decide on a number of issues with its own initiative which were related to the participation
of the GBA in the legislative process. For instance, in the past, only the Chairman participated in
the legislative process in the name of the GBA, and failed to engage in the process actively due to
a range of reasons. We failed to participate in the review of the legislative innovations in the
parliamentary committees. Due to this fact, the government was unable to receive information
about problems existing on the defense side. Considering the fact that the government did not
have a real will to obtain such information, the human rights protection issue was left upon the
public defender alone. However, the members of the Executive Council should have actively
participated in the legislative process. We believe that the situation must now change. We have to
adopt a collective management model for the organization which will enable us to activate the bar.
We have made an important decision, based on which the authority of the Executive Council has
been extended. Under the new system, members of the Executive Council will oversee different
functions. This is a scheme of collective management we have developed according to which the
members of the Executive Council will also actively take part in the Association’s activities.

I think that this is the most important decision we have made for a strong and stable organizational
basis. The future elections in the Association must resolve a significant challenge – a strong,
independent corporative structure must be created which in front of society will be responsible
for the basic element of the rule of law – efficient functioning of justice.



   When talking about inefficient justice in Georgia, we identify lack of qualifications and
   partiality of prosecutors and judges as a reason. It is a fact that the advocates’ lack of
   professionalism is also often pretty obvious.

The bar is the same as a union of people of any other professions; people distinct by their profession
and personal merits are unified in it, as well as some unprofessional and unworthy persons. However,
first of all we need to be critical to ourselves, even though I have to say that the role of the present
government is not quite insignificant in the diminishment of the bar’s role. In practice, advocates
became accomplices of the defendant in the criminal trial. The law turned advocates into participants
of unfair justice and they are unable to carry out efficient defense. The government has purposefully
started to go in this direction by adopting horrible and unjust laws, and afterwards by erroneous
practice during their enforcement and as a result the advocates’ role is being ignored. For instance
– the plea bargain.

Regardless of the above, a group of advocates is demonstrating astonishing resistance and
professionalism and are working on specific criminal cases with fidelity to principle and dedication.
I have no right not to mention these people and not to show them personal support. The Association
has the duty to stand beside these advocates; however we have to bear in mind the essential – we
are not allowed to overstep the norms under the law. Actions aimed against illegality but exceeding
the framework of the law will not bring any good.



   It is a fact too that the Association never tried to go against the existing situation.


                                                                                #2, 2008                   13
     The Bar Association failed to create an efficient mechanism to fight injustice so far. I do not
     mean strikes and other extreme forms of protest. The Association should have acted on the
     legislative level by presenting arguments on the advocates’ position. Our biggest problem is that
     we have never done anything in this regard so far. I really hope that in the future it will be the bar
     that will fight legal tyranny by any government with civilized, legal and intellectual methods. The
     Chairman will not be able to do it alone; everyone must become active in order to fulfill our
     public function. However, it is a fact that advocates are not active today.



        The government states that the existing deficient legislation is being improved and
        that a new reform wave was launched. Your opinion on the new Code of Criminal
        Procedure is interesting especially since there is a suggestion that the advocate’s
        function is being extended.

     Georgia is a unique country. Another reform is launched before the previous one is completed in
     the same field. Our legislation is so deficient that it is impossible to correct it, it must be replaced
     completely and a fully new one must be created.

     I will not talk about details, but I will say that reforms implemented in Georgia were not fully
     thought through and were lacking systematic character. In my opinion, political leadership of the
     country both previous and present is grimacing in front of the West, “successfully” using allocated
     funds whereas it is less interested in the outcomes which a reform should really bring.

     As far as limitation of advocates’ functions is concerned, I would like to emphasize that a limitation
     of advocates’ rights and a general restriction of the right to defense are basically taking place in
     the criminal trial. There is a chapter in the Code of Criminal Procedure – the Defendant and
     Defense Counsel. There is even no separate chapter for defense counsel. In this case, the state’s
     approach to the defense is conceptually significant – the advocate is made the same as the
     defendant which is wrong in essence.

     The Bar Association is planning to actively engage in the legislative process. Advocates’ positions
     will be summarized, and working groups will be created to work on various legislative initiatives.
     We will submit our position to Parliament on every issue, on the worthiness to adopt any law with
     our arguments. We have lost much time and we no longer have the right to be inert.



        The attitude of the large part of the Association’s members towards the Association is
        negative. They believe that the Association is a separate entity, the relationship with
        which is limited to paying dues. It turns out that there is significant distancing between
        the bar and its members.



     The Bar Association unifies three thousand people who have different approaches. On this stage,
     we need to consider that granting, suspension and termination of the advocate’s status is a



14   profesia advokati
competency of the Bar Association. Other than that, unfortunately, nothing important was done
during the last two years.



   Election of the Bar Association’s Chairman is coming up. The first election took place in
   a rather tense environment, with the involvement of the government. What do you think:
   can we presume that in order to subordinate this organization the government will try to
   push its candidate this time too?

The 2005 election caused the Bar Association to be so inert and inactive. I cannot tell how active
the government will be during this election. However, I believe that the next Chairman of the
Association will be a valuable person whom the bar will trust.

I think that the bar with its principal and uncompromised position will significantly contribute to
the formation of a Rule of Law state.



   When will the election take place?

The date will be announced in the nearest future and I am asking all members supporting the
profession to come to the election and express his/her opinion.



   It would be interesting to know whether you are planning to nominate yourself for
   Chairmanship or whether the current Executive Council has a candidate?

It is true that for now I have accepted to fulfill the function of Chairman. However, being Chairman
of the Association in the future is not my goal. I believe that it is most important to implement our
program and create proper infrastructure. A valuable candidate for the Chairmanship will appear
too.




                                                                              #2, 2008                  15
     savaWro Cveulebebisa da
     tradiciebis roli saqonlis
     saerTaSoriso nasyidobis
     xelSekrulebis ganmartebisas
     zurab ZlieriSvili
     samarTlis doqtori, profesori




        nasyidobis xelSekruleba samoqalaqo samarTlis erT-erTi umniSvnelo-
     vanesi da uZvelesi institutia. nasyidobis xelSekruleba miekuTvneba
     xelSekrulebaTa im jgufs, romelSic naTladaa gamoxatuli qonebis gadas-
     vla erTi piridan meore piris sakuTrebaSi. amiT aixsneba, rom nasyidobas
     farTo gamoyeneba aqvs sasaqonlo brunvaSi.
        nasyidobis xelSekrulebas didi xnis istoria aqvs. jer kidev romis
     samarTlis da kontraqtebis klasikur sistemaSi mas ZiriTadi adgili ekava.
     romis klasikur samarTalSi igi Camoyalibebuli iyo konsensualuri saxis
     kontraqtis formiT empitio et venditio, romlis Tanaxmadac erTi mxare _ gam-
     yidveli (venditor), valdebuli iyo meore mxaris _ myidvelisaTvis (emptor)
     gadaeca saqoneli (merx), xolo myidveli ki, valdebuli iyo gadaexada gam-
     yidvelisaTvis saqonlis fasi (premium). xelSekrulebis arsebiT pirobebs
     warmoadgenda gasayidi saqoneli da misi fasi. romis samarTlisaTvis cno-
     bili iyo momavali mosavlis gayidvis xelSekrulebebic. aseT SemTxvevaSi
     gamoiyeneboda momavali qonebis gayidvis momwesrigebeli normebi (mei futuare
     sive speratae), xolo nasyidoba gadadebis pirobiT ganxorcielebulad iT-
     vleboda. nasyidobis xelSekrulebis sagani SeiZleba yofiliyo aseve, arasxe-
     ulebrivi nivTi (res incorpo­ra­lis), anu aramaterialuri qonebrivi sikeTe
     (moTxovnis ufleba) da a.S.1
        nasyidobis xelSekrulebas saerTaSoriso ekonomikur urTierTobebSic
     wamyvani adgili ukavia. mis regulirebas emsaxureba mravali saerTaSoriso
     xelSekruleba, SeTanxmeba Tu konvencia. saerTaSoriso nasyidobis xelSek-
     rulebad miiCneva iseTi xelSekruleba, romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia uc-
     xouri elementis monawileoba. aseTi xelSekrulebis mxareebi, rogorc we-
     si, warmoadgenen sxvadasxva saxelmwifos qveSevrdomebs, anda maTi komer-
     ciuli sawarmoebi imyofeba sxvadasxva saxelmwifoSi. saerTaSoriso nasyi-
     dobis xelSekrulebidan gamomdinare, valdebulebis sagans warmoadgens sa-
     qonlis eqsport-importis operaciebi. gadaxdis valutad gamoiyeneba fu-


16   profesia advokati
ladi erTeuli, romelic erT-erTi mxarisaTvis warmoadgens ucxour valu-
tas.
   saqonlis saerTaSoriso nasyidobis momwesrigebel saerTaSoriso kon-
venciebs Soris yvelaze mniSvnelovania gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis
konvencia `saqonlis saerTaSoriso nasyidobis xelSekrulebis Sesaxeb~2, ro-
melic miRebulia 1980 wlis 11 aprils qalaq venaSi da 1988 wlis 1 ianvridan
ZalaSia im saxelmwifoebisaTvis, romlebmac moaxdines misi ratifikacia. sa-
qarTvelos parlamentma misi ratifikacia 1994 wlis 16 agvistos moaxdina.
   saqarTvelos konstituciis mixedviT, saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso SeTan-
xmebasa da xelSekrulebas upiratesi iuridiuli Zala aqvT Sida kanonmdeb-
lobasTan mimarTebaSi im pirobiT, rom igi ar unda ewinaaRmdegebodes saqar-
Tvelos konstitucias da konstituciur kanons3. amitomac, ucxouri elemen-
tis monawileobiT dadebuli nasyidobis xelSekrulebis mimarT ZiriTadad
gamoiyeneba ara Sida kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili normebi, aramed venis kon-
venciiT dadgenili normebi. im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki nasyidobis xelSekrulebiT
gaTvaliswinebuli romelime sakiTxis gadawyveta konvenciis debulebebiT
SeuZlebelia, maSin gamosayenebeli samarTali ganisazRvreba saerTaSoriso
kerZo samarTlis koliziuri normebiT. venis konvenciiT gansazRvrulia im
saqonlis CamonaTvali, romelTa nasyidobis mimarTac konvenciis debulebebi
ar gamoiyeneba. aseTi saqonlis nasyidoba regulirdeba Sida kanonmdeblobiT
an saerTaSoriso kerZo samarTlis koliziuri normebiT.
   nasyidobis xelSekrulebasTan mimarTebaSi didi mniSvneloba eniWeba
kerZo samarTlis unificirebis saerTaSoriso institutis _ Unidroit-is mier
miRebul saerTaSoriso komerciul xelSekrulebaTa principebs4, aseve ev-
ropis saxelSekrulebo samarTlis principebs5.
   nasyidobis xelSekrulebis dadebis dros mxareTa mier gamoxatuli neba
da maTi Sinagani neba-survili SeiZleba ar iyo urTierTTanxvedri, rac dRis
wesrigSi ayenebs gamoxatuli nebisa da Sinagani nebis ganmartebis sakiTxs.
   saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 339-e muxlis Tanaxmad, xelSekrulebis
mxareTa uflebebisa da movaleobebis gansazRvrisas, SeiZleba mxedvelobaSi
iqnes miRebuli savaWro Cveulebebi da tradiciebi.
   savaWro Cveulebebi da tradiciebi warmoiSoba ama Tu im samewarmeo saq-
mianobis warmomadgenelTa mier urTierTSeTanxmebuli da xangrZlivi gamo-
yenebis Sedegad. imisaTvis, rom esa Tu is wesi savaWro Cveulebad da tradi-
ciad CaiTvalos, aucilebelia, rom igi gamoiyenebodes drois gansazRvrul
periodSi, aRiarebuli unda iyos yvela monawilis mier da faqtobrivad xor-
cieldebodes kidec. aucilebelia mocemuli dargis (sferos) warmomad-
geneli yvela pirisa Tu saqmiani wris Tanxmoba, rom esa Tu is wesi maT mier
upirobod iqneba daculi da gamoyenebuli, aseve am SeTanxmebuli wesebis
realurad gamoyenebac.


                                                         #2, 2008            17
        savaWro Cveulebebisa Tu tradiciebis moqmedeba SeiZleba pirTa konkre-
     tuli wriT Semoifarglebodes. sityva `savaWro~ ar niSnavs, rom igi mxolod
     vaWrobis sferoSi SeiZleba arsebobdes. savaWro Cveulebebi da tadiciebi
     Tanabrad gamoiyeneba, rogorc vaWrobaSi, ise mSeneblobaSi, momsaxurebis
     sxvadasxva sferoSi, gadazidvebSi da a.S.
        rogorc wesi, savaWro Cveulebebsa Tu tradiciebs savaldebulo xasiaTi
     mxolod mocemuli dargis warmomadgenlebisaTvis aqvs. Tu xelSekrulebis
     kontragenti sxva saqmiani wris warmomadgenelia an saerTod ar aris mewarme,
     maSin savaWro Cveuleba ar SeiZleba misi interesebis sawinaaRmdegod iyos
     gamoyenebuli. savaWro Cveulebebi da tradiciebi SeiZleba garkveuli teri-
     toriiTac iyos Semofargluli da mxolod am teritoriaze myofi pirebis
     mimarT atarebdes savaldebulo xasiaTs (magaliTad, fasiani qaRaldebis
     birJebze an auqcionebze moqmedi Cveulebebi)6.
        savaWro Cveulebebi da tradiciebi samarTlis normas ar warmoadgenen.
     Sesabamisad, isini arc samarTlis wyaros warmoadgenen. maT mxolod xelSek-
     rulebis Sinaarsis gansazRvrisas eniWebaT damatebiTi mniSvneloba. savaWro
     Cveulebas ar SeuZlia Secvalos kanonis imperatiuli normebi an gverdi aua-
     ros mis gamoyenebas. magram rac Seexeba kanonis dispoziciur normebs, maTTan
     SedarebiT savaWro Cveulebebsa Tu tradiciebs upiratesoba aqvT, davis Sem-
     TxvevaSi jer gamoyenebuli iqneba savaWro Cveuleba da tradicia, xolo Semd-
     gom ki, kanonis dispoziciuri norma.
        saerTaSoriso komerciuli xelSekrulebebis mxareTa uflebebisa da mo-
     valeobebis gansazRvrisas didi mniSvneloba eniWeba Cveulebebsa da tradi-
     ciebs. aseTi Cveulebebisa da tradiciebis ganzogadeba da unifikacia xels
     uwyobs sxvadasxva qveynis sawarmoebs Soris komerciuli kavSirebis damya-
     rebas. amitomac mewarmeTa (biznesmenTa) organizaciebi, romlebic Seqmnilia
     calkeul qveynebSi da saerTaSoriso xasiaTisaa, dainteresebulni arian ase-
     Ti saxis saqmianobis ganxorcielebaSi.
        saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebis sferoSi sxvadasxva qveynis
     sawarmoebs Soris saqmiani urTierTobebis dasamyareblad xelsayreli piro-
     bebis SeqmnaSi didi mniSvneloba eniWeba saerTaSoriso savaWro palatis saq-
     mianobas. palata, romelic Seiqmna 1919 wels, Tavisi saqmianobis ganxorci-
     elebis ZiriTad miznad isaxavs biznesis ganviTarebisaTvis xelSewyobas da
     Tanmimdevrulad axorcielebs am mimarTulebiT saqmianobas. dasaxuli miz-
     nis miRwevis uzrunvelyofis ZiriTadi saSualebaa saerTaSoriso komerciul
     saxelSekrulebo praqtikaSi mewarmeebis mier gamosayenebeli rekomendaci-
     ebis SemuSaveba.
        saerTaSoriso savaWro palatis mier 1936 wels miRebuli pirveli doku-
     mentia saerTaSoriso savaWro terminebis ganmartebis wesebi (`inkotermsi~).
     `inkotermsi~ saerTaSoriso savaWro terminebis (cnebebis) Semoklebaa (Inter-


18   profesia advokati
national Commercial Terms), romelsac didi praqtikuli gamoyeneba aqvT
nasyidobis xelSekrulebaSi.
   inkotermsis SemuSavebis ZiriTadi mizezi gaxda calkeul qveyanaSi arse-
bul savaWro cnebebs Soris, aseve am sakiTxTan dakavSirebuli calkeuli
qveynis kanonmdeblobebs Soris mkveTri gansxvaveba. inkotermsSi saqonlis
miwodebis sabaziso pirobebis standartizaciis, aseve gamyidvelisa da myid-
velis uflebebis TvalsaCinod dadgenis ZiriTadi mizania saerTaSoriso ko-
merciuli xelSekrulebebis dadebisas, mewarmeebis mier aRiarebuli da xSi-
rad gamosayenebeli cnebebis erTgvarovani gamoyenebisa da gagebis uzrun-
velyofa.
   saerTaSoriso savaWro palatis (mdebareobs q. parizSi) 1936 wels miRebul
saerTaSoriso savaWro cnebebis ganmartebis wesebSi _ inkotermsi (ICC Rules
for the Interpretation of Trade Terms - Incoterms), mTeli rigi cvlilebebi iqna
Setanili 1953, 1967, 1976, 1980, 1990, 2000 wlebSi. dResdReobiT moqmedebs
2000 wlis redaqciiT dadgenili inkotermsis wesebi7.
   nasyidobis xelSekrulebis mxareTa ufleba-movaleobebis gansazRvrisas,
savaWro Cveulebebisa da tradiciebis gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba gaTvalis-
winebulia yvela ganviTarebuli qveynis kanonmdeblobiTa da sasamarTlo
praqtikiT. saerTaSoriso savaWro palatasTan arsebuli saerTaSoriso saar-
bitraJo sasamarTlo erT-erTi yvelaze avtoritetuli saerTaSoriso saar-
bitraJo institutia, romelic yovelwliurad ixilavs aseulobiT saerTa-
Soriso komerciul davebs. misi reglamentiT dadgenilia, rom yvela SemTx-
vevaSi arbitrebi davis gadawyvetisas mxedvelobaSi iReben kontraqtis pi-
robebs da Sesabamis savaWro Cveulebebs.8
   inkotermsi warmoadgens miwodebis terminebis ganmartebis wesebis er-
Tobliobas, romliTac iwodeba saqonlis miwodebis sabaziso (standartuli)
pirobebi. pirobiTad SeiZleba gamoiyos sakiTxebis ori jgufi, romelTa Se-
saxebac inkotermsSi mocemulia erTgvarovani ganmarteba: komerciuli da
samarTlebrivi. inkotermsiT mowesrigebulia didi komerciuli mniSvnelo-
bis mqone Semdegi Svidi sakiTxi: a) fasis gansazRvra, romelic uSualod da-
mokidebulia xelSekrulebis mxareTa mier SeTanxmebuli miwodebis pirobis
Taobaze; b) saqonlis gadazidvasTan dakavSirebuli movaleobebis mxareTa
Soris ganawileba; g) mxareTa mier gadasazidi saWiro dokumentebis (gada-
zidvis fasis gadaxdis damadasturebeli, sabaJo, sanitariuli an sxva momsa-
xurebis ganxorcielebisaTvis aucilebeli) wardgenis valdebulebis gana-
wileba; d) mewarmeTa Soris saqonlis dazRvevis valdebulebis ganawileba;
e) mxareTa Soris saqonlis saTanadod SefuTvis uzrunvelmyofi valdebu-
lebebis ganawileba; v) mxareTa Soris saqonlis daTvalierebisa da Semowmebis
(inspeqtirebis) valdebulebebis ganawileba; z) mxareTa Soris tvirTis ga-
tanis an SemotanisaTvis saWiro sabaJo formalobebis ganxorcielebis val-
debulebebis ganawileba.


                                                            #2, 2008             19
        maSasadame, saqonlis miwodebis sabaziso (standartuli) pirobebis arCeva
     gansazRvravs fass, gamyidvelsa da myidvels Soris saqonlis mitanisaTvis
     saWiro xarjebis ganawilebis wess. sabolood ki, saerTaSoriso nasyidobis
     xelSekrulebis komerciul efeqtianobas, rameTu gamyidvelisa da myidve-
     lisaTvis Tavidan cnobilia TiToeulis mier nakisri valdebulebebis mocu-
     loba.
        interkomsiT mowesrigebuli samarTlebrivi sakiTxebi exeba mxareTa Sem-
     deg valdebulebebs: 1) im momentis gansazRvra, rodesac myidvelma jerovnad
     Seasrula gamyidvelisaTvis xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli pirobebis
     Sesabamisad (raodenoba, zoma, wona, xarisxi) nayidi saqonlis gadacemis val-
     debuleba; 2) nayid saqonelze gamyidvelisagan myidvelze nivTis SemTxve-
     viTi dazianebis an ganadgurebis riskis gadasvlis momentis gansazRvra; g)
     mxareTa Soris saeqsporto da saimporto licenziebis miRebis valdebulebis
     ganawileba.
        2000 wels, inkotermsSi Setanil iqna oTx jgufad dayofili 13 savaWro
     terminis (cnebis) ganmartebis wesebi. pirvel, E jgufSi mocemulia erTi
     termini Ex Works (franko qarxana). meore, E jgufSi mocemulia sami termini
     FCA, FOB, FAS. mesame C jgufSi mocemulia oTxi termini, romelTagan ori
     gamoiyeneba saqonlis sazRvao an Sida wylis transportiT gadazidvisas: CFR
     da CIF. rac Seexeba or sxva termins _ CPT da CIP, isini gamoiyeneba saqonlis
     nebismieri saxis transportiT gadazidvis dros.
        meoTxe, D jgufi Seicavs xuT termins. maTgan sami _ DAF, DDU, DDP SeiZ-
     leba gamoyenebul iqnas saqonlis nebismieri saxis transportiT gadazidvi-
     sas. danarCeni ori ki, _ DES da DEQ, SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas saqonlis
     mxolod sazRvao an Sida wylis transportiT gadazidvisas.9
        inkotermsis calkeuli terminebis (cnebebis) gamoyeneba niSnavs ara marto
     mxareTa SeTanxmebas saqonlis garkveuli saxis transportiT gadazidvis Se-
     saxeb, aramed aseve ganapirobebs gamyidvelis mier myidvelisagan sxvadasxva
     samarTlebrivi Zalis mqone sagadamzidavo dokumentebis miRebasac: kerZod,
     sazRvao gadazidvisas _ iseTi saqonelganmkargavi dokumenti, rogoricaa
     konosamenti, romlis gadacemac uTanabrdeba myidvelze nayid saqonelze
     sakuTrebis uflebis (titulis) gadasvlas da SesaZleblobas aZlevs mas sa-
     qonlis realurad miRebamde, konosamentis safuZvelze gankargos igi. sxva
     saxis transportiT gadazidvisas, es, rogorc wesi, aris zednadebi, romelic
     saqonlis Tanmxlebi dokumentia da romlis mixedviTac saqoneli SeiZleba
     gadaeces mxolod masSi aRniSnul mimRebs da ara sxva pirs.
        ganvixiloT TiToeuli terminis samarTlebrivi mniSvneloba:
        Ex Works (qarxana franko _ `SeTanxmebuli adgili~). sagareo vaWrobis
     xelSekrulebis piroba, romlis Tanaxmadac gamyidvelis mier myidvelisaT-
     vis saqonlis miwodebis valdebuleba Sesrulebulad iTvleba, rodesac gam-


20   profesia advokati
yidveli Tavis sawarmoSi (fabrikaSi, sawyobSi da a.S.) myidvels gadascems
saqonels tvirTis gadazidvisaTvis saWiro sabaJo momsaxurebisa da sat-
ransporto saSualebaze saqonlis datvirTvis gareSe. mocemuli termini gam-
yidvels akisrebs minimalur pasuxismgeblobas, rameTu gamyidvelis sawar-
moSi saqonlis miRebasTan dakavSirebuli yvela xarji da riski ekisreba
myidvels. Tuki mxareebs surT daakisron gamyidvels pasuxismgebloba aras-
wori datvirTvisaTvis, gagzavnis adgilis, anda aseT datvirTvasTan dakav-
Sirebuli yvela xarji da riski, maSin amis Sesaxeb specialurad unda aRiniS-
nos xelSekrulebaSi. gamyidveli aseve unda daexmaros myidvels saeqsporto
formalobebis ganxorcielebaSi, Tuki tvirTis eqsporti iyo navaraudevi.
    imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom gadasazidi saSualebis mosvlamde SesaZlebe-
li gaxda tvirTis calkeuli partiebis miReba konteinerebSi an sxva saSu-
alebiT, 1980 wels, inkotermsSi Camoyalibebuli iqna termini FCA-Free Car-
rier (franko gamyidveli). am terminis SeTanxmeba gulisxmobs, rom gamyidve-
li, mxareTa SeTanxmebiT, gansazRvrul adgilas gadascems myidvelis mier
miTiTebul gadamzidvels gadasazidad ganbaJebul tvirTs. saqonlis Caba-
rebis aseTi punqti SeiZleba iyos an konteineruli terminali anda gadasa-
zidi saSualeba, romelic gamiznulia saqonlis misaRebad mas Semdeg, rode-
sac saqoneli moTavsebul iqna konteinerebSi erTiani satransporto par-
tiebis saxiT myidvelis adgilsamyofelis mixedviT misatanad. amasTan, didi
mniSvneloba aqvs im sakiTxis gadawyvetas, Tu vin agebs pasuxs myidvelis
mier miwodebuli satransporto saSualebaze saqonlis datvirTvisaTvis,
aseve saqonlis gadmotvirTvisas im adgilze, sadac unda moxdes misi gada-
cema gadamzidvelisaTvis. saqonlis gadacemis adgilis arCevas didi mniSv-
neloba aqvs am adgilas saqonlis datvirTvisa da gadmotvirTvis valdebu-
lebebTan mimarTebaSi: Tu saqonlis miwodeba xdeba gamyidvelis Senoba-
nagebobebSi (sawyobSi), is pasuxs agebs saqonlis datvirTvisas. sxva romelime
adgilas saqonlis miwodebisas, gamyidvels ar ekisreba saqonlis gadmot-
virTvisaTvis pasuxismgebloba. aRniSnuli termini SeiZleba gamoyenebuli
iqnes saqonlis nebismieri saxis transportiT gadazidvisas, maT Soris Sere-
uli gadazidvebis drosac. `gadamzidvels~ warmoadgens piri, romelic gada-
zidvis xelSekrulebis safuZvelze valdebulebas kisrulobs ganaxorci-
elos anda uzrunvelyos saqonlis gadazidva saavtomobilo, sarkinigzo, sa-
haero, sazRvao anda Sida wylis transportiT. Tuki myidveli uflebas ani-
Webs gamyidvels miawodos saqoneli im pirs, vinc ar aris gadamzidveli, maSin
gamyidvelis mier saqonlis miwodebis valdebuleba Sesrulebulad iTvleba
aseTi pirisaTvis misi gadacemis momentidan.
    termini FAS-Free Alongside Ship _ franko gemis gaswvriv (`franko~ _ ita-
liurad, free _ inglisurad niSnavs produqciis momxmareblamde mitanisas
satransporto xarjebis anazRaurebis wess. mis Sesabamisad, tvirTis moZra-


                                                           #2, 2008            21
     obis garkveul rgolamde myidveli Tavisufldeba saqonlis datvirTvisa
     da transportirebis (zog SemTxvevaSi dazRvevis) xarjebisagan, vinaidan es
     xarjebi Sesulia saqonlis fasSi. sagareo vaWrobis xelSekrulebiT gaTva-
     liswinebulia saqonlis miwodebis piroba, romelic gansazRvravs nasyidobis
     fass eqsportiorsa da importiors Soris. am pirobis Tanaxmad, eqsportiori
     valdebulia sakuTari xarjebiT SefuTos saqoneli transportirebis piro-
     bebis gaTvaliswinebiT, gadaitanos sazRvao portSi da moaTavsos gemis gasw-
     vriv misadgomze (es xarjebi Sedis saqonlis gayidvis fasSi). saqonlis dazi-
     anebis an dakargvis riski, aseve sakuTrebis ufleba (tituli) am momentidan
     gadadis importiorze (myidvelze), romelsac ekisreba gadazidvis danarCeni
     xarjebi (gemis dafraxtva, tvirTis dazRveva, gemze datvirTva da sxva). FAS-
     is pirobebis Sesabamisad, saqonlis gadasazidad saWiro yvela sabaJo for-
     maloba unda ganaxorcielos gamyidvelma.
        FOB-Free on Board _ `franko gemis bortze~, `datvirTvis SeTanxmebuli
     porti~ _ sagareo vaWrobis xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli saqonlis mi-
     wodebis erTerTi yvelaze gavrcelebuli piroba, romlis mixedviTac gam-
     yidveli (eqsportiori) ixdis yvela satransporto, sadazRvevo da sabaJo
     danaxarjs gemis bortze tvirTis dadebamde, datvirTvis xarjebs aanazRa-
     urebs myidveli (importiori) anda SeTanxmebis safuZvelze es xarjebi SeiZ-
     leba ganawildes gamyidvelsa da myidvels Soris. saqonlis dazianebis an
     dakargvis riski, aseve sakuTrebis ufleba (tituli) eqsportioridan impor-
     tiorze gadadis im momentidan, rogorc ki tvirTi gadakveTs gemis borts.
        termini FOB SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnes mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki
     saqonlis gadazidva xdeba sazRvao an Sida wylis satransporto saSualebiT.
        CF – Cost and Freight _ `Rirebuleba~, `dafraxtva~ _ sagareo vaWrobis
     xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli saqonlis miwodebis piroba, romlis dro-
     sac saqonlis fasi Seicavs gagzavnis xarjebs, magram ar Seicavs satrans-
     porto dazRvevis xarjebs. amasTan, tvirTis SemTxveviTi daRupvis an dazi-
     anebis riski, aseve saqonlis gadacemis Semdeg warmoSobili damatebiTi xar-
     jebi gamyidvelisagan gadadis myidvelze. gamyidveli aseve valdebulia saku-
     Tari xarjebiT ganaxorcielos gadazidvisaTvis saWiro sabaJo formalo-
     bebi. termini CFR SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnes mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki
     saqonlis gadazidva xdeba sazRvao an Sida wylis transportiT.
        CIF – Cost, Insurance, Freight _ `Rirebuleba~, `dazRveva~, `dafraxtva~ _
     sagareo vaWrobis xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli saqonlis miwodebis pi-
     roba, romlis mixedviTac saqonlis fasi asaxavs ara marto mis Rirebulebas,
     aramed dazRvevisa da daniSnulebis adgilamde transportirebis xarjebsac.
     am pirobiT miwodebisas gamyidveli valdebulia: sakuTari xarjebiT gada-
     itanos saqoneli dasatvirT portSi; dafraxtos saWiro xomaldi an adgili
     gemze; moaTavsos masze gadasagzavni tvirTi; xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswi-


22   profesia advokati
nebuli pirobebis Sesabamisad gadaixados tvirTis gadatanisaTvis aucile-
beli sabaJo da sxva gadasaxadebi; daazRvios saqoneli; gadasces myidvels
an mis warmomadgenels xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli konosamenti, daz-
Rvevis polisi an sadazRvevo sertifikati (mowmoba), angariSi da saqonlis
warmoSobis mowmoba.
   CPT – Carriage Paid to _ `gadazidvis xarjebi gadaxdilia daniSnulebis
(mitanis) SeTanxmebul adgilamde~ _ sagareo vaWrobis xelSekrulebiT gaT-
valiswinebuli saqonlis miwodebis piroba, romlis mixedviTac gamyidveli
gadascems saqonels mis mier SerCeul gamyidvels, aseve ixdis daniSnulebis
(mitanis) SeTanxmebul adgilamde saqonlis gadazidvisaTvis saWiro xarjebs.
myidvelze yvela damatebiTi xarji da riski gadadis saqonlis gadacemis
momentidan. `gadamzidvelad~ CaiTvleba piri, romelic gadazidvis xelSek-
rulebis safuZvelze kisrulobs valdebulebas ganaxorcielos an uzrun-
velyos saqonlis gadazidva nebismieri saxis satransporto saSualebiT anda
Sereuli gadazidvis meSveobiT.
   CIP – Carriage nad Insurance Paid to _ `gadazidvisa da dazRvevis xarjebi
gadaxdilia mitanis (daniSnulebis) SeTanxmebul adgilamde~ _ sagareo vaW-
robis xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli saqonlis miwodebis piroba, rom-
lis mixedviTac gamyidveli gadascems saqonels mis mier SerCeul gadamzid-
vels, aseve ixdis daniSnulebis (mitanis) SeTanxmebul adgilamde saqonlis
gadazidvisaTvis saWiro xarjebs, maT Soris dazRvevis xarjebsac. saqonlis
gadacemis Semdeg yvela riski da damatebiTi xarji ekisreba myidvels. `gadam-
zidvelad~ CaiTvleba piri, romelic gadazidvis xelSekrulebis safuZvelze
kisrulobs valdebulebas ganaxorcielos an uzrunvelyos saqonlis gada-
zidva nebismieri saxis satransporto saSualebiT anda Sereuli gadazidvis
meSveobiT.
   CIP-is Tanaxmad, gamyidvelma unda daazRvios myidvelze nayid saqonelze
SemTxveviTi daRupvis an dazianebis riski gadazidvis mTeli drois ganmav-
lobaSi. Sesabamisad, gamyidvelma am mizniT unda dados dazRvevis xelSek-
ruleba da gadaixados sadazRvevo premia. myidvelma mxedvelobaSi unda iqo-
nios, rom CI-is pirobebis mixedviT gamyidveli valdebulia ganaxorcielos
mxolod minimaluri dakmayofilebis dazRveva. Tuki myidvels surs Semd-
gomSi hqondes mTeli miyenebuli zianis anazRaurebis moTxovnis ufleba, is
amis Sesaxeb unda SeuTanxmdes gamyidvels anda TviTon dados dazRvevis
xelSekruleba im Tanxaze, romelic aRemateba minimaluri dakmayofilebis
odenobas. `gadamzidveli~ SeiZleba iyos nebismieri piri, romelic gadazid-
vis xelSekrulebis safuZvelze axorcielebs an organizebas ukeTebs saqon-
lis gadazidvas nebismieri satransporto saSualebiT, anda Sereuli gada-
zidvis formiT. im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki saqonlis gadazidva xorcieldeba erT-
maneTis mimdevari gadamzidvelebis mier, SemTxveviTi daRupvis an dazianebis


                                                          #2, 2008            23
     riski myidvelze gadadis saqonlis pirveli gadamzidvelisaTvis gadacemis
     momentidan. sabaJo momsaxurebis xarjebis gadaxda ekisreba gamyidvels.
        DAF – Delivered at Frontier _ `saqonlis miwodeba sazRvarze punqtis miTi-
     TebiT~ _ sagareo vaWrobis xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli saqonlis mi-
     wodebis piroba, romlis mixedviTac gamyidveli axorcielebs saqonlis mi-
     wodebas gamyidvelis gankargulebaSi im satransporto saSualebis gadace-
     miT, romelzec imyofeba saqonlis gadatanisaTvis saWiro sabaJo procedu-
     rebgavlili tvirTi, magram romelsac ar gauvlia saqonlis Sesatanad saWiro
     sabaJo Semowmeba sazRvarze SeTanxmebul punqtSi an adgilze, magram mezo-
     beli qveynis sabaJo sazRvramde.
        termin `sazRvarSi~ igulisxmeba nebismieri sazRvari, maT Soris saqon-
     lis gatanis qveynis sazRvari. amitomac DAF-is dros didi mniSvneloba eni-
     Weba Sesabamisi sazRvris gansazRvras konkretuli adgilis an punqtis mi-
     TiTebis gziT. Tuki mxareebs surT, rom satransporto saSualebebidan sa-
     qonlis CamotvirTvisaTvis pasuxismgebloba, aseve mTeli CamotvirTvis xar-
     jebi daekisros gamyidvels, maSin isini amis Sesaxeb unda SeTanxmdnen nasyi-
     dobis xelSekrulebiT.
        es termini SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes nebismier SemTxvevaSi, rodesac
     saqonlis gadacema xdeba saxmeleTo sazRvarze. im SemTxvevaSi ki, rodesac
     saqonlis gadacema xdeba daniSnulebis navsadgurSi (portSi) xomaldis
     bortidan an misadgomidan, mizanSewonilia gamoyenebul iqnes termini DES.
        DES – Delivered at Ship _ `gemidan (xomaldidan) miwodeba daniSnulebis
     portis (navsadguris) miTiTebiT~ _ sagareo vaWrobis xelSekrulebiT gaT-
     valiswinebuli saqonlis miwodebis piroba, romlis mixedviTac gamyidvelis
     mier myidvelisaTvis saqoneli miwodebulad CaiTvleba im momentidan, ro-
     desac daniSnulebis navsadgurSi Sesuli xomaldis bortze saqoneli gadava
     myidvelis gankargulebaSi, magram tvirTi ar aris jer ganbaJebuli imi-
     saTvis, rom moxdes Setana. daniSnulebis navsadgurSi tvirTis mitanis yvela
     xarji (garda tvirTis gadmotvirTvisa) ekisreba gamyidvels. DES gamoiyeneba
     mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saqonlis gadacema xdeba sazRvao an Sida
     wylis transportiT daniSnulebis navsadgurSi tvirTis mitanisas.
        DEQ – Delivered at Quat _ `gemis gaswvriv misadgomidan miwodeba daniSnu-
     lebis navsadguris miTiTebiT~ _ sagareo vaWrobis xelSekrulebiT gaTva-
     liswinebuli saqonlis miwodebis piroba, romlis Tanaxmadac gamyidvelis
     mier myidvelisaTvis saqoneli miwodebulad CaiTvleba im momentidan, ro-
     desac gamyidveli daniSnulebis navsadgurSi gemis gaswvriv sadgomze myid-
     vels gadascems jer kidev ganubaJebel saqonels. daniSnulebis navsadgurSi
     tvirTis mitanis yvela xarji, maT Soris gemis misadgomis gaswvriv saqonlis
     gadmotvirTvis xarjebi ekisreba gamyidvels. DEQ-is Tanaxmad, saqonlis gan-
     baJebisa da sxva msgavsi momsaxurebis xarji ekisreba myidvels.


24   profesia advokati
   Tuki mxareebs surT, rom ganbaJebisa da sxva msgavsi momsaxurebis xar-
jebi mTlianad an nawilobriv daekisros gamyidvels, maSin isini amis Sesaxeb
unda SeTanxmdnen nasyidobis xelSekrulebiT. es termini SeiZleba gamoye-
nebul iqnes mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saqonlis gadazidva xdeba saz-
Rvao an Sida wylis transportiT daniSnulebis navsadgurSi gemis misad-
gomis gaswvriv tvirTis gadmotvirTamde. Tuki mxareebs surT, rom gamyid-
vels daekisros im xarjebis gadaxdac, romelic warmoiSoba saqonlis gada-
tanisas navsadguris farglebs gareT sxva adgilas (sawyobi, terminali, sad-
guri da a.S.), maSin gamoyenebul unda iqnes termini DDU anda DDP.
   DDU – Delivered Duty Unpaid _ `miwodeba mosakreblis (gadasaxadis) gadaxdis
gareSe daniSnulebis navsadguris miTiTebiT~ _ sagareo vaWrobis xelSek-
rulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli saqonlis miwodebis piroba, romlis Tanaxmadac
gamyidveli valdebulia miawodos myidvels daniSnulebis adgilas mitanili
ganubaJebeli da satransporto saSualebidan gadmoutvirTavi saqoneli.
gamyidvelma unda gaswios rogorc saqonlis gadacemisaTvis saWiro xarjebi,
ise saqonlis SemotanisaTvis dadgenili yvela sabaJo anda msgavsi saxis `any
duty~ mosakrebeli da gadasaxadi. myidvelze riski da yvela sxva damatebiTi
xarji gadadis gamyidvelis mier misTvis daniSnulebis adgilas saqonlis
Cabarebis momentidan.
   DDP – Delivered Duty Paid _ `miwodeba daniSnulebis adgilas mosakreblis
(gadasaxadis) gadaxdiT~ _ sagareo vaWrobis xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswine-
buli saqonlis miwodebis piroba, romlis Tanaxmadac gamyidvelis mier myid-
velisaTvis saqoneli gadacemulad CaiTvleba im momentidan, rodesac gam-
yidveli myidvels daniSnulebis adgilas gadascems ganbaJebul, magram sat-
ransporto saSualebidan gadmoutvirTav saqonels. gamyidvels ekisreba
aseT gadacemasTan dakavSirebuli yvela xarji da riski, maT Soris daniSnu-
lebis qveyanaSi saqonlis Setanisas dadgenili sabaJo da sxva msgavsi gada-
saxadisa da mosakreblis gadaxda. gamyidvels termin EXW dros ekisreba
minimaluri valdebulebebi, xolo DDP dros _ maqsimaluri valdebulebebi.
   mocemuli termini ar SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnes, Tuki gamyidvels pir-
dapir an arapirdapir ar SeuZlia uzrunvelyos saimporto licenziis miReba.
im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki mxareebs surT, rom gamyidvels ar daekisros romelime
xarjis gadaxda saqonlis Semotanisas (magaliTad damatebiTi Rirebulebis
gadasaxadi), es naTlad unda ikveTebodes nasyidobis xelSekrulebaSi Sesa-
bamisi damatebidan.

  inkotermsis gamijvna 1980 wlis `saqonlis saerTaSoriso nasyidobis
  xelSekrulebaTa Sesaxeb~ venis konvenciisagan

   inkotermsis, rogorc saerTaSoriso nasyidobis urTierTobebis aranor-
matiuli regulirebis meTodis, farTod gavrcelebis kidev erT ganmsazR-


                                                           #2, 2008             25
     vrel faqtors warmoadgens misi urTierTqmedeba msoflioSi aRiarebul
     sxvadasxva konvenciasa da principebTan, ramdenadac masSi mocemuli piro-
     bebi, damatebiTi regulireba da am pirobebis Sesrulebis garantiebi moce-
     mulia aRniSnul normatiul aqtebSi. amdenad, saerTaSoriso kerZo samar-
     TalSi regulirebis normatiuli da aranormatiuli meTodebi gamoiyeneba
     urTierTmimarTebaSi.
        zemoaRniSnulis magaliTad ganvixilavT inkotermsis urTierTqmedebas
     saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi aRiarebul iseT mniSvnelovan konvenciasTan,
     rogoricaa venis 1980 wlis konvencia `saqonlis saerTaSoriso nasyidobis
     xelSekrulebaTa Sesaxeb~10.
        aRniSnuli konvenciis calkeul muxlebSi regulirebuli gamyidvelisa
     da myidvelis valdebulebebi kidev ufro zustad da mkafiod wesrigdeba
     inkoterminebis calkeuli pirobebiT. ase, magaliTad, 1980 wlis konvenciis
     31-e muxliT gansazRvrulia gamyidvelis saqonlis miwodebis valdebulebis
     Sesrulebulad miCnevis sami SemTxveva11, inkotremsis gamoyenebiT ki, mxare-
     ebs SeuZliaT maTi urTierTobis TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT, amoir-
     Cion miwodebis Sesabamisi piroba, riTac daazusteben xelSekrulebis Ses-
     rulebasTan dakavSirebul mTel rig iuridiul da komerciul sakiTxebs.
        amave konvenciis 30-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli gamyidvelis valdebu-
     lebebi, inkotermsSi regulirdeba cal-calke punqtebSi:
        a) myidvelisaTvis saqonlis gadacemaze gamyidvelis valdebuleba inko-
     terminebis Semdegi pirobebiTaa dazustebuli: 1) konvenciis 31-e muxliT
     gansazRvrul gamyidvelis saqonlis miwodebis valdebulebis Sesrulebis
     momentad inkotermsSi EX Works-is a.1 muxliT miCneulia gamyidvelis mier
     myidvelisaTvis saqonlis gadacema Tavissave sawarmoSi, F da C jgufis
     terminebis a.1. muxliT _ saqonlis gadamzidvelisaTvis gadacema, xolo D
     jgufis terminebis a.1. muxliT ki _ myidvelis gankargulebaSi saqonlis
     SeTanxmebul daniSnulebis punqtSi gadacema 2) konvenciis 32-e muxlis me-2
     da me-3 punqtebs C jgufis terminebis a.4. muxli azustebs gamyidvelze
     saqonlis myidvelisaTvis gadacemis iuridiulad uzrunvelyofis valde-
     bulebis dakisrebiT, D jgufis terminebis a.4. muxli ki _ gamyidvelze
     saqonlis SeTanxmebul adgilas da SeTanxmebuli pirobebiT faqtobrivad
     miwodebis valdebulebis dakisrebiT 3) 32-e muxlis 1-li punqti aisaxeba
     `inkotermsis~ gansazRvruli terminebis a.7. muxliT, gamyidvelis myidve-
     lisaTvis Sesabamisi Setyobinebis gadacemis valdebulebaze miTiTebiT 4)
     33-e muxlis wesi miwodebis vadasTan dakavSirebiT konkretizdeba inkoter-
     minebis a.4 da b.4 muxlebSi; magaliTad FOB da FAS, aseve CIF da CIP ter-
     minebis Tanaxmad miwodebis TariRad miiCneva konosamentSi aRniSnuli Tari-
     Ri, DDU da DDP terminebiT ki _ SeTanxmebuli TariRi an periodi, romlis
     gankargulebaSic unda moxdes saqonlis wardgena myidvelis gankargulebaSi
     daniSnulebis punqtSi.


26   profesia advokati
   b) venis konveciis 30-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli gamyidvelis kidev er-
Ti valdebuleba, romelic Seexeba myidvelisaTvis saqonelTan dakavSire-
buli dokumentebis gadacemas, inkotermsSi mocemulia a.2, a.8 da a.10 mux-
lebSi.
   g) rac Seexeba konvenciis amave muxliT gaTvaliswinebul gamyidvelis mier
myidvelisaTvis saqonelze sakuTrebis uflebis gadacemis valdebulebas,
igi arc konvenciiT wesrigdeba detalurad da arc inkotermsi exeba mas.
   venis 1980 wlis konveciaSi mocemuli myidvelis valdebulebebi, gamyid-
velis valdebulebebisagan gansxvavebiT, inkotermsSi araerTgvarovnadaa
asaxuli. magaliTad, konvenciis 53-59-e muxlebiT regulirebuli valde-
buleba saqonlis fasis gadaxdasTan dakavSirebiT, inkotermsis b.1 muxlSi
asaxulia zogadad. saerTod ki, angariSsworebis calkeul formebsa da maTi
ganxorcielebis garantiebs eZRvneba saerTaSoriso savaWro palatis mier
SemuSavebuli 10 publikacia, romlebic uzrunvelyofen maT erTmniSvne-
lovan samarTlebriv regulirebas saerTaSoriso nasyidobisas.11
   inkotermsis calkeul terminebSi SedarebiT dawvrilebiTaa gansazRvru-
li konvenciis 60-e muxlis 1-li punqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli aucilebeli faq-
tobrivi Tu iuridiuli moqmedebebis Sesrulebis valdebulebis calkeuli
aspeqtebi, rac gamyidvels aZlevs miwodebis ganxorcielebis saSualebas:
1) inkoterminebis b.2 muxliT myidvels ekisreba ori valdebuleba _ sa-
importo licenziis an msgavsi oficialuri nebarTvis miReba da yvela im
sabaJo formalobis Sesruleba, rac aucilebelia saqonlis Sesatanad da
misi mesame qveynis gavliT tranzitisaTvis 2) b.3 muxli myidvels akisrebs
gadazidvis xelSekrulebis gaformebis valdebulebas (E da F jgufis ter-
minebiT) 3) b.6. muxli ki myidvels ganusazRvravs mTeli rigi xarjebis anaz-
Raurebis valdebulebas: _ xarjebi, romlebic SeiZleba warmoiSvas saqonlis
misTvis gadacemis momentidan; xarjebi, romlebic SeiZleba warmoiSvas ukve
myidvelis kontrolis sferoSi wamoWrili mizezebiT, e.w. damatebiTi
xarjebi 4) unda aRiniSnos, rom b.6 muxlis Tanaxmad, TiTqmis yvela terminSi
(garda DDU-si) myidvelis valdebulebebSi Sedis aucilebeli gadasaxadebis,
baJisa da sxva oficialuri mosakreblis gadaxda, aseve saqonlis Sesatanad
da misi mesame qveynis gavliT satranzito gadazidvisaTvis saWiro sabaJo
formalobebis xarjebis anazRaurebac 5) b.7 muxliT myidvels ekisreba gam-
yidvelisaTvis saTanado Setyobinebis miwodebis valdebuleba (magaliTad,
FOB da FAS terminebiT) 6) b.8 muxliT _ Sesabamisi terminis a.8 muxliT gan-
sazRvruli satransporto Tu miwodebis Sesrulebis damadasturebeli sxva
dokumentis miRebis valdebuleba 7) b.9 muxliT _ saqonlis datvirTviswina
daTvalierebis xarjebi, maTgan gamonaklisia eqsportis qveynis xelisuf-
lebis warmomadgenlebis mier moTxovnili daTvalierebis xarjebi; 8) b.10
muxliT _ Sesabamisi terminebis a.10 muxlSi miTiTebul dokumentebis miRe-
basTan dakavSirebuli xarjebisa da mosakreblebis gadaxda.


                                                         #2, 2008            27
        inkotermsis a.5 da b.6 muxlebSi ki asaxulia amave konvenciis 36-e muxliT
     gaTvaliswinebuli iseTi didi praqtikuli mniSvnelobis sakiTxi, rogoricaa
     saqonlis nebismier Seusabamobaze gamyidvelis pasuxismgebloba riskis myid-
     velze gadasvlis momentamde, sadac riskis gadasvlis momenti emTxveva gam-
     yidvelis mier saqonlis myidvelisaTvis gadacemis valdebulebis Sesru-
     lebis moments.
        yuradReba gamaxvilebulia aseve inkotermsisa da venis konvenciis urTi-
     erTqmedebis kidev 2 aspeqtze: upirvelesad, aRsaniSnavia, rom swored kon-
     vencia gansazRvravs inkotermsiT gaTvaliswinebuli gamyidvelisa da myid-
     velis valdebulebebis Seusruleblobis Sedegebs; meorec, igi aregulirebs
     aseTi SeusruleblobisaTvis pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisuflebis safuZ-
     vlebsac. venis konvenciis 79-80-e muxlebis gamoyenebisas swori orientaci-
     isaTvis ki ssp-is gamocemul iqna publikacia `forsmaJoruli garemoebebi~.12




           bibliografia

     1.    saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi, Tb., 1997.
     2.    saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis komentari, wigni I I I , Tb., 2001.
     3.    Âåíñêàÿ êîíâåíöèÿ î äîãîâîðàõ ìåæäóíàðîäíîé êóïëè-ïðîäàæè
           òîâàðîâ, Êîììåíòàðèé, Ì., 1994.
     4.    Ðîçåíáåðã Ì.Ã. ,,Êîíòðàêò ìåæäóíàpoäíîé êóïëè-ïðîäàæè. Ñîâðå-
           ìåííàÿ ïðàêòèêà çàêëþ÷åíèÿ. Ðàçðåøåíèå ñïîðîâ”. Ì., 2004.
     5.    Ðîçåíáåðã Ì.Ã. ,,Måæäóíàpoäíàÿ êóïëÿ-ïðîäàæà òîâàðîâ”. Ì.,
           ,,Ñòàòóò”, 2003.
     6.    Âèëêîâà Í.Ã. ,,Äîãîâîðíîå ïðàâî â ìåæäóíàðîäíîì îáîðîòå”. Ì.,
           ,,Ñòàòóò”, 2002.
     7.    Ïëîòíèêîâ À.Þ. ,,Íîâûé Èíêîòåðìñ-2000”. Ñîäåðæàíèå, ïðàêòèêà
           ïðèìåíåíèÿ, êîììåíòàðèé. Ìîñêâà, 2002.
     8.    Ïðèíöèïû ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ êîììåð÷åñêèõ äîãîâîðîâ (ïåð. ñ àíãëèéñ-
           êîãî Êîìàðîâà À.Ñ.), Ì., 2002.
     9.    Ìåæäóíàðîäíûå ïðàâèëà òîëêîâàíèÿ òîðãîâûõ òåðìèíîâ ,,Èíêî-
           òåðìñ”, Ì., 2002.
     10.   Incoterms 2000 – http://www.vescc.com/incoterms2000.htm
     11.   Principles of European Contract Law. Parts I and II./Ed. by O. Lando, H.
           Beale. The Hague, London, Boston, 2000.
     12.   The Principles of European Contract Law – PECL –
           http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/eu.contract.principles.part I. 1995
     13.   United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of
           Goods _ http://www.cisg.ru./content/download/cisg.ru.pdf
     14.   International Chamber of Commerce – ICC 2000. http://www.vescc.com/
           incoterms2000.htm
     15.   Towards European Civil Code /Ed. by M.W. Hesselnik, E.N. Hondrius,
           J.B.M. Branken, Dodrecht. Boston, London. 1994.



28   profesia advokati
     SeniSvnebi:



1
     Ðèìñêîå ÷àñòíîå ïðàâî: Ó÷åáíèê ïîä. ðåä. Í.Á. Íîâèöêîãî è È.Ñ.
     Ïåðåòåðñêîãî, Ì., 1996, ñòð. 285.
2
     CISG – United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International
     Sale of Goods _ gaeros konvencia saqonlis saerTaSoriso nasyi-
     dobis xelSekrulebis Sesaxeb. http://www.cisg.ru./content/download/
     cisg.ru.pdf
3
     saqarTvelos konstitucia, Tb., 1995.
4
     Ïðèíöèïû ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ êîììåð÷åñêèõ äîãîâîðîâ (ïåð. ñ àíãëèéñ-
     êîãî Êîìàðîâà À.Ñ.), Ì., 1996.
5
     Principles of European Contract Law. Parts I and II./Ed. by O. Lando,
     H. Beale. The Hague, London, Boston, 2000. Principles of European
     Contract Law (evropis saxelSekrulebo samarTlis principebi
     Sedgenilia evropuli saxelSekrulebo samarTlis komisiis mier.
     PECL Sedgenilia evropis qveynebis saxelSekrulebo samarTlis
     institutebis Seswavlis Sedegad da sainformacio-rekomendaci-
     uli xasiaTisaa. PECL-is teqsti ixileT: http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/
     eu.contract.principles.part I
6
     saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis komentari, wigni I I I , gv. 166-167,
     Tb., 2001.
7
     Ïëîòíèêîâ À.Þ. ,,Íîâûé Èíêîòåðìñ-2000“. Ñîäåðæàíèå, ïðàêòèêà
     ïðèìåíåíèÿ, êîììåíòàðèé. Ìîñêâà, 2002.
8
     Ìåæäóíàðîäíûå ïðàâèëà òîëêîâàíèÿ òîðãîâûõ òåðìèíîâ ,,Èíêî-
     òåðìñ“, Ì., 2002.
9
     Incoterms-is krebuli warmoadgens saerTaSoriso savaWro palatis
     (ICC – International Chamber of Commerce) mier aRiarebuli savaWro
     terminebis erTobliobas da damtkicebulia gaeros saerTaSoriso
     vaWrobis Sesaxeb komisiis (UNCTTRAL – United Nations Commis-
     sion on International Trade Law) mier (Incoterms-is teqsti ixileT:
     http://www.vescc.com/incoterms2000.htm)
10
     Ðîçåíáåðã Ì.Ã. ,,Êîíòðàêò ìåæäóíàpoäíîé êóïëè-ïðîäàæè. Ñîâðå-
     ìåííàÿ ïðàêòèêà çàêëþ÷åíèÿ. Ðàçðåøåíèå ñïîðîâ“. Ì., 2004.
11
     a) Tu nasyidobis xelSekruleba iTvaliswinebs saqonlis gada-
     zidvas _ gadasces saqoneli pirvelsave gadamzidvels myidveli-
     saTvis Casabareblad; b) im SemTxvevebSi, romlebic ar eqvemdeba-
     reba wina punqtis moqmedebas, roca xelSekruleba exeba garkveuli
     individualuri Tvisebebis mqone saqonels, an iseT araindividu-
     alizebul saqonels, romelic aRebuli unda iyos garkveuli ma-
     ragidan an damzadebuli, an warmoebuli unda iqnes da mxareebma
     xelSekrulebis dadebis momentSi icodnen, rom saqoneli inaxeba
     an warmoebul, an damzadebul iqnes garkveul adgilze _ myidvels
     mis gankargulebaSi unda gadasces saqoneli am adgilze; g) sxva
     SemTxvevaSi igi valdebulia myidvels mis gankargulebaSi gadasces
     saqoneli im adgilze, sadac xelSekrulebis dadebis momentSi
     imyofeboda gamyidvelis komerciuli sawarmo~.
12
     Âåíñêàÿ êîíâåíöèÿ î äîãîâîðàõ êóïëè-ïðîäàæè òîâàðîâ. Êîììåí-
     òàðèè. Ì., 1994.
11
     Âèëêîâà Í.Ã. ,,Äîãîâîðíîå ïðàâî â ìåæäóíàðîäíîì îáîðîòå“. Ì.,
     2002.
13
     ssp-s publikacia #421.
14
     Âèëêîâà Í.Ã. ,,Äîãîâîðíîå ïðàâî â ìåæäóíàðîäíîì îáîðîòå“, èçä.
     ,,Ñòàòóò“, 2002, ñòð. 239-242.




                                                 #2, 2008                    29
     The role of trade customs and
     traditions for the definition of
     international goods sales contracts
     ZURAB DZLIERISHVILI
     Ph.D. Professor




     The sales contract is one of the most important institutes of civil law. The sales contract
     holds a leading place in international economic relations as well. Numerous international
     agreements, contracts and conventions provide for its regulation. In terms of sales
     contracts, great importance is placed upon internal legislation and international
     commercial contracting principles developed by the international institute of the unification
     of the private law – Unidroit as well as European contracting law.

     In concluding a sales contract, the will expressed by the parties and their inner will may
     be coincident, which raises the issue of defining of expressed will and inner will.

     This thesis discusses the role of trade customs and traditions for defining international
     goods sales contracts.

     Great attention is dedicated to the amendments made by the International Chamber of
     Commerce of Paris to the international trade terms in 2000 – to the “incoterms” rules
     having great practical application with regard to sales.

     The rules of definition for 13 trade terms (Ex Works, FCA, FOB, FAS, CFR, CIF, CTP,
     CIP, DAF, DDU, DDP, DES, DEQ) adopted for incoterms in 2000 are discussed in detail
     in the thesis.

     This thesis discusses the interaction of incoterms with the Vienna Convention of 1980
     on “the international goods sales contract”. Criteria for severance between the said
     Convention and “incoterms” are described as well.

     This thesis will greatly support both theorists and practitioners interested in the issue
     above.




30   profesia advokati
         iurisdiqciis ganxorcieleba
      adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad
      TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropuli
konvenciis pirveli muxlis mniSvnelobiT
                                                    nino boWoriSvili
                         advokati, Tbilisis saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis
                universitetis iuridiuli fakultetis asistent-profesori




      `maRali xelSemkvreli mxareebi TavianTi iurisdiqciis farglebSi yvela
   adamianisaTvis uzrunvelyofen adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad Tavisuf-
   lebaTa dacvis evropuli konvenciis pirvel TavSi gansazRvrul uflebebsa
   da Tavisuflebebs.~
      konveciis pirveli muxlidan gamomdinareobs, rom wevri saxelmwifoebi
   pasuxs ageben uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis nebismieri darRvevisaTvis,
   romelic Cadenilia maT `iurisdiqciaSi~ myof pirebTan mimarTebaSi. iuris-
   diqciis ganxorcieleba warmoadgens aucilebel pirobas xelSemkvreli sa-
   xelmwifosaTvis, raTa is CaiTvalos pasuxismgeblad im moqmedebebTan da
   umoqmedobasTan mimarTebaSi, romelTa ganxorcieleba/ganuxorcielebloba
   mas eracxeba da wamoWris konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebisa da Ta-
   visuflebebis darRvevis varauds.
      `iurisdiqciis cneba~ konvenciis pirveli muxlis miznebisaTvis asaxavs
   saerTaSoriso sajaro samarTalSi moazrebul termins. saerTaSoriso sa-
   jaro samarTlis kuTxiT, sityva `iurisdiqciaSi~ konvenciis pirveli muxli
   imgvarad unda iqnes gagebuli, rom saxelmwifos iurisdiqciuli kompetencia
   uwinaresad warmoadgens teritoriuls da, amave dros, iurisdiqcia zogadad
   ganxorcielebuli unda iyos saxelmwifos mTel teritoriaze. xsenebuli
   prezumfcia SesaZlebelia SeizRudos garkveul garemoebebSi, kerZod, rode-
   sac saxelmwifo moklebulia SesaZleblobas, ganaxorcielos Tavisi ufleba-
   mosileba teritoriis nawilze. es SeiZleba moxdes teritoriis sxva qveynis
   SeiaraRebuli Zalebis mier okupaciis SemTxvevaSi, rodesac es Zalebi efeq-
   tianad akontroleben Sesabamis teritorias, omis an ajanyebis dros an sxva
   saxelmwifos mier ganxorcielebuli iseTi qmedebebis SemTxvevaSi, romlebic
   mxars uWers separatistuli saxelmwifos Camoyalibebas Sesabamis saxelm-
   wifoSi.
      sasamarTlo aseT gamonaklis situaciaSi zemoxsenebul daskvnamde rom
   mivides, erTi mxriv, unda ganixilos yvela Sesabamisi faqtori, romelic



                                                          #2, 2008            31
     zRudavs saxelmwifos mier Tavis teritoriaze uflebamosilebis efeqtianad
     ganxorcielebas, da, meore mxriv, TviT am saxelmwifos qmedeba. xelSemkvreli
     saxelmwifoebis mier konvenciis pirveli muxliT nakisri valdebulebebi,
     garantirebul uflebaTa ganxorcielebaSi Carevisagan Tavis Sekavebis gar-
     da, damatebiT pozitiur valdebulebebs moicavs. kerZod, teritoriis Sig-
     niT uflebebis pativiscemis uzrunvelyofis kuTxiT, gadadgmuli iqnes po-
     zitiuri nabijebi. valdebulebaTa Sesruleba savaldebuloa maSinac ki, ro-
     desac Sesabamisi saxelmwifos xelisuflebis mier ganxorcieleba SezRudu-
     lia teritoriaze. am SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifos kvlav akisria valdebuleba,
     ganaxorcielos yvela is nabiji, romlis ganxorcielebac mas SeuZlia.
        am mxriv aRsaniSnavia adamianis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos
     precedentuli gadawyvetileba saqmeze _ asaniZe saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg
     (Assanidze v. Georgia)1. saqme paradoqsuli, vinaidan, aWaris avtonomiuri res-
     publikis mTavrobis mier ukanono patimrobaSi wlebis manZilze imyofeboda
     asaniZe, romelic saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier gamarTlda. mi-
     uxedavad amisa, saqarTvelos mTavrobam ver moaxerxa sakuTari `iurisdiq-
     ciis~ farglebSi myofi ukanono patimris ganTavisufleba.
        konvenciis 1-li muxli moiTxovs, rom wevrma saxelmwifoebma `TavianTi
     iurisdiqciis farglebSi yvelasaTvis uzrunvelyon konvenciis I nawilSi gan-
     sazRvruli uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi~.
        xsenebuli debulebidan gamomdinare, wevri saxelmwifoebi pasuxs ageben
     nebismieri piris daculi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis nebismier darRve-
     vaze maTi `iurisdiqciis~ an kompetenciis farglebSi darRvevis Cadenis dros.
     konkretul gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi iurisdiqcia moiazreba iseTi arate-
     ritoriuli faqtorebis safuZvelze, rogoric aris: sajaro xelisuflebis
     organoebis qmedebebi, romlebic xorcieldeba sazRvargareT saxelmwifos
     diplomatiuri Tu sakonsulo warmomadgenlebis mier; pirTa danaSaulebrivi
     qmedebebi, romlebic mimarTulia sazRvargareT saxelmwifos interesebis
     an misi moqalaqeebis winaaRmdeg; qmedebebi, romlebic Cadenilia saxelmwifo
     droSiT mfrinavi xomaldis bortze an TviTmfrinavSi, an kosmosur xomal-
     dze, romelic iq aris registrirebuli, da gansakuTrebiT seriozuli saer-
     TaSoriso danaSaulebi (universaluri iurisdiqcia). Tumca, zogadi wesis
     Tanaxmad, cneba `iurisdiqcia~ konvenciis 1-li muxlis mniSvnelobisaTvis
     ganixileba, rogorc saerTaSoriso sajaro samarTlis poziciis amsaxveli
     xsenebuli cneba `uwinaresad~ Tu `arsebiTad~ aris teritoriuli.
        saxelmwifos teritoriasTan erTad, teritoriuli iurisdiqcia vrcel-
     deba nebismier im teritoriaze, romelic savaraudo darRvevis Cadenis mo-
     mentSi imyofeba Sesabamisi saxelmwifos `sruli kontrolis~ qveS, garda im
     teritoriebisa, romlebic aseTi kontrolis miRma xvdeba.
        sasamarTlo aRniSnul saqmeSi ganmartavs, rom aWaris avtonomiuri res-
     publika udavod warmoadgens saqarTvelos teritoriis ganuyofel nawils


32   profesia advokati
da eqvemdebareba mis kompetenciasa da kontrols. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT,
arsebobs kompetenciis prezumfcia. sasamarTlos aseve, unda ganesazRvra,
arsebobs Tu ara safuZvliani mtkicebuleba am prezumfciis uarsayofad.
   amasTan dakavSirebiT sasamarTlom, aRniSna, rom saqarTvelom konvenciis
ratificireba moaxdina mTel teritoriasTan mimarTebaSi. garda amisa,
aWaris avtonomiur respublikas ar gaaCnia separatistuli miswrafebebi da
mis teritoriaze arcerTi sxva saxelmwifo ar axorcielebs srul qmediT
kontrols. konvenciis ratificirebisas saqarTvelos ar gaukeTebia raime
konkretuli daTqma konvenciis 57-e muxlis Sesabamisad, aWaris avtonomiur
respublikasTan an am teritoriaze sakuTari iurisdiqciis ganxorciele-
basTan dakavSirebul siZneleebTan mimarTebaSi. aseT daTqmas nebismier Sem-
TxvevaSi ar eqneboda Zala, radgan precedentuli samarTali gamoricxavs
teritoriul gamonaklisebs, garda im SemTxvevebisa, romlebic miTiTebulia
konvenciis 56-e muxlis 1-el punqtSi (damokidebuli teritoriebi).
   swored amitom sasamarTlo adgens, rom ganxiluli faqtebi, romelTa sa-
fuZvelzec adgili aqvs konvenciis darRvevis mtkicebas, Sedis saqarTvelos
saxelmwifos `iurisdiqciaSi~ konvenciis 1-li muxlis mniSvnelobiT.
   saxelmwifos pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxi aseve, SeiZleba dadges im qmedebe-
bis gamo, romlebic aisaxeba konvenciiT garantirebul uflebebze, im SemT-
xvevaSic ki, Tu isini aisaxeba iurisdiqciis farglebs gareT. magaliTad,
araxelSemkvrel saxelmwifoSi eqstradiciasTan mimarTebaSi sasamarTlom
daadgina, rom xelSemkvreli mxare konvenciis faseulobebis (`aseT fase-
ulobebs ki, warmoadgens politikuri tradiciebis, idealebis, Tavisufle-
bisa da kanonis uzenaesobis memkvidreoba, razec miTiTebulia konvenciis
preambulaSi~) sawinaaRmdegod im SemTxvevaSi imoqmedebda, Tu Segnebulad
gadascemda mimalvaSi myof pirs sxva saxelmwifos, rodesac am ukanasknelSi
saxezea arsebiTi safuZvlebi imis dasajereblad, rom Sesabamis pirs emuqreba
realuri riski, daeqvemdebaros wamebas Tu araadamianur mopyrobas an sas-
jels.
   garda amisa, xelSemkvreli saxelmwifos umoqmedoba da dumiliT gamoxa-
tuli Tanxmoba kerZo pirebis mier Cadenil qmedebebTan mimarTebaSi arRvevs
saxelmwifos iurisdiqciaSi myof sxva pirTa konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebul
uflebebs da SesaZloa warmoSvas saxelmwifos pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxi.
konvenciis Tanaxmad xsenebuli namdvilad ase iqneba saxelmwifos mier im
TviTaRiarebuli xelisuflebis organoebis qmedebebis aRiarebis SemTxve-
vaSi, romlebic ar aris aRiarebuli saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis mier.
   saxelmwifo pasuxismgeblad SeiZleba CaiTvalos im SemTxvevaSic ki, ro-
desac misi warmomadgenlebi aWarbeben instruqciiT maTze dakisrebul uf-
lebamosilebas. konvenciis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifos xelisuflebis organoebi
mkacrad arian pasuxismgebelni maT daqvemdebarebaSi myof pirTa qmedebebze.


                                                         #2, 2008            33
     maT Tavisufleba eniWebaT da ver gaimarTleben Tavs, rom ar ZaluZT saku-
     Tari neba-survilis mimarT pativiscemis uzrunvelyofa.
        `iurisdiqciis~ cneba pirveli muxlis mniSvnelobiT aucileblad Semo-
     fargluli ar aris maRali xelSemkvreli mxareebis erovnuli teritoriiT.
     sasamarTlom dauSva, rom gamonaklis garemoebebSi xelSemkvreli saxelmwi-
     foebis qmedebebi, romlebic Cadenilia saxelmwifo teritoriis gareT an
     zegavlenas axdens teritoriis gareT, konvenciis pirveli muxlis mniSvne-
     lobiT SesaZloa CaiTvalos am saxelmwifos mier iurisdiqciis ganxorci-
     elebad.
        aucilebeli ar aris imis garkveva, xelSemkvreli mxare detalurad axor-
     cielebs kontrols erovnuli teritoriis gareT myofi adgilobrivi xeli-
     suflebis organoebis qmedebebsa da politikaze Tu ara, radgan srul kont-
     rols aseT teritoriaze SeuZlia warmoSvas Sesabamisi xelSemkvreli mxaris
     pasuxismgebloba.
        rodesac xelSemkvreli mxare axorcielebs srul kontrols erovnuli
     teritoriis gareT mdebare teritoriaze, misi pasuxismgebloba ar Semoifar-
     gleba im qmedebebiT, romlebsac axorcieleben misi jariskacebi an am teri-
     toriaze myofi misi oficialuri pirebi, aramed aseve vrceldeba im qme-
     debebze, romlebsac axorcieleben adgilobrivi xelisuflebis organoebi,
     maTTvis aRmoCenili samxedro an sxva saxis mxardaWeriT rom arseboben.
        winamdebare kvlevis mizani, Cveni qveynisaTvis metad problemuri regi-
     onebis, afxazeTisa da samaCablos, dRevandeli mdgomareobis gaTvaliswi-
     nebiT, imis garkvevaa Tu ramdenad aris SesaZlebeli aRniSnul konfliqtur
     regionebSi momxdari adamianis uflebebis darRvevebze pasuxismgebel sa-
     xelmwifod CaiTvalos saqarTvelo, teritoriuli, anu `iurisdiqciis~ faq-
     toris gaTvaliswinebiT. rac Seexeba qveyanas, romlis jarebic (samSvidobo
     Zalebis formatiT myofi rusi samxedroebi) axorcieleben kontrols am or
     regionSi, verafers davamtkicebT, Tumca, ukve arsebuli precedentuli ga-
     dawyvetilebebis analizis safuZvelze, didi albaTobiT SesaZloa CaiT-
     valos pasuxismgebel saxelmwifod.
        aRniSnul sakiTxebze daskvnebis gasakeTeblad, mniSvnelovania adamianis
     uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos precedentuli gadawyvetilebebi xelSem-
     kvrel saxelmwifoTa mimarT wardgenil saqmeebze, konvenciis I muxlis darR-
     vevaTa gamo.
        evropuli sasamarTlos precedentuli samarTlis mixedviT, saxelmwifos
     iurisdiqcia da teritoria SeiZleba ar emTxveodes erTmaneTs. adamianis
     uflebaTa evropulma sasamarTlom saqmeze – loizidu TurqeTis winaaR-
     mdeg (Lloizidou v. Turkey)2 _ ganacxada, rom saxelmwifos iurisdiqcia ufro
     farTo cnebaa, vidre teritoria. xsenebuli saqme exeboda sakuTrebis ufle-
     bis dacvas CrdiloeT kviprosis teritoriaze, romelic okupirebulia


34   profesia advokati
TurqeTis mier 1974 wlidan. rogorc cnobilia, am teritoriaze, romelic
gamocxadda CrdiloeT kviprosis TurqeTis respublikad (CkTr), ganTavse-
buli iyvnen TurqeTis samxedro SenaerTebi. am saqmesTan dakavSirebiT evro-
pulma sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom: `konvenciis obieqtisa da miznis gaTva-
liswinebiT, xelSemkvreli saxelmwifos pasuxismgebloba aseve, SeiZleba
dadges, rodesac samxedro moqmedebis Sedegad miuxedavad imisa, kanonieria
Tu ukanono, saxelmwifo axorcielebs efeqtian kontrols Tavisi erovnuli
teritoriis farglebs gareT teritoriaze. am teritoriaze konvenciiT
gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis uzrunvelyofis valde-
buleba gamomdinareobs aseTi kontrolis faqtidan, imis miuxedavad, igi
xorcieldeba saxelmwifos mier uSualod, misi SeiaraRebuli Zalebis, Tu
misdami daqvemdebarebuli adgilobrivi administraciis meSveobiT.~
   sasamarTlos azriT, saxelmwifoTa pasuxismgeblobis Sesaxeb saerTaSo-
riso principebis gaTvaliswinebiT, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani iyo im Sem-
TxvevaSic damdgariyo saxelmwifos pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxi, roca kano-
nieri Tu ukanono sabrZolo moqmedebis ganxorcielebis Sedegad, mocemul
saxelmwifos, ama Tu im teritoriaze mopovebuli hqonda efeqtiani kont-
rolis ganxorcielebis SesaZlebloba.
   evropulma sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom mocemul saqmeze gadawyvetilebis
miRebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani iyo TurqeTis mTavrobis mier
im faqtis aRiareba, rom loizidum Tavis sakuTrebaze kontrolis ganxor-
cielebis SesaZlebloba dakarga TurqeTis jarebis mier CrdiloeT kvipro-
sis okupaciisa da am teritoriaze CkTr-s Seqmnis Sedegad; agreTve, imis aRi-
areba, rom TurqeTis samxedro Zalebma araerTxel Seuqmnes uSualo dabr-
koleba ganmcxadebels sakuTrebis xelmisawvdomobis uzrunvelsayofad.
   sasamarTlom ganmarta, rom ar arsebobda aucilebloba, calke gamokvle-
uliyo, namdvilad axorcielebda Tu ara TurqeTis saxelmwifo kontrols
CkTr-s xelisuflebis politikasa da moqmedebebze, an raSi gamoixateboda
es kontroli. CrdiloeT kviprosSi TurqeTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis mniSv-
nelovani raodenoba TavisTavad metyvelebda imaze, rom TurqeTis armia
srulad akontrolebda kunZulis am nawils da amitom, pasuxismgebelic iyo
adgilobrivi xelisuflebis politikisa da moqmedebebisaTvis. Sesabamisad,
is pirebi, romlebic Tavis Tavze ganicdidnen CkTr-s xelisuflebis poli-
tikisa da moqmedebis Sedegebs, faqtobrivad, TurqeTis saxelmwifos iuris-
diqciis qveS xvdebian.
   yovelive amis gaTvaliswinebiT, sasamarTlom daaskvna, rom TurqeTis sa-
xelmwifos valdebulebebi konveciiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebis uzrun-
velsayofad CrdiloeT kviproszec vrceldeboda.
   daskvnis saxiT sasamarTlom daadgina, rom loizidusaTvis CrdiloeT
kviprosSi arsebul sakuTrebaze xelmisawvdomobis uflebis xangrZlivi


                                                          #2, 2008            35
     vadiT aRkveTa da masze kontrolis sruli dakargva xvdeba TurqeTis `iuris-
     diqciis~ qveS konveciis I muxlis Sesabamisad.
        erT-erTi mniSvnelovani saqme iurisdiqciasTan dakavSirebiT aris banko-
     viCi da sxvebi natos wevri saxelmwifoebis winaaRmdeg (Bankovic and Others
     v. NATO Member States).3 ukve ganxiluli loizidus saqmis msgavsad, aqac
     sasamarTlom daadgina: miuxedavad imisa, rom saxelmwifos iurisdiqciuli
     kompetencia ZiriTadad SezRudulia misi teritoriiT, gamonaklis SemTx-
     vevaSi saxelwifos pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxi SeiZleba dadges im moqmede-
     bisTvis, romelic Cadenilia misi teritoriis farglebs gareT.
        msgavsi gadawyvetileba miiRo adamianis uflebaTa evropulma sasamarT-
     lom saqmeze ilaSku da sxvebi moldovisa da ruseTis federaciis winaaR-
     mdeg (ILAªCU AND OTHERS v. MOLDOVA AND RUSSI) 4.
        aRniSnul saqmeSi sasamarTlom ukve ganxiluli saqmeebisagan gansxva-
     vebiT, konveciis I muxlis darRveva daadgina, rogorc ruseTis, ise mol-
     dovis saxelmwifos mimarT.
        ruseTis mTavrobis mtkicebiT, gasaCivrebuli qmedebebi ar Sedis ruseTis
     federaciis `iurisdiqciaSi~ konvenciis pirveli muxlis mniSvnelobiT.
        ruseTis mTavrobis pozicia iyo Semdegi: ruseTis federacias ar ganu-
     xorcielebia da ar axorcielebs iurisdiqcias dnestrispireTis regionze,
     romelic moldovis respublikas ekuTvnis. kerZod, ruseTis federacias
     arasodes mouxdenia moldovis respublikis okupireba da sajariso nawilebi
     iq moldovis TanxmobiT iyo ganTavsebuli. me-14 armiis SenaerTebi ar ere-
     odnen moldovasa da dnestrispireTs Soris arsebul SeiaraRebul konf-
     liqtSi, aramed moldovasa da ruseTis federacias Soris gaformebuli Se-
     Tanxmebis Sesabamisad asrulebdnen samSvidobo movaleobebs da amiT xels
     uSlidnen konfliqtis gamwvavebas da mSvidobian moqalaqeebSi msxverplis
     raodenobis zrdas. ra Tqma unda, ukanono SeiaraRebuli qmedebebisas, iqne-
     boda es dnestrispireTis Tu moldovis mxridan, romlebic ganxorciele-
     buli iqneboda me-14 armiis jariskacebis winaaRmdeg, isini valdebulni iyv-
     nen, Tavi daecvaT. SeuZlebeli iyo im valdebulebis Sesruleba, romelic
     ruseTis federaciam aiRo 1994 wels da gulisxmobda samxedro Zalebis gay-
     vanas moldovis respublikis teritoriidan 3 wlis ganmavlobaSi SeTanxme-
     baze xelis moweridan, radganac xsenebuli gayvana ar iyo mxolod ruseTze
     damokidebuli. upirvelesad, amis winaaRmdegni `mdr~-s xelisuflebis orga-
     noebi iyvnen, meore, mxedvelobaSi unda yofiliyo miRebuli samxedro sawyo-
     bebis gadatanis teqnikuri mxare. stambulSi gamarTul euTo-s samitze gayvanis
     vadad dasaxelda 2002 wlis 31 dekemberi da ruseTis federacia cdilobda
     samitze miRweuli SeTanxmebebi Seesrulebina.
        ruseTis mTavroba kategoriulad uaryofda, rom axorcielebda an war-
     sulSi ganuxorcielebia raime saxis kontroli dnestrispireTis terito-


36   profesia advokati
riaze. mTavrobam aRniSna, rom `mdr~-m Seqmna sakuTari struqturebi, maT
Soris, parlamenti da marTlmsajulebis organoebi. ruseTis mTavroba ar
axorcielebda raime saxis ekonomikur kontrols dnestrispireTis region-
ze, romelic damoukideblad warmarTavda sakuTar ekonomikur politikas
moldovis respublikis farglebSi. magaliTad, axdenda sakvebi produq-
tebisa da alkoholuri sasmelebis eqsports sakuTari markebiT, oRond
moldovis respublikis saxeliT da TiToeul sferoSi moqmedi wesebis mi-
xedviT. Sesabamisad, CrdiloeT kviprosSi arsebuli situaciisagan gansx-
vavebiT, dnestrispireTis reJimi Sors iyo imisagan, rom misi arseboba damo-
kidebuli yofiliyo ruseTis federaciaze. ruseTis jarebis srulad gay-
vanis SemTxvevaSi, dnestrispireTis adgilobrivi xelisuflebis organoebs
ar SeeqmnebodaT araviTari problemebi TavianTi qmedebebis Tavisuflad
ganxorcielebasTan mimarTebaSi.
   moldovis mTavroba ki Tvlida, rom zogadad dnestrispireTis terito-
riaze Cadenili qmedebebi konvenciis pirveli muxlis Tanaxmad, xvdeboda
ruseTis federaciis iurisdiqciaSi dnestrispireTis konfliqtis saboloo
mogvarebamde.
   ganmcxadebelTa mtkicebiT, saxeze iyo ruseTis federaciis pasuxismgeb-
loba ramdenime faqtoris gamo. xsenebuli moicavda im wvlils, romelic
Seitanes ssrk-m da ruseTis federaciam `mdr~-s SeqmnaSi, ruseTis SeiaraRe-
buli Zalebisa da rusi kazakebis monawileobas moldovasa da `mdr~-s Soris
1991-92 wlebis konfliqtSi da im ekonomikur da politikur mxardaWeras,
romelic ruseTis federacias hqonda `mdr~-s mimarT. aseve, ruseTis fede-
raciam araferi gaakeTa imisaTvis, rom xeli SeeSala kazakebisa da sxva rusi
daqiravebuli boevikebisaTvis, ebrZolaT separatistebis gverdiT. sapiris-
pirod, ruseTis federacia axalisebda daqiravebul boevikebs amisaken, am
dros ki me-14 armia aiaraRebda da wvrTnida dnestrispirel separatistebs.
   winamdebare saqmeSi sasamarTlos amocanaa imis garkveva, zemoxsenebuli
principebis gaTvaliswinebiT SesaZlebelia Tu ara, rom ruseTis federacia
iyos pasuxismgebeli savaraudo darRvevebze.
   sasamarTlo aRniSnavs, rom ruseTis federacia saerTaSoriso samarTlis
Tanaxmad, warmoadgens ssrk-s uflebamonacvle saxelmwifos. rodesac dsT
Seiqmna, moldova ar SeuerTda dsT-s SeiaraRebuli Zalebis wvrTnebs da
amiT damtkicda, rom mas ar surda, monawileoba mieRo dsT-s samxedro sfe-
roSi ganxorcielebul TanamSromlobaSi.
   ruseTis mier seperatistebis mxardaWera, mis mier samxedro da politi-
kuri daxmareba gaxda safuZveli imisa, rom sasamarTlos 16 xmiT 1 xmis wi-
naaRmdeg daedgina Semdegi: `ganmcxadeblebi xvdebian ruseTis federaciis
`iurisdiqciaSi~ konvenciis pirveli muxlis mniSvnelobiT da saxezea ruse-
Tis pasuxismgebloba gasaCivrebul qmedebebTan mimarTebaSi~.


                                                         #2, 2008            37
        kvlevis miznidan gamomdinare, unda aRiniSnos, rom ganxiluli saqme
     yvelaze axlosaa saqarTvelos mougvarebeli konfliqturi regionebis is-
     toriasTan, moldovis msgavsad saqarTveloc ver axorcielebs kontrols
     afxazeTsa da samaCabloze, maSin rodesac samSvidobo Zalebad aRiarebuli
     rusi jariskacebi kontrolis ganxorcielebis fasis miRma (separatistebi-
     saTvis daxmarebis gaweviT) arRveven saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis ZiriTad
     uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs. ruseTma, winamdebare saqmis msgavsad, rogorc
     ar unda uaryos kontrolis ganxorcieleba, evropis sasamarTlo faqtebze
     daydnobiT savaraudood igive gadawyvetilebas miiRebs.
        evropuli sasamarTlos xsenebuli gadawyvetilebebidan gamomdinareobs,
     rom saxelmwifo valdebulia uzrunvelyos konvenciiTa da misi oqmebiT
     gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebis dacva im teritoriazec, romelzec igi axor-
     cielebs iurisdiqcias, Tumca ar ganekuTvneba am saxelmwifos.
        evropuli konvenciis pirveli muxlis moqmedebis farglebTan dakavSi-
     rebiT sainteresoa, SeiZleba Tu ara, konvenciis darRvevisaTvis pasuxismgeb-
     loba daekisros konvenciis monawile im saxelmwifos, romelic ver akont-
     rolebs Tavisi teritoriis nawils. am mxriv saintereso da metad mniSvnelo-
     vani aRmoCnda adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos zemoT aRniSnuli
     saqme _ ilaSku da sxvebi moldovisa da ruseTis federaciis winaaRmdeg.
        konkretul SeTxvevaSi ganvixilavT saqmis im nawils, romelic exeba kon-
     venciiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebis dacvas dnestrispireTis teritori-
     aze, romelsac SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis gamo moldovis xelisufleba ver
     akontrolebs.
        sasamarTlos unda gamoekvlia, saxezea Tu ara moldovis pasuxismgebloba
     imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom, erTi mxriv, mas evaleboda, Tavi Seekavebina uka-
     nono qmedebisagan, meore mxriv ki, ganexorcielebina konvenciiT dakisre-
     buli valdebulebebi.
        moldova amtkicebda, rom mas ar SeeZlo Tavisi erovnuli teritoriis
     nawilis, saxeldobr, dnestrispireTis regionis kontroli.
        dasaSvebobasTan dakavSirebul gadawyvetilebaSi sasamarTlom daadgina,
     rom moldovis mier konvenciis ratificirebis sigelSi gakeTebuli daTqma,
     romelic exeboda moldovis kanonieri xelisuflebis organoebis mier dnes-
     trispireTis teritoriaze kontrolis uqonlobas, ar warmoadgenda dasaS-
     veb daTqmas konvenciis 57-e muxlis mniSvnelobiT.
        xelT arsebuli mTeli informaciis safuZvelze sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom
     moldovis mTavroba, saerTaSoriso samarTlis Tanaxmad, moldovis saxelm-
     wifos erTaderTi legitimuri mTavroba, ver axorcielebs xelisuflebas
     Tavisi teritoriis nawilze, saxeldobr im nawilze, romelic `mdr~-s xelSia.
     ufro metic, xsenebuli sadavo ar gauxdiaT mxareebs an saqmeSi mesame mxared
     CarTul rumineTis mTavrobas.


38   profesia advokati
   Tumca dnestrispireTis regionze efeqtiani kontrolis ararsebobis Sem-
TxvevaSic ki, moldovas kvlav evaleba konvenciis pirveli muxliT dakis-
rebuli pozitiuri valdebulebebis Sesruleba. kerZod, valdebulebisa,
ganaxorcielos mis xelT arsebuli da saerTaSoriso samarTlis Sesabamisi
diplomatiuri, ekonomikuri, sasamarTlo Tu sxva saxis RonisZiebebi, raTa
daicvas ganmcxadeblebis konvenciiT garantirebuli uflebebi.
   saxelmwifos pozitiur valdebulebaTa gansazRvrisas gasaTvaliswine-
belia samarTliani balansi individis pirad interesebsa da zogad intere-
sebs Soris, xelSemkvrel saxelmwifoebSi arsebuli mravalgvari situacia,
da arCevani unda gakeTdes prioritetebisa da arsebuli saSualebebis Wril-
Si. xsenebuli valdebulebebi ar unda iyos ganmartebuli imgvarad, rom sa-
xelmwifoebs daakisros ararealuri an araproporciuli tvirTi.
   rodesac xelSemkvrel saxelmwifos ara aqvs SesaZlebloba, xelisufleba
ganaxorcielos Tavisi teritoriis mTlian nawilze de facto arsebuli si-
tuaciis gamo, rogoric warmoiqmneba separatistuli reJimis Seqmnis SemTx-
vevaSi, ara aqvs mniSvneloba, amas Tan axlavs Tu ara meore saxelmwifos sam-
xedro okupacia. amiT konvenciis pirveli muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli iuris-
diqcia ar wyvets moqmedebas teritoriis aseT nawilze, romelic droebiT
eqvemdebareba adgilobriv xelisuflebas, romelsac mxars uWeren ajanye-
bulebi an sxva qveynis Zalebi. miuxedavad amisa, aseTi faqtobrivi situacia
amcirebs aRniSnul iurisdiqcias imiT, rom saxelmwifos mier pirveli mux-
liT nakisri valdebuleba sasamarTlos mier ganxiluli unda iyos am teri-
toriaze myof pirTan mimarTebaSi mxolod xelSemkvreli saxelmwifos pozi-
tiuri valdebulebis TvalsazrisiT.
   marTalia, sasamarTlos ara aqvs ufleba, miuTiTos saxelmwifoebs da xe-
lisuflebis organoebs, Tu ra RonisZiebebi unda iqnes ganxorcielebuli
imisaTvis, rom yvelaze efeqtianad Sesruldes maTze dakisrebuli valde-
bulebebi, magram sasamarTlom unda Seamowmos, iyo Tu ara ganxorcielebuli
RonisZiebebi Sesaferisi da sakmarisi winamdebare saqmeSi. rodesac saxezea
qmedebebis ganxorcielebis sruli an nawilobrivi ugulebelyofa, sasamar-
Tlos amocanaa gaarkvios, Tu ra minimaluri mcdelobebis ganxorcieleba
iyo SesaZlebeli da ganxorcielda Tu ara isini. xsenebuli sakiTxis gansaz-
Rvra gansakuTrebiT aucilebelia iseT SemTxvevebSi, romlebic exeba abso-
luturi uflebebis, rogoric, magaliTad, konvenciis me-2 da me-3 muxliT
gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebia, savaraudo darRvevas.
   Sesabamisad, 11 xmiT 6 xmis winaaRmdeg sasamarTlom daadgina, rom ganmcxa-
deblebi xvdebian moldovis respublikis iurisdiqciaSi konvenciis pirveli
muxlis mniSvnelobiT, magram misi pasuxismgebloba im gasaCivrebul qmede-
bebTan mimarTebaSi, romlebic Cadenili iqna `mdr~-s teritoriaze, unda Se-
fasdes konvenciiT dakisrebuli pozitiuri valdebulebebis WrilSi.


                                                           #2, 2008            39
        am saqmeze evropuli sasamarTlos mier miRebulma gadawyvetilebam
     naTeli mohfina mraval sakiTxs afxazeTisa da samaCablos teritoriaze
     evropuli konvenciis darRvevisaTvis saqarTvelos pasuxismgeblobis
     Sesaxeb, kerZod:
        saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier Tavisi teritoriis kontrolTan dakavSi-
     rebuli mdgomareoba problemuria. 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi momxdari
     movlenebis gamo saqarTvelos mTavrobas ar ZaluZs gaakontrolos Tavisi
     ori regioni _ afxazeTi da samaCablo (yofili samxreT oseTi). samxedro
     konfliqtis Sedegad Seqmnili TviTgamocxadebuli respublikebis es te-
     ritoriebi saqarTvelos mTavrobis de facto kontrols miRmaa. damoukidebel
     saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobis samSvidobo Zalebi (rusi samxedroebi)
     dislocirebuli arian afxazeTis teritoriaze.
        im faqts, rom saqarTvelos mTavroba ver akontrolebs xsenebul or re-
     gions, pirdapiri gavlena aqvs am teritoriebze adamianis uflebaTa ev-
     ropuli konvenciis da misi oqmebis gamoyenebasa da konvenciis I muxlidan
     gamomdinare, saqarTvelos valdebulebaze, daicvas adamianis uflebebi.
        aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelom ar gaakeTa raime daTqma konveciis mimarT,
     Tumca, gaakeTa teritoriuli gancxadeba I oqmis mimarT. I oqmis ratifici-
     rebis sigeli iTvaliswinebs saqarTvelos Semdeg gancxadebas:
        `saqarTvelo acxadebs, rom afxazeTisa da cxinvalis regionSi arsebuli
     viTarebis gamo saqarTvelos xelisufleba moklebulia SesaZleblobas, ikis-
     ros pasuxismgebloba am konvenciisa da misi damatebiTi oqmebis debulebaTa
     pativiscemisa da dacvaze am teritoriebze. amdenad, afxazeTisa da cxinva-
     lis regionSi saqarTvelos iurisdiqciis ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobis
     aRdgenamde saqarTvelo ixsnis pasuxismgeblobas aRniSnul teritoriebze
     TviTgamocxadebuli, ukanono xelisuflebis organoebis mier pirveli oqmis
     debulebaTa darRvevaze~.5
        Zalian rTulia imis garkveva, ra mizans emsaxureboda saqarTvelos xe-
     lisuflebis es teritoriuli gancxadeba, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom am daT-
     qmis gakeTebisas ukve cnobili iyo adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarT-
     los pozicia, gadawyvetilebaSi dasaSvebobis Sesaxeb saqmeze _ ilaSku da
     sxvebi moldovisa da ruseTis federaciis winaaRmdeg.
        rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, dnestrispireTis mimarT moldovis mier gake-
     Tebuli daTqma evropulma sasamarTlom baTilad miiCnia, radgan igi ver
     akmayofilebda konveciis moTxovnebs. unda vivaraudoT, rom saqarTvelos
     xelisuflebis mier gakeTebuli es teritoriuli gancxadeba ufro poli-
     tikur xasiaTs atarebs, vidre samarTlebrivs.
        sasamarTlos ganmartebiT, Sesabamisi saxelmwifo unda ecados, mis xelT
     arsebuli yvela saSualebiT da sxva saxelmwifoebTan da saerTaSoriso orga-
     nizaciebTan mimarTebaSi samarTlebrivi da diplomatiuri saSualebebiT ga-
     agrZelos konvenciiT garantirebul uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa dacva.


40   profesia advokati
   daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom moldovis msgavsad, saqarTvelo, ro-
gorc ukve aRvniSneT, ver akontrolebs mis iurisdiqciaSi Semaval or re-
gions, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imasac, rom saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mier
gakeTebuli teritoriuli daTqma praqtikulad baTilia, pozitiuri valde-
bulebebis WrilSi pasuxismgebel saxelmwifod, iq momxdari adamianis uf-
lebebis darRvevis faqtebze, swored saqarTvelo CaiTvleba.




                                  gamoyenebuli literatura:



                          1
                                  asaniZe saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg (Assanidze v. Georgia) #. 71503/
                                  01, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos 2004 wlis 24
                                  martis ganaCeni.
                              2
                                  loizidu TurqeTis winaaRmdeg ( Loizidou v.Turkey), adamianis
                                  uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos 1995 wlis 23 martis ganaCeni,
                                  seria #310.
                          3
                                  bankoviCi da sxvebi natos wevri saxelmwifoebis winaaRmdeg (Ban-
                                  kovic and Others v. NATO Member States) adamianis uflebaTa
                                  evropuli sasamarTlos 2001 wlis 12 dekemberis ganaCeni, ECHR
                                  2001-XII.
                          4
                                  ilaSku da sxvebi moldovisa da ruseTis winaaRmdeg (CASE OF
                                  ILASCU AND OTHERS v. MOLDOVA AND RUSSIA) adamianis
                                  uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos 2004 wlis 8 ivlisis ganaCeni.
                          5
                                  ix.: evropis sabWos saxelSekrulebo samsaxuris veb-gverdi
                                  (www.coe.int).



                                                                         #2, 2008                   41
     Implementation of jurisdiction
     in terms of article 1 of the European
     Convention for the Protection of
     Human Rights and Basic Freedoms
     NINO BOCHORISHVILI
     Advocate, Assistant-Professor of the Legal Faculty
     of the International Relations University




     Under article 1 of the Convention, member states are responsible for any violations of
     the rights and freedoms occurred of persons within their respective “jurisdictions”.
     Implementation of jurisdiction is a necessary condition for the contracting states in order
     to hold them responsible for any actions or inactions which they are accountable for,
     such as allegations of violations of the rights and freedoms provided by the Convention.

     The goal of the present research is to determine the level to which Georgia can be held
     responsible for human rights violations in the conflict regions of Tskhinvali and Abkhazia
     considering the current situation and bearing in mind the territorial, or “jurisdiction” factor.
     As the country is concerned, with whose military forces (Russian military forces present
     there within the peacekeeping format) exercise control in these two regions, there is
     nothing I can prove; however, based on the analysis of the existing precedent, it is more
     than likely for it to be held a responsible state.

     In terms of jurisdiction, the Bankovic and Others v. NATO Member States case is of
     utmost importance. Like in the Loizidou v. Turkey case, the court found that, regardless
     of the fact that the jurisdictional competency of the state is basically limited by its territory,
     in exceptional cases the issue of the responsibility of a state may arise for an action
     carried out outside its territory.

     A similar decision was made by the European Court of Human Rights in the Ilashku and
     Others v. Moldova and Russia case.

     In that case, unlike other decided cases, the court found a violation of article 1 of the
     Convention both by the states of Moldova and Russia.

     According to the court, the relevant states must seek to continue protection of the rights
     and freedoms guaranteed by the Convention through all existing means, including legal
     and diplomatic remedies with regard to other states and international organizations.

     It should be noted that similar to Moldova, Georgia is unable to control two regions within
     its jurisdiction. Considering the fact that the territorial claim the government of Georgia
     made is practically void, Georgia will be the one held responsible for the human rights
     violations that occurred there.


42   profesia advokati
             gancxadebis Setana gadaxdis
                        brZanebis miRebis
               mizniT (warmoebis aRZvra)
                                               robizon xurcilava
                grigol robaqiZis saxelobis universitetis doqtoranti




   fuladi davalianebis gadaxdevinebis Sesaxeb saqmis gamartivebuli wesiT
aRZvrisaTvis aucilebelia arsebobdes mxareTa Soris valdebulebiT samar-
Tlebrivi urTierTobebi, romelic dakavSirebuli unda iyos fuladi val-
debulebis SesrulebasTan, romlis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi valdebulebiT-
samarTlebrivi urTierTobis monawiles, kerZod, kreditors kanonmdeblis
mier ufleba eZleva daicvas Tavisi darRveuli uflebebi sasamarTlos we-
siT. kreditors ufleba aqvs mimarTos sasamarTlos sarCeliT an gancxade-
biT warmoSobili valdebulebis Sesrulebis moTxovniT. aRniSnulis safuZ-
vels iZleva saqarTvelos konstituciis 42-e muxli, romlis Tanaxmadac `yo-
vel adamians ufleba aqvs Tavis uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa dasacavad mi-
marTos sasamarTlos~1.
   davalianebis gadaxdevinebis Taobaze warmoSobil urTierTobebSi kredi-
tors SeuZlia airCios darRveuli uflebis dacvis forma, kerZod, moiT-
xovos uflebis ganxorcieleba sarCelis, an gancxadebis formiT. gamarti-
vebuli warmoebisas kreditors ufleba aqvs gancxadebiT mimarTos sasamar-
Tlos da darRveuli uflebebis aRsadgenad moiTxovos gadaxdis brZanebis
miReba.
   saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 317-e muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanax-
mad, valdebulebis warmoSobisaTvis aucilebelia monawileTa Soris xel-
Sekruleba, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca valdebuleba warmoiSoba zianis
miyenebis (deliqtis), usafuZvlo gamdidrebis an kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli
sxva safuZvlebidan2.
   saxelSekrulebo valdebulebebze saubrisas igulisxmeba ara mxolod
xelSekrulebidan warmoSobili valdebulebebi, aramed zogadad, garigebe-
bidan warmoSobili valdebulebebi.
   `garigebis cneba ar ganekuTvneba valdebulebiTi samarTlis sferos. igi
zogadi nawilis kuTvnilebaa, magram garigebis cneba valdebulebiT samar-
TalSi iseve gamoiyeneba, rogorc kerZo samarTlis sxva nebismier nawilSi~.3
   davalianebis gadaxdevinebis Taobaze warmoSobil urTierTobebSi kre-
ditors SeuZlia airCios darRveuli uflebis dacvis forma, kerZod, mo-


                                                        #2, 2008            43
     iTxovos uflebis ganxorcieleba sarCelis an gancxadebis formiT. gamar-
     tivebuli warmoebisas kreditors ufleba aqvs gancxadebiT mimarTos sasa-
     marTlos da darRveuli uflebebis aRsadgenad moiTxovos gadaxdis brZa-
     nebis miReba. aqve aRvniSnav, rom gancxadebis wardgena kreditoris mier,
     kanonmdeblis mier garantirebuli SesaZleblobaa da valdebulebas ar war-
     moadgens. amdenad, veTanxmebiT mosazrebas, rom kreditors SeuZlia gan-
     cxadebis nacvlad sarCeliT mimarTos sasamarTlos fuladi davalianebis
     moTxovniT, magram am SemTxvevaSi, saqme ganixileba saerTo sasarCelo wesiT
     Cveulebriv im drois gaTvaliswinebiT, rogorc es uflebaTa dacvis sasar-
     Celo formisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli4. kreditoris mier gancxadebis Setanis
     samarTlebriv safuZvels iZleva saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeq-
     sis 303-e muxlis pirveli nawili, romlis Tanaxmadac, gamartivebuli wesiT
     SeiZleba ganxiluli iqnes moTxovnebi garkveuli fuladi Tanxis davali-
     anebis gadaxdevinebis Sesaxeb.
        saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 303-e muxlis pirveli na-
     wilis definiciidan gamomdinare, gancxadebis wardgenisaTvis arsebobs oTxi
     piroba.

     1. unda arsebobdes moTxovna fuladi Tanxis davalianebis gadaxdevine-
        bis Sesaxeb
     2. kreditors unda hqondes moTxovnis ufleba
     3. moTxovna mimarTuli unda iyos movalis mimarT
     4. moTxovnis Sesruleba wamoyenebuli ar unda iyos jer kidev Seusrule-
        bel sapasuxo gadaxdaze. aRniSnuli normiT unda davaskvnaT, rom Tu
        ganmcxadebels da mopasuxes ormxrivi valdebulebebi aqvT erTmane-
        Tis mimarT, mopasuxes fuladi davalianebis gadaxdis valdebuleba
        warmoeSoba mas Semdeg, rac ganmcxadebeli Seasrulebs nakisr valde-
        bulebas, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, davalianebis gadaxdevinebis Sesaxeb
        moTxovna gamartivebuli wesiT ar SeiZleba.

        aRniSnuli pirobebidan erT-erTi pirobis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi, moT-
     xovnebi garkveuli fuladi Tanxis davalianebis gadaxdevinebis Sesaxeb ga-
     martivebuli warmoebis wesiT ar ganixileba.
        calmxriv xelSekrulebebSi, romlebSic mxareebs mxolod ufleba da mxo-
     lod movaleoba aqvT, arc dgeba zemoaRniSnuli garemoebis garkvevis saWi-
     roeba. magaliTad, sesxis xelSekrulebaSi, Sesabamisad unda davaskvnaT, rom
     zemoaRniSnul normaSi saubaria ormxriv xelSekrulebaze, sadac mxareebs
     erTdroulad uflebebic aqvT da movaleobebic.
        magaliTad, 2006 wlis 15 ianvars i. ComaxiZesa da b. CakvetaZes Soris daido
     sesxis xelSekruleba erTi wlis vadiT. aRniSnuli xelSekrulebiT i. Coma-


44   profesia advokati
xiZem b. CakvetaZisagan isesxa 5000 lari, romelic unda daebrunebina 2007
wlis 15 ianvars. Tumca, i. ComaxiZem b. CakvetaZes xelSekrulebiT dadgenil
vadaSi sesxi ver daubruna, ris gamoc b. CakvetaZem gancxadebiT mimarTa sasa-
marTlos da moiTxova davalianebis gadaxdevinebis Sesaxeb saqmis gamarti-
vebuli wesiT ganxilva da mopasuxe i. ComaxiZisaTvis gadaxdis brZanebiT
Tanxis, 5000 laris dakisreba.
    aRniSnuli magaliTidan naTlad Cans, rom i. ComaxiZis mier sesxis 5000 la-
ris xelSekrulebiT dadgenil vadaSi gadauxdelobis gamo warmoiSoba moT-
xovna fuladi Tanxis davalianebis gadaxdevinebis Sesaxeb da moTxovnis uf-
leba aqvs kreditor b. CakvetaZes, romelsac saqarTvelos sk-is 626-e muxlis
Sesabamisad, SeuZlia i. ComaxiZisagan moiTxovos sesxis dabruneba, amasTan, b.
CakvetaZes i. ComaxiZis mimarT raime sapasuxo valdebulebebi ar gaaCnia.
    saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 302-e muxlis pirveli na-
wiliT5, naTlad aris aRniSnuli, rom valdebulebiT-samarTlebrivi ur-
TierTobis arsebobisas ganixileba fuladi davalianebis gadaxdevinebis Se-
saxeb moTxovnebi, amdenad daveTanxmebiT v. argunovis mosazrebas, romelic
fuladi davalianebis gadaxdevinebis saqmeebis ganxilvisas ganasxvavebs
saqmeebs, romlebic erTmaneTisagan ganxilvis TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdebian.
v. argunovi marTebulad aRniSnavs, rom mxareebs Soris samarTlebrivi ur-
TierTobidan warmoSobili moTxovnebi, kerZod, mxareTa Soris arsebuli ga-
rigebis baTilad cnoba da a.S. ganixileba ara gamartivebuli warmoebis, ara-
med sasarCelo warmoebis wesiT.6
    ramdenad paradoqsulic ar unda iyos, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo sapro-
ceso kodeqsi ar miuTiTebs Tu ris safuZvelze (romeli materialur samar-
Tlebrivi normis safuZvelze) SeuZlia ganmcxadebels fuladi davalianebis
gadaxdevinebis moTxovna. amasTan, ar aris miTiTebuli samarTalurTier-
Tobebis Sinaarsi. amdenad, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom fuladi davalianebis
moTxovna warmoSobil urTierTobebSi SeiZleba iyos sxvadasxvagvari, SeiZ-
leba warmoSobili iyos rogorc sesxis xelSekrulebidan, ise saxelfaso da-
valianebidan da a.S.
    fuladi davalianebis moTxovnisaTvis ganmcxadeblis mier aucilebelia
saproceso moqmedebis ganxorcieleba, kerZod, gancxadebis Setana, romel-
sac ukavSirdeba saproceso-samarTlebrivi Sedegebi, kerZod, gancxadebis
gansaxilvelad warmoebaSi miReba, ganxilvis Sedegad gadaxdis brZanebis
miReba da a.S.
    davalianebis gadaxdevinebis saqmeebze ganmcxadebelia kreditori, rome-
lic SeiZleba iyos rogorc fizikuri, ise iuridiuli piri, Tu isini Sesaba-
misi valdebulebiTi samarTalurTierTobebis subieqtebi arian. sayurad-
Reboa is garemoeba, rom moTxovnis sagani SeiZleba iyos mxolod gadaxdis
brZanebis miRebiT davalianebis gadaxdevineba.


                                                           #2, 2008             45
        gancxadebas xels awers ganmcxadebeli. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo sapro-
     ceso kodeqsis 93-e muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad, moqalaqeebs SeuZliaT
     saqme awarmoon sasamarTloSi piradad, xolo iuridiul pirebs an sxva orga-
     nizaciebs _ im Tanamdebobis piris meSveobiT, romelsac wesdebiT an debule-
     biT SeuZlia am iuridiuli pirisa Tu organizaciis saxeliT imoqmedos. amave
     muxlis me-2 nawilis Tanaxmad, mxareebs SeuZliaT agreTve saqme awarmoon
     sasamarTloSi warmomadgenlis meSveobiT. saqmis warmoeba warmomadgenlis
     meSveobiT ar arTmevs uflebas mxareebs TviTonac piradad miiRon monawi-
     leoba saqmeSi. amasTan, Tu vin SeiZleba iyos ganmcxadeblis warmomadgeneli
     sasamarTloSi davalianebis gadaxdevinebis Sesaxeb aRZruli gancxadebis
     dros, amomwurav pasuxs iZleva saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis
     94-e muxli da misi ganvrcoba ar SeiZleba, esenia:

     1. advokatebi
     2. saxelmwifo xelisuflebis organoebis, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTve-
        lobis an mmarTvelobis organos, organizaciis TanamSromlebi _ am
        organoebisa da organizaciebis saqmeebze
     3. erT-erTi Tanamonawile danarCen TanamonawileTa davalebiT
     4. sxva qmedunariani pirebi _ mxolod pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi.

        warmomadgenels warmoebis aRZvris uflebamosileba eZleva im SemTxve-
     vaSi, Tu misi uflebamosilebebi Camoyalibebulia kanonis Sesabamisad gace-
     mul da gaformebul mindobilobaSi. warmomadgenlis uflebamosilebis ga-
     formebis wesi gaTvaliswinebulia saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso ko-
     deqsis 96-e muxliT, magram mxolod warmomadgenlisaTvis uflebamosilebis
     gaformeba arasakmarisia, raTa warmomadgenels mieces SesaZlebloba aRZras
     warmoeba fuladi davalianebis moTxovniT. aRniSnulisaTvis aucilebelia
     mis uflebamosilebaSi specialurad iyos miTiTebuli da miniWebuli gan-
     cxadebis aRZvris ufleba (saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 98-e
     muxli). amdenad, Tu gancxadeba wardgenilia warmomadgenlis meSveobiT, gan-
     cxadebas xels awers warmomadgeneli.
        saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsiT gancxadebis Setana aseve
     SeuZliaT Tanamonawileebs, anu Tanaganmcxadeblebs. vinaidan, SesaZlebelia
     ramdenime kreditori movalesTan dakavSirebuli iyos erTiani materialuri
     samarTalurTierTobiT da saxeze iyos pirTa simravle. saproceso Tanamona-
     wileobis samarTlebriv safuZvels iZleva saqarTvelos samoqalaqo sapro-
     ceso kodeqsis 86-e muxli, romlis Tanaxmadac, Tanamonawileoba arsebobs,
     roca moTxovnis sagans warmoadgens saerTo ufleba, moTxovnebi
     gamomdinareobs erTi da igive safuZvlebidan, moTxovnebi erTgvarovania.
     Tanamonawileebi sargebloben yvela im saproceso uflebebiT, romlebic


46   profesia advokati
miniWebuli aqvT saproceso kanonmdeblobiT. amdenad, dasaSvebia erTi kre-
ditoris moTxovna ramdenime movalis mimarT, an ramdenime kreditoris
gancxadeba ramdenime movalis mimarT.
   xonis raionul sasamarTlos gancxadebiT mimarTa finka-saqarTvelos
warmomadgenelma jguf `kompasis~ wevrebis: n. k., p. r.-sa da d. m.-is mimarT,
sadac aRniSnulia, rom jguf `kompasTan~ gaformda procentiani sesxis xel-
Sekruleba da sesxis saxiT gadaecaT 3800 lari, romelic xelSekrulebiT
gaTvaliswinebul vadaSi ar iqna dafaruli. sesxis xelSekrulebiT aseve gaT-
valiswinebuli iyo vadis gadacilebisaTvis jarimis gadaxda. ganmcxadebelma
moiTxova saqmis gamartivebuli warmoebis wesiT ganxilva da gadaxdis brZa-
nebiT jgufi `kompasis~ wevrebze ZiriTadi Tanxis, procentis da jarimis
dakisreba.
   xonis raionuli sasamarTlos 2007 wlis 19 seqtembris #2/66 gadaxdis
brZanebiT finka-saqarTvelos warmomadgenlis moTxovna dakmayofilda da
jguf `kompasis~ wevrebs ganmcxadeblis sasargeblod daekisraT ZiriTadi
Tanxis, procentis da jarimis gadaxda solidarulad.
   migvaCnia, rom aRniSnuli gadaxdis brZanebiT miRweulia kanonierebisa
da samarTlianobis sinTezi. daculi iqna ganmcxadeblis ufleba, romelmac
darRveuli uflebis aRsadgenad mimarTa sasamarTlos, radgan miiCnia igi
damoukidebeli da miukerZoebeli marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis gziT
aRniSnulis garantad. amasTan, vinaidan, saxeze iyo valdebulebiT urTier-
TobebSi pirTa simravle, xonis raionulma sasamarTlom sruliad samarT-
lianad daakisra Tanxa jguf `kompasis~ wevrebs solidarulad.
   zemoaRniSnulis analizis safuZvelze SegviZlia aseTi daskvnis gamotana,
rom kreditoris mier gancxadebis Setanis samarTlebriv safuZvels iZleva
saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 303-e muxlis pirveli nawili,
romlis Tanaxmadac, gamartivebuli wesiT SeiZleba ganxiluli iqnes moT-
xovnebi garkveuli fuladi Tanxis davalianebis gadaxdevinebis Sesaxeb.




                                                           #2, 2008             47
          SeniSvnebi:



     1.   saqarTvelos konstitucia. Tbilisi. 1995 weli.
     2.   saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi. Tbilisi. 1997 wlis 26 ivnisi.
     3.   saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis komentari. wigni mesame. gamomcem-
          loba `meridiani~. Tbilisi. 2001 weli. gv. 45.
     4.   arCil Tabagari. gamartivebuli wesiT fuladi davalianebis gadaxde-
          vinebis Sesaxeb saqmeze warmoebis aRZvra. Jurnali `samarTali~. 2001
          weli #3. gv. 60.
     5.   saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsi. Tbilisi. 1997 wlis 14 no-
          emberi.
     6.   Àðãóíîâ. Â.Í. “Ïðèêàçíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî” Ãðàæäàíñêèé ïðîöåññ. Ó÷åáíèê.
          Ïîä. ðåä. Ì.Ê Òðåóøíèêîâà. Ì. 2001 ã. ñ. 337.




          gamoyenebuli literatura:



     1.   saqarTvelos konstitucia, 1995 weli.
     2.   saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsi. Tbilisi. 1997 wlis 14 no-
          emberi.
     3. Tengiz liluaSvili. samoqalaqo saqmeTa warmoeba sasamarTloSi. ga-
          momcemloba `jisiai~. 2001 weli.
     4. Salva qurdaZe. samoqalaqo saqmeTa ganxilva pirveli instanciis sasa-
          marTloSi. Tbilisi. gamomcemloba `meridiani~. 2005 weli.
     5. Tengiz liluaSvili, valeri xrustali. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo sapro-
          ceso kodeqsis komentari. Tbilisi. gamomcemloba `sani~. 2004 weli.
     6. avTandil kobaxiZe. samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali. Tbilisi. gamom-
          cemloba `saqarTvelos macne~. 2003 weli.
     7. Tengiz liluaSvili. samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali. Tbilisi. gamom-
          cemloba `jisiai~. 2005 weli.
     8. gia qiria. sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa gadasinjvis Teoriul-praq-
          tikuli komentarebi saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis mi-
          xedviT. Tbilisi. 2002 weli.
     9. avTandil kobaxiZe. samoqalaqo samarTali /zogadi nawili/. Tbilisi.
          2001 weli.
     10. Ãðàæäàíñêèé ïðîöåññ â ñîöèàëèñòè÷åñêèõ ñòðàíàõ-÷ëåíàõ ÑÇÒ. ÇÌ 1978
          ã ñ. 345-346.
     11. ×åðåìèí Ì. . Ïðèêàçíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî â Ðîññèéñêîì ãðàæäàíñêîì
          ïðîöåññå. Ì. 2001 ã.
     12. Àðãóíîâ. Â.Í “Ïðèêàçíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî” Ãðàæäàíñêèé ïðîöåññ. Ó÷åáíèê.
          Ïîä. ðåä. Ì.Ê Òðåóøíèêîâà. Ì. 2001 ã.
     13. ×å÷èíà Í À Ó÷åáíèê. Ãðàæäàíñêîãî ïðîöåññà Ïîä. ðåä. ×å÷îòà Ä. Ì. è äð.
          Ì. 1996 ã.
     14. Crevecoeur. Das Mahnverfahren nach der Vereinjachungsnovelle, NJW 1977.




48   profesia advokati
    Filing an application for receipt of a
payment order (initiation of proceedings)
                                                                 ROBIZON KHURTSILAVA
                                                 Doctorant of the Grigol Robakidze University




     In the present article, the legal basis for an application for receipt of a payment order
 is discussed. It is worthwhile to draw attention to the basis for filing applications through
 simplified proceedings because incorrect assessment of this issue by the courts violates
 the fundamental right to court protection guaranteed by the above mentioned constitutional
 provision. Court mistakes in this regard are also very common. Therefore, proper
 understanding of the basis for initiating proceedings is of utmost practical importance for
 the establishment of common approaches.




                                                                         #2, 2008                49
     ojaxSi Zaladobis aRkveTis, ojaxSi
     Zaladobis msxverplTa dacvisa da
     daxmarebis administraciuli
     samarTalwarmoebis Taviseburebani
     maka salxinaSvili
     ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis
     iuridiuli fakultetis asocirebuli profesori

     nikoloz SublaZe
     advokati




        saqarTveloSi mimdinare sasamarTlo reforma bevr siaxles gvTavazobs.
     es gansakuTrebiT iTqmis administraciul kanonmdeblobaze. erT-erT
     sakanonmdeblo novacias warmoadgens ojaxSi Zaladobis aRkveTis, ojaxSi
     Zaladobis msxverplTa dacvis da daxmarebis institutis SemoReba, ramac
     moqmed kanonmdeblobaSi hpova asaxva. 2006 wlis 25 maiss saqarTvelos
     parlamentma miiRo saqarTvelos kanoni `ojaxSi Zaladobis aRkveTis, ojaxSi
     Zaladobis msxverplTa dacvis da daxmarebis Sesaxeb~ da amave dRes Sevida
     cvlilebebi saqarTvelos administraciul saproceso kodeqsSi, kerZod,
     kodeqss daemata V I I 3 Tavi _ `administraciuli samarTalwarmoeba ojaxSi Za-
     ladobis aRkveTis, ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverplTa dacvis da daxmarebasTan
     dakavSirebiT~.
        am kanonis SemoReba mimarTulia moqalaqeTa konstituciuri uflebebis
     dacvisaken, rac upirvelesad, ukavSirdeba ojaxSi Zaladobis gamovlenisa
     da aRkveTis samarTlebriv da organizaciul safuZvlebs, aseve ojaxSi Za-
     ladobis msxverplTa socialuri da samarTlebrivi dacvisa da daxmarebis
     garantiebs.
        moqmed kanonmdeblobaSi Setanili cvlilebebi ganpirobebulia imiT, rom
     saxelmwifom Tavisi uflebamosili organoebis meSveobiT xeli Seuwyos da
     uzrunvelyos ojaxSi Zaladobis prevenciis meqnizmebis danergvas da gan-
     xorcielebas.
        2006 wlis 25 maisis saqarTvelos kanonis `ojaxSi Zaladobis aRkveTis,
     ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverplTa dacvis da daxmarebis Sesaxeb~ Tanaxmad, ojax-
     Si Zaladoba gulisxmobs ojaxis erTi wevris mier meoris konstituciuri
     uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis darRvevas fizikuri, fsiqologiuri, eko-
     nomikuri, seqsualuri ZaladobiT an iZulebiT.1
        imisaTvis, rom kanonmdeblobaSi Setanilma cvlilebebma praqtikaSi asaxva
     hpovos upirvelesad, saWiroa mosaxleobis informireba aRniSnuli saka-


50   profesia advokati
nonmdeblo novaciis Sesaxeb, vinaidan ojaxSi Zaladobis SemTxvevaSi moZa-
ladis pasuxismgeblobis, msxverplis uflebebis da am uflebebis dacvis
garantiebis Sesaxeb informacia unda gavrceldes da xelmisawvdomi gaxdes
yvela moqalaqisaTvis.
   upirveles yovlisa, saWirod migvaCnia sakanonmdeblo doneze gan-
vixiloT msxverplis da ojaxis wevris cneba. msxverpli SeiZleba iyos
ojaxis wevri, romelmac ganicada fizikuri, fsiqologiuri, seqsualuri,
ekonomikuri Zaladoba an iZuleba. ojaxis wevri SeiZleba iyos deda, mama,
papa, bebia, meuRle, Svili (geri), Svilobili, mimRebi ojaxi (dedobili,
mamobili) SviliSvili, da, Zma, meuRlis mSoblebi, siZe, rZali, agreTve
yofili meuRle, araregistrirebul qorwinebaSi myofi pirebi da meurve.2
   ojaxSi Zaladobis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlosaTvis mimarTvis uflebiT
sargebloben msxverpli, misi ojaxis wevrebi, xolo bavSvis mimarT Za-
ladobis SemTxvevaSi _ aseve meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organo.
   kanoni uSvebs gamonakliss, rodesac uTiTebs, rom kanoniT gansazR-
vrul SemTxvevebSi ojaxSi Zaladobis gamovlenisas sasamarTlosaTvis
mimarTvis ufleba aqvs mxolod msxverplis TanxmobiT pirs, romelic
msxverpls uwevs samedicino, iuridiul, fsiqologiur daxmarebas.
   ojaxSi Zaladobis gamovlenisa da aRkveTisaTvis gamoiyeneba sisxlissa-
marTlebrivi, samoqalaqo samarTlebrivi da administraciul samarTleb-
rivi meqanizmebi. es ukanaskneli gamoiyeneba im SemTxvevaSi Tu samarTal-
darRveva Tavisi xasiaTiT ar iwvevs sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobas
da misi aRkveTa SesaZlebelia saqarTvelos administraciul samarTaldar-
RvevaTa kodeqsis normebis gamoyenebiT.
   saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba icnobs 2 saxis orders: damcavs da Sema-
kavebels. orderis gacema droebiTi RonisZiebaa, rac gulisxmobs imas, rom
ojaxSi Zaladobis faqtze operatiuli reagirebisaTvis uflebamosili or-
ganos mier msxverplis dacvisa da moZaladis garkveuli moqmedebebis Sez-
Rudvis uzrunvelsayofad gaicema damcavi an Semakavebeli orderi.
   damcavi orderi aris pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos (mosamarTle)
administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT gamocemuli aqti, romliTac
ganisazRvreba ojaxSi Zaladobis SemTxvevaSi Zaladobis msxverplis dacvis
droebiTi RonisZiebebi, garda im SemTxvevisa, rodesac arsebobs sisxlis
samarTlebrivi devnis aRZvris safuZveli da pirs aRkveTis RonisZiebis
saxiT Sefardebuli aqvs patimroba.3 aqedan gamomdinare, damcavi orderi
aris individualuri administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti da misi gamoce-
misas dacul unda iqnes zak-is Sesabamisi muxlis moTxovnebi.
   rac Seexeba Semakavebel orders, mas gamoscems policiis uflebamosili
TanamSromeli aseve individualur administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis
saxiT, romliTac ganisazRvreba ojaxSi Zaladobis SemTxvevaSi Zaladobis


                                                       #2, 2008            51
     msxverplis dacvis droebiTi RonisZiebebi da romelic gamocemidan 24 saaTis
     ganmavlobaSi dasamtkiceblad waredgineba sasamarTlos.
        orive SemTxvevaSi, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, gamoicema individualuri
     administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqti, Tumca ase pirdapir miTiTeba ar aris
     mocemuli moqmed kanonmdeblobaSi da es kanonmdeblobis naklad unda
     CaiTvalos. aRniSnuli aqtebis gasaCivrebis, baTilad da Zaladakargulad
     gamocxadebisas gamoyenebul unda iqnes zak-is Sesabamisi muxlebi da aseve
     administraciuli saproceso kanondebloba.
        sasamarTlo gancxadebis miRebidan 10 dRis vadaSi ganixilavs da iRebs
     gadawyvetilebas damcavi orderis gamocemis, gauqmebis, moqmedebis vadis
     gagrZelebis an gamocemaze uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb.
        Cveni azriT, 10 dReSi gancxadebis ganxilva da gadawyvetilebis miReba
     SeuZlebelia, vinaidan vfiqrobT, es vada Zalian xanmoklea gancxadebis
     warmoebaSi miRebisa da gadawyvetilebis gamotanisaTvis.
        gancxadebis warmoebaSi miRebis Semdeg mosamarTle ganumartavs ganmcxa-
     debels, rom Segnebulad cru dasmenisaTvis an cru Cvenebis micemisaTvis
     pasuxs agebs sisxlissamarTlebrivi wesiT, rac Cveni azriT arasworia, vina-
     idan ganmartebis micema saqmis warmoebaSi miRebamde unda moxdes. es Tavis-
     Tavad Seamcirebs iseT gancxadebaTa ricxvs, romlebic zogjer SesaZlebelia
     araswor faqtebze dayrdnobiTac iqnes Setanili. amdenad, ukeTesi iqneba
     administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 2113-e muxlis me-5 punqti Seicvalos.
        damcavi orderis Taobaze miRebuli nebismieri gadawyvetileba saCivr-
     deba erTjeradad imave instanciis sasamarTloSi. kanoni bundovania da ar
     ganmartavs, saCivari imave mosamarTlem unda ganixilos Tu sxva mosa-
     marTlem. vfiqrobT, upriani iqneba es saCivari ganexila sxva mosamarTles,
     vinaidan gasaCivreba imave sasamarTloSi xdeba da isic erTjeradad da Sesa-
     bamisad mxares ufleba erTmeva gansaxilvel sakiTxze sxva mosamarTlem
     imsjelos. aqve kargi iqneboda mieTiTebina kanonmdebels es saCivari kerZo
     saCivris saxiT Seitaneba Tu ara.
        rac Seexeba Semakavebel orders, gaicema policiis uflebamosili Ta-
     namSromlis mier, Tumca mosamarTlis mier Tu ar iqneba damtkicebuli war-
     dgenidan 24 saaTSi, ar eqneba iuridiuli Zala. Semakavebeli orderis Ta-
     viseburebaa is, rom Tu am orderis gacemisas saxezea sisxlissamarTlis da-
     naSaulis niSnebi, maSin saqmeze iwyeba sisxlis samarTlebrivi devna.4
        policia valdebulia ojaxSi Zaladobis faqtis SemTxvevaSi dauyovnebliv
     moaxdinos reagireba da ganaxorcielos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli Ronis-
     Ziebebi. policias ar aqvs ufleba, ojaxSi Zaladobis SemTxveva miiCnios nak-
     lebmniSvnelovnad Zaladobis sxva SemTxvevebTan SedarebiT.5
        kanonSi mocemuli es ganmarteba bundovania, rameTu policias gauWirdeba
     imis gansazRvra Zaladoba naklebmniSvnelovania Tu ara.


52   profesia advokati
   bolo periodSi gansakuTrebiT gaizarda prokuroris roli administra-
ciul samarTalwarmoebaSi, es exeba ojaxSi Zaladobis faqtebze samarTal-
warmoebis sakiTxsac, vinaidan saqarTvelos kanonis `saqarTvelos kanoni
`ojaxSi Zaladobis aRkveTis, ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverplTa dacvis da dax-
marebis Sesaxeb~ me-16 muxlis me-4 punqtis Tanaxmad, policia ojaxSi Zala-
dobis faqtisa da miRebuli zomebis Sesaxeb adgens oqms, romelsac warud-
gens zedamxedvel prokurors.
   aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom saqarTveloSi Seqmnilia ojaxur Zaladobaze
momuSave ramdenime organizacia, romlebic saqarTvelos saerTo sasamar-
TloSi awarmoeben saqmeebs.
   sasamarTlo praqtikaSi bolo periodSi gaxSirda iseTi saqmeebis ganxilva,
romlebic ojaxSi Zaladobis aRkveTis, ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverplTa dacvis
da daxmarebis sakiTxs exeba. q. Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos administra-
ciul saqmeTa kolegiam ganixila zemoT aRniSnuli kategoriis saqmeebi.
ganvixiloT ramdenime maTgani.
   2006 wlis 3 noembers q. Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos administraciul
saqmeTa kolegiam ganixila ojaxur Zaladobaze momuSave erT-erTi orga-
nizaciis gancxadeba, romlis Tanaxmadac erTi moqalaqis moTxovna iyo dam-
cavi orderis gamocema, rac dakmayofilda. damcavi orderi gaica 3 Tvis
vadiT.6
   sasamarTlo praqtikaSi iyo SemTxveva, rodesac saqarTvelos Sss sapat-
rulo policiis departamentis q. Tbilisis mTavari sammarTvelos mier war-
dgenil iqna Suamdgomloba Semakavebeli orderis damtkicebis Taobaze. q.
Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos administraciul saqmeTa kolegiam daam-
tkica Semakavebeli orderi, romlis moqmedebis vada gaagrZela damcavi or-
deris gamocemamde7.
   sasamarTlo praqtikis Sesawavlis safuZvelze vfiqrobT, dasaxvewia
saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis 2112-e muxlis VI I nawili,
vinaidan mxareTa gamoucxadebloba ar aferxebs ojaxSi Zaladobis aRkveTis,
ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverplTa dacvis da daxmarebis Sesaxeb sakiTxis gan-
xilvas Sesabamis sasamarTloSi.8 Cveni azriT, Tu ganmcxadebeli ar gamoc-
xaddeba sasamarTloSi saqmis ganxilvisas, maSin amave muxlis V nawilis
gamoyeneba SeuZlebeli iqneba, vinaidan mosamarTle ganumartavs ganmcxa-
debels warmoebaSi miRebis Semdeg, rom Segnebulad cru Cvenebis micemisaT-
vis mis mimarT gamoiyeneba sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis zomebi, mag-
ram sainteresoa Tu ar gamocxaddeba mxare, maSin rogor CamoarTmevs xel-
werils da rogor ganumartavs sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobasTan da-
kavSirebul zomebs. migvaCnia, rom mxarebis gamocxadeba savaldebulo unda
iyos sasamarTloSi, xolo gamoucxadeblobis SemTxvevaSi maT mimarT gamo-
yenebul unda iqnas sasamarTloSi iZulebiTi moyvanis zomebi, winaaRmdeg


                                                         #2, 2008            53
     SemTxvevaSi rasakvirvelia, obieqturi gadawyvetilebis miReba SeuZlebeli
     iqneba.
        dabolos, aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTuli administraciuli marTlmsajulebis
     eqvswlianma praqtikis analizma dagvanaxa administraciuli kanonmdeblobis
     xarvezebi, ramac SesaZlebloba misca kanonmdebels daexvewa da Seetana masSi
     garkveuli cvlilebebi. am cvlilebebis Setanis mizani unda iyos administ-
     raciuli kanonierebis dacva, piris samarTlebrivi dacvis uzrunvelyofa
     da administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis procedurebis gamartiveba.




         SeniSvnebi:



     1
         saqarTvelos kanoni `ojaxSi Zaladobis aRkveTis, ojaxSi Zaladobis
         msxverplTa dacvis da daxmarebis Sesaxeb~ 2006 wlis 25 maisi, m. 3.
     2
         saqarTvelos kanoni `ojaxSi Zaladobis aRkveTis, ojaxSi Zaladobis
         msxverplTa dacvis da daxmarebis Sesaxeb~ 2006 wlis 25 maisi, m. 4.
     3
         saqarTvelos kanoni `ojaxSi Zaladobis aRkveTis, ojaxSi Zaladobis
         msxverplTa dacvis da daxmarebis Sesaxeb~ 2006 wlis 25 maisi, m. 10.
     4
         saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsi, m. 2114.
     5
         saqarTvelos kanoni `ojaxSi Zaladobis aRkveTis, ojaxSi Zaladobis
         msxverplTa dacvis da daxmarebis Sesaxeb~ 2006 wlis 25 maisi, m. 16.
     6
         q. Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos administraciul saqmeTa kolegiis
         saqme #3/4285-06.
     7
         q. Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos administraciul saqmeTa kolegiis
         saqme #3/4566-06.
     8
         saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsi, m. 2112.
     9
         saqarTvelos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsi, m. 2112.



54   profesia advokati
        Peculiarities of the administrative
            proceedings for elimination of
      domestic violence, protection of and
                     support to its victims
                                                                    MAKA SALKHINASHVILI
                                                          Associate Professor of the Law Faculty
                                                of the Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University


                                                                     NIKOLOZ SHUBLADZE
                                                                                        Advocate




The current reform of the Court System in Georgia offers many innovations, especially in
the administrative law area. One of these innovations is related to the elimination of violence
in the family: introduction of the institute of protection and support to the victims of violence
reflected in the existing Georgian legislation. On November 25th 2006, the Parliament of
Georgia adopted the law on “elimination of domestic violence, protection of and support to
its victims of violence in the family”. Upon passage of the law, certain amendments were
made to the Code of Administrative Procedure, specifically to the Chapter VII3 –
“Administrative Procedures for the prevention of violence in the family, protection and
support to the victims of violence in the family”.

The goal of the adoption of the law is the protection of human rights by means of disclosing
violence cases and establishing measures for its prevention, as well as guaranteeing
protection and social and legal support to victims of violence.

Amendments were made in order to ensure establishment of preventive measures against
violence and their implementation by the respective government agencies.

These are the main issues discussed in the article, the scientific research for which has
never been done in Georgia so far.




                                                                            #2, 2008                  55
     saproceso funqciis gagebisaTvis
     sisxlis samarTlis procesSi
     revaz gogSeliZe
     ssip axalcixis institutis iuridiuli fakultetis
     sruli profesori, samarTlis doqtori




        sisxlis samarTlis procesis mizania _ konkretul sisxlis samarTlis
     saqmeze WeSmaritebis dadgena. amisaTvis, saWiroa momxdar faqtTan dakav-
     SirebiT, sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvrulma Ta-
     namdebobis pirebma daiwyon saproceso kanoniT miniWebuli uflebamosile-
     bis ganxorcieleba. kerZod, Caataron mTeli rigi sagamoZiebo moqmedebebi,
     raTa moipovon mtkicebulebebi, rom darwmundnen, saxeze arsebuli iuri-
     diuli faqti namdvilad Sedegia sisxlis samarTlis kanoniT akrZaluli mar-
     TlsawinaaRmdego qmedebisa da Tuki irwmunes yovelive aRniSnuli, daadgi-
     non piri, visac braldeba unda warudginon.
        piris dadgenisas, romelsac braldeba unda waredginos, e.i. ganxorci-
     eldes mis mimarT sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna, Tavs iCens saproceso kano-
     niT miniWebuli ufleba _ pirma Tavi daicvas wardgenili braldebisagan,
     mtkicebulebaTa da sxvadasxva monacemebis motaniT uaryos wardgenili
     braldeba an Seimsubuqos pasuxismgebloba. rogorc winasasamarTlo ga-
     moZiebis, ise sasamarTloSi sisxlis samarTlis saqmis ganxilvis dros unda
     dadgindes ara mxolod is garemoebebi, romlebic adastureben piris bral-
     debas an amZimeben mis pasuxismgeblobas, aramed is garemoebebic, romlebic
     saubroben braldebulis sasargeblod, emsaxurebian mis gamarTlebas an
     pasuxismgeblobis Semsubuqebas.
        sabolood, braldebulis saxiT sisxlis samarTlis pasuxisgebaSi mi-
     cemuli piris braleulobisa Tu arabraleulobis sakiTxi, sisxlis samar-
     Tlis saqmis arsebiTi ganxilvis safuZvelze, sasamarTlom unda gadawy-
     vitos.
        Cvens mier zemoT gadmocemul msjelobaSi, zogadad daxasiaTebulia sisx-
     lis samarTlis saproceso saqmianobis ZiriTadi mimarTulebis arsi, rom-
     liTac faqtobrivad gaxsnilia sisxlis samarTlis saproceso funqciis
     buneba. rac gvaZlevs SesaZleblobas vTqvaT, rom sisxlis samarTlis pro-
     cesis monawileTa saqmianobis ZiriTad mimarTulebas, romelic gansaz-


56   profesia advokati
Rvrulia sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanoniT da emsaxureba sisxlis
samarTlis saqmeze WeSmaritebis dadgenas, ewodeba sisxlis samarTlis
saproceso funqcia. mocemuli ganmartebidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba
gamoikveTos oTxi ZirTadi funqcia: 1. gamoZiebis 2. braldebis 3. dacvis
4. sasamarTloSi sisxlis samarTlis saqmis ganxilvisa da gadawyvetis
funqcia.1 ganvixiloT TiToeuli maTgani.
   1. gamoZiebis funqcia. saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso ko-
deqsis 61-e muxlis mixedviT, gamoZiebis funqcias axorcieleben: saqarT-
velos prokuraturis, saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministros, saqarTve-
los Tavdacvis saministros, saqarTvelos iusticiis saministros, saqarTve-
los finansTa saministros, saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi re-
sursebis saministros sagamoZiebo danayofebis gamomZieblebi. isini Tavi-
anTi kompetenciis farglebSi valdebulni arian sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze
Caataron yovelmxrivi, sruli da obieqturi gamoZieba; gamoavlinon danaSa-
ulis Cadenis yvela garemoeba; miiRon zomebi danaSaulis Sedegad miyenebuli
zianis asanazRaureblad da danaSaulis xelSemwyobi mizezebisa da pirobebis
gamosavlenad da aRmosafxvrelad. sagamoZiebo moqmedebaTa Catarebis gziT
moipovon mtkicebulebebi, riTac SeZleben danaSaulis Camdeni yvela piris
dadgenas. gamomZiebeli erTnairad dainteresebuli unda iyos piris mimarT
Sekribos, rogorc gamamtyunebeli, ise gamamarTlebeli mtkicebulebebi,
daadginos, rogorc pasuxismgeblobis damamZimebeli, ise Semamsubuqebeli
garemoebebi. gamomZiebelma Tavisi obieqturi, miukerZoebeli, saqmisadmi
profesiuli midgomiT, maqsimalurad Tanabari pirobebi unda Seuqmnas bral-
debisa da dacvis mxares sasamarTloSi paeqrobisaTvis. gamomZiebels unda
axsovdes, misi saqmianoba win uZRvis ra sasamarTloSi sisxlis samarTlis
saqmis ganxilvas, didi pasuxismgebloba akisria. Tu winasasamarTlo gamo-
Zieba Catarebulia sworad da srulyofilad, mtkicebulebebic akmayofi-
lebs saproceso kanonis moTxovnebs, maSin sasamarTloc SeZlebs samarTli-
ani marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebas da kanonieri, dasabuTebuli da samar-
Tliani ganaCenis gamotanas. xolo Tu sisxlis samarTlis saqme gamoZiebulia
cudad, calmxrivad, arasrulyofilad, maSin sasamarTlos gauZneldeba
araTu samarTliani marTlmsajulebis ganxorcieleba, aramed saerTod sisx-
lis samarTlis saqmis ganxilva.
   vexebiT ra, gamoZiebis funqcias, unda gvaxsovdes, rom winasasamarTlo
gamoZiebis stadiaze ar wydeba da arc SeiZleba wydebodes braldebulis
saxiT pasuxisgebaSi micemuli piris braleulobis sakiTxi. braleulad bral-
debuli (gansasjeli) SeiZleba cnos mxolod sasamarTlom da araviTar SemT-
xvevaSi, arc gamomZiebelma da arc prokurorma.
   e. i. gamoZiebis funqciis arsi aris, rom gamomZiebelma sisxlis samarTlis
saqmeze, obieqturi, miukerZoebeli midgomiT Caataros sruli moculobiT


                                                          #2, 2008            57
     sagamoZiebo moqmedebebi, raTa am gziT mopovebuli mtkicebulebebiT daad-
     ginos, rogorc danaSaulis an sxva marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebis faqtobrivi
     garemoebani, ise am qmedebaTa Camdeni piric, rom Seqmnas pirobebi braldebisa
     da dacvis mxareebisaTvis sapaeqrod.
        2. braldebis funqcia. mas Semdeg, rac konkretul faqtTan dakavSirebiT
     gamomZiebeli qvemdebareobis mixedviT Caatarebs sruli moculobiT saga-
     moZiebo moqmedebebs da moipovebs mtkicebulebebs, romlebic misi varaudiT,
     sakmarisia pirisaTvis braldebis warsadgenad, sisxlis samarTlis saqmes sap-
     roceso xelmZRvanelobis ganmaxorcielebel prokurors gadascems. proku-
     rori Seiswavlis, amowmebs, afasebs: sisxlis samarTlis saqmeSi arsebul Ti-
     Toeul mtkicebulebas, saproceso normebis moTxovnaTa dacviT aris Tu
     ara isini mopovebuli da am mtikicebulebebiT marTlac dgindeba Tu ara
     qmedebis marTlsawinaaRmdego xasiaTi; saqmeSi arsebuli mtikicebulebebiT
     marTlac dgindeba Tu ara marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebis Camdeni piri; saqmeSi
     arsebuli mtkicebulebebi sakmarisia Tu ara dasabuTebuli varaudisaTvis,
     rom pirma Caidina danaSauli da SeiZleba mas braldeba waredginos; aris Tu
     ara yvela is garemoeba dadgenili, romlebic gavlenas axdens piris pasuxis-
     mgeblobis xasiaTsa da xarisxze, axasiaTebs mis pirovnebas; dadgenilia Tu
     ara danaSaulis Sedegad miyenebuli zianis xasiaTi da odenoba; am da sxva
     rigi sakiTxebis gadawyvetis Semdeg prokurors gamoaqvs dadgenileba piris
     braldebulis saxiT pasuxisgebaSi micemis Taobaze an gamomZiebels aZlevs
     Tanxmobas aseTi dadgenilebis gamotanis Taobaze (saqarTvelos sssk-is 282-e
     muxlis pirveli nawili). braldebis wardgenasac axorcielebs prokurori
     an gamomZiebeli. gamomZiebeli pirisaTvis braldebis wardgenis Sesaxeb da-
     uyovnebliv acnobebs prokurors. kanonmdeblis es pozicia arasworad mig-
     vaCnia,2 ramdenadac Tu gamomZiebels, prokuroris TanxmobiT, mieca SesaZ-
     lebloba gamoitanos dadgenileba piris braldebulis saxiT pasuxisgebaSi
     micemis Sesaxeb, aseve braldebuls warudginos braldeba, mas es ufleba ten-
     denciurs, araobieqturs gaxdis. misi interesi mimarTuli iqneba iqiTken,
     rom moipovos da Sekribos mxolod braldebis damadasturebeli mtkicebu-
     lebebi, misTvis miuRebeli gaxdeba gawios garkveuli Sroma gamamarTlebeli
     an Semamsubuqebeli garemoebebis dasadgenad, rac gamoZiebas calmxrivs da
     arasrulyofils gaxdis. daamkvidrebs maxinj sagamoZiebo praqtikas, romlis
     mixedviTac, prokurori yovelTvis Seecdeba ara mxolod daeTanxmos gamom-
     Ziebels piris braldebulis saxiT pasuxisgebaSi micemaze da braldebis war-
     dgenaze, aramed daavalos sabraldebo daskvnis Sedgenac da motivad is ga-
     moiyenos, rom sisxlis samarTlis saqmis masalebs gamomZiebeli ufro icnobs,
     TviTon ki, rogorc prokurori mxolod xels moawers sabraldebo daskvnas.
     amiT ki, daikargeba prokurori, rogorc profesionali, romelic mxars
     uWers braldebas da misi, rogorc braldebis mxaris pasuxismgebloba. es


58   profesia advokati
pasuxismgebloba gadanawilebul iqneba prokurorsa da gamomZiebels Soris
(maSin, rodesac gamomZiebeli ar aris mxare). xolo gamomZiebeli, rogorc
gamoZiebis funqciis ganmaxorcielebeli Sesustdeba, xarveziani gaxdeba da
dakargavs faqtis gamoZiebasTan mimarTebaSi miukerZoeblobasa da obieq-
turobis Tvisebas (garda amisa, Seikveceba gamomZieblis profesionalad
gazrdis survili, is prokuroris miTiTebebs daelodeba).
   mizanSewonilad migvaCnia, gamomZieblis funqciad darCes faqtTan dakav-
SirebiT gamoZieba, xolo prokuroris funqciad ki, braldebis funqcia, sa-
dac moazrebuli iqneba dadgenilebis gamotana piris braldebulis saxiT
pasuxisgebaSi micemis, braldebis wardgenisa da sabraldebo daskvnis Sed-
genis Sesaxeb. aseve, kanonmdebelma prokuroris movaleobad da ara SesaZleb-
lobad (uflebad) unda aqcios braldebulis dakiTxva, rogorc es gadawyve-
tilia moqmedi sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 283-e muxlis pirveli
nawiliT. braldebulis dakiTxva prokurors daexmareba ara mxolod Se-
amowmos, Seafasos saqmeSi arsebuli mtkicebulebebi, aramed Caswvdes TviTon
braldebulis pirovnebas da amiT Seiqmnas Sinagani rwmena, gaimyaros saku-
Tari pozicia, rogorc mxarem. yovelive zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT, Ca-
moyalibdeba kontrolis didi meqanizmi adamianis uflebaTa da kanonier
interesTa dacvis sferoSi.
   maSasadame, unda iTqvas, rom braldebiTi funqcia, rogorc sisxlis sap-
roceso samarTlis funqcia, upirveles yovlisa, kompetenturi Tanamdebo-
bis piris organos braldebiTi saqmianobaa da mimarTulia amxilos danaSa-
ulis Camdeni piri. meore mxriv, braldebiTi funqcia gulisxmobs saxelmwi-
fo bralmdeblis saqmianobas sasamarTloSi rogorc mxarisa, romelic bral-
debis gamamyarebeli mtkicebulebebis motaniTa da maTi gamokvleviT cdi-
lobs daamtkicos gansasjelis braleuloba sisxlis samarTlis kanoniT akr-
Zaluli marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebis CadenaSi. mesame mxriv, raki bralde-
biTi saqmianoba mimarTulia konkretuli piris danaSaulis CadenaSi mxile-
bisken da misi msjavrdebisken, igi uTanabrdeba (TumcaRa, sisxlissamarT-
lebrivi devna ufro farTo Sinaarsis matarebelia, vidre braldeba) sisx-
lissamarTlebrivi devnis institutsac. aqedan gamomdinare ki, raki sisxlis-
samarTlebriv devnas saqarTvelos sssk-is 55-e muxlis mixedviT, prokura-
tura axorcielebs, braldebiTi funqciis gamtarebelic mxolod da mxolod
am organos Tanamdebobis piri _ prokurori unda iyos.
   amrigad, sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna, rogorc saproceso saqmianoba mi-
marTulia konkretuli piris _ braldebulis mimarT,3 romelsac braldeba
danaSaulis Cadena. saproceso literaturaSi iyo sxva mosazrebac. zogierTi
swavluli iuristi miiCnevda, rom sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna xorcieldeba
ara konkretuli piris mimarT, aramed TviTon faqtis mimarT.4 rac arasworad
unda miviCnioT. TviTon sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis etimologiuri mniSv-


                                                         #2, 2008            59
     neloba gveubneba, rom devna xorcieldeba piris da ara faqtis mimarT. faq-
     tTan dakavSirebiT gamoZieba iwyeba.
        daskvnis saxiT unda iTqvas, rom braldebiTi funqcia, sisxlissamarTl-
     ebrivi devna xorcieldeba ra konkretuli piris mimarT, iwyeba winasasamar-
     Tlo gamoZiebis stadiaze _ dadgenilebis gamotaniT piris braldebulis
     saxiT pasuxisgebaSi micemis Taobaze (magram, ramdenadac dRes moqmedi sisx-
     lis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi icnobs eWvmitanilis instituts, sisxlis-
     samarTlebrivi devna SeiZleba iTqvas iwyeba maSinac, rodesac piris dakaveba
     xdeba eWvmitanilis saxiT an dadgenileba gamoitaneba piris eWvmitanilad
     cnobis Sesaxeb da grZeldeba, vidre ar amoiwureba piris eWvmitanilad daka-
     vebis vada da piri ar gaTavisufldeba an vidre dadgenileba piris eWvmita-
     nilad cnobis Taobaze ar gauqmdeba braldebis warudgenlobis gamo) da
     grZeldeba manamde, vidre sasamarTlo ar gamoitans gamamtyunebel ganaCens
     da es ganaCeni ar Seva kanonier ZalaSi. aseve, sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna
     konkretuli piris mimarT mTavrdeba Tu sasamarTlo gamoitans gamamarT-
     lebel ganaCens an kidev Sewydeba sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna an/da winas-
     wari gamoZieba.
        vexebiT ra, sisxlissamarTlebriv devnas, gverds ver avuqcevT kanonm-
     deblis xedvas am institutTan dakavSirebiT da verc mis saxeebs, romelzec
     aseve miuTiTebs kanonmdebeli saqarTvelos moqmed sisxlis samarTlis sap-
     roceso kodeqsSi (sssk-is 23 muxli) da aqtualuria saproceso literatu-
     raSic. saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 44-e muxlis
     431-e punqtis mixedviT sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna _ es aris uflebamosili
     piris mier ganxorcielebul moqmedebaTa erToblioba, romlis mizania eWv-
     mitanilis an braldebulis mimarT sisxlis samarTlisa da sisxlis samarT-
     lis saproceso kanonebiT gaTvaliswinebuli RonisZiebis gamoyenebis uzrun-
     velyofa. aRniSnuli kodeqsis 23-e muxli iZleva sisxlissamarTlebrivi
     devnis saxeebis CamonaTvalsac, esenia: sajaro, subsidiuri, kerZo-sajaro
     da kerZo.5 davaxasiaToT TiToeuli maTgani.
        a) sajaro sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna. sajaro sisxlissamarTlebrivi
     devna xorcieldeba yvela kategoriis danaSaulze, mniSvneloba ara aqvs es
     iqneba gansakuTrebiT mZime, mZime Tu naklebad mZime kategoriis danaSauli.
     es gasagebicaa, ramdenadac saxelmwifo TavisTavze iRebs valdebulebas da-
     icvas danaSauliT dazaralebuli adamianebi an organizaciebi. saqarTvelos
     sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 24-e muxlis mixedviT sajaro sisx-
     lissamarTlebrivi devnis ganmaxorcielebeli subieqtebi arian: prokurori
     da gamomZiebeli. isini miiReben Tu ara informacias danaSaulis Cadenis Sesa-
     xeb, yvela SemTxvevaSi valdebulni arian daiwyon gamoZieba. mniSvneloba ara
     aqvs iqneba Tu ara Setyobineba dazaralebulis, eWvmitanilis, braldebulis
     Tu sxva piris mxridan. Tu gamomZiebeli damoukideblad daiwyebs gamoZiebas,


60   profesia advokati
dauyovnebliv acnobebs prokurors Tanxmobis misaRebad. mas Semdeg, rac
gamomZiebeli moipovebs sakmaris mtkicebulebebs da miiCnevs, rom safuZveli
aqvs gamoitanos dadgenileba konkretuli piris braldebulis saxiT
pasuxisgebaSi misacemad, valdebulia aseTi dadgenilebis gamosatanad Tanx-
moba miiRos prokurorisagan.
   rac Seexeba prokurors, prokurori winaswari gamoZiebis stadiaze metad
aqtiuri da farTo uflebamosilebis matarebeli subieqtia (saqarTvelos
sssk-is 56-e muxli). rogorc kanonmdeblobidan Cans, igi sisxlissamarTleb-
rivi devnis ganxorcielebis uzrunvelsayofad winaswari gamoZiebis stadi-
aze axorcielebs saproceso xelmZRvanelobas da Tavisi samarTlebrivi mdgo-
mareobiT utoldeba komunisturi periodis sisxlis samarTlis saproceso
kanonmdeblobiT uflebamosil prokurors, romelic winaswari gamoZiebis
stadiaze saprokuroro zedamxedvelobas axorcielebda. vfiqrobT, aseTi
Zveli standartiT prokuroris uflebamosilebis SenarCuneba iwvevs gamo-
Ziebisa da sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis erTmaneTSi aRrevas da winaaRmde-
gobaSi mosvlas SejibrebiT sisxlis samarTlis procesTan (es problema sa-
intereso da sxva kuTxiT kvlevis sagania). prokurori damoukideblad iwyebs
gamoZiebas, aseve damoukideblad gamoaqvs dadgenileba piris braldebulis
saxiT sisxlis samarTlis pasuxisgebaSi micemis Sesaxeb; uflebamosilia mo-
nawileoba miiRos nebismieri saxis sagamoZiebo moqmedebaTa CatarebaSi; Tvi-
Ton awarmoos winaswari gamoZieba sruli moculobiT da a.S. winaswari ga-
moZieba daasrulos sabraldebo daskvnis SedgeniT da asli gadasces bral-
debuls.
   sajaro sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis dros winaswari gamoZieba warimar-
Teba obieqturad, yovelmxriv da sruli moculobiT. sakmarisi da aucile-
beli mtkicebulebebis Sekrebis mizniT tardeba yvela saWiro da aucilebeli
mtkicebulebebi.
   sajaro sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcielebisas misi mimdinare-
oba, rom usafuZvlod ar gaWianurdes da amiT ar Seilaxos moqalaqeTa uf-
lebebi da kanonieri interesebi, maTi dacvis mizniT, kanonmdebelma Seqmna
meqanizmi. erT-erTi aseTi meqanizmia dazaralebulis, misi warmomadgenlis,
samoqalaqo mosarCelis, agreTve im piris mier, romlis mimarTac xdeba
mtkicebulebaTa Sekreba saCivris Setana zemdgom prokurorTan an gamoZi-
ebis adgilis mixedviT, raionul (saqalaqo) sasamarTloSi. im motiviT, rom
saqmeSi aris sakmarisi mtkicebulebebi sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis gansa-
xorcieleblad, magram ratomRac gamomZiebels prokuroris TanxmobiT an
prokurors ar gamoaqvT dadgenileba piris braldebulad sisxlis samarT-
lis pasuxisgebaSi micemis Sesaxeb da iTxoven devnis dawyebas.
   sajaro sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcielebisas prokurori val-
debulia Secvalos braldeba an uari Tqvas braldebaze naawilobriv an mTli-


                                                         #2, 2008            61
     anad, Tu saqmeSi arsebuli mtkicebulebebi ar adastureben braldebas. pro-
     kuroris aseTi gadawyvetileba savaldebuloa gamomZieblisaTvis, garda im
     SemTxvevisa, rodesac gamomZiebeli ar eTanxmeba prokurors braldebis mo-
     culobis qmedebis kvalifikaciis sferoSi. aseT dros gamomZiebels ufleba
     aqvs Tavisi mosazrebebi werilobiTi formiT da sisxlis samarTlis saqme
     warudginos zemdgom prokurors, romelic auqmebs qvemdgomi prokuroris
     miTiTebebs an gamoZiebas avalebs sxva gamomZiebels. zemdgomi prokuroris
     gadawyvetileba sabolooa.
        Tu prokurori sasamarTloSi sisxlis samarTlis saqmis ganxilvisas uars
     ityvis braldebaze an Secvlis braldebas gansasjelis sasargeblod, auci-
     lebelia zemdgomi prokuroris Tanxmoba. magram, amasTan dakavSirebiT ka-
     nonmdebeli ar azustebs, zemdgomi prokuroris es Tanxmoba werilobiTi
     formis iyos Tu zepiri. kanonmdeblis nebidan gamomdinare, orive forma
     misaRebi unda iyos. magram yovelgvari mosalodneli gaugebrobis Tavidan
     acilebis mizniT zemdgomi prokuroris Tanxmoba werilobiTi unda iyos. miT
     umetes maSin, rodesac sasamarTloSi braldebis Secvlisas prokurori
     valdebulia sasamarTlos warudginos braldebis axali werilobiTi formu-
     lireba. TumcaRa isic sakamaToa, kanonmdebeli ratom avaldebulebs pro-
     kurors braldebis Secvlis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlos axali werilobiTi
     formulireba warudginos. vinaidan, sasamarTlo saqmes wyvets kanonis
     uzenaesobisa da Sinagani rwmenis safuZvelze. Tuki, sasamarTloSi saqmis
     arsebiTi ganxilvisas, rogorc kanonmdebeli sssk-is 446-e muxlis mesame
     nawilSi SeniSnavs, prokurors Camouyalibda rwmena, rom braldeba, romelsc
     igi mxars uWerda ar dasturdeba valdebulia Tqvas uari braldebaze (es
     imperatiuli moTxovnaa), maSin ratomRa unda iyos prokurori valdebuli
     sasamarTlos warudginos axali werilobiTi formulireba. gana aseTi mniSv-
     nelovani unda iyos sasamarTlosaTvis braldebis mxaris pozicia? maSin ra
     vuyoT dacvis mxaris pozicias?
        saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 24-e muxlis merve
     nawilis mixedviT, Tu prokurori sasamarTloSi uars ityvis braldebaze,
     sasamarTlo valdebulia Sewyvitos sisxlis samarTlis saqme an gamoitanos
     gamamarTlebeli ganaCeni (aRniSnuli muxlis nawilis srulyofisaTvis kargi
     iqneboda kanonmdebels yuradReba mieqcia sssk-is 446-e muxlisaTvis).
        b) subsidiuri sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna. saqarTvelos sisxlis
     samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 23-e muxli sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis
     erT-erT saxed acxadebs subsidiur sisxlissamarTlebriv devnas. subsidi-
     uri sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna gvxvdeba mxolod da mxolod sasamarTloSi
     (aq igulisxmeba, rogorc pirveli instanciis sasamarTlo, ise saapelacio
     da sakasacio instanciis sasamarTloebi) sisxlis samarTlis saqmis ganxil-
     visas. ratom sasamarTloSi da ara winaswari gamoZiebis stadiaze? dasmul


62   profesia advokati
kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemaSi dagvexmareba TviT sityva `subsidiuris~ mniSvne-
loba da kanonmdeblis neba. sityva `subsidiuri~ (subsidiarius) laTinuri
warmoSobisaa da qarTulad damxmares, damatebiTs niSnavs. sityvis es mniSvne-
loba kanonmdebelma kargad miusadaga dazaralebulis, misi kanonieri warmo-
madgenlis uflebas da saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis
25-e muxlSi ganacxada, rom dazaralebulsa da mis warmomadgenels ufleba
aqvT mxari dauWiron prokuroris mier formulirebul saxelmwifo bral-
debas. aseTi mxardaWera ki, SeiZleba gamovlindes, rogorc sajaro, ise
kerZo-sajaro sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis dros. dazaralebuli, misi ka-
nonieri warmomadgeneli prokurorTan, saxelmwifo bralmdebelTan erTad
amtkicebs ra gansasjelis braleulobas, iTxovs mis dasjas, moqmedebs ro-
gorc sajaro interesebis damcveli. meore mxriv, misi monawileoba sisxlis
samarTlis saqmeSi emsaxureba sakuTari interesebis, uflebebis dacvas, ro-
melic dairRva danaSaulis Cadenis Sedegad. swored am dros, rodesac daza-
ralebuli (misi warmomadgeneli) prokurorTan erTad ganaxorcielebs kano-
niT miniWebul uflebas, icavs sakuTar interesebs, amtkicebs konkretuli
piris braldebas, abaTilebs gansasjelisa da misi damcvelis poziciebs, sis-
xlis samarTlis procesSi igi ukve moqmedebs, rogorc subsidiuri bralm-
debeli.
   ramdenadac saxelmwifo braldeba xorcieldeba mxolod sasamarTloSi,
subsidiuri sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna ver gamovlindeba winaswari gamo-
Ziebis stadiaze.
   subsidiuri sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna ara mxolod imas gulisxmobs,
rom dazaralebulma, misma kanonierma warmomadgenelma sasamarTloSi mxari
dauWiros prokuroris mier formulirebul saxelmwifo braldebas, aramed
am saxeobis devnis bunebisaTvis aseve damaxasiaTebelia, rom Tu prokurori
uars ityvis braldebaze an Secvlis braldebas, dazaralebuls an mis warmo-
madgenels ufleba aqvs sasamarTloSi mxari dauWiros winandel braldebas.
magram ara aqvT ufleba, gascdnen prokuroris mier formulirebul saxel-
mwifo braldebis farglebs. e.i. dazaralebuli moklebulia SesaZleblobas,
gansasjelis mimarT wamoswios axali braldeba, mas rCeba ufleba Secvalos
braldeba gansasjelis sasargeblod. aseT SemTxvevaSi sisxlissamarTleb-
rivi devna ar wydeba, sasamarTlo ganagrZobs sisxlis samarTlis saqmis gan-
xilvas, sadac ukve bralmdeblis rangSi gvevlineba dazaralebuli an misi
warmomadgeneli. prokurors ki, ufleba aqvs aRar miiRos monawileoba saqmis
ganxilvaSi, ramdenadac man ukve daafiqsira sakuTari pozicia.6
   subsidiuri sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna gamoyenebadi rom iyos sasamar-
TloSi sisxlis samarTlis saqmis ganxilvis dros, mosamarTlem (sasamarT-
lom) sasamarTlo sxdomis mosamzadebel stadiaze dazaralebuls, mis kano-
nier warmomadgenels uflebebisa da movaleobebis ganmartebis micemis


                                                          #2, 2008            63
     dros, subsidiuri sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcielebasTan dakav-
     SirebiT meti informacia unda miawodos.
        g) kerZo-sajaro sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna. saqarTvelos sisxlis
     samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 23-e muxlis mixedviT, sisxlissamarTlebrivi
     devnis erT-erTi saxea kerZo-sajaro sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna, romlis
     arsic kanonmdebels gaxsnili aqvs sssk-is 26-e muxlSi. aRniSnuli devnis
     Taviseburebaa, rom aq erTmaneTSi Sezavebulia sajaro da kerZo interesebi.
     kerZo-sajaro sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis kerZo interesi ikveTeba imaSi,
     rom igi iwyeba mxolod dazaralebulis saCivriT da ar wydeba braldebulTan
     dazaralebulis SerigebiT. TumcaRa gamonaklisi saxiT, garkveul SemTxve-
     vaSi kanonmdebeli uSvebs kerZo-sajaro sisxlissamarlebrivi devnis ganxor-
     cielebis dros braldebulTan dazaralebulis Serigebasac (rac vfiqrobT,
     kargad warmoaCens aRniSnuli devnis kerZo bunebas). es is SemTxvevaa, rode-
     sac sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis gagrZelebam SeiZleba ziani miayenos ro-
     gorc dazaralebuls, ise braldebuls. magaliTad, Svilad ayvanis saidum-
     loeba gaamJRavna ojaxis wevrma (vTqvaT, bebiam), dazaralebulma emociebze
     dayrdnobiT, Sesabamis organoSi Seitana saCivari, daiwyo sisxlissamarT-
     lebrivi devna, magram, misma gagrZelebam SeiZleba ziani miayenos rogorc
     dazaralebuls, ise braldebuls. kerZod ki, Seiqmnas konfliqturi viTareba,
     dapirispireba ojaxis wevrebs Soris da saqme mivides col-qmris ganqorwi-
     nebamdec, ufro metad daziandes Svilad ayvanilis interesebi. aseT SemTx-
     vevaSi sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis gagrZeleba zianis mimyenebeli iqneba,
     rogorc dazaralebulisaTvis, ise braldebulisaTvis, amitom igi unda Sew-
     ydes. an aviRoT aseTi martivi magaliTi: gaupatiurebis faqtze (mxedvelo-
     baSia, danaSauli gaTvaliswinebuli sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 137-e
     muxlis pirveli nawiliT) dazaralebulis saCivriT daiwyo sisxlissamarT-
     lebrivi devna. cnobili gaxda, rom dazaralebulma da braldebulma Seqmnes
     ojaxi, dazaralebuli fexmZimedaa, e.i. Serigdnen. aseT SemTxvevaSi, gana lo-
     gikuri da samarTliania gagrZeldes sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna, romelic
     zianis mimyenebeli iqneba rogorc dazaralebulisaTvis, ise braldebuli-
     saTvis? ra Tqma unda ara, da igi unda Sewydes.
        kerZo-sajaro sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis sajaro xasiaTis gamovli-
     nebaa, rom prokurors ufleba aqvs garkveul SemTxvevaSi daiwyos sisxlissa-
     marTlebrivi devna saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis
     26-e muxlis pirveli nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli danaSaulobebidan, romeli-
     mes saxeze arsebobisas, maSinac ki, rodesac ar arsebobs dazaralebulis
     saCivari. kerZod ki, maSin, roca saqmes aqvs gansakuTrebuli sazogadoebrivi
     mniSvneloba da imavdroulad dazaralebuls umweo mdgomareobis an bral-
     debulze damokidebulebis gamo ar SeuZlia daicvas Tavisi uflebebi da
     kanonieri interesebi. oRond im pirobiT, rom qmedunarian dazaralebuls


64   profesia advokati
prokurorisaTvis aqvs micemuli werilobiTi Tanxmoba sisxlissamarTleb-
rivi devnis ganxorcielebis Taobaze. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, Tu da-
zaralebuli qmeduunaro iqneba, aseT SemTxvevaSi prokurorma sakuTari
iniciativiT unda ganaxorcielos sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna.
   sayuradReboa saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 26-e
muxlis meore nawilSi naTqvami sityvebi: `saqmis gansakuTrebuli sazogado-
ebrivi mniSvneloba.~ vin unda Seafasos `saqme aris Tu ara gansakuTrebuli
sazogadoebrivi mniSvnelobis? gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom `konkretul
SemTxvevaSi es Sefaseba miendos procesis mwarmoebel organos, Tanamdebobis
pirs.~7 migvaCnia aseT zogad, lozungismagvar ganacxads: `saqmis gansakuT-
rebuli sazogadoebrivi mniSvneloba~, bundovanebis, orWofobis, marCielo-
bis meti araferi Seaqvs normaSi, amitom is, saerTod amoRebuli unda iyos
normidan. kanonmdebelma Tavi unda aaridos aseTi zogadi frazebis normaSi
gamoyenebas.
   kerZo-sajaro sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnas mikuTvnebuli danaSaulebi
gvxvdeba saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis, rogorc adamianis wina-
aRmdeg mimarTul danaSaulTa karSi, aseve ekonomikuri danaSaulis karSi.
   adamianis winaaRmdeg mimarTul danaSaulTa karSi, kerZo-sajaro sisx-
lissamarTlebriv devnas daqvemdebarebul danaSaulTa ricxvSi moiazreba:
   a) sqesobrivi Tavisuflebisa da xelSeuxeblobis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli
zogierTi danaSaulebi. esenia: gaupatiureba (saqarTvelos sisxlis samar-
Tlis kodeqsis 137-e muxlis pirveli nawili); seqsualuri xasiaTis Zalmom-
reobiTi moqmedeba (saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 138-e muxlis
pirveli nawili); sqesobrivi kavSiris an seqsualuri xasiaTis sxvagvari
moqmedebis iZuleba (saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 139-e muxli).
CamoTvlil danaSaulTa sferoSi dazaralebulis saCivris aucilebloba
ganpirobebulia xelyofis obieqtis TaviseburebiT. saqme isaa, rom pirov-
nebis sqesobrivi Tavisufleba da xelSeuxebloba metad intimuri sferoa
da masSi saxelmwifo rom Caerios, dazaralebulis neba unda iyos gamovle-
nili. dazaralebulis aseTi nebis gamovlenad iTvleba momxdari faqtis
Sesaxeb saCivriT mimarTva kompetenturi Tanamdebobis pirisadmi, saxelmwi-
fo organosadmi. saCivriT mimarTva Tanxmobasac niSnavs da imasac, rom
dazaralebulma aitanos yvela is uaryofiTi gancda (mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs
Cvenebis micema momxdar faqtTan dakavSirebiT, Sexvedra misTvis arasasur-
vel pirovnebasTan, sasamarTlo samedicino eqspertiza da a.S.), rac mohyveba
saxelmwifos mxridan mis intimur sferoSi Carevas.
   b) adamianis konstituciuri uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis winaaRmdeg
mimarTuli zogierTi danaSaulebi _ esenia: sityvis Tavisuflebis xelyofa
(saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 153-e muxli); piradi an ojaxuri
saidumlos xelyofa (saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 157-e muxli);


                                                         #2, 2008            65
     informaciis gacnobaze uaris Tqma an araswori informaciis wardgena (saqar-
     Tvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 167-e muxli).8 ramdenadac CamoTvlili
     danaSaulebi xelyofen konkretuli adamianis konstituciuri uflebebisa
     da Tavisuflebebis, sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis dawyebis mizanSewonilo-
     bis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba unda miiRos uSualod im pirovnebam, visac aseTi
     ziani miadga. Tu pirovnebam saCivriT ar mimarTa samarTaldamcav organoebs,
     maT gauWirdebaT imis gadawyveta Tu visi uflebebi, romeli uflebebi Tu
     Tavisuflebebi da vis mier dairRva.
        g) ojaxisa da arasrulwlovanis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli zogierTi dana-
     Sauli. magaliTad: Svilad ayvanis saidumloebis gamJRavneba (saqarTvelos
     sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 175-e muxli). aRniSnuli danaSauli, ramdenadac
     xelyofs mSoblisa da bavSvis uflebebsa da kanonier interesebs, savalde-
     buloa iyos dazaralebulis saCivari, raTa Sesabamis saxelmwifo organoebs
     gauadvildeT dazaralebulis interesebis dacva.
        rac Seexeba ekonomikuri danaSaulis karSi moqceul danaSaulebs, ka-
     nonmdebelma iqidan kerZo-sajaro sisxlissamarTlebriv devnas miakuTvna:
     saavtoro, momijnave uflebis mflobelisa da monacemTa bazis damamza-
     deblis uflebis xelyofa (saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 189-e
     muxli) da samrewvelo sakuTrebis uflebis xelyofa (saqarTvelos sisxlis
     samarTlis kodeqsis 1891-e muxli). Tu vixelmZRvanelebT saqarTvelos
     sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobiT, orive danaSaulis arsebobis SemTx-
     vevaSi xelyofilia konkretuli pirovnebis saavtoro-SemoqmedebiTi uf-
     leba. daculi, rom iyos piris saavtoro uflebebi da kanonieri interesebi,
     TviTon pirovnebas unda miaCndes, rom dairRva misi saavtoro-SemoqmedebiTi
     uflebebi da Sesabamis saxelmwifo organoSi saCivris SetaniT unda iTxovdes
     uflebebis aRdgenas, kanonieri interesebis dacvas. amitom, logikuria
     kanonmdeblis nebis gamoxatva, CamoTvlili danaSaulebi iyos kerZo-sajaro
     sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis sfero.
        d) kerZo sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna. kerZo sisxlissamarTlebrivi
     devnis Taviseburebaa, rom misi dawyebac da Sewyvetac damokidebulia mxo-
     lod dazaralebulis nebis gamovlenaze. e.i. wina planzea wamoweuli kerZo
     interesebi. swored, dazaralebuli gvevlineba sisxlissamarTlebrivi dev-
     nis ganmaxorcielebel subieqtad, kerZo bralmdeblad.
        kerZo sisxlissamarTlebriv devnas mTeli rigi specifikuri niSnebi axa-
     siaTebs: a) igi iwyeba mxolod da mxolod dazaralebulis saCivris safuZ-
     velze; b) dasaSvebia dazaralebulis braldebulTan Serigeba; g) Serigeba
     unda moxdes mosamarTlis (sasamarTlos, aq igulisxmeba saapelacio da
     sakasacio instanciac) saTaTbiro oTaxSi gasvlamde; d) mxareebi Serigebis
     SemTxvevaSi unda morigdnen sasamarTlo xarjebis anazRaurebazec. Tu isini
     amis Taobaze ver morigdebian, maSin maT sasamarTlo gadaunawilebs xarjebs;


66   profesia advokati
e) dazaralebulis braldebulTan (gansasjelTan) Serigeba ar daiSveba Tu
kerZo braldebis saqmeSi Caeba prokurori; v) prokurori uflebamosilia
Caebas kerZo braldebis saqmeSi Tu: 1) werilobiT iTxoven mxareebi, 2) we-
rilobiT iTxovs mxolod dazaralebuli an misi kanonieri warmomadgeneli
3) saqmes gansakuTrebuli sazogadoebrivi mniSvneloba aqvs 4) moiTxovs sa-
xelmwifo interesebi 5)  moiTxovs sazogadoebis interesebi 6) moiTxovs mo-
qalaqeebis uflebebis dacva z) kerZo braldebis saqmeze mxareebs ufleba
aqvT erTmaneTs warudginon braldebebi da Tuki safuZveli iqneba mosamar-
Tle Tavisi dadgenilebiT dazaralebuls cnobs braldebuladac, xolo
braldebuls _ dazaralebuladac.
   kanonmdebelma kerZo sisxlissamarTlebriv devnas dauqvemdebara ori
saxis danaSauli: janmrTelobis ganzrax msubuqi dazianeba (saqarTvelos
sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 120-e muxli) da cema (saqarTvelos sisxlis sa-
marTlis kodeqsis 125-e muxli).
   kerZo braldebis sisxlis samarTalwarmoeba bevr rameSi emsgavseba
samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebas. Tu sajaro sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis
dros davis erT-erTi mxare yovelTvis saxelmwifoa da sajaro interesebs
icavs, kerZo sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis dros, orive mxare Tanasworobis
sawyisze mxolod Tavis sakuTar interesebs icavs. kerZo bralmdebeli ar
flobs saxelmwifo administrirebas, ar aqvs ufleba Caataros sagamoZiebo
moqmedebebi, mimarTos sisxlis saproceso samarTlebriv iZulebas. mar-
Talia, prokuroris kerZo braldebis saqmeSi CabmiT irRveva kerZo sisxlis-
samarTlebrivi devnis arsi [amasTan dakavSirebiT srulyofas saWiroeben
da Sinaarsobriv Sesabamisobasac (mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs kerZo braldebis saq-
meSi prokuroris Cabmis safuZvlebi) saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis sap-
roceso kodeqsis 27-e da 634-e muxlebi], magram prioritetad mainc kerZo
interesi unda darCes.
   kerZo braldebis saqmeebze gadawyvetilebis mimReb uflebamosil
subieqtad gvevlineba mxolod sasamarTlo. dazaralebulma saCivari weri-
lobiTi formiT da xelmoweriT unda Seitanos danaSaulis adgilis mixedviT
raionuli (saqalaqo) sasamarTloSi. saCivarSi dazaralebuli unda aRwerdes
danaSaulis faqts, mohyavdes cnobebi danaSaulis Camdeni pirisa da danaSa-
ulis Sesaxeb, gadmoscemdes mtkicebulebaTa CamonaTvalsa da Txovnas, rom
mosamarTlem ganixilos saqme. Tu mosamarTle saqmes miiRebs warmoebaSi,
braldebis mtkicebis tvirTi awevs dazaralebuls, anu kerZo bralmdebels.
dazaralebuls ufleba aqvs hyavdes advokati, romelic sasamarTlo proces-
Si monawileobas miiRebs, rogorc misi kanonieri warmomadgeneli. dazara-
lebuls, mis kanonier warmomadgenels (kerZo braldebis mxare), iseve, ro-
gorc gansasjels ufleba aqvT sakuTari interesebis dacvis mizniT, mosa-
marTlis (sasamarTlos) winaSe dasvan Suamdgomlobebi mtkicebulebaTa


                                                        #2, 2008            67
     mopovebis mizniT. sasamarTlom mxareebs unda Seuqmnas Tanaswori pirobebi
     paeqrobisaTvis, obieqturad da miukerZoeblad unda ganixilos da gadawyvi-
     tos, rogorc kerZo bralmdeblis, ise gansasjelis mier aRZruli Suamd-
     gomlobebi. sasurveli iqneba, Tu kerZo braldebis saqmeTa gadawyvetis dros
     mosamarTle (sasamarTlo) modave mxareebs Soris arsebul davas morigebiT
     daasrulebs da amiT SeunarCunebs maT erTmaneTisadmi keTilganwyobilebas.
         mokled ganvixileT ra, sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis TiToeuli saxe, ma-
     Ti arsidan gamomdinare migvaCnia, rom gamarTlebulia, Tuki sisxlis samar-
     Tlis saproceso kanonmdeblobaSi damkvidrdeba sisxlissamarTlebrivi
     devnis ori saxe: sajaro da kerZo. es ori saxe srulyofilad xsnis sisxlis-
     samarTlebrivi devnis bunebas.
         3. dacvis funqcia. saqarTvelos konstituciis me-18 muxlis mixedviT
     adamianis Tavisufleba xelSeuxebelia. aravis ara aqvs ufleba adamians aRuk-
     veTos Tavisufleba an sxvagvarad SeuzRudos piradi Tavisufleba sasamar-
     Tlos gadawyvetilebis am kanoniT gansazRvruli SemTxvevebis gareSe. magram,
     Tu moxda aRniSnuli wesebis dacviT piris dakaveba an dapatimreba, mas unda
     ganemartos dakavebis an dapatimrebisTanave Tavisuflebis SezRudvis safuZ-
     veli da misi uflebebi, maT Soris ufleba moiTxovos damcvelis daxmareba,
     romelic unda dakmayofildes. e.i. rogorc ki moxdeba piris dakaveba eWvmita-
     nilis saxiT (an dadgenilebiT iqneba cnobili eWvmitanilad) an pirs waredgineba
     braldeba, mas ufleba aqvs daicvas Tavi arsebuli eWvisagan an wardgenili
     braldebisagan yvela kanonieri saSualebiTa da meTodiT, an uSualod TviTon
     an mowveuli damcvelis meSveobiT. zemoT mocemuli ganmartebebiT konkretuli
     piris mimarT sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis dawyeba avtomaturad warmoSobs
     dacvis meqanizms. Tu ar aris konkretuli piris mimarT eWvi an braldeba, ar
     arsebobs sakuTari uflebebisa da kanonieri interesebis dacvis moTxovnac.
     xolo, Tu gaCnda safuZveli eWvisaTvis, rom pirma Caidina danaSauli an
     waredgina pirs braldeba, dauyovnebliv aRmocendeba dacvis aucileblobac.
     dacva Tanmdevia konkretuli piris mimarT sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis
     ganxorcielebisa. dacva swored is saproceso funqciaa, romlis meSveobiTac
     eWvmitanili, braldebuli, gansasjeli, msjavrdebuli uflebamosilni arian
     realizacia gaukeTon kanoniT miniWebul dacvis uflebas.
         dacva, rogorc saproceso funqcia, upirveles yovlisa, gulisxmobs Tvi-
     Ton eWvmitanilis, braldebulis (gansasjeli) aqtiur moqmedebas sakuTari
     uflebebisa da kanonieri interesebis dasacavad. am aqtiurobaSi unda vigu-
     lisxmoT kanonmdeblis mier miniWebuli saproceso uflebebis efeqtianad
     gamoyeneba. ase magaliTad, dumilis uflebis SenarCuneba, riTac faqtobri-
     vad uaryofs kanonsawinaaRmdego qmedebaSi monawileobas; an gnebavT Cvenebis
     micema, riTac uaryofs Semxeblobas momxdar faqtTan mimarTebaSi an mohyavs
     garemoebebi, romliTac cdilobs gaabaTilos mis mimarT arsebuli eWvi an


68   profesia advokati
wardgenili braldeba; mtkicebulebebis warmodgena eWvis, braldebis gasa-
qarwyleblad, gnebavT samarTlebrivi mdgomareobis gasaumjobeseblad;
Suamdgomlobis gancxadeba ama Tu im sagamoZiebo moqmedebis Casatareblad
da a. S. es yvelaferi eWvmitanilis, braldebulis (gansasjelis) uflebebis,
kanonieri interesebis dacvas emsaxureba.
   maRali samarTlebrivi doniT gamoirCeva eWvmitanilis, braldebulis
(gansasjelis, msjavrdebulis) uflebebis, kanonieri interesebis dasacavad
damcvelis monawileoba sisxlis samarTlis procesSi. damcveli sisxlis sa-
marTlis saqmeSi SeiZleba Caebas SeTanxmebiT, daniSvniT an savaldebulo wesiT.9
   sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdebloba damcvels aRWuravs farTo
uflebamosilebiT. igi uflebamosilia Sekribos dacvisaTvis saWiro mona-
cemebi da isini mtkicebulebaTa saxiT warudginos procesis mwarmoebel or-
ganos; monawileoba miiRos eWvmitanilisa Tu braldebulis monawileobiT
an dacvis SuamdgomlobiT Catarebul sagamoZiebo moqmedebaSi, dausvas Se-
kiTxvebi dasakiTxs, moiTxovos oqmSi im monacemebis Setana, romlebic uar-
yofs braldebas an amsubuqebs eWvmitanilisa Tu braldebulis (gansasjelis)
pasuxismgeblobas da sxva. e.i. yvela kanonieri saSualeba da xerxi unda gamo-
iyenos im garemoebebis gamosavlenad, romlebic amarTleben eWvmitanils an
braldebuls (gansasjels, msjavrdebuls), anda amsubuqeben mis pasuxismgeb-
lobas da unda gauwios mas saWiro iuridiuli daxmareba.
   amgvarad, dacva gulisxmobs TviTon eWvmitanilis an braldebulis (gan-
sasjelis, msjavrdebulis) da misi damcvelis erTobliv saqmianobas.
   maSasadame, dacva sisxlis samarTlis procesSi _ esaa im saproceso
moqmedebaTa erToblioba, romelic mimarTulia kanonieri saSualebisa
da xerxis gamoyenebiT gamovlenil iqnes eWvmitanilis an braldebulis
(gansasjelis, msjavrdebulis), rogorc gamamarTlebeli, ise pasuxis-
mgeblobis Semamsubuqebeli garemoebani.
   4. sasamarTloSi sisxlis samarTlis saqmis ganxilvisa da gadawyvetis
funqcia. saqarTveloSi mimdinare demokratiuli procesebis monapovaria,
rom dRes, sisxlis samarTlis procesi SejibrebiTia. gamijnulia urTier-
Tisagan braldebis, dacvisa da sasamarTloSi sisxlis samarTlis saqmis gan-
xilvisa da gadawyvetis funqcia. braldebisa da dacvis funqciaTa bunebis
yvelaze ufro srulyofili gamovlena gvxvdeba sasamarTloSi sisxlis
samarTlis saqmeTa ganxilvisa da gadawyvetis dros. sadac braldebisa da
dacvis mxareebs sruli Tanasworobis safuZvelze ufleba aqvT warmoad-
ginon mtkicebulebani, monawileoba miiRon maT gamokvlevaSi, ganacxadon
Suamdgomloba da acileba, gamoTqvan sakuTari azri sisxlis samarTlis saq-
mis nebismier sakiTxze.
   SejibrebiTobis principze agebuli mxareTa paeqroba uSualo, zepiri da
sajaroa. braldebis mxare Sekrebili mtkicebulebebiT sajarod cdilobs


                                                           #2, 2008             69
     gansasjelis braleulobis damtkicebas, xolo dacvis mxare (gansasjeli),
     aseve sajarod cdilobs daicvas Tavi braldebisagan.
        mosamarTle (sasamarTlo) mxareebs Tanaswor pirobebs uqmnis mtkicebu-
     lebaTa warmosadgenad, qmnis safuZvels saqmis garemoebaTa yovelmxrivi,
     obieqturi da srulyofili gamokvlevisaTvis. erTnairi gulmodginebiT ar-
     kvevs gansasjelis rogorc mamxilebel, ise gamamarTlebel, agreTve pasu-
     xismgeblobis damamZimebel da Semamsubuqebel garemoebebs. SeiZleba iTqvas,
     rom mosamarTle (sasamarTlo) sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze winaswari gamo-
     Ziebis stadiaze Sekrebil mtkicebulebebs ki ar emyareba, aramed uSualod
     axdens pirvelwyarodan mtkicebulebaTa miRebas, gamokvlevas da Sefasebas.
     mtkicebulebaTa aseTi safuZvliani SeswavliTa da SefasebiT mosamarTlem
     (sasamarTlos) unda SeinarCunos obieqturoba, miukerZoebloba, damouki-
     debloba da gamoitanos kanonieri, dasabuTebuli da samarTliani ganaCeni.
        amdenad, gamoZiebis, braldebis, dacvisa da sasamarTloSi saqmis ganxil-
     visa da gadawyvetis funqciaTa Sexamebam unda uzrunvelyos sisxlis samar-
     Tlis saqmeze WeSmaritebis dadgena, danaSaulis Camdeni piris msjavrdeba
     da arabraleuli piris dacva dausabuTebeli braldebisagan. sisxlis samar-
     Tlis saqmis ganxilvisa da gadawyvetis saproceso funqcia mxolod sasamar-
     Tlos ekuTvnis. igi uflebamosilia arsebiTad ganixilos, gadawyvitos saqme
     da gamoitanos gamamtyunebeli an gamamarTlebeli ganaCeni.
        raionuli (saqalaqo) sasamarTlo sisxlis samarTlis saqmeebs ganixilavs
     pirveli instanciis wesiT. q. Tbilisisa da q. quTaisis saapelacio sasamarT-
     loebis sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa palatebi ki, ganixilaven saapelacio saCi-
     vars, Setanils raionuli (saqalaqo) sasamarTlos ganaCensa da sxva Semaja-
     mebel sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaze. saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos
     sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa palata ganixilavs sakasacio saCivars, Setanils
     saapelacio sasamarTlos mier gamotanil ganaCenze, ganCinebasa da sxva
     Semajamebel sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaze. agreTve ganixilavs saCivrebsa
     da wardginebebs sisxlis samarTlis saqmeebze saqarTvelos saerTo sasa-
     marTloebis mier gamotanili da kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli ganaCenis, ganCi-
     nebisa da sxva Semajamebeli sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gadasinjvis Sesa-
     xeb axladaRmoCenil da axladgamovlenil garemoebaTa gamo.
        sasamarTlo instanciebSi sisxlis samarTlis saqmis ganxilva da gadaw-
     yveta warmoebs erTpirovnulad an kolegiurad. marTlmsajulebis ganxor-
     cielebis dros mosamarTle damoukidebelia, igi xelmZRvanelobs mxolod
     kanoniT da Sinagani rwmeniT. aravis aqvs ufleba zegavlena moaxdinos mosa-
     marTleze da miuTiTos, rogor gadawyvitos gansaxilveli saqme. daskvnis
     saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom: sasamarTloSi sisxlis samarTlis saqmis ganxil-
     va da gadawyveta, rogorc saproceso funqcia gulisxmobs braldebisa da
     dacvis mxaris mier warmodgenil mtkicebulebaTa uSualo gamokvlevasa da
     Sefasebas da gansasjelis arabraleulobisa Tu braleulobis da pasuxis-
     mgeblobis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebas.

70   profesia advokati
    SeniSvnebi:

1
    sisxlis saproceso samarTlis literaturaSi saproceso funqciis sakiTxi ara-
    erTgvarovnadaa gadawyvetili, ase magaliTad. m. s. strogoviCi aRniSnavda, rom:
    sisxlis samarTlis procesSi arsebobs sami ZiriTadi funqcia: a) braldebis
    (sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis) b) dacvis da g) saqmis gadawyvetis (Ñòðîãîâè÷
    Ì.Ñ. Êóðñ ñîâåòñêîãî óãîëîâíîãî ïðîöåññà. Ò.1. Ì., 1968, ñ.189); xolo r.d. ra-
    xunovi ki anviTarebda mosazrebas eqvsi saproceso funqciis arsebobis Sesaxeb:
    a) saqmis gamoZieba b) braldeba g) dacva, d)samoqalao sarCelis wardgena e)
    samoqalaqo sarCelisagan Tavis dacva da v) saqmis gadawyveta (Ðàõóíîâ Ð.Ä.,
    Ó÷àñòíèêè óãîëîâíî-ïðîöåññóàëüíîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè ïî ñîâåòñêîìó ïðàâó, 1961, ñ.
    47-48.); analogiur mosazrebas iziarebda p.s. elkindi, im gansxvavebiT, rom
    samoqalaqo sarCelis wardgenas da misgan Tavis dacvas miiCnevda araZiriTad
    funqciebad (Ýëüêèíä Ï.Ñ., Ñóùíîñòü ñîâåòñêîãî óãîëîâíî-ïðîöåññóàëüíîãî ïðàâî,
    èçä-âî ËÃÓ, 1963, ñ. 59-66); `sisxlis samarTlis procesis~ qarTul saxelmZRva-
    neloSi, romelic gamocemulia 2002 wels, saproceso funqciis oTx saxezea
    saubari [a) gamoZiebis (braldebis) b) dacvis g) saqmis ganxilvisa da gadawyvetis
    d) zedamxedvelobis], gv.10.
2
    r. gogSeliZe, rogori unda iyos gamoZiebis xvalindeli dRe? saiubileo kre-
    buli, miZR., Tsu iur. fak. 80 wlis., `saxelmwifosa da samarTlis aqtualuri
    problemebi~, 2003 w., gv. 442-449; r. gogSeliZe, prokuraturis roli demokra-
    tiul sazogadoebaSi, Jurnali `samarTali~, 2002 w., #9-10, gv. 71_75.
3
    S. fafiaSvili, sisxlis samarTlis saqmisa da sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis aRZv-
    ris problema sisxlis samarTlis procesSi, Tb., 1999 w., gv. 24; Ñòðîãîâè÷ Ì.Ñ.
    Êóðñ ñîâåòñêîãî óãîëîâíîãî ïðîöåññà. Ò.1. Ì., 1968, ñ. 192-196.
4
    Ì. À. ×åëüöîâ, Ñîâåòñêèé óãîëîâíûé ïðîöåññ, Ãîñþðèçäàò, 1951, ñ.88-89; Óãîëîâíî-
    ïðîöåññóàëüíûé ïðàâî Ð.Ô../Ïîä ðåä. È.Ë.Ïåòðóõèíà Ì., 2006, ñ. 94.
5
    zogierT literaturaSi asaxeleben sajaro-kerZo sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis
    saxesac, romelic iwyeba, rogorc sajaro sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna, magram
    mTavrdeba mxareTa SerigebiT; ix.: Óãîëîâíî-ïðîöåññóàëüíîå ïðàâî Ð.Ô../Ïîä.
    ðåä. È.Ë.Ïåòðóõèíà Ì., 2006, ñ. 94-108.
6
    mas Semdeg, rac prokurori uars ityvis braldebaze an Secvlis braldebas,
    dazaralebuls, mis warmomadgenels ufleba mieces dauWiros mxari winandel
    braldebas _ hyavs mowinaaRmdegeebi. argumentad is mohyavT, rom ramdenadac
    dazaralebuls ara aqvs iuridiuli ganaTleba, mtkicebis tvirTi gansasjelis
    braleulobis Sesaxeb gadava sasamarTloze; rom sasamarTloSi sisxlis samar-
    Tlis saqmis ganxilvis gagrZelebis dros, dazaralebuli ixelmZRvanelebs ara
    iuridiuli normebiT, aramed SurisZiebis grZnobiT, ganawyenebis grZnobiT.
7
    z. meiSvili, o. jorbenaZe, saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis
    komentarebi, Tb., 2007 w., gv.90.
8
    kanonmdebels SeeZlo gaefarToebina adamianis konstituciuri uflebebisa da
    Tavisuflebebis winaaRmdeg mimarTul danaSaulT wre, romlebzedac gavrcel-
    deboda kerZo sajaro sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna (magaliTad, iseTi danaSa-
    ulebiT, rogoricaa: adgilsamyofelis Tavisuflad arcevis uflebis xelyofa
    (ssk-is 152-e muxli); piradi mimoweris, telefoniT saubris an sxvagvari xerxiT
    Setyobinebis saidumloebis darRveva (ssk-is 159-e muxli); binis an sxva mflobe-
    lobis xelSeuxeblobis darRveva (ssk-is 160-e muxli) da a.S.
9
    saqarTvelos sssk-is 81-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebulia dacvis erT-erT saxed
    `iZulebiTi dacva~, ufro swori da Sinaarsobrivad gamarTuli iqneba mas ewodos
    `savaldebulo dacva~.




                                                            #2, 2008                   71
     For the understanding
     of the procedural function
     in a criminal proceeding
     REVAZ GOGSHELIDZE
     Ph.D. Full Professor of the Law Faculty
     of the Akhaltsikhe Institute P.L.E.




     This scientific thesis describes four types of the procedural functions emerging from the
     existing criminal procedure legislation. The author characterizes each type of the function,
     and at the same time develops his own opinion. He separates the functions of the
     investigation and the prosecution from each other, and believes that the function of the
     investigation must be limited to investigative actions with regard to the facts. The
     investigation must respond to the question whether the established legal fact is the
     result of an illegal action prohibited under the law. And, if so, a specific person must be
     identified who will be charged.

     The author believes that for the legal fact to be fully, entirely and objectively investigated,
     and for the investigator to maintain objectiveness, and impartiality and therefore to
     establish both incriminating and exculpatory circumstances, as well as facts aggravating
     and relieving a person’s responsibility, the prosecutor must not be overseeing the
     investigation with the purpose of ensuring a criminal prosecution. Such an approach by
     the prosecutor towards the investigation may make the investigator biased and partial.
     Overseeing actions of the investigator must be carried out by the supervisor of the relevant
     investigation unit. The agency implementing investigative functions must create equal
     conditions for the prosecution and defense in obtaining evidence and establishing factual
     circumstances.

     After the investigative agency has fulfilled its function, the prosecutor as the body bringing
     the charges, will engage in the criminal trial based on the obtained evidence. Based on
     that evidence, the prosecutor will issue a decree holding a specific person responsible
     as a defendant, will bring the charges, will question the defendant, and finally will draft
     the indictment on the criminal case.

     As the defense is concerned, the investigation will highlight evidence that is exculpatory
     for the defendant or relieves his/her liability, and use all legal means or remedies for the
     improvement of the legal condition of the defendant.

72   profesia advokati
Finally, the author believes that it is inappropriate to entitle the investigator to issue a
decree on holding a specific person responsible as a defendant with the prosecutor’s
consent and to bring the charges, because this approach causes fusion of the investigation’s
and prosecution’s functions. As a result, the body implementing investigative functions is
weakened, loses impartiality and objectiveness, fails to develop as a professional and
becomes dependent on the prosecutor. The prosecutor as a professional entity gets lost
as well because he/she shares the prosecution’s function with the investigator.

For the implementation of an adversarial criminal trial in a classical sense, the author
believes that functions of the investigation must be clearly separated from the prosecution,
trial and resolution of the case in the court.

In addition, this thesis talks about the types of criminal prosecution. The author deems it
proper for the criminal procedural legislation to establish two types of criminal prosecution:
public and private.




                                                                         #2, 2008                73
     sisxlis samarTlis procesis
     monawileTa usafrTxoebis
     uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb
     irina aqubardia
     samarTlis doqtori




        Tanamedrove pirobebSi SeuZlebelia damnaSaveobis winaaRmdeg brZola,
     danaSaulis swrafi da sruli gaxsna, braleul pirTa mxileba da sisxlis
     samarTlis pasuxisgebaSi micema, Tu procesis mwarmoebeli organo ar da-
     amyarebs mWidro kontaqts farTo sazogadoebasTan, moqalaqeebTan. gamo-
     Ziebis efeqtianoba bevrad aris damokidebuli sazogadoebis mxardaWe-
     raze, moqalaqeTa realuri daxmarebis uzrunvelyofaze. amave dros, `yo-
     veli moqalaqe, romelic monawileobs da daxmarebas uwevs operatiul-
     samZebro samsaxuris TanamSromels an gamomZiebels damnaSaveobis wina-
     aRmdeg brZolaSi, darwmunebuli unda iyos, rom mis usafrTxoebas daicavs
     procesis mwarmoebeli piri~.1
        sisxlis samarTlis procesis monawileTa usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa
     warmoadgens samarTlebrivi, organizaciul-teqnikuri da sxva RonisZi-
     ebebis erTobliobas, romlebic mimarTulia aRniSnul pirTa sicocxlis,
     janmrTelobis, sacxovrebeli binis, qonebis, pativisa da Rirsebis dasa-
     cavad marTlsawinaaRmdego xelyofisagan im mizniT, raTa Seiqmnas auci-
     lebeli pirobebi marTlmsajulebis saTanadod ganxorcielebisaTvis.
        aRsaniSnavia, rom procesis monawileTa dacva danaSaulebrivi xelyo-
     fisagan regulirebuli iyo sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 109-e
     muxliT. am muxlis Tanaxmad, mosamarTles, prokurors, gamomZiebels,
     mowmes, dazaralebuls, eqsperts, braldebuls da procesis sxva monawi-
     les ufleba hqondaT moeTxovaT saxelmwifos mier saqmis warmoebasTan
     dakavSirebiT maTi, maTi ojaxis wevrebisa da axlo naTesavebis sicocxlis,
     janmrTelobis, pativis, Rirsebis da qonebis marTlsawinaaRmdego xel-
     yofisagan dacvis uzrunvelyofa. 2005 wlis 16 dekembers, saproceso ko-
     deqsSi Sesuli cvlilebebiT 109-e muxli amoRebul iqna. amave dros ko-
     deqss daemata XIV I Tavi _ sisxlis samarTlis procesis monawileTa dacvis
     specialuri RonisZiebebi, riTac faqtobrivad SemoRebul iqna procesis
     monawileTa usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis instituti.


74   profesia advokati
   sisxlis samarTlis procesis monawileTa usafrTxoebis uzrunvel-
yofis specialuri RonisZiebebis gamoyenebis safuZvels warmoadgens in-
formacia, cnobebi, faqtobrivi monacemebi, romlebic adastureben maTi
sicocxlis, janmrTelobis an qonebis mimarT realuri muqaris arsebobas.
   gadawyvetilebas procesis monawilis mimarT dacvis specialuri Ro-
nisZiebebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb Rebulobs sasamarTlo da prokurori.
   kanonSi or jgufad aris CamoTvlili dacvis specialuri RonisZiebebis
saxeebi imisda mixedviT, Tu vin Rebulobs gadawyvetilebas misi gamoye-
nebis Sesaxeb. kerZod, saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeq-
sis 1091-e, muxlis Tanaxmad, mosamarTle uflebamosilia gamoiyenos pro-
cesis monawileTa dacvis specialuri RonisZiebebis Semdegi saxeebi:
   a) sajaro reestridan an sxva sajaro xasiaTis Canaweridan dazarale-
bulis an mowmis amocnobis da identifikaciis SesaZleblobis Semcveli
monacemebis, kerZod, saxelis, gvaris, misamarTis, samuSao adgilis, pro-
fesiis an sxva Sesabamisi informaciis Secvla an amoReba.
   aRniSnuli dacvis RonisZieba gulisxmobs dasaxelebul dokumentebSi
ara namdvili saxelis, gvaris, misamarTis, samuSao adgilis, profesiis,
an sxva informaciis Setanas, aramed maT Secvlas. amasTan, SesaZlebelia,
aRniSnuli monacemebi saerTod ar iyos miTiTebuli, anu iyos amoRebuli.
   b) dazaralebulis an mowmis amocnobisa da identificirebis SesaZleb-
lobis Semcveli saproceso da agreTve, zemodasaxelebul `a~ qvepunqtSi
gaTvaliswinebuli dokumentis gasaidumloeba.
   dazaralebulis an mowmis amocnobisa da identificirebis SesaZleblobis
Semcvel saproceso dokumentad SeiZleba CaiTvalos yvela sagamoZiebo da
sxva saproceso moqmedebaTa oqmebi, sadac mowme da dazaralebuli monawi-
leobas Rebulobda, sadac aris miTiTebuli maTi anketuri monacemebi, maga-
liTad, amocnobis oqmi, Semowmebis oqmi, dakiTxvis oqmi da a.S. agreTve sa-
samarTlo sxdomis oqmi. gasaidumloeba gulisxmobs, rom aRniSnuli doku-
mentebi nebismieri pirisaTvis unda gaxdes xelmiuwvdomeli da ar unda
moxdes maTi gacnoba, maTi wardgena procesis monawileebisaTvis. magaliTad,
`dazaralebulis, mowmis an sxva pirTa usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad
SesaZlebelia braldebuls saqmis masalebis gacnobis dros ar waredginos
maTi anketuri monacemebi da cnobebi maTi sacxovrebeli adgilis Sesaxeb~.2
   dasacavi piris mimarT monacemebis konfidencialurobis uzrunvel-
yofis mizniT SeiZleba ganxorcieldes sxvadasxva RonisZiebebi. kerZod,
amocnoba SeiZleba Catardes amomcnobis mier amosacnobis vizualuri
dakvirvebis gareSe, sasamarTlo sxdomaze gamoZaxebul pirTa siaSi dasa-
cavi piris namdvili anketuri monacemebi ar iyos Setanili, dasacavi piris
gamoZaxeba procesis mwarmoebel organoSi ganxorcieldes gamonaklisis
saxiT im organos meSveobiT, romelic usafrTxoebis RonisZiebas ganaxor-
cielebs.


                                                         #2, 2008            75
        amasTan, konfidencialuria da gasaidumloebas eqvemdebareba dasacavi
     piris Sesaxeb cnobebi, romelic gaicema cnobaTa biuros mier, sapasporto
     samsaxuris, sapatrulo policiis mier, satelefono sadgurebis sacno-
     baro samsaxurebis mier da sxva saxelmwifo sainformacio sacnobaro sam-
     saxurebis mier. amitom, aRniSnul samsaxurebs droebiT unda aekrZalos
     dasacavi piris mimarT cnobebis gacema. aRsaniSnavia, rom kanonSi saubaria
     zemoaRniSnuli dokumentebis gasaidumloebaze vadis miuTiTeblad, rac
     arasworad migvaCnia, radgan aRniSnuli dokumentebis gasaidumloeba unda
     moxdes droebiT da ara samudamod.
        g) fsevdonimis miniWeba.
        imisaTvis, raTa procesis monawilis vinaoba ar gaxmaurdes SesaZlebe-
     lia, mas mieniWos fsevdonimi da yvela sagamoZiebo da sxva saproceso
     moqmedebebSi procesis monawilem monawileoba miiRos ara namdvili saxe-
     liTa da gvariT, aramed fsevdonimis miTiTebiT.
        dasacavi piris saqmeSi fsevdonomiT monawileobis Sesaxeb mosamarTles
     gamoaqvs motivirebuli dadgenileba. Semdgom saproceso dokumentebSi mi-
     eTiTeba mxolod fsevdonimi.
        rac Seexeba procesis monawilis namdvil saxels, gvars, mamis saxels, da-
     badebis wels, Tvesa da ricxvs, dabadebis adgils, ojaxur mdgomareobas,
     samuSao adgils, saqmianobis saxes an Tanamdebobas, sacxovrebel adgils
     da sxva anketur monacemebs, romlebic Seicaven piris Sesaxeb informacias,
     Tu sad unda moxdes maTi miTiTeba da Senaxva amis Sesaxeb kanonSi araferia
     naTqvami. aRniSnuli monacemebis Sesaxeb miTiTeba savaraudod, unda mox-
     des calke gamotanil dadgenilebaSi anketuri monacemebis Secvlis Sesa-
     xeb. es dadgenileba ar unda daerTos saqmis masalebs, aramed calke unda
     inaxebodes saqmis mwarmoebel organoSi.
        dasacavi piris saxelisa da gvaris fsevdonimiT Secvlisas saqmis masa-
     lebidan unda iyos amoRebuli sagamoZiebo moqmedebaTa oqmebi da sxva
     dokumentebi, sadac aRniSnulia monacemebi misi vinaobis Sesaxeb, saqmis
     masalebs ki, unda daerTos aRniSnuli dokumentebis aslebi, sadac dasa-
     cavi piris gvari da saxeli Secvlilia fsevdonimiT.
        dacvis specialuri RonisZiebis _ fsevdonimis miniWebis gamoyeneba
     gaTvaliswinebulia germaniis, ruseTis da sxva qveynebis kanonmdeblobi-
     Tac. magaliTad, ruseTSi mowmis an dazaralebulis usafrTxoebis uzrun-
     velyofis mizniT sagamoZiebo moqmedebaTa oqmebSi SeiZleba iyos Setanili
     ara maTi saidentifikacio monacemebi, aramed fsevdonimi. aseve, sasamar-
     TloSi mowme SeiZleba daikiTxos fsevdonimiT.3
        d) marTlsawinaaRmdego xelyofisagan fizikuri dacvis specialuri
     RonisZieba.
        es RonisZieba gulisxmobs, upirveles yovlisa, pirad dacvas, sacxov-
     rebeli binis da qonebis dacvis uzrunvelyofas. dasacavi piris sicocx-


76   profesia advokati
lisa da janmrTelobisaTvis safrTxis arsebobisas unda iyos gamoyenebu-
li individualuri dacvis specialuri saSualebebi, maT Soris muqaris
xarisxisa da simZimis gaTvaliswinebiT SeiZleba gamoyofili iyos iaraRi.
amasTan, dasacavi piris sacxovrebel binaSi SesaZlebelia ganTavsebuli
iyos xanZarsawinaaRmdego da dacvis signalizacia. aseve, SesaZlebelia
Seicvalos misi binis telefonis nomeri da mis kuTvnil satransporto
saSualebaze arsebuli saxelmwifo sanomre niSnebi.
   dasacavi piris mimarT Tavdasxmis an sxva marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebis
Cadenis Sesaxeb muqaris arsebobisas misi gancxadebis safuZvelze an misi
werilobiTi TanxmobiT SeiZleba ganxorcieldes satelefono da sxva saub-
rebis mosmena da xmis Cawera. cxadia, mosmena unda ganxorcieldes moqmedi
kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesis dacviT sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT.
   aRsaniSnavia, rom saqmis arsebiTi ganxilvis dros, kanonis Tanaxmad,
dauSvebelia sasamarTloSi procesis monawilis dakiTxva misi vinaobis ga-
saidumloebiT an identificirebis SecvliT. sasamarTlo sxdomaze pro-
cesis monawile ikiTxeba uSualod da zepirad.
   zemoaRniSnuli dacvis specialuri RonisZiebebi sasamarTlom SeiZleba
gamoiyenos dacvis mxaris SuamdgomlobiT da procesis monawilis Tanx-
mobiT.
   rogorc ukve aRiniSna, sasamarTlos garda, prokuroric aris ufleba-
mosili gamoiyenos dacvis specialuri RonisZiebebi. kanonSi calkea CamoT-
vlili prokuroris mier gamoyenebuli dacvis specialuri RonisZiebebi.
kerZod, sssk 1091 muxlis me-4 nawilis Tanaxmad, prokurori uflebamosilia
gamoitanos dadgenileba procesis monawileTa dacvis Semdegi saxis speci-
aluri RonisZiebis gamoyenebaze:
   a) marTlsawinaaRmdego xelyofisagan fizikuri dacvis specialuri
RonisZieba;
   b) sacxovrebeli adgilis droebiTi an mudmivi Secvla;
    am SemTxvevaSi igulisxmeba dasacavi piris sxva sacxovrebel adgilas
gadayvana, anu sxva sacxovrebeli sadgomis micema, agreTve axal sacxov-
rebel adgilas SromiTi mowyobis uzrunvelyofa, rac unda ganxorciel-
des usafrTxoebis zomebis gamomyenebeli organos mier.
   sxva sacxovrebel adgilas droebiT gadayvanis SemTxvevaSi mudmivi
sacxovrebeli adgili eqvemdebareba bronirebas. arasrulwlovanTa usaf-
rTxoebis uzrunvelyofisaTvis maTi mSoblebisa da sxva kanonieri war-
momadgenlebis werilobiTi TanxmobiT isini SeiZleba droebiT iyvnen mo-
Tavsebulni skolamdel aRmzrdelobiT dawesebulebaSi, xolo srulwlo-
vani qmeduunaro pirebi _ socialuri dacvis organoTa dawesebulebaSi.
   sacxovrebeli adgilis Secvla unda iyos gamoyenebuli gamonaklis Sem-
TxvevaSi, roca dacvis sxva RonisZiebis gamoyeneba araefeqturia. amasTan,


                                                       #2, 2008            77
     unda iyos uzrunvelyofili dasacavi piris yvela kanonieri uflebebisa
     da Tavisuflebebis aRdgena da dacva.
        g) garegnobis Secvla.
        aseTi RonisZieba unda iyos gamoyenebuli dasacavis SuamdgomlobiT
     an misi TanxmobiT, an sasamarTlos ganCinebiT da SeiZleba adgili hqondes
     gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi, mxolod ukiduresi aucileblobis situaci-
     aSi, roca piris usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa sxva saSualebiT SeuZle-
     belia.
        garegnobis Secvla SeiZleba gamoixatos varcxnilobis SecvlaSi Tmis
     feris SecvlasTan erTad, Tvalis feris SecvlaSi, plastikuri operaciis
     Sedegad cxviris formis SecvlaSi, mTlianad saxisa da sxeulis plas-
     tikuri, kosmetikuri da qirurgiuli operaciis Sedegad arsebiTad gansx-
     vavebuli garegnobis SeqmnaSi.
        garegnobis SecvlasTan erTad aucilebelia gadawydes sakiTxi moqa-
     laqisaTvis misi uflebebis, Tavisuflebebisa da SeRavaTebis SenarCunebis
     Sesaxeb. unda iyos uzrunvelyofili misi yvela uflebebisa da Tavisuf-
     lebebis dacva da misi kanonieri interesebis dakmayofileba. sisxlis
     samarTlis procesis monawileTa dacvis specialuri RonisZiebis ganxor-
     cielebis xarjebs gaiRebs saxelmwifo.
        aRsaniSnavia, rom amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi dacvis specialuri Ro-
     nisZiebis gamoyenebis Taobaze mowmesTan ideba garigeba. `uflebamosili
     Tanamdebobis piri ugzavnis mas `memorandums urTierTgagebis Sesaxeb~,
     romelSic aRwerilia dacvis zomebis gamoyenebis pirobebi. kerZod, mi-
     TiTebulia, rom zomebi miiReba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu piri miscems Cvenebas
     an sxvagvar informacias, romelic xels Seuwyobs Sesabamisi danaSaulis
     gaxsnas da damnaSaveebis mxilebas. pirobebis Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi
     dacvis zomebi uqmdeba~.4
        dacvis specialuri RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebis movaleoba ekisre-
     baT ZiriTadad, Sinagan saqmeTa organoebs da saxelmwifo dacvis speci-
     alur samsaxurebs. Tanamedrove pirobebSi sagamoZiebo praqtikaSi gvxvde-
     ba muqaris mravalricxovani faqtebi, mowmeTa, dazaralebulTa da TviT
     gamomZiebelTa, prokurorTa da mosamarTleTa misamarTiT. Tumca, sa-
     xelmwifo biujetidan arasaTanado finansuri uzrunvelyofis gamo pro-
     cesis monawileTa dacvis specialuri RonisZiebebi jer kidev iSviaTad
     da arasakmarisad gamoiyeneba. amasTan, ufro farTod unda iyos gamoye-
     nebuli dacvis iseTi RonisZiebebi, romelTa gamoyeneba did materialur
     danaxarjebTan ar aris dakavSirebuli, magaliTad, moqalaqeTa binaSi dac-
     vis signalizaciis dayeneba, dasacavi piris telefonis nomris Secvla, mis
     satransporto saSualebaze saxelmwifo sanomre niSnebis Secvla.
        kanonis Tanaxmad, dacvis specialuri RonisZieba gamoiyeneba proku-
     roris dadgenilebiT ara mxolod procesis monawilis mimarT, aramed
     masTan dakavSirebuli piris usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofadac.


78   profesia advokati
   rac Seexeba braldebulsa da gansasjels, maT mimarT SeiZleba gamoye-
nebul iqnes mxolod marTlsawinaaRmdego xelyofisagan fizikuri dacvis
specialuri RonisZieba.
   rogorc vxedavT, sssk 109 1 muxlis me-3 nawilis `a~ da `b~ qvepunqtebSi
da me-7 nawilSi kanonmdebeli akonkretebs, Tu ra saxis dacvis specialuri
RonisZieba gamoiyeneba mowmis, dazaralebulis, braldebulisa da gansas-
jelis mimarT. sssk 1091 muxlis me-3 nawilis `g~ (fsevdonimis miniWeba) da
`d~ (marTlsawinaaRmdego xelyofisagan fizikuri dacva) qvepunqtebSi da
amave muxlis me-4 nawilSi CamoTvlili dacvis specialuri RonisZiebebi
(sacxovrebeli adgilis droebiTi an mudmivi Secvla, garegnobis Secvla)
ki, gamoiyeneba procesis yvela monawilis mimarT.
   aRsaniSnavia, rom kanonSi miTiTebuli procesis monawilis cneba bun-
dovania da igi dazustebas moiTxovs. umjobesi iyo kanonmdebels konkre-
tulad daesaxelebina procesis monawileni, radgan Zneli warmosadgenia
sssk 109 1 muxlis me-3 da me-4 nawilebiT gaTvaliswinebuli dacvis iseTi
RonisZiebebi, rogoricaa magliTad, fsevdonimis miniWeba an garegnobis
Secvla gamoyenebuli iyos gamomZieblis, prokuroris an mosamarTlis mi-
marT. aRniSnuli muxlis analizi cxadyofs, rom moqmedi kanonmdebloba
realurad ar awesrigebs procesis mwarmoebeli organos Tanamdebobis
pirTa dacvis specialuri RonisZiebis gamoyenebis sakiTxs. amitom mig-
vaCnia, rom kanonmdebelma unda moaxdinos aRniSnuli muxlis zusti for-
mulireba da konkretulad dasaxeldes pirebi, romelTa mimarTac gamo-
iyeneba esa Tu is dacvis specialuri RonisZieba, rogorc es aris miTiTe-
buli mowmis, dazaralebulis, braldebulis da gansasjelis mimarT.
   sasamarTloSi saqmis arsebiTi ganxilvisas, mowmisa da dazaralebulis
dakiTxvis Semdeg prokurori uflebamosilia gamoitanos dadgenileba
kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli nebismieri dacvis specialuri RonisZiebis ga-
moyenebis Taobaze. braldebulisa da gansasjelis mimarT dacvis speci-
aluri RonisZiebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb Suamdgomloba ki, waredgineba mo-
samarTles gamoZiebis adgilis mixedviT.
   aRsaniSnavia, rom procesis monawilis mimarT SeiZleba gamoyenebuli
iyos rogorc erTi, ise erTdroulad ramdenime dacvis specialuri Ro-
nisZieba.
   dacvis specialuri RonisZieba gamoiyeneba Semdegi safuZvlebis arse-
bobisas:
   a) saqme ganixileba iseTi qmedebis Cadenis faqtebze, romlis sajaro
ganxilva Tavisi bunebiT arsebiT zians miayenebs procesis monawilis pi-
rad cxovrebas;
   am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba vigulisxmoT iseTi saqmeebi, romelTa ganxilva
dakavSirebulia procesis monawileTa piradi intimuri cxovrebis deta-


                                                        #2, 2008            79
     lebis gaxmaurebasTan, magaliTad, ssk 137-141-e muxlebiT gaTvaliswine-
     buli danaSaulebi.
        b) procesis monawilis vinaobisa da saqmeSi monawileobis sajaroobiT
     mniSvnelovani safrTxe emuqreba mis an misi axlo naTesavis sicocxles,
     janmrTelobas an qonebas.
        aq igulisxmeba iseTi SemTxveva, roca procesis monawilis an misi axlo
     naTesavis mimarT braldebulis mxridan arsebobs muqara. muqaris realu-
     roba unda dadgindes konkretuli garemoebebidan gamomdinare. mxedve-
     lobaSi unda iyos miRebuli muqaris Sinaarsi; drois monakveTi, roca gac-
     xadda muqara; muqaris intensivoba, muqaris subieqtis pirovnuli Tavi-
     seburebebi _ misi socialuri, qonebrivi mdgomareoba, fsiqologia, misi
     kavSirebi, samarTaldamcav organoebTan damokidebuleba da a.S.
        aRniSnuli garemoebebis erTobliobis gaanalizebis safuZvelze unda
     iyos miRebuli gadawyvetileba procesis monawilis vinaobis gasaidum-
     loebis Sesaxeb, radgan realurad arsebobs safrTxe ziani miadges misi
     an misi axlo naTesavis sicocxles, janmrTelobas an qonebas.
        g) procesis monawile damokidebulia braldebulze.
        sagamoZiebo da sasamarTlo praqtikaSi xSiria SemTxvevebi, roca pro-
     cesis monawiles braldebulTan akavSirebs samsaxurebrivi, Tanamdebob-
     rivi, materialuri damokidebuleba. magaliTad, braldebuls ekava xel-
     mZRvaneli Tanamdeboba im organoSi, sadac procesis monawile muSaobda
     an procesis monawile aris braldebulis samsaxurebrivi zedamxedvelo-
     bis qveS myofi piri an piri, romelic braldebulisagan iRebda sarCos,
     materialur uzrunvelyofas da misi anketuri monacemebis gaxmaureba
     safrTxes Seuqmnis mis pirad cxovrebas (Seuwydeba sarCos miReba, dakar-
     gavs samsaxurs da a.S.).
        d) procesis monawilis sicocxlesa da janmrTelobas emuqreba realu-
     ri safrTxe.
        saqmeSi unda arsebobdes faqtobrivi monacemebi, informacia, masalebi,
     romlebic aSkarad miuTiTeben imaze, rom saqmeSi monawileobis sajaro-
     obiT procesis monawilis sicocxlesa da janmrTelobas SeiZleba ziani
     miadges. safrTxis realuroba ki, unda ganisazRvros saqmis konkretuli
     garemoebebis Sefasebis safuZvelze.
        garda kanonSi CamoTvlili dacvis specialuri RonisZiebebisa, proce-
     sis monawileTa usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis saproceso saSualebebs
     warmoadgens piris wardgena amosacnobad amosacnobis vizualuri dak-
     virvebis gareSe; saqmis ganxilva daxurul sasamarTlo sxdomaze; satele-
     fono saubrebis Cawera da kontroli muqaris arsebobisas da a. S.
        aRniSnuli safuZvlebis arsebobisas prokurori uflebamosilia winas-
     wari gamoZiebis dros dacvis specialuri RonisZiebis gamoyenebis Suamdgom-


80   profesia advokati
lobiT mimarTos mosamarTles gamoZiebis adgilis mixedviT. Tavis mxriv,
procesis monawilem SeiZleba mimarTos prokurors TxovniT, raTa mis mimarT
iyos gamotanili dacvis specialuri RonisZieba.
   Suamdgomloba sasamarTloSi ganixileba saerTo wesis mixedviT. sxdoma
ar aris sajaro. mas eswrebian mxolod prokurori, Suamdgomlobis avtori
da procesis monawile, vis mimarTac unda iyos gamoyenebuli dacvis spe-
cialuri RonisZieba. gamonakliss warmoadgens fsevdonomis miniWeba. Su-
amdgomloba ganixileba saproceso kodeqsis 140-e muxliT dadgenili we-
siT. Suamdgomlobis dakmayofilebis SemTxvevaSi mosamarTles (sasamar-
Tlos) gamoaqvs gadawyvetileba, sadac unda iyos aRniSnuli konkretulad
dacvis romeli specialuri RonisZieba unda iyos gatarebuli, vis mimarT
gamoiyeneba igi da ra vadiT, romel organos evaleba misi aRsruleba. amas-
Tan, dacvis specialuri RonisZieba SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iyos uvadod.
   rac Seexeba garkveuli vadiT dawesebul dacvis specialur RonisZiebas
Tu iqneba aRniSnuli RonisZiebis gamoyenebis saWiroeba, dadgenili vadis
gasvlis Semdeg SesaZlebelia misi moqmedebis vadis gagrZeleba. dacvis
specialuri RonisZiebis vadis gagrZelebis Suamdgomloba ganixileba sa-
erTo wesiT.
   aRsaniSnavia, rom gadawyvetileba dacvis specialuri RonisZiebis ga-
moyenebis Sesaxeb konfidencialuria da sajarod ar cxaddeba, Tumca ase-
Ti gadawyvetilebis miRebis Sesaxeb ecnobebaT mxareebs, Suamdgomlobis
Semtans da im pirs, visac Seexo es zoma. amasTan, SetyobinebaSi ar unda
iyos Setanili dasacavi piris amocnobisa da identificirebis Semcveli
monacemebi. Tavis mxriv, dacvis specialuri RonisZiebis gamoyenebis aRs-
rulebis Sesaxeb sami dRis vadaSi unda ecnobos am RonisZiebis gamoyenebis
iniciators da mosamarTles.
   kanoni iTvaliswinebs dacvis specialuri RonisZiebis gamoyenebis Sesa-
xeb Suamdgomlobis ganxilvis Sedegad miRebuli gadawyvetilebis gasa-
Civrebis wess. kerZod, sssk 109 3-e, muxlis me-6 nawilis Tanaxmad, aRniSnu-
li gadawyvetileba SeiZleba erTjeradad gasaCivrdes saqmeze Semajame-
bel gadawyvetilebasTan erTad.
   dacvis specialuri RonisZiebis gamoyenebis safuZvlis aRmofxvris
SemTxvevaSi misi damniSvneli mosamarTlis (sasamarTlos) an imave sasa-
marTlos sxva mosamarTlis dadgenilebiT (ganCinebiT) es RonisZieba unda
gauqmdes, rac dauyovnebliv ecnobeba dasacav pirs.
   aRsaniSnavia, rom sisxlis samarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobaa dawese-
buli sakonstitucio sasamarTlos wevris, mosamarTlis, samarTalwar-
moebis sxva monawilis, aRmasruleblis, dazaralebulis, mowmis an sisxlis
samarTlis procesis sxva monawilis anda misi axlo naTesavis usafrTxo-
ebis dacvis saidumloebis gaxmaurebisaTvis im piris mimarT, vinc aseTi


                                                          #2, 2008            81
     saidumloeba icoda Tavisi samsaxurebrivi mdgomareobis gamo an visac is
     gaandes (ssk 367-e muxli). pasuxismgebloba mZimdeba Tu gaxmaurebas mZime
     Sedegi mohyva.
        gaxmaureba gulisxmobs cnobebis Setyobinebas gareSe pirisaTvis. gaxma-
     ureba SeiZleba ganxorcieldes sxvadasxva formiT: presaSi gamoqveynebiT,
     mimoweriT, kerZo saubris dros zepirad, sajarod gamosvliT, saTanado
     dokumentebis gacnobiT da a.S. ris Sedegadac gaxdeba cnobili informacia
     usafrTxoebis zomebis Sesaxeb.
        kanoniT dadgenili dacvis specialuri RonosZiebebis gamoyeneba unda
     gaxdes garantia imisa,rom moqalaqe mowmis, eqspertis, specialistis, Tar-
     jimnis, damswris statusiT daubrkoleblad miiRebs monawileobas sisx-
     lis samarTlis saqmeSi da misi daxmareba procesis mwarmoebel organos
     xels Seuwyobs gamoZiebis swrafad da efeqturad CatarebaSi, danaSaulis
     droulad gaxsnaSi da saqmeze obieqturi gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi.amitom
     saWiroa dacvis specialuri RonisZiebebis gamoyenebis subieqtebis wris
     da maT mimarT gamosayenebeli RonisZiebebis diferencireba da Sesaba-
     misad saproceso kanonSi asaxva.
        sisxlis samarTlis procesis monawileTa dacvis specialuri RonisZi-
     ebebis gamoyenebis saproceso wesis gansazRvra, Tavis mxriv, warmoadgens
     sisxlis samarTalwarmoebaSi humanizmis, adamianis uflebebisa da Tavi-
     suflebebis dacvis, usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis zogadsamarTlebrivi
     principebis praqtikuli realizaciis winapirobas.




         SeniSvnebi:



     1
         kriminalistika, avtorTa redkolegia, ap. faliaSvili, Tb.,
         2000, gv.62.
     2
         sisxlis samarTlis procesi (kerZo nawili), avt. kol., red.
         r. gogSeliZe, Tb., 2008, gv. 24.
     3
         Ñìèðíîâ À.Â. , Êàëèíîâñêèé Ê. Á., Óãîëîâíûé ïðîöåññ,
         Ñàíêò-Ïåòåðáóðã, 2005, ñòð.98.
     4
         f. gucenko, l. v. golovko, b. a. filimonovi, dasavleTis
         saxelmwifoTa sisxlis samarTlis procesi, Tb., 2007, gv.
         298.



82   profesia advokati
                           On the provision of security
                                  for the participants
                               of criminal proceedings
                                                                        IRINA AKUBARDIA
                                                                                        Ph.D.




This thesis concerns a relatively new institute of criminal procedure – provision of security
for the participants of criminal proceedings. It describes the importance of support by
society and cooperation by citizens for the timely resolution of crimes and the fight
against the crime, and at the same time the necessity of security for the participants of
the trial. Types of special protection measures by the court and the prosecutor for the
participants of criminal proceedings are analyzed, and procedural rules for their application
are discussed;

It is mentioned that in accordance with the procedure law, special protection measures
shall be applied for the participants of a trial. In reality, however, protection measures
are solely applied for witnesses, victims and defendants as set forth in the article 1091 of
the Code of Criminal Procedure. Other participants of a trial are not specifically indicated,
so the said provision is vague and needs clarification by the legislature. Therefore,
suggestions are made regarding the group of subjects who should have special protection
measures, and the specific definition of the measures to be applied to them. In addition,
some suggestions are made on other issues for improvement of the legislation. It is
noted that establishing procedural rules for special protection measures represents a
prerequisite for the practical realization of general legal principles of humanism, protection
of human rights and freedoms and provision of security in criminal proceedings.




                                                                         #2, 2008                83
     damcvelis statusi
     axali sisxlis samarTlis saproceso
     kodeqsis proeqtis mixedviT
     iuri gabisonia
     saqarTvelos daviT aRmaSeneblis saxelobis universitetis
     profesori, iuridiuli fakultetis saprofesoros
     xelmZRvaneli, samarTlis doqtori, iusticiis ufrosi mrCeveli




       I. Sesavali

        axali sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis proeqtSi1 amerikuli mo-
     delis stereotipuli saproceso institutebis danergvis calsaxad Znelad
     Sesafasebel, masStabur gadawyvetebSi, erT-erTi yvelaze sayuradReboa
     damcvelis SemoTavazebuli modeli. cxadia, mas aqvs avtonomiuri konst-
     ruqcia da, Sesabamisad, sakuTari „mdgeneli elementebi~. magram, amasTan, am
     konstruqciis calkeuli mniSvnelovani elementebi organulad momdinare-
     obs proeqtSi danergili „generaluri konstruqciebis” mowyobis principe-
     bidan, anu (fardobiTad) mTelis nawils warmoadgenen. mTlianobaSi, dam-
     cvelis institutis mosalodneli reformireba, rogorc Cans, bolo aTwle-
     ulebis manZilze gatarebul cvlilebaTagan yvelaze radikaluri da masSta-
     buri iqneba. vfiqrobT, calkeul SemTxvevebSi, Cveni samarTlebrivi tradi-
     ciebisadmi erTob SeuTavsebeli Tvisebrivi siaxlidan gamomdinare, metismet
     radikalizmamdec ki masStaburi, risi Tavidan acilebac, samarTlebrivi re-
     formis xasiaTidan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT, faqtobrivad SeuZlebelicaa.
     mniSvnelovania (da amaSi bolo aTwleulebis praqtikam aTasgzis dagvarw-
     muna!..), rom reforma sazogadod da, maT Soris, Tundac yvelaze radikalu-
     ric ki, avtomaturad sulac ar niSnavs gaumjobesebas, miT umetes, radika-
     lur pozitiur gardaqmnas. xSirad, is rac efeqtiani da, amdenad, misaRebia
     erTi qveynis mcxovrebTaTvis, sruliad araefeqtiani da, Sesabamisad, miuRe-
     beli SeiZleba aRmoCndes sxva qveynis binadarTaTvis!..



       2. terminologiuri da konstruqciismieri naklis Sesaxeb
          /mokle mimoxilva/

       2.1. proeqtis2 mixedviT (mux. 4, naw. 7), dacvis mxares miekuTvnebian bral-
     debuli, msjavrdebuli, gamarTlebuli da maTi damcveli (damcvelis raode-


84   profesia advokati
noba proeqtSic, iseve, rogorc moqmed saproceso kodeqsSi, SeuzRudavia).
aqve (mux. 4, naw. 9), „damcveli~ ganmartebulia rogorc „piri, romelic saqar-
Tvelos kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, uflebamosilia awarmoos saadvokato
saqmianoba~. terminTa ganmartebis es formula garkveulwilad konkretdeba
proeqtis 47-e muxlis pirvel nawilSi: „damcveli aris piri, romelic kano-
niT dadgenili wesiT icavs braldebulis interesebs da uwevs iuridiul
daxmarebas~. erT kodeqsSi mocemuli am ori (!) ganmartebidan pirveli Zalze
zogadia, meore ki _ uzusto (Tundac, imitom, rom „piri~ aq raime „orienti-
ris~ gareSea damcvelis ampluaSi). amitom, am saproceso figuris „gasaSif-
rad~ unda mivmarToT saqarTvelos kanons „advokatTa Sesaxeb~2. am kanonis
me-2 muxlis Tanaxmad, saadvokato saqmianoba moicavs klientis warmomadgen-
lobas sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze „sasamarTloSi,... winasawari dakavebis,
mokvlevis da gamoZiebis organoebSi~. rogorc vxedavT, garkveuli pozitivi
zemoT citirebul normaTa Sesavsebad ki moipoveba, magram, samwuxarod,
uzustod. moqmedi sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi saubrobs piris
ara „winaswar dakavebaze~, aramed mxolod „dakavebaze~, xolo mokvlevis or-
ganoebs (da Tavad mokvlevas) aRniSnuli kodeqsi saerTod ar icnobs! amde-
nad, aRniSnuli muxlidan amosaRebia sityvebi „winaswari~ da „mokvlevisa
da~.
   2.2. proeqtSi 44-47-e muxlebis (da ara marto!) ganTavseba (Tanamimdev-
roba), vfiqrobT, erTob aralogikuri da gaugebaria. kerZod:
   a) proeqtis 44-e muxlis pirvel nawilSi saubaria damcvelis Secvlis mo-
tiviT sasamarTlo ganxilvis gadadebis dauSveblobis pirobaze („Tu igi miz-
nad isaxavs sasamarTlo ganxilvis gaWianurebasa da misTvis xelis SeSlas~).
amas mosdevs erTob sadavo me-2 nawili: „damcvelis mier dacvis movaleobis
ganxorcielebis xangrZlivi vadiT SeuZleblobis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo
ganxilvis gadadeba dauSvebelia, Tu es iwvevs sasamarTlo ganxilvis arago-
nivrul gaWianurebas da misTvis xelis SeSlas~. am normis bolos mocemuli
fragmentis calkeuli elementebis („aragonivruli~, „xelis SeSla~) „moqni-
lobis~ gamoc, xom ar gaxdeba es norma, mavanTaTvis saWiro SemTxvevebSi,
gansasjelTa dacvis gareSe xelovnurad datovebis „qmediTi~ instrumenti?
   b) proeqtis 45-e muxli aregulirebs braldebulisa da misi damcvelis
urTierTobas. igi konfidencialuri da Tavisufalia. maT Soris, piris bral-
debulad cnobamde misi urTierToba mis SesaZlo damcvelTan, amasTan, dapa-
timrebuli3 braldebulis urTierToba damcvelTan SesaZlebelia SeizRu-
dos mxolod vizualuri kontroliT. amgvari kontroli ki, cxadia, ar mo-
icavs maTi saubris mosmena-Caweras, ris Taobaze pretenziebic Cvens qve-
yanaSi lamis bunebriv movlenad iqca.
   g) 46-e muxli exeba braldebulis an, braldebulis nebis gaTvaliswinebiT
(Tu ra formiT unda moxdes amgvari nebis dafiqsireba, aq ar Cans, rac sasa-


                                                           #2, 2008            85
     marTlo-sagamoZiebo praqtikaSi SeiZleba friad mZafri debatebis sagani
     gaxdes!..) misi kanonieri warmomadgenlis mier da am saqmeSi gamomZieblis,
     prokuroris, mosamarTlis Carevis akrZalvas.
        yovelive amis Semdeg, momdevno 47-e muxli, rogorc aRiniSna, iZleva „dam-
     cvelis~ cnebis zemoxsenebul definicias, rac aSkarad alogikuri gadawyvetaa.



       3. damcvelis samarTlebrivi mdgomareoba
          (sqematuri modeli)

        proeqtis 47-e muxlis me-2 nawilis Tanaxmad, „im garemoebaTa gamosavle-
     nad, romlebic amarTleben braldebuls, an/da amsubuqeben mis pasuxismgeb-
     lobas, damcvelma unda gamoiyenos yvela kanonieri (sic!) saSualeba da xer-
     xi~. aqedan gamomdinare, aSkaraa, rom damcvelic, iseve, rogorc procesis
     yvela sxva monawile moqmedebs mxolod `samarTlebrivi mindvris~ fargleb-
     Si, magram amasTan, es exeba „dacvis saSualebebis~ gamoyenebas mxolod mis
     sasargeblod. rac Seexeba danarCens, „damcvels ufleba ara aqvs imoqmedos
     braldebulis miTiTebisa da interesebis sawinaaRmdegod~. es Tema erTob
     rTuli da mravalprofiliania, amitom aq mxolod im umTavres aspeqts Seve-
     xebiT, sadac saubaria or, „erTian~ kriteriumze _ „braldebulis miTiTeba~
     da „braldebulis interesi~. amaTgan, „srulfasovani~ braldebulis SemTx-
     vevaSi, damcvelisTvis pirveladi da gadamwyvetia braldebulis miTiTeba,
     sadac igulisxmeba, rom Cveulebriv, braldebulis interesebis Sesabamisi
     iqneba. aq dilemuria SemTxveva, roca damcvelis mimarT braldebulis amgv-
     ari miTiTeba, damcvelis azriT, braldebulis interesebis sawinaRmdegoa.
     damcvelma, Tu ver SesZlo amaSi braldebulis darwmuneba, igulisxmeba, rom
     amgvari, miTiTeba an unda Seasrulos, an uari Tqvas dacvis gagrZelebaze
     („gaeridos~ mas). rac, aramarto savaldebulo dacvis SemTxvevaSi (mux. 48),
     logikurad erTob rTul, dilemur problemas warmoSobs dacvis umniSvne-
     lovanesi uflebis saTanadod (realurad) garantirebis mimarTulebiT. es
     aspeqti, calkeul SemTxvevebSi, SeiZleba gacilebiT ufro mZafri da Znelad
     gadasawyveti iyos, vidre es gamomdinareobs zemoT citirebuli novelis
     gagrZelebidan: „damcvels ufleba ara aqvs braldebulis nebis sawinaaR-
     mdegod (!) waradginos saCivari an uari Tqvas masze braldebis da sasjelis
     nawilSi (!), garda im SemTxvevisa, roca braldebuli arasrulwlovania, an
     aqvs fizikuri Tu fsiqikuri nakli~. aq bunebrivia kiTxva: ratom SemosazRvra
     proeqtma srulwlovani da normaluri braldebulis es uflebamosileba Ta-
     visi damcvelisaTvis mxolod braldebisa da sasjelis nawilebSi gasaCivre-
     baze uaris Tqmis daSvebiT, sxva (maT Soris dacvis taqtikis calkeul, „uni-
     versalur~ Tu „mimdebare~) sakiTxebze ki, damcvels ufleba misca imoqmedos


86   profesia advokati
Tavisi Sexedulebisamebr, Tundac braldebuli amis kategoriuli
winaaRmdegi iyos (vTqvaT, eTikuri mosazrebiT)?! vfiqrobT, advokatebma es
sakiTxi aqtualuri gansjis saganTa rigs unda miakuTvnon.
   4. dacva saxelmwifos xarjze („daniSvniT”)
   proeqti am mimarTulebiT saxelmwifos rolisa da pasuxismgeblobis
(uwinaresad, finansirebis sferoSi) gazrdas iTvaliswinebs, rac savsebiT
logikuria iseT saxelmwifoSi, sadac, gansakuTrebiT bolo periodis cno-
bili kataklizmuri movlenebis gamo, mosaxleobis cxovrebis realuri done
katastrofulad dabalia. kerZod, proeqtis 49-e muxlis Tanaxmad, bralde-
bulis dacvis uflebis srulad ganxorcielebisa da marTlmsajulebis
interesebidan gamomdinare, saxelmwifo, dadgenili wesisamebr, gaiRebs dac-
vis xarjebs, Tu: a) braldebuli gadaxdisuunarobis motiviT4 moiTxovs dam-
cvelis daniSvnas, an b) arsebobs savaldebulo dacvis SemTxveva da damcveli
SeTanxmebiT ar monawileobs. aseT SemTxvevaSi, prokurori Tu mosamarTle
valdebulia dauyovnebliv mimarTos iuridiuli daxmarebis Sesabamis samsa-
xurs saxelmwifos xarjze damcvelis daniSvnis moTxovniT (naw. 2). amasTan,
analogiuri moTxovniT amave samsaxurs SeuZlia mimarTos TviTon bralde-
bulmac (naw. 3). aqve miTiTebulia, rom saxelmwifo gaiRebs dacvisTvis sa-
Wiro sxva xarjebsac, romlebic „pirdapir kavSirSia braldebulis mier
sakuTari dacvis ganxorcielebasTan” (naw. 4). es procedurebi ki, unda
mowesrigdes kanoniT „iuridiuli daxmarebis Sesaxeb~. rogorc ityvian, gan-
zraxuloba urigo ar aris, xolo ra iqneba realoba, amas momavali gviCvenebs.
   5. savaldebulo dacvis saWiro da sadavo siaxleni
   moqmedi kodeqsis 81-e muxlSi „iZulebiT dacvad~ saxeldebul am ins-
tituts proeqti „savaldebulo dacvas~ uwodebs, rac misaRebia. amasTan,
yuradRebas iqcevs Semdegi gansxvavebani:
   a) proeqtSi daemata SemTxvevebi, roca: 1) gansasjels brali edeba im dana-
Saulis CadenaSi, romelzec kanoniT gaTvaliswinebulia (da ararealurad
gadawyvetilia) „nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo ganxilva~ (unda iyos: „nafic
msajulTa sasamarTlos mier ganxilva~, an misi sxva raime variacia 2) gansas-
jeli gaZevebul iqna sasamarTlo darbazidan 3) braldebuli araidentifi-
cirebuli piria 4) kanoniT pirdapir gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevaSi;
   b) proeqti ar iTvaliswinebs moqmedi kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebul Semdeg
SemTxvevebs: 1) braldebulTa an gansasjelTa interesebs Soris aris winaaRm-
degoba da Tundac erT maTgans hyavs damcveli 2) dazaralebulis an samoqa-
laqo mosarCelis interesebs icavs misi warmomadgeneli (igulisxmeba advo-
kat-warmomadgeneli. mux. 87, naw. 1). vfiqrobT, es gadawyvetebi arasworia,
radgan aSkaraa sakuTari interesebis mqone procesis monawile mxareTa
Soris samarTlebrivi (saproceso) balansis darRvevis safrTxe, ara-
sasurveli SedegebiT.


                                                           #2, 2008            87
       6. damcveli winasasamarTlo gamoZiebis procesSi
          (mokle eqskursi)

        proeqtis 128-e muxli („sagamoZiebo moqmedebis Catarebis zogadi wesebi”)
     adgens, rom dRes moqmedi kodeqsisagan gansxvavebiT, gaTvaliswinebuli iq-
     neba sagamoZiebo moqmedebebis Catareba dacvis mxaris mierac, oRond mxo-
     lod proeqtiTve dadgenil SemTxvevebSi(!). mas braldebis mxare ver
     daeswreba, Tu ar iqna dacvis mxaris Tanxmoba (naw. 2-3). amasTan, damcvels
     ufleba aqvs iSuamdgomlos sagamoZiebo moqmedebis Catarebis Taobaze,
     rasac axorcielebs gamomZiebeli, sasamarTlos ganCinebis5 safuZvelze.
     amasTan, gamomZiebeli ar SeiZleba iyos igive piri, vinc am gamoZiebas atarebs,
     garda im SemTxvevisa, roca damcveli amaze Tanaxmaa (naw. 4). aqve aRvniSnavT,
     rom amgvar sagamoZiebo moqmedebasTan dakavSirebuli xarjebi ekisreba dac-
     vis mxares (iqve). amdenad, Cvens dRevandel duxWir pirobebSi, unda viva-
     raudoT, rom am uflebamosilebis (TavisTavad friad pozitiuris) gamoye-
     neba, samwuxarod, erTob didi iSviaToba, anu gamonaklisi iqneba da ara „wesi~
     da farTod gamoyenebadi samarTlebrivi instrumenti!..



       7. gamokiTxva da dakiTxva
          (siaxleni)

        aq ukve mivadeqiT erT friad mniSvnelovan, amasTan, iuridiulad CvenTvis
     sakmaod „bundovan~ Tu „uCveulo~ sakiTxs. kerZod:
        moqmedi kodeqsisagan gansxvavebiT, proeqti sasamarTlomdec sagamoZiebo
     moqmedebaTa erTobliobas uwodebs ara winaswar gamoZiebas, aramed wina-
     sasamarTlo gamoZiebas, xolo mis farvaterSi Catarebul moqmedebebs aqac
     sagamoZiebo moqmedebebi ewodeba (Tavi XVI I , mux. 128 da sxv.). magram, amasTan,
     dakiTxva (da, Sesabamisad, Cvenebis miReba) xdeba mxolod sasamarTloSi
     _ rogorc winaswari gamoZiebis dros, ise SemdgomSi, saqmis sasamarTlo
     ganxilvisas. winasasamarTlo gamoZiebisas nebismieri pirisagan informaciis
     miRebas proeqtiT gamokiTxva ewodeba (mux. 130 da sxv.). kerZod, miTiTebulia,
     rom „nebismieri piri, romelic SeiZleba flobdes saqmisaTvis mniSvnelovan
     informacias, nebayoflobiT (sic!) SeiZleba gamokiTxul iqnes gamomZi-
     eblis an mxareTa6 mier~, amasTan, gamokiTxvis oqmis SedgeniT (mux. 130,
     naw. 1-3). amgvarad, winaswari gamoZiebisagan gansxvavebiT, winasasamarTlo
     gamoZiebis proeqtiseul modelSi, piris gamokiTxva SeiZleba mxolod neba-
     yoflobiT, anu mas SeuZlia ar misces ganmarteba (informacia), ris Taobazec
     pirdapir Caiwera 128-e muxlis pirvel nawilSi: „dauSvebelia gamosakiTxi
     piris iZuleba mtkicebulebis warmodgenaze an informaciis gacemaze~. am


88   profesia advokati
nawvaleb, bundovan formulirebaSi isic ki ar aris gasagebad Cawerili, am
pirs aqvs Tu ara ufleba saerTod ar misces ganmarteba, Tu mxolod „mtki-
cebulebis warmodgenaze~ da raRac abstraqtuli „informaciis gacemaze~
(?!) aqvs uaris Tqmis ufleba? 130-e muxlis me-2 nawilSi ki, ganmartebis
micemaze uaris Tqmis Taobaze piris zemoxsenebuli ufleba ukve gaugebaria:
„gamosakiTx pirs ufleba aqvs... sakuTari Tavis winaaRmdeg ar misces Cveneba
da ufleba ganemartos aRniSnuli uflebebis Sesaxeb gamokiTxvis dawyebam-
de~. cxadia, es unda gaswordes da am erTob mniSvnelovan novelebs mieceT
calsaxad gasagebi formulirebani.
    rac Seexeba piris mowmis saxiT dakiTxvas (rac sruliad sxva reJimSi xdeba,
radgan aq ukve Cvenebis, Tanac _ sworis! _ micema savaldebulodaa gamocxa-
debuli sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis muqariT), igi, winasasamar-
Tlo etapzec mosamarTlis (kerZod, magistrati mosamarTlis) mier ikiTxeba,
mxareTa SuamdgomlobiTa da maTive monawileobiT, oRond mxolod proeqtis
131-e muxlis pirveli nawiliT gaTvaliswinebul sagamonakliso SemTxvevebSi
(mag., dasakiTxi piris ukurnebeli seniT avadmyofobis gamo procesamde
dauZlurebis an gardacvalebis safrTxisas). amasTan, proeqtSi Setanilia
dacvis mxarisaTvis „naRmis~ efeqtis SesaZleblobis mqone aseTi novela:
„mxaris dasabuTebuli SuamdgomlobiT da mosamarTlis gadawyvetilebiT,
SesaZloa dakiTxva nawarmoebi iqnas meore mxaris winaswari informirebisa
da daswrebis gareSe. aseT SemTxvevaSi mowmis mier micemuli Cveneba saqmis
arsebiTi ganxilvisas, dauSvebel mtkicebulebas warmoadgens, Tuki SesaZ-
lebelia misi xelaxali dakiTxva~. garda zemoaRniSnulisa, es norma bundova-
nia da daumTavrebel STabeWdilebasac tovebs!..



  8. dacvis mxarisaTvis micemuli gamoZiebis ufleba

   dacvis mxarisaTvis moqmedi kodeqsiT miniWebuli isedac minimaluri uf-
lebebi rom `mkvdradSobili~ aRmoCnda, dRes Znelad Tu vinme davobs. sam-
wuxarod, arc proeqtis mixedviT gvaqvs problemis calsaxad da srulad
gadawyvetis met-naklebad srulyofili gadawyvetis garantiebi. kerZod,
proeqtma erTob mokrZalebulad SemoiRo braldebulis ufleba _ damouki-
deblad an damcvelis meSveobiT (logikurad unda vigulisxmoT _ erTobli-
vadac) Caataros kerZo gamoZieba, kanonierad(!) moipovos da waradginos ne-
bismieri mtkicebuleba, moiTxovos sagamoZiebo qmedebis savaldebulo Cata-
reba da gamoiTxovos mtkicebuleba, romelic saWiroa braldebis uarsayo-
fad da pasuxismgeblobis Sesamsubuqeblad, monawileoba miiRos misi an misi
damcvelis SuamdgomlobiT Catarebul sagamoZiebo moqmedebaSi. aseve, aqvs
ufleba, damcvelis daswreba moiTxovos misi monawileobiT Catarebuli saga-


                                                           #2, 2008             89
     moZiebo moqmedebis dros (mux. 41, naw. 7). 42-e muxlSi saubaria braldebulis
     uflebaze _ sakuTari xarjebiT Tavad an/da damcvelis daxmarebiT moipovos
     mtkicebuleba. aqve sagangebodaa miTiTebuli (da es Zalze trivialuri
     debuleba CvenTvis erTob mniSvnelovania), rom `braldebulis mier mopo-
     vebul mtkicebulebas braldebis mxaris mier mopovebuli mtkicebulebis
     Zala aqvs~ (naw. 1).
        Cveni azriT, aq mocemul debulebebs Semdgomi daxvewa-dazusteba sWir-
     deba. ase, magaliTad, yvelgan garkveviT unda Candes, rom am qmedebebSi bral-
     debuli da misi damcveli qmnian `erT mTels~ _ orives SeuZlia rogorc cal-
     calke, ise erToblivadac moipovos saWiro mtkicebuleba. rac Seexeba bolos
     citirebul winandadebas, aq `braldebis mxaris~ paralelurad unda moixse-
     niebodes ara braldebuli (romelic CvenTan metwilad patimrobaSia da
     verafers moipovebs sapyrobiledan), aramed `dacvis mxare~ _ ara imitom,
     rom CvenSi braldebis mxare mxolod prokuroria (Tumca mtkicebulebas,
     prokuroris nacvlad, rogorc wesi, moipovebs TiTqosda `neitraluri~ subi-
     eqti _ gamomZiebeli, romelic samwuxarod, mxolod prokuroris danamatia.
     faqtobrivad, dacvis mxaris sasargeblod ki, kanoniT es `neitraluri~ piri,
     Zalze iSviaTad irjeba), aramed braldebulTan erTad dacvis mxares warmo-
     adgens misi damcveli (mux. 4, naw. 6-7).
        am mimarTulebiT damatebiT samarTlebriv instruments gvTavazobs pro-
     eqtis 42-e muxlis meore nawilic: `Tu mtkicebulebis mopovebisaTvis sa-
     Wiroa iseTi sagamoZiebo an sxva saproceso moqmedebis Catareba, romelsac
     braldebuli an misi damcveli damoukideblad ver axorcielebs, igi ufleba-
     mosilia Sesabamisi ganCinebis gacemis SuamdgomlobiT mimarTos mosamarT-
     les gamoZiebis adgilis mixedviT. mosamarTle valdebulia miiRos yvela
     zoma, raTa braldebis mxarisaTvis cnobili ar gaxdes dacvis mier mtkice-
     bulebaTa mopovebis Sesaxeb.~
        samomavlod Znelia ramis Tqma, sadReisod ki, rogorc cnobilia, amgvari
     saidumloebis gaumJRavneblobis albaToba praqtikulad, nulia.



       9. eqspertiza _ `sxva saproceso~
          (da ara `sagamoZiebo~) moqmedeba?!

        proeqtis mier eqspertizis `sxva saproceso moqmedebebisadmi~ mikuTvneba
     imdenadve moulodneli gadawyvetaa, ramdenadac sadavo. Tumca, es sakiTxi
     calke `Teoriuli~ gansjis Temaa. aq ki, statiis Temidan gamomdinare, aRvniS-
     navT, mxolod mniSvnelovani gadawyvetis Taobaze: dacvis mxares ufleba
     aqvs sakuTari iniciativiT da Tavis xarjze7 eqspertizis Casatareblad mo-
     iwvios damoukidebeli eqsperti. amasTan, gamonaklisis saxiT, savaldebulo
     dacvas daqvemdebarebul braldebuls (dacvis mxares) ufleba aqvs misi ini-


90   profesia advokati
ciativiT Catarebuli eqspertizis xarjebis anazRaureba moiTxovos saxel-
mwifos xarjze (mux. 163, naw. 6). CvenSi realurad erTob saTuod Sesasrule-
beli, Sinaarsobrivad ki, friad `keTilSobiluri~ normaa.



   10.braldebulis pirveli wardgena sasamarTloSi:
      damcvelis roli
   braldebulis dakavebidan araugvianes 48 saaTisa, prokurori Suamdgom-
lobas aRkveTis RonisZiebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb warudgens magistrat mosa-
marTles gamoZiebis adgilis mixedviT (mux. 193, naw. 1). Semdgom 24 saaTSi igi
`uwyvetad~ ganixilavs aramarto aRkveTis RonisZiebis gamoyenebis Suam-
dgomlobas, aramed uwinaresad, saproceso SeTanxmebis dadebis SesaZleblo-
bas da mxareTa Tanxmobis SemTxvevaSi aqve, operatiulad wyvets mas. rac Se-
exeba aRkveTis RonisZiebas, igi arsebiTad, ixileba da wydeba daaxloebiT imave
formatSi, rogorc dRes. rac Seexeba aRkveTis RonisZiebebs, maTi `kompleqti~
ramdenadme gansxvavebulia: girao, arasrulwlovani braldebulis meT-
valyureobaSi gadacema, piradi Tavdeboba, SeTanxmeba gausvlelobisa da sa-
Tanado qcevis Sesaxeb (nacvlad `xelwerilisa~), samxedro mosamsaxuris qce-
visadmi sardlobis meTvalyureoba da patimroba. giraos (igi, patimrobasTan
erTad, cxadia, `liderobs~) minimaluri Tanxa Semcirda 1000 laramde. aqve
SevniSnavT, rom zemoT mocemuli dalageba (Tanmimdevroba) aRkveTis Ro-
nisZiebebisa wminda meqanikuria _ raime kanonzomierebis moZebna erTob Znelia.
   damcveli aRkveTis RonisZiebaTa ganxilvaSi monawileobs daaxloebiT
dRes moqmedi sqemiT, maT Soris, saapelacio sasamarTloSi gasaCivrebis Sem-
TxvevaSic.
   amasTan, aq inergeba diaxac `SesamCnevi~ novacia: Tu mxareTa Soris sapro-
ceso SeTanxmeba (igi dRes moqmedi wesiT xdeba) ver iqna miRweuli, mxareTa
mosazrebebis mosmenis Semdeg, magistrati mosamarTle niSnavs winasasamar-
Tlo sxdomis TariRs (mux. 206, naw. 1). igi iniSneba piris dakavebidan an misi
braldebulad cnobidan (Tu dakavebuli ar aris) ara ugvianes 60 dRisa, risi
gagrZelebac SeiZleba mxolod erTjeradad, gonivrul(!) vadamde, sasamar-
Tlos mier (aqve naw. 2-3).


  11.winasasamarTlo sxdoma
     da saqmis arsebiTad ganxilva sasamarTloSi

   winasasamarTlo sxdoma tardeba `Cveulebrivi~ formatiT, oRond aqac,
uwinaresad, ixileba sakiTxi saproceso SeTanxmebis dadebis SesaZleblobis
Taobaze, xolo, Tu braldebuls brali edeba nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos
gansjad danaSaulSi _ amboben Tu ara uars mxareebi nafic msajulTa sasa-
marTloze. Tu uars ar amboben, mosamarTle niSnavs nafic msajulTa SerCe-
vis sxdomis TariRs (mux. 216, naw. 3). dacvis mxarisaTvis erTob mniSvnelo-


                                                           #2, 2008             91
     vania isic, rom, aqve, winasasamarTlo sxdomis Tavmjdomare ganixilavs mxa-
     reTa (cxadia, aq ZiriTadad, dacvis mxare iaqtiurebs) Suamdgomlobebs mtki-
     cebulebaTa dasaSvebobis Taobaze. sabolood, swored am sxdomaze wydeba
     mniSvnelovani sakiTxi _ gadaeces Tu ara saqme arsebiTi ganxilvisaTvis
     (iqve, naw. 4). es ki, damokidebulia imaze, miiCnevs Tu ara mosamarTle, rom
     braldebis mxaris mier wardgenili mtkicebulebebi albaTobis maRali
     xarisxiT iZleva safuZvels varaudisaTvis am piris mier, misTvis Seracxuli
     danaSaulis Cadenis Taobaze (Tu ara, maSin mosamarTle ganCinebiT wyvets
     saqmes, rac 5 dRis vadaSi saCivrdeba saapelacio sasamarTlos sagamoZiebo
     kolegiaSi).
        winasasamarTlo sxdomis dasrulebidan ara ugvianes 14 dRisa (Tu mxaris
     Suamdgomlobis safuZvelze sasamarTlo sxva vadas ar gansazRvravs), iwyeba
     saqmis arsebiTi ganxilva, romlis procedurebi reglamentebulia pro-
     eqtis XXIV TavSi. am proceduris ZiriTad aspeqtTa Soris, uwinaresad unda
     aRiniSnos Semdegi:
        a) mxareebs ufleba aqvT gonivrul vadaSi waradginon Sesavali sityva.
     kerZod, dacvis Sesaval sityvas waradgens damcveli, xolo, Tu igi sasa-
     marTlo ganxilvaSi ar monawileobs _ braldebuli (mux. 225, naw. 1);
        b) Semdeg iwyeba mtkicebulebaTa gamokvleva: jer braldebis mxarisa, Sem-
     deg _ dacvisa. amasTan, TiToeuli monawileobs meore mxaris mier wardgenil
     mtkicebulebaTa gamokvlevaSi (iqve, naw. 2);
        g) tardeba mowmis deponirebuli (gamoZiebis dros mosamarTlisaTvis
     micemuli) Cvenebis gamokvleva (Tu mowmis sasamarTloSi wardgena SeuZle-
     belia), agreTve mowmis distanciuri dakiTxva teqnikuri saSualebebis
     gamoyenebiT, imave an sxva sasamarTlodan (mux. 227);
        d) mowmis pirdapir dakiTxvas awarmoebs mxare, romelmac mowme gamoiZaxa,
     oRond pasuxis mimaniSnebeli SekiTxvebis dasma aq ar daiSveba (mux. 228);
        e) amis Semdeg, mxare, romelsac es mowme ar gamouZaxebia, awarmoebs jva-
     redin dakiTxvas, ra drosac daiSveba pasuxis mimaniSnebeli SekiTxvebis dasma
     (mux. 229);
        e) Tu dasmuli iqna sadavo kiTxva (anu kiTxva, romelic efuZneba dauSve-
     bel mtkicebulebas, mas ukve gaeca pasuxi an romelic ukve ganridebuli
     iqna), mxaris SuamdgomlobiT, mas ganaridebs sxdomis Tavmjdomare (mux. 230).
        mtkicebulebaTa gamokvlevis damTavrebis Semdeg, Tu braldebis mxare,
     zemdgomi prokurois TanxmobiT(?!), uars ar ityvis braldebaze an mis nawil-
     ze, mxareebi warmoTqvamen daskvniT sityvas _ jer braldebis, mere ki, dacvisa
     (cxadia, `gonivrul vadebSi~). Semdeg mxareebs aqvT replikis ufleba, xolo
     braldebuls saboloo sityvisa, ris Semdegac sasamarTlo gadis saTaTbiro
     oTaxSi _ Tu man ar gamoiyena proeqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebamosileba




92   profesia advokati
(rac CvenTvis siaxlea) gadawyvetileba miiRos adgilze TaTbiriT (mux.
236_239).
   proeqti iTvaliswinebs saapelacio da sakasacio gasaCivrebis procedu-
rebs, romelTa mTavari saTuo niSania saCivris dasaSvebobis `absoluti-
zacia~ _ misi gavrceleba ara marto sakasacio, aramed saapelacio ganxilvis
stadiazec.




                  SeniSvnebi:



              1
                  mxedvelobaSia sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis proeqti 2007 wlis 17 oq-
                  tombris mdgomareobiT (ar gamoqveynebula).
              2
                  ix.: `saqarTvelos kanoni advokatTa Sesaxeb~. Jurnali `profesia advokati~, 2007,
                  #1, gv. 3-19.
              3
                  proeqtebSi (mux. 45, naw. 3) weria `dakavebuli an dapatimrebuli~, rac arasworia,
                  radgan dakavebis instituti proeqtSi uaryofilia. amdenad aq sityvebi `dakave-
                  buli an~ amosaRebia.
              4
                  vfiqrobT, teqsti ufro zusti iqneboda, rom miTiTebuli iyos ara `motiviT~,
                  aramed `gamo~: `braldebuli gadaxdisuunarobis gamo moiTxovs damcvelis da-
                  niSvnas~. aSkaraa, rom aq gadamwyvetia ara warmodgenili motivi, romelic SeiZleba
                  arasworic iyos, aramed faqtobrivi mdgomareoba (`gamo~).
              5
                  moqmedi kodeqsisagan gansxvavebiT, proeqtSi ganCineba ewodeba sasamarTlos (mo-
                  samarTlis) gadawyvetilebas nebismier sakiTxze ganaCenisa da gankargulebis gar-
                  da (mux. 4, naw. 17). SevniSnavT, rom gankarguleba gamoiyeneba mxolod lokalur
                  SemTxvevebSi, sasamarTlo sxdomaze wesrigis darRvevisaTvis (mux. 89).
              6
                  kerZod, aq braldebis mxareSi igulisxmeba prokurori, dacvaSi ki, braldebuli
                  da misi damcveli (mux. 4, naw. 6-7). proeqtiT procesis sxva monawileni (garda
                  msjavrdebulisa da gamarTlebulisa) mxares ar warmoadgenen, rac erTob sadavo,
                  magram calke problemuri sakiTxia, amitom aq ar SevCerdebiT.
              7
                  aq kidev erTxel fiqsirdeba proeqtis is pozicia, rom dacvis mxarem Tavisi in-
                  teresebi xSirad `Tavisi xarjiT~ unda daicvas, rac ganviTarebuli qveynebisaTvis
                  misaRebia, magram gasaTvaliswinebelia Cveni mosaxleobis socialur-ekonomikuri
                  mdgomareoba.




                                                                          #2, 2008                   93
     The status of the defense under
     the new draft Code
     of Criminal Procedure
     IURI GABISONIA
     Professor of the Law Faculty of the David Agmashenebeli University of Georgia,
     Supervisor of the Law Faculty Professorate, Ph.D. Senior Legal Advisor




     1. The proposed defense model in the new draft Code of Criminal Procedure is notable
        for its significant innovations based on the Anglo-American model.
     2. In this view, the draft has a terminological and constructional deficiency – it contains
        two versions of definition of “defense”, while the current Law On Advocates contains
        more serious mistakes instead of correcting them. Specifically, it does not talk about
        the function of the advocate during “detention”, but it determines the functions during
        “preliminary detention”, which is not included in the legislation, as well as “inquiry”
        which is included in neither the current Code nor the draft Code.
     3. Articles 44-47 are placed randomly as well as some other elements.
     4. The rights of minor or mentally disabled defendants on refusal to appeal charges and
        sentence to the advocate are disputable – the autonomy must be maintained in other
        parts as well.
     5. Guarantees for enjoying the right to defense by the state for certain groups of citizens
        are qualitatively better represented in the draft (article 49). Unfortunately, the means
        for providing such legal aid are invisible both in the draft provisions and in reality in
        the country, including the Law On Legal Aid.
     6. It is a positive factor that the draft grants the right of private investigation to the
        defense; however analysis of other more “private” norms proves that additional positive
        efforts are needed in this respect. Otherwise, our population will not have an effective
        mechanism to carry out private investigation and enjoy the right to defense efficiently,
        and especially with proper guarantees.
     7. Elimination of the current “privileged institute” of preliminary investigation will have a
        positive impact on the strengthening the defense’s role including replacement of the
        interrogation with an interview at this stage (before trial). However, as a deficiency it
        should be noted that it is unclear in the draft whether a person has the right to refuse
        a pretrial interview.
     8. In criminal proceedings under the draft the role and place of the defense is well
        regulated, which would be acceptable for developed countries. In our reality, however,
        in case of adoption of the draft, its efficiency will have to be proven in practice.


94   profesia advokati
                                                                       oqmebi




               s.s.i.p saqarTvelos advokatTa asociaciis
                          aRmasrulebeli sabWos
                                 sxdoma

                                                                  06 agvisto 2008 weli




 2008 wlis 6 agvistos gaimarTa saqarTvelos advokatTa asociaciis aRmasrulebeli sab-
Wos sxdoma, romelzec ganixileboda:

`saqarTvelos advokatTa asociaciis~ Tavmjdomaris kaxaber aslaniSvilis mimarTva aRmas-
rulebeli sabWos mimarT.

aRmasrulebeli sabWos wevrebma imsjeles s.s.i.p `saqarTvelos advokatTa asociaciis~ Tavm-
jdomaris kaxaber aslaniSvilis mimarTvis Sesaxeb da daadgines:



s.s.i.p. `saqarTvelos advokatTa asociaciis~ Tavmjdomaris kaxaber aslaniSvilis 2008-2009
wlebSi saswavleblad wasvlis gamo, saqarTvelos advokatTa asociaciis wesdebis 19.8 muxlis
Tanaxmad, 2008 wlis 15 agvistodan asociaciis Tavmjdomaris, kaxaber aslaniSvilis mier uf-
lebamosilebis Sesrulebis SeuZleblobis gamo, Tavmjdomaris uflebamosilebas ganaxorci-
elebs aRmasrulebeli sabWos uxucesi wevri goCa svaniZe.

amasTan, batoni goCa svaniZe, araugvianes 2008 wlis 15 seqtembrisa, aRmasrulebel sabWos
warudgens winadadebebs im RonisZiebebis Sesaxeb, romlebic aucilebelia asociaciis nor-
maluri funqcionirebis, riggareSe saerTo krebis mowvevisa da CatarebisaTvis da sxva dagro-
vili problemebis mogvarebisaTvis.




                                                                     #2, 2008               95
                        ssi p saqarTvelos advokatTa asociaciis
                                  aRmasrulebeli sabWos
                                         sxdoma


                                                                      10 seqtemberi, 2008 weli



     s.s.i.p saqarTvelos advokatTa asociaciis misamarTi:
     q. Tbilisi, barnovis q. #75

     sxdomis dawyebis dro: 19:00sT.

     sxdomaze damswre aRmasrulebeli sabWos wevrebi: goCa svaniZe (Tavmjdomaris movaleobis
     Semsrulebeli), roin migriauli, daviT lanCava, zviad korZaZe, daviT asaTiani, zaza xatiaSvili.

     sxdomis Tavmjdomare: goCa svaniZe

     dRis wesrigi:

     1. saStato ganrigis damtkicebis Sesaxeb;
     2. aRmasrulebeli sabWos saqmianobis mimarTulebebis Sesaxeb;
     3. advokatTa testirebis Catarebis wesis Sesaxeb.

     sxdoma gaxsna Tavmjdomaris movaleobis Semsrulebelma goCa svaniZem dRis wesrigis pirveli
     sakTxis ganxilviT.



     aRmasrulebelma sabWom gadawyvita:

     damtkicdes asociaciis axali saStato ganrigi.

     gadawyvetileba miRebul iqna erTxmad



     dRis wesrigiT gaTvaliswinebul meore sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT



     sabWom moismina:

     aRmasrulebeli sabWos TiToeuli wevris mosazrebebi sabWos saqmianobis mimarTulebebis Se-
     saxeb. sxdomas dasamtkiceblad waredgina aRmasrulebeli sabWos saqmianobis mimarTule-
     bebi da ganisazRvra TiToeul sferoze pasuxismgebel pirTa vinaoba:

     1.   sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebisa da praqtikis ganzogadebis jgufi _ goCa svaniZe;
     2.   saxelmwifosTan urTierTobis jgufi _ zviad korZaZe;
     3.   asociaciis wevrebTan da regionebTan urTierTobis jgufi _ daviT lanCava;
     4.   saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi _ daviT asaTiani;



96   profesia advokati
5. advokatTa testireba da saswavlo centri _ roin migriauli;
6. presa, Jurnali, sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis jgufi _ goCa svaniZe;
7. advokatTa uflebebis dacvis jgufi _ zaza xatiaSvili.

aRmasrulebeli sabWos saqmianobis mimarTulebebTan dakavSirebiT sawinaaRmdego mosazreba
ar gamoTqmula.

aRmasrulebelma sabWom gadawyvita:

sxdomaze warmodgenili aRmasrulebeli sabWos saqmianobis mimarTulebaTa gegmis damtkiceba.

gadawyvetileba miRebul iqna erTxmad.

aseve, gakeTda gancxadebebi advokatTa asociaciaSi ganviTarebuli movlenebis Taobaze sazo-
gadoebis da zogadad, advokatTa korpusis informirebis aucileblobis Sesaxeb. daisaxa zoga-
di samoqmedo gegmac.

dRis wesrigiT gaTvaliswinebul mesame sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT aRmasrulebeli sabWos wevrs,
roin migriauls daevala advokatTa testirebis Catarebis wesSi cvlilebebis proeqtis sabWos
wevrebTan gagzavnis uzrunvelyofa.

gadawyvetilebis miRebisas aRmasrulebeli sabWos sxdomas eswrebodnen da xels aweren:

                                 goCa svaniZe
                                 Tavmjdomaris movaleobis Semsrulebeli

                                 roin migriauli

                                 daviT lanCava

                                 zviad korZaZe

                                 daviT asaTiani

                                 zaza xatiaSvili




                                                                    #2, 2008               97
     sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi




                                  saqarTvelos kanoni

                  saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsSi
                         cvlilebis Setanis Sesaxeb

     muxli 1. saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis (saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo macne,
     #41(48), 1999 weli, mux. 209) 3771 muxli Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:

        `muxli 3771 . aRmasruleblisaTvis qonebrivi nusxis warudgenloba movalis mier aRmasru-
        leblisaTvis kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli qonebrivi nusxis warudgenloba an arasworad
        anda arasrulyofilad wardgena, _
        isjeba jarimiT an sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo SromiT vadiT orasidan oTxas saaTamde
        anda Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT vadiT erT wlamde.~.

     muxli 2. es kanoni amoqmeddes 2008 wlis 1 oqtombridan.




     saqarTvelos prezidenti               mixeil saakaSvili

     Tbilisi,
     2008 wlis 15 ivlisi.
     # 223 _ rs




98   profesia advokati
                              saqarTvelos kanoni

     saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsSi
                cvlilebebis Setanis Sesaxeb

muxli 1. saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsSi (parlamentis uwyebani, #13-
14, 8.04.1998, gv. 31) Setanil iqnes Semdegi cvlilebebi:

    1. 196-e muxlis me-2 da me-3 nawilebi Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
    `2. sasamarTlo ganCinebis (dadgenilebis) Tanaxmad, qonebas yadaRas adebs aRmasrulebeli.
    3. aRmasrulebeli TviTon gansazRvravs, ra sagansa da faseulobas unda daedos yadaRa
sasamarTlo brZanebaSi an sasamarTlo ganCinebaSi (dadgenilebaSi) aRniSnuli Tanxis fargleb-
Si.~.
    2. 197-e muxlis pirveli nawili Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
    `1. qonebaze yadaRis dadebis Sesaxeb gamomZiebeli an prokurori adgens oqms am kodeqsis
287-e muxlis mixedviT, xolo aRmasrulebeli aRwers qonebas. oqmSi (aRweraSi) unda aRiniSnos
dasayadaRebeli qonebis zusti dasaxeleba, raodenoba, zoma, wona, cveTis xarisxi, sxva
individualuri niSnebi da Rirebuleba; mieTiTos, Tu ra qonebaa CamorTmeuli da ra darCa
Sesanaxad; ekuTvnis Tu ara es qoneba an misi nawili sxva pirebs; moyvanil iqnes gancxadebebi
im piris moqmedebis Sesaxeb, romelic qonebas ayadaRebs.~.
    3. 6061 muxlis pirveli nawili Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
    `1. `saaRsrulebo warmoebaTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis 30-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebul,
agreTve `arasapatimro sasjelTa aRsrulebis wesisa da probaciis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos
kanonis me-18 muxlis me-4 punqtiT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebSi, aRmasruleblis an arasa-
patimro sasjelTa aRsrulebisa da probaciis biuros ufrosis dasabuTebuli Suamdgomlobis
safuZvelze sasamarTlos gamoaqvs ganCineba policiis organoebis meSveobiT msjavrdebulis
Zebnis Sesaxeb.~.

muxli 2. es kanoni amoqmeddes 2008 wlis 1 oqtombridan.




saqarTvelos prezidenti                                 mixeil saakaSvili

Tbilisi,
2008 wlis 15 ivlisi.
# 211 _ rs




                                                                       #2, 2008                99
                                    saqarTvelos kanoni

                      saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsSi
                   cvlilebebisa da damatebis Setanis Sesaxeb

      muxli 1. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsSi (parlamentis uwyebani, #31, 24 ivlisi, 1997, gv.
      1) Setanil iqnes Semdegi cvlilebebi da damateba:

          1. 302-e muxlis:
          a) me-4 nawili Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
          `4. Tu kreditori da mesakuTre ver SeTanxmdebian auqcionis Catarebaze an uZravi nivTis
      realizaciis sxva formaze, sasamarTlo kreditoris gancxadebis safuZvelze wyvets uZravi
      nivTis auqcionze iZulebiT gayidvis sakiTxs. sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas uZravi nivTis
      auqcionze iZulebiT gayidvis Sesaxeb aRasrulebs aRmasrulebeli.~;
          b) me-6 nawili Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
          `6. specialisti (aRmasrulebeli) valdebulia, auqcionis Sesaxeb Seatyobinos sajaro
      reestrSi Seyvanil uflebamosil pirebs.~.
          2. 306-e muxli Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
          `muxli 306. gancxadeba iZulebiTi auqcionis Catarebis Sesaxeb
          saaRsrulebo furclis an xelSekrulebis safuZvelze iZulebiTi auqcionis Catarebis
      Sesaxeb gancxadeba specialistTan (aRmasrulebelTan) SeiZleba Seitanos rogorc erTma, ise
      ramdenime kreditorma. gancxadebaSi aRniSnuli unda iyos ipoTekiT datvirTuli uZravi nivTi,
      mesakuTre, movale, moTxovna da saaRsrulebo furceli an xelSekruleba.~.
          3. 3062 da 3063 muxlebi Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
          `muxli 3062. auqcionis Catarebis droisa da adgilis dadgena
          1. auqcionis Catarebis drosa da adgils adgens specialisti (aRmasrulebeli), ris Sesa-
      xebac igi auqcionis Catarebamde aranakleb 7 dRiT adre aqveynebs gancxadebas, romelSic
      aRniSnuli unda iyos:
          a) uZravi nivTis mesakuTris saxeli da misamarTi;
          b) specialistis (aRmasruleblis) saxeli da misamarTi;
          g) auqcionis Catarebis dro da adgili;
          d) uZravi nivTis sawyisi fasi;
          e) uZravi nivTis adgilmdebareoba da mokle aRwera;
          v) gancxadeba imis Sesaxeb, rom yvela sxva piri, romelsac uflebebi aqvs uZrav nivTze,
      valdebulia, am uflebaTa damadasturebeli mtkicebulebani waradginos auqcionis dawyebam-
      de;
          z) auqcionis pirobebi.
          2. auqcionis Catarebis droisa da adgilis Sesaxeb gancxadeba qveyndeba sajarod, masobrivi
      informaciis saSualebebiT. Tu auqcions atarebs aRmasrulebeli, gancxadeba aseve ganTavsdeba
      sasamarTlos dafaze.
          3. specialisti (aRmasrulebeli) auqcionis Catarebis droisa da adgilis Sesaxeb mxareebs
      acnobebs saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsiT dadgenili wesiT.



100   profesia advokati
    muxli 3063. auqcionis Catarebis wesebi
    1. auqcions atarebs specialisti (aRmasrulebeli). igi auqcions gaxsnilad acxadebs da
sTavazobs sawyis fass.
    2. specialisti (aRmasrulebeli) auqcionis Catarebamde adgens, sajaro reestrSi
registrirebuli uflebebidan romeli sargeblobs upiratesi uflebiT im kreditoris pre-
tenziasTan SedarebiT, romlisTvisac xorcieldeba aRsruleba.
    3. auqcionze specialisti (aRmasrulebeli) acxadebs:
    a) rom sajaro reestrSi registrirebuli upiratesi uflebebi im kreditoris moTxovnas-
Tan SedarebiT, romlisTvisac xorcieldeba aRsruleba, ZalaSi rCeba da gadaxdiT ar dakma-
yofildeba;
    b) Tu ra Rirebuleba aqvs gardamaval uflebebs (kreditoris moTxovnasTan SedarebiT
upirates uflebebs an uflebebs, romlebic gadahyveba uZrav nivTs auqcionis wesiT misi re-
alizaciis Semdeg);
    g) rom auqcionze SemoTavazebul fasebs unda gamoakldes gardamaval uflebaTa fasi,
xolo danarCeni gadaxdili unda iqnes naRdi fuliT.
    4. specialisti (aRmasrulebeli) monawile mxareebs auqcionis procesis dawyebamde ga-
numartavs auqcionis pirobebs.~.
    4. 3064 muxlis pirveli da me-2 nawilebi Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
    `1. auqcioni tardeba kreditoris mier specialistTan (aRmasrulebelTan) gancxadebis
Setanidan erTi Tvis vadaSi.
    2. uZravi nivTis sawyisi fasi ganisazRvreba procesis xarjebis, aRsrulebis xarjebisa
(aRsrulebis safasuri) da kreditoris moTxovnis jamuri odenobiT. auqcioni grZeldeba manam,
sanam sxva SemoTavazeba ar moxdeba. specialistma (aRmasrulebelma) unda gamoacxados fasis
bolo SemoTavazeba da auqcionis dasasruli.~.
    5. 3065 muxlis pirveli nawili Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
    `1. auqcionze qonebis SemZens gadaecema specialistis (aRmasruleblis) Sesabamisi gankar-
guleba, romelSic aRniSnuli unda iyos SeZenili qoneba, auqcionze qonebis SemZeni, fasi da
auqcionis pirobebi. auqcionTan dakavSirebul gankargulebebze specialistis xelmoweris
sanotaro wesiT damowmeba savaldebuloa.~.
    6. 3066 muxli Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
    `muxli 3066. auqcionze SeZenil qonebaze uflebis gadacemis gauqmeba
    Tu specialisti (aRmasrulebeli) auqcionis pirobebiT gansazRvrul vadaSi mis mier mi-
TiTebul sadepozito angariSze ar miiRebs auqcionze qonebis SemZenis mier gadasaxdel Tan-
xas, specialisti (aRmasrulebeli) auqmebs gankargulebas auqcionze SeZenil qonebaze uflebis
gadacemis Sesaxeb da atarebs xelaxal auqcions, rac ar CaiTvleba ganmeorebiT auqcionad~.
    7. 307-e muxlis:
    a) pirveli nawili Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
    `1. Tu pirveli auqcionis dros ar moxdeba Sesabamisi SemoTavazeba, specialisti (aRmas-
rulebeli) 10 dRis vadaSi niSnavs meore auqcions.~;
    b) me-4 da me-5 nawilebi Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
    `4. Tu aRmasruleblis mier Catarebul meore auqcionze ar moxda ipoTekis sagnis reali-
zacia, kreditors nivTi sakuTrebaSi gadaecema ‘saaRsrulebo warmoebaTa Sesaxeb~ saqarT-
velos kanoniT dadgenili wesiT.
    5. Tu specialistis mier Catarebul meore auqcionze ipoTekiT datvirTuli uZravi nivTi
ver gaiyida, kreditorisa da movalis (uZravi nivTis mesakuTris) SeTaxmebiT SesaZlebelia
moTxovna dakmayofildes kreditorisaTvis uZravi nivTis sakuTrebaSi gadacemiT. am SemTx-
vevaSi saproceso da aRsrulebis xarjebis dafarva daekisreba kreditors.~;
g) me-5 nawilis Semdeg daematos Semdegi Sinaarsis me-6 nawili:
   `6. am muxlis me-5 nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli SeTanxmebis miuRwevlobis SemTxvevaSi speci-
alisti atarebs mesame auqcions am muxlis pirveli nawiliT dadgenil vadaSi. mesame auqcionze



                                                                      #2, 2008                101
      uZravi nivTis gayidvis wess gansazRvravs specialisti. mesame auqcioni ise unda iyos organi-
      zebuli, rom uZravi nivTi gaiyidos~.
         8. 308-e da 309-e muxlebi Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
         `muxli 308. saproceso da aRsrulebis xarjebis (aRsrulebis safasuri) dafarva
         ipoTekiT datvirTuli uZravi nivTis realizaciis Sedegad miRebuli Semosavlidan moT-
      xovnebi unda daifaros Semdegi rigiTobiT: saproceso xarjebi, aRsrulebis xarjebi (aRs-
      rulebis safasuri), aRsrulebis uflebis mqone kreditoris moTxovna sruli odenobiT. Tu
      amonagebi TanxiT srulad ar ifareba saproceso da aRsrulebis xarjebi (aRsrulebis safa-
      suri), gansxvavebis gadaxdis valdebuleba ekisreba kreditors.

         muxli 309. pasuxismgebloba auqcionis arajerovnad Catarebis gamo
      Tu specialisti ver asrulebs auqcionis CatarebasTan dakavSirebiT misTvis dakisrebul mo-
      valeobebs, igi warmoSobili zianisaTvis pasuxs agebs monawileebis winaSe. Tu auqcions atarebs
      aRmasrulebeli, igi saxelmwifosTan erTad solidarulad agebs pasuxs warmoSobili ziani-
      saTvis.~.

      muxli 2. es kanoni amoqmeddes 2008 wlis 1 oqtombridan.




      saqarTvelos prezidenti                               mixeil saakaSvili

      Tbilisi,
      2008 wlis 15 ivlisi.
      # 219 _ rs




102   profesia advokati
                             saqarTvelos kanoni

           saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsSi
                    damatebis Setanis Sesaxeb
muxli 1. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis (parlamentis uwyebani, #47-48,
31.12.1997, gv. 21) 134-e muxls daematos Semdegi Sinaarsis 11 nawili:

   `1 1. `eleqtronuli xelmowerisa da eleqtronuli dokumentis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos
   kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli cifruli xelmoweriT dadasturebul an/da damowmebul
   eleqtronul dokuments aqvs mtkicebulebis Zala.~.

muxli 2. es kanoni amoqmeddes gamoqveynebidan me-15 dRes.




saqarTvelos prezidenti                               mixeil saakaSvili

Tbilisi,
2008 wlis 18 ivnisi.
N# 27 – rs




                                                                 #2, 2008           103
                                    saqarTvelos kanoni

                 saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsSi
                         cvlilebebis Setanis Sesaxeb
      muxli 1. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsSi (parlamentis uwyebani, #47-48,
      31.12.1997, gv. 21) Setanil iqnes Semdegi cvlilebebi:

         1. 198-e muxlis me-2 nawilis `g~ qvepunqti Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
         `g) mopasuxis davaldebuleba, gadasces mis mflobelobaSi arsebuli nivTi aRmasrulebels
      sekvestris (qonebis iZulebiTi marTva) saxiT;~.
         2. 262-e muxli Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
         `muxli 262. gadawyvetilebis ganmarteba
         1. gadawyvetilebis gamomtan sasamarTlos ufleba aqvs mxareTa an aRmasruleblis gancxa-
      debiT, gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebis xelSewyobis mizniT ganmartos gadawyvetileba sarezo-
      lucio nawilis Seucvlelad mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu gadawyvetilebis sarezolucio nawi-
      lis Sinaarsi bundovania. gancxadebis Setana gadawyvetilebis ganmartebis Sesaxeb dasaSvebia,
      Tu gadawyvetileba jer ar aris aRsrulebuli da Tu ar gasula vada, romlis ganmavlobaSic
      gadawyvetileba SeiZleba aRsruldes. sasamarTlo uflebamosilia gadawyvetilebis ganmar-
      tebis sakiTxi gadawyvitos zepiri mosmenis gareSe. sxdomis Catarebis SemTxvevaSi mxareebs
      egzavneba Setyobineba, magram maTi gamoucxadebloba ver daabrkolebs gadawyvetilebis gan-
      martebis sakiTxis ganxilvas.
         2. am muxlis pirveli nawiliT gaTvaliswinebul gancxadebas sasamarTlo ganixilavs Seta-
      nidan 1 Tvis vadaSi.
         3. gadawyvetilebis ganmartebis Sesaxeb sasamarTlos ganCinebaze SeiZleba kerZo saCivris
      Setana~.

      muxli 2. es kanoni amoqmeddes 2008 wlis 1 oqtombridan.




      saqarTvelos prezidenti                                    mixeil saakaSvili

      Tbilisi,
      2008 wlis 15 ivlisi.
      # 212 _ rs




104   profesia advokati
                                saqarTvelos kanoni

           saqarTvelos zogad administraciul kodeqsSi
                    damatebis Setanis Sesaxeb

muxli 1. saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis (saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo macne,
#32(39), 1999 weli, mux. 166) me-3 muxlis me-4 nawils daematos Semdegi Sinaarsis `g1~ qvepunqti:
`g1) `saaRsrulebo warmoebaTa Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli aqtebis aRs-
rulebasTan~;

muxli 2. es kanoni amoqmeddes 2008 wlis 1 oqtombridan.



saqarTvelos prezidenti                                    mixeil saakaSvili

Tbilisi,
2008 wlis 15 ivlisi.
# 228 _ rs




                                                                          #2, 2008                 105
                                         saqarTvelos kanoni

             saqarTvelos administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa
             kodeqsSi damatebisa da cvlilebebis Setanis Sesaxeb
      muxli 1. saqarTvelos administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsSi (saqarTvelos ssr
      umaRlesi sabWos uwyebebi, #12, 1984 weli, mux. 421) Setanil iqnes Semdegi damateba da cvli-
      lebebi:
          1. kodeqss daematos Semdegi Sinaarsis 1054 muxli:
              `muxli 1054 . falsificirebuli, araregistrirebuli an/da vadagasuli veterinaruli
                          daniSnulebis preparatebis realizacia an veterinaruli daniSnulebis
                          preparatebis Senaxvis wesebis darRveva
          1. falsificirebuli, araregistrirebuli an/da vadagasuli veterinaruli daniSnulebis
      preparatebis realizacia an veterinaruli daniSnulebis preparatebis Senaxvis wesebis dar-
      Rveva, _
          gamoiwvevs dajarimebas 1000 laris odenobiT, samarTaldarRvevis sagnis konfiskaciiT.
          2. am muxlis pirvel nawilSi aRniSnuli qmedebebi, Cadenili ganmeorebiT, _
          gamoiwvevs dajarimebas 3 aTasi laris odenobiT, samarTaldarRvevis sagnis konfiskaci-
      iT.~.
          2. 208-e muxli Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
              `muxli 208. raionis (qalaqis) sasamarTlos gansjadi administraciul
                              samarTaldarRvevaTa saqmeebi
          raionis (qalaqis) sasamarTlo ganixilavs administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa saqmeebs,
      romlebic gaTvaliswinebulia am kodeqsis 421 da 422 muxlebiT, 43-e muxlis me-2 nawiliT, 44-
      e_443, 445, 446, 45-e_56-e, 57-e_69-e, 71-e_78-e, 791_821, 84-e_86-e, 88-e_893, 90-e_912, 922, 94-e_1002,
      103-e_1051, 1054, 1281, 1282, 143-e_1441, 1443_1445, 145-e, 1461, 148-e_152-e, 1522_1542, 1551_156-e,
      1571_1581, 159-e_1599, 163-e, 164-e, 1644, 1651_1653, 166-e, 167-e, 170-e muxlebiT, 171-e muxlis me-
      3 nawiliT, 1711, 1734, 17310, 17311, 1741, 1745, 1748_17414, 1778_178-e, 1791_183-e, 187-e_1872, 189-
      e, 191-e (garda 191-e muxlis pirveli da 11 nawilebisa), 192-e, 195-e, 1962_1966, 1971 muxlebiT.~.
          3. 239-e muxlis 49-e nawili Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
          `49. am kodeqsis 102-e, 105-e da 1054 muxlebiT gaTvaliswinebul administraciul samarTal-
      darRvevaTa Sesaxeb oqmebs adgenen saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis saministros saxelmwifo
      saqveuwyebo dawesebulebis _ sursaTis uvneblobis, veterinariisa da mcenareTa dacvis erov-
      nuli samsaxuris, afxazeTisa da aWaris avtonomiuri respublikebis Sesabamisi samsaxurebis
      saamisod uflebamosili moxeleebi.~.

      muxli 2. es kanoni amoqmeddes gamoqveynebidan 90-e dRes.



      saqarTvelos prezidenti                        mixeil saakaSvili

      Tbilisi,
      2008 wlis 18 ivnisi.
      # 25 _ rs



106   profesia advokati
                               saqarTvelos kanoni

      saqarTvelos administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa
             kodeqsSi cvlilebis Setanis Sesaxeb

muxli 1. saqarTvelos administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsis (saqarTvelos ssr
umaRlesi sabWos uwyebebi, #12, 1984 weli, mux. 421) 921 muxli Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:

   `muxli 921.  saqarTvelos energetikisa da wyalmomaragebis maregulirebeli erovnuli
                komisiis mier dadgenili moTxovnebis darRveva
   eleqtroenergetikuli sistemis komerciuli operatoris, mcire simZlavris eleqtrosad-
   guris, bunebrivi gazis mimwodeblis, eleqtroenergetikisa da bunebrivi gazis dargebis
   licenziatis an pirdapiri momxmareblis, agreTve sasmeli wylis mimwodeblis mier saqar-
   Tvelos energetikisa da wyalmomaragebis maregulirebeli erovnuli komisiis mier dad-
   genili moTxovnebis Seusrulebloba, _ gamoiwvevs dajarimebas 5000 laris odenobiT.~.

muxli 2. es kanoni amoqmeddes gamoqveynebidan me-15 dRes.




saqarTvelos prezidenti                                    mixeil saakaSvili

Tbilisi,
2008 wlis 5 ivlisi.
# 93 - rs




                                                                        #2, 2008                107
                                    saqarTvelos kanoni

            saqarTvelos administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa
                   kodeqsSi cvlilebis Setanis Sesaxeb

      muxli 1. saqarTvelos administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsis (saqarTvelos ssr
      umaRlesi sabWos uwyebebi, #12, 1984 weli, mux. 421) 1441 muxli Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaq-
      ciiT:

                     1
          `muxli 144 . mauwyeblobis sferoSi ulicenziod saqmianoba, an eleqtronuli
                        komunikaciebis sferoSi avtorizaciis gareSe saqmianoba, eleqtronuli
                        komunikaciebis sferoSi ulicenziod an miniWebis gareSe radiosixSiruli
                        speqtriT an/da numeraciis resursiT sargebloba
          1. mauwyeblobis sferoSi ulicenziod saqmianoba, an eleqtronuli komunikaciebis sferoSi
      avtorizaciis gareSe saqmianoba, eleqtronuli komunikaciebis sferoSi ulicenziod an miniWe-
      bis gareSe radiosixSiruli speqtriT an/da numeraciis resursiT sargebloba, _
              gamoiwvevs dajarimebas 5 000 laris odenobiT.
          2. igive qmedeba, Cadenili ganmeorebiT, _
              gamoiwvevs dajarimebas 10 000 laris odenobiT.
          3. igive qmedeba, Cadenili mesamed da metjer, _
              gamoiwvevs yovel calkeul SemTxvevaSi dajarimebas 50 000 laris odenobiT.
          4. igive qmedeba, Cadenili afxazeTis avtonomiuri respublikis an/da yofili samxreT
      oseTis avtonomiuri olqis teritoriaze, _
              gamoiwvevs dajarimebas 50 000 laris odenobiT.
          5. igive qmedeba, Cadenili afxazeTis avtonomiuri respublikis an/da yofili samxreT
      oseTis avtonomiuri olqis teritoriaze ganmeorebiT, _
              gamoiwvevs dajarimebas 500 000 laris odenobiT.
          6. igive qmedeba, Cadenili afxazeTis avtonomiuri respublikis an/da yofili samxreT
      oseTis avtonomiuri olqis teritoriaze mesamed da metjer, _
              gamoiwvevs yovel calkeul SemTxvevaSi dajarimebas 1 000 000 laris odenobiT.~.

      muxli 2. es kanoni amoqmeddes gamoqveynebidan me-15 dRes.




      saqarTvelos prezidenti                              mixeil saakaSvili

      Tbilisi,
      2008 wlis 15 ivlisi.
      # 197 _ rs




108   profesia advokati
                               saqarTvelos kanoni

       saqarTvelos administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa
             kodeqsSi cvlilebebis Setanis Sesaxeb
muxli 1. saqarTvelos administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsSi (saqarTvelos ssr
umaRlesi sabWos uwyebebi, #12, 1984 weli, mux. 421) Setanil iqnes Semdegi cvlilebebi:

    1. 2885 muxli Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
    `muxli 2885. sauravis daricxvis Sesaxeb dadgenilebis iZulebiTi aRsruleba
    am kodeqsis 288 4 muxliT dadgenil vadaSi sauravis gadauxdelobis SemTxvevaSi dadgeni-
lebis gamomtani organos (Tanamdebobis piris) dadgenilebis safuZvelze sauravis daricxvis
Sesaxeb dadgenilebis iZulebiT aRsrulebas axorcielebs aRmasrulebeli damrRvevis xelfa-
sidan an sxva Semosavlidan, agreTve damrRvevis pirad qonebaze an saerTo sakuTrebaSi mis
wilze gadaxdevinebis miqcevis gziT, Tu saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT sxva ram ar aris gaTva-
liswinebuli.~.
    2. 2887 muxlis pirveli nawili amoRebul iqnes.
    3. 291-e muxlis:
    a) me-2 nawili Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
    `2. Tu dajarimebuli piri ar muSaobs an damrRvevis xelfasidan, pensiidan, stipendiidan
an sxva Semosavlidan jarimis gadaxdevineba SeuZlebelia sxva mizezebiT, dajarimebis Sesaxeb
organos (Tanamdebobis piris) dadgenilebis safuZvelze jarimis gadaxdevineba warmoebs aR-
masruleblis mier damrRvevis pirad qonebaze an saerTo sakuTrebaSi mis wilze gadaxdevinebis
miqcevis gziT.~;
   b) me-5 nawili Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
   `5. am kodeqsis 116-e, 117-e, 118-e_119-e, 120-e_123-e, 125-e, 127-e, 1271 da 1291 muxlebiT
gaTvaliswinebuli samarTaldarRvevebis Cadenisas, Tu damrRvevs ara aqvs satransporto
saSualebis (sasoflo-sameurneo teqnikis) marTvis ufleba, jarimis iZulebiT aRsrulebas
damrRvevis xelfasidan an sxva Semosavlidan, agreTve damrRvevis pirad qonebaze an saerTo
sakuTrebaSi mis wilze gadaxdevinebis miqcevis gziT axorcielebs aRmasrulebeli.~.
   4. 295-e muxlis pirveli nawilis `a~ qvepunqti Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
   `a) aRmasrulebeli _ am kodeqsis 208-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebul samarTaldarRvevaTa Ca-
denisas; Sinagan saqmeTa organos uflebamosili piri am kodeqsis 167-e da 180-e muxlebiT,
181-e muxlis me-2 nawiliT, 1831 muxliT gaTvaliswinebul samarTaldarRvevaTa Cadenisas;~.
   5. me-300 muxlis me-2 nawili Camoyalibdes Semdegi redaqciiT:
   `2. Tu mZRoli, romelsac CamorTmeuli aqvs satransporto saSualebis marTvis ufleba, Tavs
aridebs mZRolis mowmobis Cabarebas, aRmasrulebeli CamoarTmevs mowmobas iZulebis wesiT.~.

muxli 2. es kanoni amoqmeddes 2008 wlis 1 oqtombridan.



saqarTvelos prezidenti                                   mixeil saakaSvili
Tbilisi,
2008 wlis 15 ivlisi.
# 214 _ rs



                                                                         #2, 2008                109
      advokatTa asociaciis wevrTa sia
      saxeli, gvari             siiTi #0000   saxeli, gvari          siiTi #0000


      mindiaSvili daviTi           3841       miqava naTia              3883
      lobJaniZe manana             3842       Sipakciani iana           3884
      baqraZe valeri               3843       WurRulia fridoni          3885
      gabunia giorgi               3844       jandieri daviT            3886
      natriaSvili Wola             3845       ratiani irakli            3887
      okujava soso                 3846       WeiSvili eTeri            3888
      nacvliSvili oTari            3847       zubaSvili laura           3889
      zodelava murTazi             3848       xvedeliZe irina           3890
      iaSvili lia                  3849       maRlakeliZe roberti       3891
      maisuraZe daviTi             3850       lomiZe eka                3892
      mWedliZe valeriani           3851       valiSvili zviadi          3893
      kekelia mzia                 3852       konceliZe resani          3894
      burWulaZe Teimurazi          3853       jaSi revazi               3895
      fifia daviTi                 3854       jorTmenaZe arCili         3896
      merabiSvili Tamari           3855       Tedeluri eTeri            3897
      margvelaSvili mixeili        3856       oganesian martiros        3898
      yvelaSvili lali              3857       siordia magda             3899
      kakauriZe marina             3858       jRarkava romeo            3900
      xorava lela                  3859       nadiraZe zaza             3901
      gelaZe elena                 3860       silagaZe zaza             3902
      doreuli arCili               3861       maxarobliZe aleqsi        3903
      devaZe Sorena                3862       liluaSvili giorgi         3904
      maxaraZe Tamari              3863       sandoZe aleqsandre        3905
      maxaraZe fiqria              3864       minaZe Temuri             3906
      Wanturaia ilia               3865       gogua irakli              3907
      yufaraZe luiza               3866       londariZe daviTi          3908
      margalitaZe nino             3867       kapanaZe spartaki         3909
      boWoriSvili gela             3868       Coxeli giuli              3910
      xiTariSvili konstantine      3869       saZagliSvili xviCa        3911
      ivelaSvili marina            3870       sukiasovi aleqsandre      3912
      daviTaia naTia               3871       futkaraZe gela            3913
      navtikovi viqtoria           3872       metreveli lela            3914
      darjania Tornike             3873       SveliZe zaqaria           3915
      kilaZe Teona                 3874       xodeli elguja             3916
      sanaZe Temuri                3875       gogiaSvili dimitri        3917
      ediSeraSvili maia            3876       kacitaZe naTia            3918
      kaWarava levani              3877       Sonia goCa                3919
      kamkia goCa                  3878       pertenava giorgi          3920
      kvaracxelia nino             3879       doRonaZe aleqsandre       3921
      babuciZe ilia                3880       razmaZe Tamari            3922
      futkaraia merabi             3881       utiaSvili mixeili         3923
      WiRlaZe levani               3882       tabaRua kaxaberi          3924



110   profesia advokati
saxeli, gvari           siiTi #0000   saxeli, gvari           siiTi #0000


fxakaZe nino               3925       gegelia nikolozi           3968
bolaSvili nana             3926       abaSiZe kaxaberi           3969
toliaSvili gulsunda        3927       vazagaSvili mixeili        3970
TalakvaZe qeTevani         3928       beriZe besik               3971
cecxlaZe ruslani           3929       sxilaZe sofiko             3972
beriZe magda               3930       maWavariani malxazi        3973
sajaia petre               3931       gabunia giorgi             3974
surmava marina             3932       vaSaZe TamTa               3975
asitaSvili zurabi          3933       beriZe daviTi              3976
gabaraSvili nino           3934       dvaliZe gela               3977
SerazadaSvili dimitri      3935       vardukaZe Sorena           3978
siWinava valeriani         3936       kvirkelia simoni           3979
maisuraSvili levan         3937       sanebliZe mariami          3980
baTliZe giorgi             3938       Wyonia daviTi              3981
darsania Teimurazi         3939       qurdaZe iosebi             3982
mesxia levani              3940       maSia marine               3983
miSveiZe ekaterine         3941       ananiZe daviTi             3984
maRraZe zaza               3942       SavardeniZe samsoni        3985
kviJinaZe zeinabi          3943       nanava manoni              3986
gersamia marika            3944       afxaiZe xaTuna             3987
Carkviani ekaterine        3945       qeburia cira               3988
teraSvili akaki            3947       jRarkava Tengizi           3989
xaxutaiSvili arCili        3948       baTxaZe Teona              3990
cimintia maia              3949       baTxaZe gia                3991
safariZe givi              3950       pataraia ramazi            3992
SaraSiZe nazibrola         3951       mWedliSvili besiki         3993
jariaSvili gulnazi         3952       terteraSvili vaJa          3994
iaSvili Tengizi            3953       Todua nino                 3995
fanCuliZe murmani          3954       mWedliSvili vaxtangi       3996
Cxetia kaxa                3955       Cqotua daviTi              3997
gorgaZe ivane              3956       fridonaSvili nani          3998
Cuxua nugzari              3957       miqelaZe nugzari           3999
maWaraSvili ilia           3958       JoJaZe irakli              4000
jobava miranda             3959       cecxlaZe vaxtangi          4001
evgeniZe lia               3960       afciauri laSa              4002
gziriSvili levani          3961       ToTlaZe gia                4003
mefariSvili nino           3962       mSvenieraZe giorgi         4004
zubaSvili biWiko           3963       gvaramaZe Tamari           4005
maWaraSvili borisi         3964       mukbaniani aleqsandre      4006
xojevaniSvili giorgi       3965       maWavariani valeriani      4007
molaSxia gogi              3966       jiblaZe aleqsandre         4008
gabisonia nikolozi         3967       xaraZe nino                4009



                                                          #2, 2008          111
      saxeli, gvari           siiTi #0000   saxeli, gvari   siiTi #0000

      xaraZe nana                 4010
      margvelaSvili salome        4011
      mdivani daviTi              4012
      nuroSvili robozoni          4013
      laRaZe maka                 4014
      zedgeniZe omari             4015
      gamxaraSvili-yuloSvili maka 4016
      bendeliani zurabi           4017
      adeiSvili mixeili           4018
      Wanturia Wabuka             4019
      TurmaniZe levani            4020
      ioseliani qeTevani          4021
      maxaraZe Temuri             4022
      lomiZe mamuka               4023
      xaranauli levani            4024
      tabataZe naTia              4025
      kobaxiZe Tamari             4026
      lomiZe vefxia               4027




112   profesia advokati
#2, 2008   113
114   profesia advokati

								
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