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					                                                                                                 Thank You
                                   NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                                                Water: A Matter of Perspective
                     Many thanks to the Conference Planning Committee!
                     A lot of time and effort goes into each program and
                              your efforts are greatly appreciated.
                           Hugh Ricci, P.E., NWRA Planning Committee Chair, Ricci Engineering, Ltd.

Dave Berger                                  Justin Huntington                      Terry F. Rees, Ph.D.
U.S. Geological Survey                       Desert Research Institute              Rees Consultants

Steve Bradhurst                              Edwin James                            Michael Rosen
Central Nevada Regional Water                Carson Water Subconservancy District   U.S. Geological Survey-Nevada Water
Authority                                                                               Science Center
                                             Jeffrey Johnson
Michael D. Buschelman                        Southern Nevada Water Authority        Tim Rowe
Michael D. Buschelman Consulting, Inc.                                              U.S. Geological Survey-Nevada Water
                                             Michael Johnson
                                                                                        Science Center
Robert Coache, P.E.                          Consulting Hydrogeologist
Hydrotech Consulting Services, LLC                                                  Dwight Smith
                                             Jason King
                                                                                    Interflow Hydrology, Inc.
Jay Dixon                                    Nevada Division of Water Resources
Kinross, Round Mountain Gold                                                        Laura A. Schroeder
                                             Lari Knochenmus
Corporation                                                                         Schroeder Law Offices, PC
                                             U.S. Geological Survey-Nevada Water
David J. Donovan                                Science Center                      Shawn Stoddard, Ph.D.
Southern Nevada Water Authority                                                     Truckee Meadows Water Authority
                                             Christian Kropf
Nicole Everett                               Washoe County Department of Water      Michael Strobel, Ph.D.
Colorado River Commission of Nevada             Resources                           NRCS, National Water & Climate Center

Rick Felling                                 Bill Listerud                          Tami Thompson
Nevada Division of Water Resources           Barrick Goldstrike Mines, Inc.         MBK Engineers

Jay Fischer                                  Kenneth Lykens                         Tina Triplett
Newmont Mining Corporation                   MWH Americas, Inc.                     Nevada Water Resources Association

Alex J. Flangas                              Chris Mahannah                         Mark Walker
Holland & Hart LLP                           Mahannah & Associates                  University of Nevada, Reno

Dylan Frehner                                Thomas Maher                           David Wathen
Lincoln County Water District                Southern Nevada Water Authority        U.S. District Court Water Master

Brad T. Goetsch                              Zane Marshall                          Steve Weber, Ph.D.
Churchill County                             Southern Nevada Water Authority        MWH Americas, Inc.

Mike Hardy                                   Janet Monaco                           Mike Widmer
Lumos & Associates, Inc.                     Southern Nevada Water Authority        Washoe County Department
Stefanie Hedlund                             Thomas Piechota, Ph.D., PE               of Water Resources
Best Best & Krieger, LLP                     University of Nevada, Las Vegas        John Zimmerman
                                                                                    Parsons Behle & Latimer
                                                                                                                   Welcome
                                      NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                                                           Water: A Matter of Perspective
                        Welcome to NWRA’s annual confer-                                             I would like to take this opportunity
                        ence! This year’s Conference Plan-                                           to welcome you to the Nevada Wa-
                        ning Committee is very enthusiastic                                          ter Resources Association 2011 An-
                        with our endeavors and we all be-                                            nual Conference and thank you for
                        lieve that you will enjoy your atten-                                        your attendance. It is through you
                        dance, education and networking                                              and the other attendees that our
                        opportunities. Because we planned                                            annual conferences are so success-
                        this conference to coincide with the                                         ful. The NWRA is fortunate to have
                        2011 Nevada Legislative Session, we                                          an exceptional core of water profes-
                        hope that you will keep Nevada wa-                                           sionals who have such a deep com-
                        ter law in the back of your mind and                                         mitment to one of the most precious
contact your colleagues and respective legislators with any                 resources in Nevada, and perhaps the world.
concerns or visions.
                                                                            The theme of the conference, “Water: A Matter of Perspective,”
This year we have packed the agenda with seven panel discus-                is indeed just that. It is what the NWRA hopes to elicit from
sions. I believe that you will find several, if not all, of these topics    you as attendees with your participation. The keynote speaker
of great interest. For example, given recent court decisions, we            is Eric Garner, a renowned water attorney from California. He
have included a panel on the legal implications of surface and              will give his perspective in his address entitled, “Water — Is It
ground water interactions. We welcome Indirect Potable Reuse                the New Oil?”. Also, for the luncheon speaker we have Justice
to the forefront of water resource planning and implementa-                 James Hardesty of the Nevada Supreme Court. He has writ-
tion as well as various policy discussions on water resources.              ten many of the recent decisions related to water issues in this
We have also added a panel on surface water restoration and                 state. The panels and technical sessions have a broad range of
ecology and a panel on geothermal development with noted                    topics that deal with issues that are in the forefront of water
leaders in this “ramped-upped” and exciting industry. As usual,             issues today.
our technical sessions are filled with up and coming science
from our universities and research centers.                                 This program has been put together through the tireless efforts
                                                                            of the NWRA Board and the Conference Planning Committee.
I would like to take this opportunity to bring to your attention            I would be remiss not to mention the work of the executive
activities that the NWRA Board is currently involved with. You              director of the NWRA, Tina Triplett, who has kept everyone on
probably have noted that our Website has been completely                    task through this whole process. Everyone involved has put to-
revamped and we hope it is of more value to you. We have re-                gether a great program for this three-day event, which you will
started the NWRA Journal and I especially hope that you will                find fun as well as informative.
consider contributing practical and/or scientific articles to this
important vehicle of communication amongst our colleagues.                  Again, welcome to the Conference and thank you for your con-
We have also restarted a monthly newsletter. Here again, you                tinued support of the NWRA.
can help Tina Triplett by providing newsworthy items and is-
sues that are of interest. And finally, we have initiated an out-           Hugh Ricci, Conference Planning Chairman
reach program for domestic well owners throughout Nevada
with a series of educational workshops to help this important
water user more fully understand their water supply infrastruc-
ture and their responsibility.

Thank you for your attendance and for being a part of this
great organization. The Association values not only your par-
ticipation, but your input and vision for the State of Nevada.
Please realize your professional responsibilities and include
this in discussions as you network with others. Please feel free
to contact me directly with any issues you may have. I know
that you will enjoy your time here at the Peppermill!


Michael Widmer, NWRA President
                                                                                                                                        Sponsors
                                           NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                                                                 Water: A Matter of Perspective
                     The success of the NWRA Annual Conference would not be possible without
            the many conference sponsors and contributors. Thank you for your support and dedication to
                  the Nevada Water Resources Association. Your contributions do not go unnoticed.

                                                           Platinum Sponsors
                                                                                                                 Newmont’s 31,000 employees and contractors op-
                                                                                                                 erate on five continents in eight countries across
                                                                                                                 the globe. Demonstrating leadership in safety,
                                                                                                                 stewardship of the environment and social respon-
                                                                                                                 sibility as one of our guiding values, Newmont was
                                                       With a rich history, the MWH vision remains firmly        included in the esteemed Dow Jones Sustainability
                                                       affixed toward the future. Our company is the prod-       World Index (DJSI) for the third consecutive year,
                                                       uct of three key lineages of engineering firms with       and listed on both the DJSI North America and the
Barrick is the world’s pre-eminent gold producer,                                                                DJSI World in 2008. The DJSI independently evalu-
                                                       long and successful histories. James M. Montgom-
with a portfolio of 27 operating mines, many ad-                                                                 ates companies’ long-term economic, environmen-
                                                       ery Consulting Engineers (JMM) was formed in
vanced exploration and development projects                                                                      tal and social performance, publicly identifying the
                                                       1945 in southern California and recognized for its
located across five continents, and large land posi-                                                             top 10 percent of performers in areas of sustainabil-
                                                       excellence and specialization in water and waste-
tions on the most prolific and prospective mineral                                                               ity. Utilizing our financial strength and flexibility,
                                                       water engineering. In the early 1990s, JMM merged
trends. Barrick also has the largest reserves in the                                                             combined with project development and opera-
                                                       with an English firm, Watson Hawksley, Ltd. of High
industry, with 124.6 million ounces of proven and                                                                tional expertise, our vision is to be the most valued
                                                       Wycombe, England, which originated in London in
probable gold reserves, 6.2 billion pounds of cop-                                                               and respected mining company through industry
                                                       the 1850s. This created a company of global scope
per reserves and 1.03 billion ounces of contained                                                                leading performance.
                                                       known as Montgomery Watson. In 2001, Montgom-
silver within gold reserves as of December 31, 2007.
                                                       ery Watson merged with Harza Engineering, a Chi-
The company has a successful track record of mine
                                                       cago-based energy, water and infrastructure com-
development, having completed the construc-
                                                       pany. The merger brought together two companies
tion of the Tulawaka, Lagunas Norte and Veladero
                                                       with long histories of excellence; similar corporate
mines in 2005, the Cowal mine in early 2006, and
                                                       cultures that honored individual expertise and en-
the reopening of the Ruby Hill mine in early 2007.
                                                       couraged teamwork, innovation and initiative; and
Barrick has been progressing a new generation of
                                                       a common view of the industry’s future. The name
projects that advanced significantly in 2008: Buz-                                                               The early migration of settlers to the western United
                                                       was changed to Montgomery Watson Harza and
wagi in Tanzania, Cortez Hills in Nevada and Pueblo                                                              States brought a need for assured water supplies in
                                                       ultimately shortened to MWH. Today, we continue
Viejo in the Dominican Republic. Barrick has the                                                                 that vast, largely arid region. Water for agriculture,
                                                       to be dedicated to innovation and committed to
gold mining industry’s strongest and only ‘A’ rated                                                              mining and transportation coupled with an explod-
                                                       mastering and applying emerging technologies to
balance sheet, which positions the company well to                                                               ing population, required deep water wells and the
                                                       create client-focused results. We have engaged in
fund its project pipeline and seize other attractive                                                             development of products of unusual strength and
                                                       the engineering, construction, financing and man-
exploration and acquisition opportunities as they                                                                capacity. Beginning before the turn of the century
                                                       agement of some of the world’s largest and most
may arise.                                                                                                       S. A. Clampett & Company became the leader in
                                                       technically significant wet infrastructure projects in
                                                       the world.                                                water well construction in the Southwest. Roscoe
                                                                                                                 Moss joined the firm in 1906 and became a partner
                                                                                                                 (Clampett & Moss) in 1914. In 1920 Roscoe Moss
                                                                                                                 became sole owner and a long history of inventing
                                                                                                                 and developing methods and products began. He
                                                                                                                 incorporated Roscoe Moss Company in 1927 and
                                                                                                                 transformed the water well drilling firm into an inno-
                                                                                                                 vative, well equipped and highly skilled contracting
OUR WORLD TO THE WHOLE WORLD: As the world’s                                                                     and manufacturing business. In the years since its in-
population increases, so does the demand for                                                                     ception, Roscoe Moss Company has contributed sig-
natural resources. From the simplest necessities,                                                                nificantly to the ground water development industry
                                                       Colonel William Boyce Thompson founded the
to large-scale building components, the need for                                                                 in the Southwest, across this continent and around
                                                       Newmont Company in 1916 as a holding company
these resources is at an all time high and will only                                                             the world. In 1926, Roscoe Moss Company moved to
                                                       for private acquisitions in oil and gas, mining and
increase. As a global company, we find global solu-                                                              its present location and built a factory for the manu-
                                                       minerals enterprises. Thompson named the com-
tions. In China, for example, a growing city needs                                                               facture of well casing, a natural extension to their tra-
                                                       pany “Newmont” because, as one biographer de-
metal for machinery, homes and infrastructure.                                                                   ditional role as water well drilling contractors. Since
                                                       scribed it, “he grew up in Montana and made his
Miles away, a Boart Longyear drill rig is pulling a                                                              that time, the addition of new products and continu-
                                                       money in New York.” Publicly traded on the New
core sample out of the ground in order to find that                                                              ing innovations in manufacturing methods have
                                                       York Stock Exchange since 1940, Newmont Mining
metal. Our customers supply the resources to make                                                                placed Roscoe Moss Company in a unique position
                                                       Corporation has spent nearly 90 years primarily in
automobiles, build bridges, buildings and wash-                                                                  as the world’s premier provider of water well casings
                                                       the natural resources industry — mining gold, cop-
ing machines, find water and supply energy to the                                                                and screens. Today these products, along with water
                                                       per, silver, lead, zinc, lithium, uranium, coal, nickel
world. Boart Longyear doesn’t build houses, but we                                                               transmission pipe, are used throughout the United
                                                       and aggregates, even dabbling in oil and gas. To-
are an important partner in bringing the world’s re-                                                             States and in over 20 foreign countries.
                                                       day, as one of the world’s leading gold companies,
sources into your home.
                                                               Sponsors
                NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                   Water: A Matter of Perspective

                            Gold Sponsors




  Ricci Engineering, Ltd.
       Hugh Ricci, PE
         775-851-2169




          Michael D. Buschelman Consulting, Inc.

                            Silver Sponsors

Colorado River
Commission of
      Nevada




                                                   U.S. Geological Survey,
                                                   Nevada Water Science Center



                            Bronze Sponsors
                                                     Sponsors & Exhibitors
                        NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                         Water: A Matter of Perspective

       EXHIBITORS
    Barrick Goldstrike Mines, Inc.
      Boart Longyear Company
Colorado River Commission of Nevada
       HDR Engineering, Inc.
        Holland & Hart, LLP
             In-Situ, Inc.
                                                     SCHOLARSHIP SPONSOR
    Instrumentation Northwest                Argonaut Gold is a Canadian gold company engaged in exploration,
   Las Vegas Valley Water District           mine development and production activities on gold-bearing proper-
                                             ties. Its primary asset being the EL Castillo in the State of Durango,
    Layne Christensen Company                Mexico. EL Castillo hosts 1.2 million ounces of Measured and Indicated
      Lumos & Associates, Inc.               Resources. Numerous high-grade intersects have been encountered
        MWH Americas, Inc.                   at our La Fortuna exploration property. A pending merger with Pedi-
                                             ment Gold would bring 2 advanced exploration properties into the
           National EWP                      company. Argonaut is a new venture created by former executive man-
       Roscoe Moss Company                   agement members of Meridian Gold Inc. Argonaut Gold will deliver
                7Q10                         on operational targets, in a safe, cost efficient manner, while honoring
                                             commitments to the environment and communities where we oper-
  Sierra Environmental Monitoring            ate. Creating the next quality mid-tier gold producer in the Americas.
      Sunrise Engineering, Inc.
      Tahoe Pyramid Bikeway
     Truckee River Flood Project
                                                           NWRA SUPPORTER
       U.S. Geological Survey


  SKI DAY SPONSOR

                                                                 5K SPONSORS
                                             Mahannah & ASSOCIATES, LLC
                                                  P.O. Box 2494        Reno, NV 89505         (775) 323 -1804
  TOUR SPONSORS                                       Innovative water resource solutions
                                                         Activities & Schedule
                                                NWRA 2011 Annual Conference
                                                  Water: A Matter of Perspective
Monday, January 31, 2011 Conference Activities
    8:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m.   Water Rights in Nevada Seminar — Tuscany 6

Tuesday, February 1, 2011 Conference Activities
    8:00 a.m. – 3:30 p.m.   Advanced Water Rights in Nevada Seminar — Tuscany 10

    8:00 a.m. – 4:00 p.m.   NWRA Ski Day — Mt. Rose Ski Resort

    10:00 a.m. – 4:00 p.m. NWRA Annual Conference Tour of the Truckee

    10:00 a.m. – 6:00 p.m. Conference Registration — Tuscany Meeting Rooms Lobby

    2:00 p.m. – 6:00 p.m. Groundwater Workshop — Suite 1748, Peppermill Tower

    4:00 p.m. – 6:00 p.m. Exhibitor & Poster Set Up — Tuscany F

    7:00 p.m. – 8:30 p.m. Nevada Water Law “Speakeasy” & Social — Tuscany 10

Wednesday, February 2, 2011 Conference Schedule
    7:00 a.m. – 4:00 p.m.   Conference Registration — Tuscany Meeting Rooms Lobby

    7:00 a.m. – 8:30 a.m.   Continental Breakfast & Opening of Exhibit Area — Tuscany F

    8:00 a.m. – 8:05 a.m.   Opening Remarks — Tuscany D & E
                            Hugh Ricci, P.E., NWRA Conference Chair

    8:05 a.m. – 8:45 a.m.   Opening Keynote Presentation — Tuscany D & E
                            Eric Garner, Partner, Best Best & Krieger, LLP, ”Water — Is it the New Oil?”

    8:45 a.m. – 10:00 a.m. A Logical Connection? The Legal Implications of Surface & Groundwater
           Connectivity — Tuscany D & E
           This panel will discuss recent Nevada decisions and 9th Circuit decisions regarding the connectivity
           between surface and groundwater and the associated legal implications.
           Moderator: Robert Coache, P.E., Retired Nevada Deputy State Engineer, President, Hydrotech Consulting
           Services, LLC.
           ➢ Gordon DePaoli, Civil Litigation Lawyer, Woodburn & Wedge
           ➢ Don Springmeyer, Attorney, Wolf, Rifkin, Shapiro, Schulman
           ➢ Peter Leffler, Associate Hydrogeologist, Fugro Consultants
                                                      Activities & Schedule
                                             NWRA 2011 Annual Conference
                                               Water: A Matter of Perspective
10:00 a.m. – 10:15 a.m. Networking Break — Exhibit Area, Tuscany F

10:15 a.m. – 11:30 a.m. Indirect Potable Reuse Session — Tuscany D & E
       Water is an increasingly scarce resource and the maximization of this precious resource through
       recycling is critical. This panel will provide an overview of national, regional and local water recycling,
       including developments in water reuse and indirect potable reuse (IPR). The panel of experts listed
       below will discuss recent national trends, regulatory perspectives associated with indirect potable
       reuse, a case study with associated challenges and successes, an update on the critical nature of
       Northern and Southern Nevada water recycling activities, as well as the importance of education and
       outreach associated with water recycling.
       Moderator: Christian Kropf, Hydrogeologist, Washoe County Department of Water Resources
       ➢ Wade Miller, Executive Director, WateReuse Association, “Water Reuse Overview Plus National & Regional
         Trends in Water Reuse”
       ➢ Craig D. Miller, P.E., Executive Director of Engineering & Planning, Orange County Water District, “Case Study of
         Successful Indirect Potable Reuse Implementation”
       ➢ John Enloe, P.E., Principal, ECO:LOGIC Engineering, now Stantec, “Northern Nevada Water Reuse: Issues, Trends
         & Successes”
       ➢ Dennis Porter, P.E., Utility Services Director, City of Henderson, “Southern Nevada Water Reuse: Issues, Trends
         & Successes”
       ➢ Eric D. Hawkins, CPF, President, H2 Outreach, LLC., “Water Reuse Public Outreach & Education”

11:30 a.m. – 1:15 p.m. Luncheon & Speaker — Capri Ballroom
                       Justice James W. Hardesty, Nevada Supreme Court, “Water: A Judicial Perspective”

1:30 p.m. – 2:45 p.m. Technical Session A: Water Use, Population Growth & Resource Planning
       — Tuscany 10 & 11
       Moderator: Thomas Maher, Resource Analyst II, Southern Nevada Water Authority
       ➢ John Enloe, P.E., ECO:LOGIC Engineering, now Stantec, “Washoe County Regional Water Balance”
       ➢ Catherine Hansford, Hansford Economic Consulting, “What is a Reasonable Water Rate?”
       ➢ Joseph Leedy, P.E., Clark County Water Reclamation District, “Clark County Water Quality Planning”
       ➢ Lisa Shevenell, Ph.D., Nevada Bureau of Mines & Geology, “Water Use Strategies in Geothermal Power
         Generation”
       ➢ Geoffrey S. Kinsey, Director of Research & Development, “Addressing the Coming Clash Between Solar Energy
         & Water”

1:30 p.m. – 2:45 p.m. Water Management & Policy: How Climate Change Impacts Decisions
       — Tuscany D & E
       This panel will discuss climate and drought as they relate to policy decisions and water resource
       management. The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) will be summarized
       in how it applies to water in the west. A regional drought early warning system and applications of
       integrated data monitoring and analysis in the Upper Colorado River Basin will be discussed. There will
       be discussions on global and regional climate change indications and implications.
                                                       Activities & Schedule
                                              NWRA 2011 Annual Conference
                                                Water: A Matter of Perspective
       Moderator: Michael Strobel, Ph.D., Director, National Water & Climate Center
       ➢ Brad Udall, Ph.D., Western Water Assessment, NOAA Earth Science Research Laboratory (National Oceanic &
         Atmospheric Administration), “Climate Change & the Colorado River: Implications for Nevada”
       ➢ Jim Verdin, Ph.D., Earth Resources Observation & Science Deputy Director, U.S. Geological Survey, “Building a
         Drought Early Warning System for the Upper Colorado River Basin”
       ➢ Roger Pulwarty, Ph.D., Physical Scientist, OAR/CPO Climate Program Office, NOAA (National Oceanic &
         Atmospheric Administration), “Adaptation Challenges in Complex River Basins: Drawing Lessons for the
         Western United States”
       ➢ Richard Kearney, Assistant Regional Director, Climate Change & Science Application, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service,
         Pacific Southwest Region, “U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Climate Change Activities”

2:45 p.m. – 3:00 p.m.     Networking Break — Exhibit Area, Tuscany F

3:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m.     Concurrent Technical Session B: Stream Restoration — Tuscany 10 & 11
       Moderator: David Donovan, Hydrologist II, Southern Nevada Water Authority
       ➢ Nancy Alvarez, U.S. Geological Survey, “Assessment of Eutrophication & the Role of Groundwater Derived
         Nutrients for Algal Growth in the East Fork Carson River, Carson Valley, Nevada”
       ➢ Mark Gookin, P.E., CFM, Wood Rodgers, Inc., “Lake Forest Creek Restoration of Historic Stream Channel
       ➢ Glen Daily, P.E., City of Reno, “Oxbow Park Streambank & Infrastructure Protection Project”
       ➢ Lynell Garfield-Qualls, M.S., City of Reno, Public Works, Environmental Engineering Division, “Bioreactors: Not
         Just for Mining Anymore! The Chalk Creek Sulfate Reducing Wetland Pilot Project”

3:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. Concurrent Technical Session C: Remote Sensing & Meteorological Data
       — Tuscany D & E
       Moderator: Rick Felling, Chief, Hydrology Section, Nevada Division of Water Resources
       ➢ Justin Huntington, Desert Research Institute, “Towards Updating & Enhancing Existing Agricultural
         Consumptive Use & Basin Water Budget Estimates Throughout the State of Nevada”
       ➢ Adam Sullivan, P.E., Nevada Division of Water Resources, “Quantifying Agricultural Consumptive Use Using
         Remote Sensing to Support Water Right Changes in the Walker River Basin”
       ➢ C. David Moeser & Mark Walker, University of Nevada, Reno, “Development, Analysis & Use of a Distributed
         Wireless Sensor Network for Quantifying Spatial Trends of Snow Depth & Snow Water Equivalence Around
         Meteorological Stations With & Without Snow Sensing Equipment”

4:00 p.m. – 4:15 p.m.      Transition Break

4:15 p.m. - 5:30 p.m. Restoration Projects/Ecosystem — Tuscany D & E
       Environmental commitments and ecosystem restoration are increasingly becoming important chapters
       of water managers’ handbook on managing water resources. Whether the ecosystem relates to water
       resource development or water operations, it is important to interface with other partners in the
       planning, development and operational stages of water resource management. This session focuses
       on examples in northern and southern Nevada where water managers have met that challenge and
       how it relates to the water resource picture as a whole.
                                                      Activities & Schedule
                                             NWRA 2011 Annual Conference
                                               Water: A Matter of Perspective
       Moderator:    Janet Monaco, Muddy & Virgin Rivers Division, Surface Water Resources Department,
       Southern Nevada Water Authority
       ➢ Danielle Henderson, Natural Resources Manager, Truckee River Flood Project, “Integrating Ecosystem
         Restoration into Flood Management on the Truckee River”
       ➢ Mickey Hazelwood, Truckee River Project Director, The Nature Conservancy, “Truckee River Ecosystem
         Restoration: Creative Partnerships with Results”
       ➢ Dr. Robert Johnson, Warm Springs Natural Area Land Manager, Southern Nevada Water Authority,
         “Contributions of Restoration at the Warm Springs Natural Area Toward Moapa Dace Recovery”

5:30 p.m. – 7:30 p.m.     Artificial Recharge & Poster Reception — Exhibit Area, Tuscany F

 Thursday, February 3, 2011 Conference Schedule
7:00 a.m. – 8:00 a.m.     NWRA Annual 5K Run — Virginia Lake

7:30 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. Conference Registration — Tuscany Meeting Rooms Lobby

7:30 a.m. – 8:30 a.m.     Continental Breakfast — Exhibit Area, Tuscany F

8:30 a.m. – 9:45 a.m.     Technical Session D: Water Quality — Lake Mead & Environs — Tuscany D & E
       Moderator: Dwight Smith, Principal Hydrogeologist, Interflow Hydrology, Inc.
       ➢ Leigh Justet, U.S. Geological Survey, “Determining the Localized Nature of Groundwater Flow in Black Canyon
         Below Hoover Dam Using Geochemical, Geologic & Kinematic Approaches, Lake Mead National Recreation
         Area, NV-AZ”
       ➢ Michael Moran, U.S. Geological Survey, “Characterization of Lake Mead Water Quality Using Data Collected
         from Monitoring Platforms, 2004–2009”
       ➢ Todd Tietjen, Southern Nevada Water Authority, “The Influence of Water Density on the Fate of Las Vegas
         Wash Waters in Lake Mead”

8:30 a.m. – 9:45 a.m.     Technical Session E: Changing Hydrologic Conditions — Tuscany 10 & 11
       Moderator: Michael Johnson, Consulting Hydrogeologist
       ➢ Keith Halford, U.S. Geological Survey, “Effects of Groundwater Development — Not that Uncertain”
       ➢ Christine Hatch, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Reno, “Surface Water — Groundwater Interactions in Great Basin
         Mountain-Front Streams”
       ➢ Alexandra Lutz, Desert Research Institute, “Trends of Streamflow on the Carson River”

9:45 a.m. – 10:15 a.m. Networking Break — Exhibit Area, Tuscany F

10:15 a.m. – 11:45 a.m. Geothermal Resources & Development — Tuscany 10 & 11
       Panel members represent the State of Nevada and the geothermal industry. This panel will give an
       overview of geothermal projects in Nevada from regulatory, exploratory and operator perspectives.
       Members will provide conceptual discussions of power plant designs and operating criteria. This panel
                                                     Activities & Schedule
                                            NWRA 2011 Annual Conference
                                              Water: A Matter of Perspective
       will also address protection of potable aquifers, consumptive use and water rights, and other fresh
       water issues.
       Moderator: Brad Goetsch, Churchill County Manager, Fallon, Nevada
       ➢ Monte Morrison, Vice President, Magma Energy, “Geothermal Operations”
       ➢ Lowell Price, Oil, Gas & Geothermal Program Manager, Nevada Commission on Mineral Resources, Nevada
         Division of Minerals, “Geothermal Leases & Development”
       ➢ Lisa Shevenell, Ph.D., Nevada Bureau of Mines & Geology, Center for Geothermal Resources, “Geothermal
         Exploration”
       ➢ Russ Land, UIC Manager, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, “Geothermal Projects & Aquifer
         Protection”

10:15 a.m. – 11:45 a.m. Water Issues from a Local Policy Perspective — Tuscany D & E
       Dealing with water issues can be very complicated and technical but for local politicians the issues can
       be emotionally charged when having to deal with the public perspective and concerns. The panel will
       discuss some of the issues they have had to deal with as local elected officials as it pertains to setting
       local water policy.
       Moderator: Steve Bradhurst, Executive Director, Central Nevada Regional Water Authority
       ➢ Mike Olson, Douglas County Commissioner, Douglas, Nevada
       ➢ Norm Frey, Churchill County Commissioner, Fallon, Nevada
       ➢ Mike Carrigan, Council Member, City of Sparks, Nevada

12:00 p.m. – 1:30 p.m. Awards Luncheon & Elections, Mike Widmer, NWRA President— Capri Ballroom

1:45 p.m. – 3:15 p.m. Water Resource Development & Planning — Tuscany D & E
       Surface water and groundwater importation: The need to diversify water resources and the requirement
       to draw on resources outside of an entity’s service area. Speakers will explore these concepts as well as
       ongoing projects being pursued by each entity.
       Moderator: Jeffrey Johnson, Water Management & Accounting Division Manager, Southern Nevada Water
       Authority
       ➢ Edwin James, General Manager, Carson Water Subconservancy District, “Working Together on a Regional
         Basis”
       ➢ Mark Foree, General Manager, Truckee Meadows Water Authority, “Resource & Drought Planning”
       ➢ John Entsminger, Assistant General Manager, Southern Nevada Water Authority, “Water Importation: Ordinary
         or Extraordinary”
       ➢ Corey Cram, Watershed Coordinator, Washington County Water Conservancy District, “Water Resource
         Planning in Washington County, Utah & the Lake Powell Pipeline”

3:15 p.m. – 3:30 p.m.    Closing Remarks & Adjourn — Tuscany D & E
                         Hugh Ricci, P.E., NWRA 2011 Conference Chairman

4:00 p.m. – 6:00 p.m.    NWRA Board of Directors Meeting — Valleyview, 1734
                                                          Poster Presenters
                     NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                          Water: A Matter of Perspective
                               Theodore H. Asch
 Audiomagnetotelluric Characterization of Range-Front Faults, Snake Range, Nevada


                                      Brooke Eustis
                               Terrestrial-Aquatic Linkages:
Effects of Geologic, Soil & Ecosystem Structure on Nutrient Transport & Lake Production


                              Donald S. Sweetkind
          Geologic & Geophysical Characterization of Basin-Filling Deposits,
                     Southern Snake & Hamlin Valleys, Nevada


                                     Keith White
                Chalk Creek Sulfate Reducing Pilot Treatment Wetland
                                                                                            Poster Presentations
                                         NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                                                              Water: A Matter of Perspective
 Audiomagnetotelluric Characterization                                                Terrestrial-Aquatic Linkages:
        of Range-Front Faults,                                                    Effects of Geologic, Soil & Ecosystem
        Snake Range, Nevada                                                          Structure on Nutrient Transport
                                                                                            & Lake Production
                    Theodore H. Asch
                  Research Geophysicist                                                            Brooke Eustis
                  U.S. Geological Survey                                                   Candidate for Master’s Degree
            Denver Federal Center, Mail Stop 964                                    Environmental Sciences Graduate Program
                 Denver, Colorado 80225                                                      University of Nevada, Reno
                     tasch@usgs.gov                                             1000 Valley Road, Mail Stop 186, Reno, Nevada 89512
                       303-236-2489                                                            bneustis@gmail.com
                                                                                                   808-426-3469
                      Donald S. Sweetkind
                      U.S. Geological Survey
                                                                               This project assesses macro- and micro-nutrient sources in the ter-
                                                                               restrial area of a small sub-alpine watershed and estimates nutrient
Two controlled-source audio-magnetotelluric (CSAMT) profiles                   input to a lake through measurements of soil and bedrock runoff,
were collected on the eastern flank of the Snake Range in eastern              snowmelt, and rainfall. In natural systems, nutrients mostly originate
Nevada across geologically complex terrain to investigate the sus-             from mineral weathering and atmospheric deposition and are cycled
pected presence of faults along the range front. The location of the           (transported, recycled and/or concentrated) through water inflows
range-bounding faults is not easily determined on geologic grounds             and outflows, windblown dust and ash, mobile biota, soil formation
because of the presence of extensive young sedimentary cover and               and erosion, and vegetation uptake and litterfall. Specifically, this
overall geologic complexity. Characterization of the presence, loca-           project compares surface runoff and groundwater nutrient signa-
tion, and structural style of the range-front faults is critical to assess-    tures from differing geologic, soil, and vegetative habitat types in a
ment of connectivity of groundwater aquifers near the mountain                 minimally-impacted watershed for a period of two years. We evalu-
front and in adjacent alluvial basins. A total of 48 CSAMT soundings           ate nitrogen, phosphorus, and micronutrient concentrations and
were recorded along two lines that were chosen to maximize sub-                lake loading from multiple sampling locations, seasons and years. We
surface geologic information. We interpret two generations of faults           also examine how these variables affect lake productivity through
on the basis of the CSAMT data, an older, low-angle fault that is cut          a series of C-14 bioassay experiments. Understanding nutrient be-
by a younger, more steeply dipping fault. Lack of deep boreholes in            havior and transport at the watershed scale reveals the potential for
the region required that the subsurface interpretation rely on anal-           environmental change to affect nutrient cycling and, consequently,
ogy from surface outcrops within and adjacent to study area. The               biotic diversity, foodweb dynamics, and ecosystem productivity.
success of CSAMT method as applied here hinged on near-ideal col-              From these data, a nutrient budget based on current hydrologic (i.e.,
lection conditions, the relatively high contrast in electrical resistivity     climatic) conditions can be developed and alterations to the overall
provided by the rock types involved, and well-developed geologic               system equilibrium resulting from climate change, forestry practices,
conceptual models of the region.                                               atmospheric inputs, and/or other influences can be assessed.
                                                                                       Poster Presentations
                                      NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                                                         Water: A Matter of Perspective
Geologic & Geophysical Characterization                                        Chalk Creek Sulfate Reducing Pilot
  of Basin-Filling Deposits, Southern                                                 Treatment Wetland
    Snake & Hamlin Valleys, Nevada
                                                                                                   Keith White
                 Donald S. Sweetkind                                                         Environmental Analyst,
                   Research Geologist                                                  JBR Environmental Consultants, Inc.
                 U.S. Geological Survey                                                595 Double Eagle Court, Suite 2000
           Denver Federal Center, Mail Stop 973                                               Reno, Nevada 89521
                Denver, Colorado 80225                                                        kwhite@jbrenv.com
                 dsweetkind@usgs.gov                                                              775-747-5777
                      303-236-1828
                                                                          The Chalk Creek drains 2,967 acres on the south slope of Peavine
                      Russell W. Plume                                    Mountain in northwest Reno, Nevada and discharges to the Truckee
                                                                          River. The Cities of Reno and Sparks have monitored the watersheds
                    U.S. Geological Survey
                                                                          draining to the Truckee River, and identified Chalk Creek as a source
                                                                          of elevated total dissolved solids (TDS), total nitrogen, and total phos-
                      Theodore H. Asch                                    phorous to the Truckee River, a river with established total maximum
                    U.S. Geological Survey                                daily loads (TMDLs) for these same constituents. The Nevada Division
                                                                          of Environmental Protection’s (NDEP) 2006 303d list of impaired water
                                                                          bodies has listed Chalk Creek for sulfate, ortho-phosphorus, TDS, and
The USGS, in cooperation with the National Park Service, is evaluat-      selenium. Within the watershed, the sources of surface water flow
ing basin-fill aquifers, their connection with surface-water resources    and these constituents of concern are unclear. A watershed charac-
and carbonate-rock aquifers in southern Snake Valley, Nevada. The         terization was performed to identify likely flow, TDS, and nutrient
extent, type, thickness, and geometry of basin-filling sediments of       sources, and evaluate potential mitigation measures to reduce TDS
Hamlin Valley and southern Snake Valley were interpreted from a           and nutrient loading to the Truckee for the benefit of the non-point
wide variety of geologic and geophysical data. Seismic data allow         source reduction component of the Truckee River TMDL. The City of
the delineation of three unconformity-bounded sedimentary se-             Reno, UNR Department of Environmental Engineering, and JBR Envi-
quences: an Oligocene to early Miocene anhydrite-bearing lacus-           ronmental Consultants, Inc. designed and constructed a pilot sulfate
trine sequence, overlain by two Miocene and Pliocene(?) alluvial se-      reducing wetland system, funded by the Truckee River Fund, to treat
quences. Shallow Quaternary sediments are not seismically imaged;         the elevated concentrations of sulfate (2,500 mg/L) found in Chalk
their character is known from well data.                                  Creek. The findings from monitoring this pilot treatment wetland
                                                                          may allow for the development of a larger wetland habitat within the
                                                                          watershed and evaluate sulfate reduction potential in a metal-lim-
                                                                          ited system. Watershed characterization findings, along with design
                                                                          and initial results of the pilot wetland monitoring will be presented.

                                                                          The two valleys have contrasting basin-filling and faulting his-
                                                                          tories. Oligocene volcanic rocks and the lacustrine sedimentary
                                                                          sequence are only present beneath Hamlin Valley, whereas south-
                                                                          ern Snake Valley is dominated by younger alluvial sequences.
                                                                          Range-front faulting in southern Snake Valley is young, post-
                                                                          dating Miocene motion on the southern Snake Range detach-
                                                                          ment, whereas fault motion was older along the west side of
                                                                          Hamlin Valley where Miocene and Pliocene(?) basin fill onlaps
                                                                          older, faulted basin-fill deposits and Paleozoic carbonate rocks.

                                                                          Throughout Hamlin Valley the water table lies within the shallow-
                                                                          est Miocene and Pliocene(?) deposits, which are coarse alluvial fan
                                                                          deposits. Interpretation of basin-fill units suggests that groundwater
                                                                          moving eastward through the Limestone Hills from Spring Valley to
                                                                          Snake and Hamlin Valleys would encounter a permeable Cenozoic
                                                                          basin-fill between 700 and 1000 m thick. In central and southern
                                                                          Hamlin Valley, the underlying thick anhydrite unit may serve as the
                                                                          lower limit of the shallow active flow system.
                                             Student Poster Presenters
                     NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                          Water: A Matter of Perspective
                                Omar Al-Qudah
  Surface Water & Groundwater Interaction in the Amargosa Desert Vicinity, Nevada

                                 Jordan Beamer
Comparison of Methods for Estimating Evapotranspiration Using Remote Sensing Data

                                    Kayla D. Berry
Assessing Western U.S. Interstate River Watershed Cooperation for Water Quality Issues

                                   Arica B. Crootof
         Evaluating Lake Suitability for Aquaculture in Khorezm, Uzbekistan

                                    Rajan Devkota
          Calibration & Validation of a Partially Urbanized Watershed Using a
              Physically-Based Distributed Parameter Hydrologic Model

                                  Wesley R. Henson
                     Soil-Zone Flow (SZF) Package for MODFLOW

                          Sabrina McCue & Julie Ruiz
           Determining Water Quality Impairment in Mixed Use Landscape

                                Michael S. Potts
       Groundwater & Surface Water Interactions on the East Fork Carson River,
                              Carson Valley, Nevada

                                   Jasmine Sharp
                 Affects of Rotenone on Aquatic Invertebrates Within
                   the Warm Springs Natural Area, Moapa, Nevada

                                 Jasmine C. Vittori
    Using a Water Balance Model Approach with Tree-Ring Records to Reconstruct
                   Past Streamflow in the Upper Walker River Basin
                                                                           Student Poster Presentations
                                          NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                                                                 Water: A Matter of Perspective
        Surface Water & Groundwater                                                Comparison of Methods for Estimating
     Interaction in the Amargosa Desert                                              Evapotranspiration Using Remote
               Vicinity, Nevada                                                               Sensing Data

                   Omar Al-Qudah                                                                     Jordan Beamer
         Environmental Science & Engineering                                                    Desert Research Institute
              University of Texas at El Paso                                                 Division of Hydrologic Sciences
    500 West University Avenue, El Paso, Texas 79968                                  2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, Nevada 89512-1095
                omal@miners.utep.edu                                                             Jordan.Beamer@dri.edu
                                                                                                      775-673-7680
                          John Walton
                   University of Texas at El Paso                                                        Charles Morton
                                                                                                      Desert Research Institute
                         Arturo Woocay
                   University of Texas at El Paso                                                       Justin Huntington
                                                                                                      Desert Research Institute
                   John Klenke
  Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office                              In large arid areas of the U.S., demand for water has increased to the
                                                                                  where surface sources no longer provides ample supply. ET utilizes
Accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are a necessary compo-                 groundwater supplies through soil evaporation and plant transpiration.
nent to the understanding of long-term sustainability of groundwater              Estimating the annual evapotranspiration (ET) in arid and semi-arid en-
resources and predictions of groundwater flow rates and flow direc-               vironments is important for managing water resources. In this study we
tions. The Amargosa Desert regional groundwater studies show that                 used satellite data and ground-based flux tower measurements (eddy
the surface runoff infiltration does occur in the arroyos following runoff        covariance and Bowen ratio) to estimate ET in three different areas lo-
producing storms, and this infiltration is considered to be a major source        cated in western and eastern Nevada.
of groundwater recharge. The present study attempts to investigate
how water chemistry evolves during the surface runoff and infiltration            Surface energy balance (SEB) and vegetation indices (VI) are two com-
processes, in the vicinity of the Amargosa Desert. In this ongoing study,         mon methods for estimating ET using satellite data. The purpose of this
sixty surface runoff samplers (SRS) were installed at thirty different lo-        study is to compare these methods for estimating annual ET and high-
cations in the vicinity of the Amargosa Desert to capture the surface             light strengths and weaknesses in both methods. The SEB approach
runoff water, which we believe is an important source of groundwater              used is based on the Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution
recharge in the area. The sampling process included sediment, precipi-            with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) model, which estimates ET as a
tation, and SRS water samples. In total, 275 SRS, 182 sediment, and 45            residual of the energy balance. METRIC has been shown to produce ac-
precipitation samples were collected between February, 2009 and Jan-              curate results in agricultural and riparian settings. The VI approach used
uary, 2010. Analysis of chloride and the stable isotopes of water show            is based on statistical relationships between annual ET and NDVI. The
substantial overlap of values with underlying groundwater consistent              VI approaches have also shown to produce fairly accurate estimates of
with the concept that infiltration of surface runoff is a major contributor       ET for various vegetation types, however consideration for spatial varia-
to groundwater recharge in the study area. Groundwater ion concentra-             tions in potential ET and precipitation amount are generally ignored,
tions represent a large collage of infiltration events occurring over time,       leading to restrictions in their application. In this work we develop a VI
and exact matches with surface runoff samples is unlikely. The SRS de-            approach that considers the study area potential ET and precipitation
sign proved its ability to function in arid weather conditions and capture        amount and compare this approach to METRIC and flux tower estimates
surface-runoff. Further sample collection, statistical analysis, and infiltra-    of annual ET for several arid phreatophyte shrubs and irrigated agricul-
tion modeling will be required to fully describe the evolution of water           ture settings.
chemistry between infiltration and old groundwater.
                                                                       Student Poster Presentations
                                        NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                                                            Water: A Matter of Perspective
      Assessing Western U.S. Interstate                                           Evaluating Lake Suitability for
      River Watershed Cooperation for                                           Aquaculture in Khorezm, Uzbekistan
            Water Quality Issues
                                                                                                 Arica B. Crootof
                     Kayla D. Berry                                                   Graduate Program of Hydrologic Sciences
                    Graduate Student                                                           University of Nevada
         Graduate Program of Hydrologic Sciences                                      1664 North Virginia Street, Mail Stop 186
                  University of Nevada                                                          Reno, Nevada 89557
         1664 North Virginia Street, Mail Stop 186                                             acrootof@gmail.com
                   Reno, Nevada 89557                                                              518-229-7764
                   kadibee@gmail.com
                      608-345-6896                                                                    Laurel Saito
                                                                                                University of Nevada Reno
                     Laurel Saito, Ph.D., P.E.
                      University of Nevada                                                            Michael Rosen
                                                                                                   U.S. Geological Survey
                    Derek Kauneckis, Ph.D.
                     University of Nevada                                                            Eric Marchand
                                                                                                University of Nevada Reno
Over the last century the country’s approach to environmental manage-
ment has changed considerably, especially regarding the concept of                         Bakhriddin Nishonov
restoring watershed health. Today’s watershed management has meta-             Hydrometeorological Research Institute, Uzbekistan
morphosed from a federal command and control structure to a more
bottom-up process where citizen-based entities are playing a more ac-                           John Lamers
tive role in water resource management. Water resource management is
                                                                                   ZEF-UNESCO German-Uzbek Khorezm Project,
complicated by differing beliefs between stakeholders as to how water
should be used and managed. This situation becomes more difficult in                             Uzbekistan
interstate watersheds when two or more states share a water resource.
A variety of cooperative mechanisms can be implemented to mitigate                                 Dilorom Fayzieva
and resolve water conflicts in interstate river watersheds. Cooperative                Institute for Water Problems, Uzbekistan
activities range from informal data sharing to federally mandated agree-
ments. To understand when and how cooperation occurs, a phone sur-
vey was administered to determine what characteristics are critical for      Aquaculture is currently the world’s fastest growing animal-producing
developing and implementing successful cooperative activities within         sector. Establishing aquaculture in rural communities has been shown
the Carson, Klamath, Owyhee, Truckee, Virgin and Walla Walla River           to increase food supply and provide an alternative income source. De-
watersheds. Stakeholders in these watersheds provided information            veloping aquaculture in the Khorezm province of Uzbekistan could
regarding their knowledge of and participation in cooperative activi-        benefit the local community and economy. Khorezm has over 450 small
ties related to water quality management. Results are being analyzed to      lakes that could be used for rearing fish, such as cyprinids, potentially
determine the degree of cooperation present in each watershed and            leading to increased local fish consumption and economy diversifica-
the importance of factors associated with cooperative activities such        tion. To assess lake suitability for aquaculture, a subset of 13 lakes were
as the impetus for cooperation, the types of organizations involved, the     sampled in 2006-2010 to determine water quality along with physical
presence (or absence) of a facilitator, and the stakeholder’s perceptions    and biological properties. Preliminary results from water and sediment
of success. Research findings will aid in identifying under what circum-     samples indicate that contaminants in the 13 lakes are at low levels.
stances successful interstate river watershed cooperation occurs, with       These results, combined with the presence of pelagic food webs, sug-
particular attention paid to recommendations for cooperation on the          gest that the lakes are capable of sustaining healthy cyprinid popula-
Truckee River watershed.                                                     tions. Analyzing lake temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH, nutri-
                                                                             ent, pesticide, trace metal and lake core data will help determine the
                                                                             suitability of aquaculture development in Khorezm.
                                                                     Student Poster Presentations
                                       NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                                                           Water: A Matter of Perspective
  Calibration & Validation of a Partially                                             Soil-Zone Flow (SZF) Package
      Urbanized Watershed Using a                                                            for MODFLOW
 Physically-Based Distributed Parameter
            Hydrologic Model                                                                 Wesley R. Henson
                                                                                  Student Hydrologist, University of Nevada
                                                                                           U.S. Geological Survey
                      Rajan Devkota
                                                                                        Nevada Water Science Center
         Graduate Program of Hydrologic Sciences
                                                                             2730 North Deer Run Road, Carson City, Nevada 89701
                    University of Nevada
                                                                                             whenson@usgs.gov
            Mail Stop 186, Reno, Nevada 89557
                                                                                                775-887-7632
                 rajandevkota@gmail.com
                       337-356-6056
                                                                                                 Richard G. Niswonger
                                                                                                 U.S. Geological Survey
                  Emad Habib, Ph.D., P.E.
             University of Louisiana at Lafayette
                                                                            A perched aquifer often develops in the soil zone during periods of
                                                                            heavy rainfall, delivering interflow to channels in a watershed. The
Recent advances in computer and geographic information system               soil zone has been described as the upper most region of the vadose
(GIS) technology have widely influenced hydrological modeling. This         zone where plant and soil processes enhance storage and perme-
has led to the development of different physically-based distributed        ability, providing a fast pathway for water and solutes to streams.
parameter hydrologic models. The purpose of this study was to de-           The soil zone connects the land surface to the deeper unsaturated,
velop and evaluate a hydrologic model for a mid-sized partially ur-         and saturated zones. Modeling of soil-zone processes has been
banized watershed using a physically-based distributed parameter            used to gain understanding of watershed hydrologic processes.
hydrologic model called Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic
Analysis (GSSHA). The watershed selected for this study was the             Currently MODFLOW does not simulate dynamic near-surface hydro-
McAlpine Creek watershed near Pineville in southern North Caro-             logic processes such as, infiltration, hortonian runoff, dunnian runoff,
lina. The drainage area of McAlpine Creek is 239.5 km2. The model           and return flow. The Soil-Zone Flow package (SZF) for MODFLOW is be-
used rainfall from rain gauges as the input and was calibrated and          ing developed to address these major components of hillslope hydrol-
validated with data from stream gages around the study area. Dur-           ogy for simulating watershed processes in the context of basin-scale
ing calibration, it appeared that an urban sub-watershed in the main        groundwater-flow modeling. This package extends MODFLOW capa-
watershed was causing simulation of early runoff generation at the          bilities to simulate soil-zone processes in short time steps that are inte-
outlet. Hence in the calibration process, a framework was developed         grated to the much longer daily or weekly time steps typically used in
so that the model was first calibrated for the interior urbanized sub-      MODFLOW. The SZF package can use available data at finer time scales
watershed, which improved overall model calibration for the entire          so precipitation is properly distributed between infiltration and runoff.
watershed. GSSHA-simulated discharge from the calibrated model              The ability to examine effects of urban land use changes on basin hy-
showed close agreement with measured flows at four stream gages             drology is also provided through implementation of impervious surfac-
which included gages at interior watershed locations that were not          es, simulating areas where precipitation does not interact with the soil
part of the calibration process. In addition, tests of model sensitivity    surface and becomes runoff. The SZF package is intended to be used in
indicated it was highly sensitive to the size of grid resolution. Thus,     basin scale MODFLOW Simulations for efficiently simulating watershed
the results suggest that the calibration of the model is highly affect-     hydrologic processes, especially those processes that partition rainfall
ed by the scale on which it is performed.                                   into evapotranspiration, runoff, and recharge.
                                                                         Student Poster Presentations
                                         NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                                                              Water: A Matter of Perspective
 Determining Water Quality Impairment                                                 Groundwater & Surface Water
       in Mixed Use Landscape                                                      Interactions on the East Fork Carson
                                                                                       River, Carson Valley, Nevada
                Sabrina McCue & Julie Ruiz
               Students, University of Nevada                                                     Michael S. Potts
                   College of Agriculture                                       Student Hydrologic Technician, U.S. Geological Survey
             Biotechnology & Natural Resources                                              Nevada Water Science Center
                       Reno, Nevada                                               2730 N. Deer Run Road, Carson City, Nevada 89701
                                                                                                 mspotts@usgs.gov
The Alum Creek watershed lies on the border of the Sierra Nevada                                   775-887-7642
range and the municipality of Reno, Nevada. Alum Creek is a tribu-
tary, almost 5.5 miles in length, to the Truckee River. The creek flows
                                                                                                   Nancy L. Alvarez
through Caughlin Ranch, a 2300-acre community that has multiple
land uses, including single family residences, commercial zones, food            U.S. Geological Survey, Nevada Water Science Center
services, recreational facilities and green space (Walker et al. 2009). The
watershed can be divided into 3 major sections:                                                    Michael R. Rosen
                                                                                 U.S. Geological Survey, Nevada Water Science Center
1.   Primarily undeveloped lands managed by the USFS.
2.   Mixed use of undeveloped land and some residential housing. The
     Steamboat Ditch irrigation canal contributes water flow in this sec-                            Randy Pahl
     tion.                                                                            Nevada Division of Environmental Protection
3.   Completely urban development including residential and com-
     mercial uses. There is significant landscaping including turf and                                Genie Azad
     paved walking paths.
                                                                                          Carson Water Subconservancy District
Based on samples collected at the confluence with the Truckee River, the
Nevada Division of Environmental Protection included Alum Creek on a           A study is being conducted to determine the amount of groundwater
2006 list of impaired waters in the State of Nevada, as required by Sec-       discharging along a two-mile reach of the East Fork Carson River within
tion 303(d) of the Clean Water Act. Samples exceeded the standards set         Carson Valley, Nevada. Preliminary results suggest that during low flows,
to protect the Truckee River for E. coli and other contaminants. The sourc-    from late July through the end of September, streamflow losses occurred
es of these impairments have not been identified (Walker et al. 2009).         at the upper and lower transects, with streamflow at the middle transect
                                                                               gaining or remaining static. Along reaches where the stream is gaining,
The purpose of this poster is to identify the section of the Alum Creek        groundwater discharge to the stream will be estimated using Darcy’s
watershed where E. coli enters the stream flow and identify potential          law. The gradients between the water table and the river and the hydrau-
causes of the contamination. In this poster we analyze E. coli sampling        lic conductivity are being evaluated using water level and temperature
results from five locations sampled biweekly from May – October, 2010.         data collected from a network of piezometers. The water-level data will
                                                                               aid in understanding temporal and spatial variance in groundwater flow
                                                                               gradients, as well as determining when and where streamflow gains or
                                                                               losses occur. By comparing the amplitude ratio and phase shift between
                                                                               surface and groundwater temperatures the hydraulic conductivity
                                                                               can be estimated. These data can be compared with traditional slug
                                                                               test methods to develop accurate estimates of hydraulic conductivity.

                                                                               Shallow drive point piezometers were installed on the left bank, on the
                                                                               right bank, and one approximately in the center of the stream channel
                                                                               along three transects. Each piezometer has a one foot screen, the top
                                                                               of which is positioned approximately two feet below land surface. Con-
                                                                               tinuous temperature and water level data was collected in all wells and
                                                                               in the stream at each transect. Manual water level measurements were
                                                                               also recorded during each site visit.
                                                                       Student Poster Presentations
                                        NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                                                             Water: A Matter of Perspective
     Affects of Rotenone on Aquatic                                            Using a Water Balance Model Approach
 Invertebrates Within the Warm Springs                                         with Tree-Ring Records to Reconstruct
      Natural Area, Moapa, Nevada                                               Past Streamflow in the Upper Walker
                                                                                             River Basin
                     Jasmine Sharp
            Intern, Surface Water Resources                                                       Jasmine C. Vittori
           Southern Nevada Water Authority                                            Graduate Student of Environmental Science
 100 City Parkway, Suite 700, Las Vegas, Nevada 89106                                Natural Resources & Environmental Science,
                      702-691-5354                                                           University of Nevada, Reno
                                                                                        1664 N. Virginia Street, Mail Stop 0186
Acquired by the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) in 2007,                                  Reno, Nevada 89557
the Warm Springs Natural Area (WSNA) is committed to the recovery                         jasmine@unr.edu • 775-224-3282
of the endangered Moapa dace (Moapa coriacea), as well as several
other rare aquatic species including several endemic invertebrates. In
October 2010, the Nevada Division of Wildlife in cooperation with the                           Laurel Saito, Ph.D., P.E.
US Fish and Wildlife Service and the SNWA conducted two rotenone                      Natural Resources & Environmental Science
treatments to eradicate non-native, invasive fish species along the up-                       University of Nevada, Reno
per Muddy River to assist in the recovery of the Moapa dace. Rotenone,
a root extract, is commonly used as a piscicide in fisheries management
                                                                                             Franco Biondi, Ph.D., Geography
but can also inadvertently impact non-targeted aquatic invertebrates.
                                                                                                University of Nevada, Reno
Benthic macro-invertebrates were sampled one week prior to the initial
rotenone treatment as well as the day following treatment for each of         Understanding historic streamflows can be useful for determining re-
the two treatment days. Resampling was scheduled monthly thereaf-             gional patterns of climate and streamflow trends, yet measured stream-
ter. Invertebrates were sampled using a 30cm2Surber bottom sampler.           flow data in a given basin are typically either unavailable or cover less
Samples were collected from three riffles within the treatment area           than 100 years. Regressions of observed streamflows against tree-ring
reach: an upper, middle, and lower riffle, plus a control site from a non-    data, which serve as proxies for streamflow, can be used to extend the
treated tributary. Six samples were collected per site. Species richness      measured record. This empirical approach cannot, however, test or ac-
and abundance was analyzed and comparisons made against pre and               count for factors that do not directly affect tree-ring growth, but which
post treatments, as well as treated versus untreated reaches. The study       may influence streamflow. Such factors include evapotranspiration and
will continue for several years to monitor recovery rates and determine       infiltration. To reconstruct past streamflows in a more mechanistic way,
the long term affects of rotenone on rare endemics.                           a seasonal water balance model has been developed for the upper West
                                                                              Walker River basin that can use proxy precipitation and air temperature
                                                                              data derived from tree-ring records. The model incorporates simplistic
                                                                              relationships between temperature, precipitation, and other compo-
                                                                              nents of the hydrologic cycle, and operates at a seasonal time scale.
                                                                              An advantage of this approach is the ability to investigate sources of
                                                                              uncertainty in streamflow reconstructions by manipulating various hy-
                                                                              drologic processes and land-use characteristics. The model also allows
                                                                              investigation of how climate-independent factors such as changes in
                                                                              land-use could influence estimates of past flows, something regression-
                                                                              based models are not able to do. In addition, use of a mechanistic water
                                                                              balance model with proxy climate reconstructions can provide useful
                                                                              information on changes in various components of the water cycle, in-
                                                                              cluding the interaction between runoff, snowmelt, and evapotranspira-
                                                                              tion under warmer climatic regimes.
                                                             Technical Sessions Index
                             NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                                       Water: A Matter of Perspective
                  Technical Session A: Water Use, Population Growth & Resource Planning

                            John Enloe, P.E., Washoe County Regional Water Balance
                             Catherine Hansford, What is a Reasonable Water Rate?
                              Joseph Leedy, Clark County Water Quality Planning
                 Lisa Shevenell, Ph.D., Water Use Strategies in Geothermal Power Generation
                Geoffrey S. Kinsey, Addressing the Coming Clash Between Solar Energy & Water



                                   Technical Session B: Stream Restoration

  Nancy Alvarez, Assessment of Eutrophication & the Role of Groundwater Derived Nutrients for Algal Growth
                                in the East Fork Carson River, Carson Valley, Nevada
                Mark Gookin, P.E., CFM, Lake Forest Creek Restoration of Historic Stream Channel
                   Glen Daily, Oxbow Park Streambank & Infrastructure Protection Project
Lynell Garfield-Qualls, M.S., Bioreactors: Not Just for Mining Anymore! The Chalk Creek Sulfate Reducing Wetland
                                                     Pilot Project



                         Technical Session C: Remote Sensing & Meteorological Data

Justin Huntington, Towards Updating & Enhancing Existing Agricultural Consumptive Use & Basin Water Budget
                                   Estimates Throughout the State of Nevada
 Adam Sullivan, P.E., Quantifying Agricultural Consumptive Use Using Remote Sensing to Support Water Right
                                       Changes in the Walker River Basin
  C. David Moeser & Mark Walker, Development, Analysis & Use of a Distributed Wireless Sensor Network for
  Quantifying Spatial Trends of Snow Depth & Snow Water Equivalence Around Meteorological Stations With &
                                       Without Snow Sensing Equipment



                         Technical Session D: Water Quality — Lake Mead & Environs

Leigh Justet, Determining the Localized Nature of Groundwater Flow in Black Canyon Below Hoover Dam Using
         Geochemical, Geologic & Kinematic Approaches, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, NV–AZ
              Michael Moran, Characterization of Lake Mead Water Quality Using Data Collected
                                   from Monitoring Platforms, 2004–2009
       Todd Tietjen, The Influence of Water Density on the Fate of Las Vegas Wash Waters in Lake Mead



                            Technical Session E: Changing Hydrologic Conditions

                 Keith Halford, Effects of Groundwater Development — Not that Uncertain
   Christine Hatch, Ph.D., Surface Water — Groundwater Interactions in Great Basin Mountain-Front Streams
                           Alexandra Lutz, Trends of Streamflow on the Carson River
                                                                          Technical Session A:
                                           Water Use, Population Growth & Resource Planning
                                                         Water: A Matter of Perspective
                           1:30 p.m. – 2:45 p.m. Wednesday, February 2

                               Washoe County Regional Water Balance

                                                John Enloe, P.E.
                                       ECO:LOGIC Engineering, now Stantec
                                  10381 Double R Boulevard, Reno, Nevada 89521
                                            john.enloe@stantec.com
                                                  775-827-2311

                                                Jim Smitherman
                                   Northern Nevada Water Planning Commission

An analysis as to whether the forecasted population can be supported by the sustainable water resources was done
in response to Truckee Meadows Regional Plan amendments adopted by the Washoe County Regional Planning Gov-
erning Board in January 2010. The amendments provide for a comparison between the Consensus Forecast and the
estimated population that can be supported by the sustainable water resources available within Washoe County.

For the Washoe County Regional Water Management Plan, an estimate of future water demands and wastewater flows
at the treatment plants consistent with the Consensus Forecast population projection has been compiled for the
Truckee Meadows municipal service area. A Regional Water Balance Flow Diagram has also been developed, which is
a graphical representation of the existing conditions and the projected 2030 future conditions for the water supply,
wastewater treatment, reclaimed water and wastewater disposal requirements. The Regional Water Balance is useful
to understand the following issues:

    •   How much potable water is used today, and in what locations?

    •   From which sources does the potable water originate, and once used, where does it go for wastewater treat-
        ment?

    •   Following treatment, how much of the water is reused, and where is the balance disposed of?

    •   Are there future imbalances in water supply, wastewater disposal or reclaimed water usage, and if so, in
        which Planning Areas?

    •   Are there Planning Areas with adequate capacity to address imbalances?

Conclusions from the Regional Water Balance analysis will be presented.
                                                                             Technical Session A:
                                              Water Use, Population Growth & Resource Planning
                                                            Water: A Matter of Perspective
                               1:30 p.m. – 2:45 p.m. Wednesday, February 2

                                     What is a Reasonable Water Rate?

                                                  Catherine Hansford
                                                        Principal
                                              Hansford Economic Consulting
                                        P.O. Box 10384, Truckee, California 96162
                                              catherine@hansfordecon.com
                                                      530-412-3676

At its September 14, 2010, meeting, the Nevada Board for Financing Water Projects changed a critical requirement for
the AB 198 Grant Program in its policies. The grant program requires that applicants demonstrate they have reason-
able water rates that are adequate to cover the long term operations and maintenance costs, debt service costs, and
infrastructure replacement costs of the water system. The user rates must also be affordable. This presentation dis-
cusses the grant program policy, how and why it was revised, and its implication for Nevada water providers.

During this period of economic hardship many water providers and their customers are questioning, and some chal-
lenging: what is a reasonable water rate, and how can that be balanced with affordability? It is a topic that has recently
garnered national attention as water providers grapple with increasing costs and reduced household incomes. What is
reasonable and affordable to water customers is different across the US; definitions are driven by sociology and geol-
ogy, by State laws and local policy makers.

Water providers are typically faced with costs that exceed the inflation rate, oftentimes significantly so, as labor costs,
power costs, and costs associated with complying with increasingly stringent water quality regulations are incurred.
New capital projects can place a tremendous financial burden on communities, particularly small and rural communi-
ties. HEC sought the assistance of USDA Rural Utilities in Nevada to access a database of water provider rates to exam-
ine how communities fare against reasonable and affordable water rate definitions. Findings are presented.
                                                                          Technical Session A:
                                             Water Use, Population Growth & Resource Planning
                                                           Water: A Matter of Perspective
                            1:30 p.m. – 2:45 p.m. Wednesday, February 2

                                  Clark County Water Quality Planning

                                                   Joseph Leedy
                                                  Principal Planner
                                      Clark County Water Reclamation District
                                 5857 East Flamingo Road, Las Vegas, Nevada 89122
                                            jleedy@cleanwaterteam.com
                                                   702-668-8673

                                               Kathryn L. Hoffmann
                                       Clark County Water Reclamation District

In 1972, The Clean Water Act, as amended, provided that the discharge of pollutants to waters of the United States
from any point source is unlawful, unless the discharge is in compliance with a National Pollutant Discharge Elimina-
tion System (NPDES) permit. Stormwater runoff from the Las Vegas Valley discharges into waters of the United States,
requiring a NPDES permit from the Environmental Protection Agency. In compliance with these regulations, the Ne-
vada Division of Environmental Protection, issues a joint NPDES permit to the co-permitees of Clark County Regional
Flood Control District, the City of Las Vegas, the City of North Las Vegas, the City of Henderson, and Clark County. The
Clark County Water Quality Team has been assigned by the Board of County Commissioners to represent Clark County
on these matters.

In February of 2010, the Las Vegas Valley’s NPDES permit was revised to include several additional requirements. In
order to address these additional requirements, the co-permitees are required to produce a Stormwater Management
Plan, or SWMP, that describes how the permit requirements will be met. Through the SWMP compilation process,
which began in February 2010 and will conclude in September 2011, the complexity of the Las Vegas Valley’s storm-
water program has become evident.

The presenters will discuss issues of stormwater management in an arid environmental, including the local regulatory
structures and processes being used to meet the requirements of the NPDES permit.
                                                                            Technical Session A:
                                              Water Use, Population Growth & Resource Planning
                                                           Water: A Matter of Perspective
                              1:30 p.m. – 2:45 p.m. Wednesday, February 2

                      Water Use Strategies in Geothermal Power Generation

                                              Lisa Shevenell, Ph. D.
                                             Research Hydrogeologist
                              Nevada Bureau of Mines & Geology, University of Nevada
                                     Mail Stop 178, Reno, Nevada 89557-0088
                                                 lisaas@unr.edu
                                                  775-784-1779

There are three general types of geothermal power plants: Steam, Flash, and Binary-Cycle. Power plants that use steam
directly are the oldest and simplest type of power plant and this type was first deployed in the US at The Geysers, CA
in 1960. Steam from a geothermal well drives the turbine directly. Flash systems use hot fluids that are introduced into
a tank and “flashed” (rapidly boiled) to vaporize the water, which turns the turbine. For lower temperature geothermal
systems, a binary cycle system is typically deployed. These systems utilize a heat exchanger that allows the geothermal
fluid to heat a secondary working fluid that has a lower boiling point than water. This working fluid is then vaporized,
the steam from which turns the turbine. Both fluids are in a closed loop with no loss of water as all geothermal fluid
is re-injected into the reservoir. This is not the case in the steam and flash types of power plants in that some loss of
water is common (10-20%). Injection of additional fluid from other sources can be employed to maintain reservoir
pressures, and such is the practice at The Geysers, CA and Dixie Valley, NV. Binary cycle power plants will be preferred
in NV going forward because no geothermal fluid loss in the binary cycle, and the age of the geothermal waters in NV
is old (~10,000 years) and they will not experience modern recharge. Binary power plants can use air or water cooling.
Clearly, water cooled systems are not preferred in Nevada where water is already appropriated to other uses. Most
binary power plants in Nevada are currently air cooled, and future planned plants are expected to be air cooled.
                                                                           Technical Session A:
                                             Water Use, Population Growth & Resource Planning
                                                           Water: A Matter of Perspective
                            1:30 p.m. – 2:45 p.m. Wednesday, February 2

                  Addressing the Coming Clash Between Solar Energy & Water

                                                  Geoffrey S. Kinsey
                                         Director of Research & Development
                                                        Amonix
                                    1709 Apollo Court, Seal Beach, California 90740
                                                gkinsey@amonix.com

It’s easy to see why energy companies are pursuing utility-scale solar projects in Nevada: its deserts are soaked in sun-
shine, and it faces legal mandates under Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) to acquire more renewable electricity.
But Nevada also faces severely limited water supplies, and plants built with Concentrating Solar Power, (CSP water &
solar technology), require significant amounts of water. What emerges is an uncomfortable question for a state trying
to secure its energy and economic future: should it support a renewable resource with one that is finite and – in some
areas – increasingly scarce? Throughout the Southwest, developers and utilities are increasingly deploying Concen-
trated Photovoltaic (CPV) solar systems, which require no water in power production, use land better and produce
more energy per acre than any other solar technology. What is CPV solar, and does it have the potential to displace CSP
for utility-scale solar in sunny and dry climates?
                                                                         Technical Session B:
                                                                                        Stream Restoration
                                                         Water: A Matter of Perspective
                            3:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. Wednesday, February 2

       Assessment of Eutrophication & the Role of Groundwater Derived Nutrients
          for Algal Growth in the East Fork Carson River, Carson Valley, Nevada

                                                Nancy L. Alvarez
                                                   Hydrologist
                                             U.S. Geological Survey
                                          Nevada Water Science Center
                               2730 North Deer Run Road, Carson City, Nevada 89701
                                               nalvarez@usgs.gov
                                                  775-887-7644

                                                  Randy Pahl
                                   Nevada Division of Environmental Protection

                                                   Michael Potts
                                               U.S. Geological Survey

                                                  Michael Rosen
                                               U.S. Geological Survey

                                                   Genie Azad
                                       Carson Water Subconservancy District

The East Fork Carson River between Highway 88 and Muller Lane within the Carson Valley was one of the reaches of
the Carson River where the stream bottom was mostly covered by algae during the summer. In response to concerns
over the excessive amounts of algal growth and low dissolved oxygen concentrations in this reach, the U.S. Geological
Survey, Carson Water Subconservancy District, and Nevada Division of Environmental Protection have collaborated
to assess the level of eutrophication in this reach and determine whether groundwater is a source of nutrients to the
river. Preliminary results suggest complicated groundwater-surface water interactions during low flow conditions.
Groundwater nitrate plus nitrite concentrations ranged from <0.016 to 3 mg/L as nitrogen, while surface water nitrate
plus nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.032 to 0.089 mg/L as nitrogen. Groundwater dissolved orthophosphate
concentrations ranged from 0.019 to 0.148 mg/L as phosphorus, while surface water dissolved orthophosphate con-
centrations ranged from 0.018 to 0.038 mg/L as phosphorus. Groundwater ammonia concentrations ranged from
<0.020 to 0.105 mg/L as nitrogen, while surface water ammonia concentrations were less than 0.020 mg/L as nitrogen.
These data combined with estimates of groundwater discharge will be used to estimate nutrient contributions to the
stream from groundwater, and will be compared to nutrient loads in the river. Measurements of in-stream nutrient
concentrations, continuous temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH, and algal biomass will be used to characterize the
level of eutrophication, by comparing data to thresholds in the literature.
                                                                           Technical Session B:
                                                                                          Stream Restoration
                                                           Water: A Matter of Perspective
                            3:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. Wednesday, February 2

                    Lake Forest Creek Restoration of Historic Stream Channel

                                              Mark Gookin, P.E., CFM
                                                Principal Engineer
                                                Wood Rodgers, Inc.
                                   5440 Reno Corporate Drive, Reno, Nevada 89511
                                           mgookin@woodrodgers.com
                                                  775-823-9446

                                                    Amy Green, P.E.
                                                     Placer County

                                               Mary Horvath, P.E., CFM
                                                  Wood Rodgers

The Lake Forest Creek Stream Environment Zone (SEZ) restoration project was a unique effort to completely restore a
tributary creek to Lake Tahoe. During the 1960’s Lake Forest Creek was diverted into an underground storm drain to
accommodate proposed condominium development. The restoration effort, completed in 2009-2010, returned the
creek back to its historic flow path and its floodplain to a fully functioning ecosystem.

This project is part of an ongoing effort to reduce fine sediment and nutrient loading to Lake Tahoe in order to protect
the Lake’s legendary clarity. In addition to water quality features, the project included complimentary stream environ-
ment zone (SEZ) restoration and enhancement of wildlife habitat and recreational features. Daylighting the majority of
Lake Forest Creek flow from a storm drain back to its former channel/meadow path restored wet meadow conditions
to what had become a desiccated meadow.

A goal for the restoration was to return publicly-owned lakefront property to near its pre-1960s wet meadow condi-
tion, while protecting post-1960s residential and recreational infrastructure. Drainage patterns were modified from a
piped system into constructed surface channels and revegetated floodplain corridors. Riparian and habitat restora-
tion, engineering, and recreation design elements were combined to enhance this multiple use area.

The presentation will describe the project’s multi-objective constraints (stream restoration, infrastructure protection,
and recreational enhancement) and the integration of geomorphic analyses and design to meet the varied project
goals. Unique construction methods utilized in the project and the current status of the project’s revegetation will also
be presented.
                                                                           Technical Session B:
                                                                                          Stream Restoration
                                                           Water: A Matter of Perspective
                              3:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. Wednesday, February 2

                  Oxbow Park Streambank & Infrastructure Protection Project

                                                     Glen Daily, P.E.
                                               Associate Civil Engineer
                                                      City of Reno
                                       Public Works — Environmental Section
                                       1 East First Street, Reno, Nevada 89511
                                                    daily@reno.gov
                                                     775-334-2206

                                                  Jack Norber, P.E.
                                         Nichols Consulting Engineers, Chtd.

                                                 Christine Davis, P.E.
                                         Nichols Consulting Engineers, Chtd.

                                                    Matt Setty
                                         JBR Environmental Consultants, Inc.

                                                    Brian Boyd
                                         JBR Environmental Consultants, Inc.

The property occupied by the City’s Oxbow Park consists of parcels owned by the City of Reno as well as the Bureau
of Land Management (BLM). The Nevada Division of Wildlife (NDOW) is tasked with overseeing the use of parcels
within the park owned by the BLM and also conducts public educational programs on the property. The park setting is
unique in that it is considered a nature study area, therefore any projects must help preserve and enhance the natural
riparian setting. The park experienced significant flood damage and erosion during the January 1997 and 2006 flood
events. During the 1997 flood the Truckee River shifted north as much as 80 feet, resulting in the loss of approximately
two acres of park property, causing significant damage to park improvements and threatening a major sewer inter-
ceptor. In April 2008 a wildfire burned approximately 16 to 18 acres of the 22 acre park. The Phases 1 & 2 Oxbow Park
Restoration project completed earlier this year provided for bank stabilization riparian plantings along the section of
riverbank considered vulnerable to future scour action and within areas damaged by the wildfire event. The Phase 3
project constructed in the fall of 2010 implemented “bioengineering” approaches to streambank protection consist-
ing of rood wadds embedded in the streambank and riparian plantings. The Phase 3 project also includes a rock filled
refusal trench located proximal to the sanitary sewer interceptor to be a “fail safe” protection from future floods. The
project is funded entirely with grants from FEMA and the Truckee River Fund.
                                                                              Technical Session B:
                                                                                             Stream Restoration
                                                             Water: A Matter of Perspective
                             3:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. Wednesday, February 2

                            Bioreactors: Not Just for Mining Anymore!
                      The Chalk Creek Sulfate Reducing Wetland Pilot Project

                                             Lynell Garfield-Qualls, M.S.
                                                      Hydrologist
                                                      City of Reno
                                   Public Works, Environmental Engineering Division
                                                   1 East First Street
                                                  Reno, Nevada 89505
                                                  GarfieldL@reno.gov
                                                     775-334-3395

                                                      Matt Setty
                                           JBR Environmental Consultants, Inc.

                                                     Molly Reeves
                                           JBR Environmental Consultants, Inc.

The City of Reno initiated study and was awarded Truckee River Fund monies to build a sulfate-reducing wetland
on Chalk Creek in Northwest Reno. The pilot-level project addresses high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the
waters of Chalk Creek, which are mostly present as sulfate. JBR Environmental Consultants, Inc. provided design and
worked with a graduate student from the UNR Civil and Environmental Engineering Department to install and monitor
this bioreactor.

City staff identified Chalk Creek, a tributary to the Truckee River, as a contributor of total dissolved solids (TDS), nitro-
gen (N), and phosphorous (P) in 2006. The Truckee River has a numerical limit, or Total Maximum Daily Load, for N, P,
and TDS. Chalk Creek, a historically ephemeral creek turned perennial, flows through an area of geological significance.
This geologic layer is a source for naturally occurring salts including sulfate, which leach into Chalk Creek as seeps, a
result of urban irrigation. After much monitoring and a watershed study, the subsurface wetland was found to be the
most feasible way to reduce sulfate through an anaerobic reduction utilizing naturally occurring bacteria in the soil.
The wetland is designed to treat TDS in Chalk Creek by reducing sulfate. This pilot-scale project optimizes conditions
for maximum bacterial growth in-situ on the creek, and will evaluate the effectiveness of sulfate removal over time.

Monitoring results will be used to determine effectiveness, and the feasibility of either upscaling this wetland or creat-
ing similar wetlands in other watersheds that exhibit high TDS due to similar geology and urbanization patterns.
                                                                         Technical Session C:
                                                             Remote Sensing & Meteorological Data
                                                         Water: A Matter of Perspective
                             3:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. Wednesday, February 2

          Towards Updating & Enhancing Existing Agricultural Consumptive Use
            & Basin Water Budget Estimates Throughout the State of Nevada

                                                Justin Huntington
                                             Desert Research Institute
                                          Division of Hydrologic Sciences
                                     2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, Nevada 89512
                                            Justin.Huntington@dri.edu
                                                   775-673-7670

                                                 Adam Sullivan
                                        Nevada Division of Water Resources

                                                    Tim Minor
                                             Desert Research Institute

                                                  Todd Mihevc
                                             Desert Research Institute

                                                    Brad Lyles
                                             Desert Research Institute

                                                 Greg McCurdy
                                             Desert Research Institute

                                                    Rick Allen
                                                University of Idaho

                                                    Greg Pohll
                                             Desert Research Institute

                                                  Jim Thomas
                                             Desert Research Institute

Ongoing efforts of the Desert Research Institute, University of Idaho, and Nevada Division of Water Resources are
focused on updating and enhancing existing estimates of crop consumptive use and basin water budgets through-
out the state of Nevada. Updates and enhancements are primarily being performed by developing and applying
remote sensing techniques for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) from different crops and groundwater discharge
areas, with the development and operation of a long term agricultural meteorological network. This information will
potentially be used in a variety of ways from hydrological modeling, refining basin budgets, and water rights admin-
istration. This presentation gives an overview of ongoing activities regarding remote sensing efforts, development
and operation of an agricultural meteorological weather network, land cover and crop type mapping, and point of
diversion and place of use mapping.
                                                                            Technical Session C:
                                                              Remote Sensing & Meteorological Data
                                                           Water: A Matter of Perspective
                            3:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. Wednesday, February 2

      Quantifying Agricultural Consumptive Use Using Remote Sensing to Support
                    Water Right Changes in the Walker River Basin

                                                Adam Sullivan, P.E.
                                        Nevada Division of Water Resources
                                               State Engineer’s Office
                           901 South Stewart Street, Suite 2002, Carson City, Nevada 89701
                                              asullivan@water.nv.gov
                                                   775-684-2867

                                                Lindsay Gilbertson
                              Desert Research Institute, Division of Hydrologic Sciences

                                                   Charles Morton
                           Desert Research Institute, Division of Earth & Ecosystem Science

                                                Justin Huntington
                              Desert Research Institute, Division of Hydrologic Sciences

The Nevada State Engineer’s office is actively working with the Desert Research Institute to use space borne remote
sensing techniques to quantify consumptive use in the Walker Basin, in response to planned water right changes
associated with the Desert Terminal Lakes Program. This federal program supports increased flow to Walker Lake by
funding the purchase of upstream water rights (Public Law 110-234).

Consumptive use through evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the most uncertain variables in Walker Basin hydrologic
models. The METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration with Internalized Calibration) approach to estimate ET from multi-
spectral satellite data is applied to compute historic agricultural consumptive use. Results from METRIC are used to
develop actual ET maps for specific time periods, which can then be used to evaluate the range of actual ET by crop,
to determine irrigation efficiencies, or to estimate actual consumptive use by field or ditch service area. These results
will be used to calibrate surface and groundwater flow models and basin water budgets, improve hydrologic accu-
racy for water rights administration, and monitor effects of water right transfers to Walker Lake.
                                                                        Technical Session C:
                                                            Remote Sensing & Meteorological Data
                                                        Water: A Matter of Perspective
                             3:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. Wednesday, February 2

      Development, Analysis & Use of a Distributed Wireless Sensor Network for
     Quantifying Spatial Trends of Snow Depth & Snow Water Equivalence Around
         Meteorological Stations With & Without Snow Sensing Equipment

                                                C. David Moeser
                                              University of Nevada
                                  1664 North Virginia Street, Reno, Nevada 89557
                                            mwalker@cabnr.unr.edu
                                                  775-784-1938

                                                  Mark Walker
                                               University of Nevada

                                               Christian Skalka
                                              University of Vermont

A prototype wireless network of ultrasonic SD sensor nodes, Snowcloud, was deployed in the Sagehen Creek field
station, CA in order to examine small scale variability in SD and SWE arising from spatial and temporal changes in
state variables, including canopy cover, aspect, temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction and rela-
tive humidity. The Snowcloud nodes were tested to estimate SWE from SD around a meteorological station with and
without information from a snow pillow and ultrasonic SD sensor. Measurements from the snow pillow overestimated
SWE in the area by an average of 30%, with a maximum overestimation of 40% for the field area. Regression models
using SD information from the Snowcloud network accurately estimated SWE on the experimental site at the wireless
nodes and at all points along four snow courses, with a maximum root mean squared error (RMSE) of 2.7% for both
estimation scenarios. Estimations of SWE based on measurements from the snow pillow and the Snowcloud nodes
performed well with a RMSE of 1.2%. With the exception of SD, percent canopy closure to the north was the most sig-
nificant factor for predicting SWE around meteorological stations without snow sensing equipment.
                                                                          Technical Session D:
                                                             Water Quality — Lake Mead & Environs
                                                          Water: A Matter of Perspective
                             8:30 a.m. – 9:45 a.m. Thursday, February 3

         Determining the Localized Nature of Groundwater Flow in Black Canyon
        Below Hoover Dam Using Geochemical, Geologic & Kinematic Approaches,
                Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada - Arizona

                                                    Leigh Justet
                                                     Hydrologist
                                              U.S. Geological Survey
                                           Nevada Water Science Center
                               160 North Stephanie Street, Henderson, Nevada 89074
                                                 ljustet@usgs.gov
                                                   702-564-4628

                                                   James B. Paces
                                                U.S. Geological Survey

                                                     L. Sue Beard
                                                U.S. Geological Survey

Hot springs discharging into Black Canyon (BC) along the Colorado River below Hoover Dam support endemic ripar-
ian ecosystems in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Groundwater sources for BC springs were evaluated using
geochemical methods and groundwater flow in BC was evaluated using geologic mapping and kinematic analysis to
determine if groundwater development in southern NV and northwestern AZ will affect spring discharge.

Evaluation of major-ion, trace-element, perchlorate, and a suite of stable and radiogenic isotopic data indicates that
groundwater in northern BC is a mixture of Lake Mead water leaking through permeable volcanic rock surrounding
the dam and small amounts of groundwater circulating more deeply through Proterozoic or Tertiary basement. Analy-
sis of satellite imagery and geologic/kinematic data indicates most of this water discharges along the NW-striking
Palm Tree fault zone (PTFZ) located north of the Boulder City Pluton.

South of the PTFZ, groundwater flows through basement and layered volcanic rock. High dissolved solids in water
from southern BC springs could be derived from upward leakage of basement brines or from dissolution of evaporite
deposits in Tertiary basin-fill sediments located in the basin north of BC. A N-S striking fault along the west side of
BC may provide a conduit for north-to-south flow as well as upwelling thermal water from deeper parts of the flow
system. Chemical and geologic results indicate that a hydraulic connection between BC and the regional carbonate
aquifer is unlikely.
                                                                          Technical Session D:
                                                             Water Quality — Lake Mead & Environs
                                                          Water: A Matter of Perspective
                               8:30 a.m. – 9:45 a.m. Thursday, February 3

             Characterization of Lake Mead Water Quality Using Data Collected
                          from Monitoring Platforms, 2004–2009

                                                 Michael Moran
                                             Supervisory Hydrologist
                                              U.S. Geological Survey
                                           Nevada Water Science Center
                               160 North Stephanie Street, Henderson, Nevada 89074
                                               mjmoran@usgs.gov
                                                   702-564-4545

                                                  Ronald J. Veley
                                               U.S. Geological Survey

The U.S Geological Survey operated five water-quality monitoring platforms on Lake Mead from October 2004 to
September 2009. Platforms at Las Vegas Bay and Overton Arm were located in shallow water (< 20 m) and platforms
at Sentinel Island, Virgin Basin, and Temple Basin, were located in deep water (> 20 m). Water quality parameters were
measured at 6-hour time steps and at discrete depth intervals throughout the water column, 3 meter intervals for shal-
low-water sites and 5 meter intervals for deep-water sites. The datasets include field measurements of temperature,
specific conductance (SC), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, and turbidity.

Analyses of these datasets indicate that thermal stratification of the lake occurs during the summer months only at
deep-water sites. Shallow-water sites did not display thermal stratification and only showed increases in temperature
through the water column in the summer months. Time-specific maxima and minima values of SC and DO and trends
in these values provide insight into the flow dynamics and ecosystem of the lake. Decreasing values of SC through
time were observed at most platform sites and are likely caused by a combination of decreasing SC in water entering
the lake from the Colorado River and uptake of calcium carbonate by quagga mussels. Decreasing trends in pH and
turbidity provide additional evidence that quagga mussels may be altering the quality of water in Lake Mead.
                                                                          Technical Session D:
                                                             Water Quality — Lake Mead & Environs
                                                          Water: A Matter of Perspective
                             8:30 a.m. – 9:45 a.m. Thursday, February 3

  The Influence of Water Density on the Fate of Las Vegas Wash Waters in Lake Mead

                                                     Todd Tietjen
                                              Limnology Project Manager
                                           Southern Nevada Water Authority
                                    P.O. Box 99954, Las Vegas, Nevada 89193-9954
                                               Todd.Tietjen@SNWA.com
                                                     702-856-5045

                                                  Xiaoping Zhou
                                          Southern Nevada Water Authority

                                                 Douglas D. Drury
                                       Clark County Water Reclamation District

The waters of the Las Vegas Wash are typically a mixture of shallow groundwater, urban irrigation runoff, storm water
flows, and highly treated effluent from 3 wastewater treatment facilities (City of Las Vegas, City of Henderson, and
Clark County Water Reclamation District). These Las Vegas Wash waters enter Lake Mead through Las Vegas Bay, ap-
proximately 19 kilometers/12 miles upstream from Hoover Dam. The fate of these waters in Lake Mead is complex as it
is determined by a combination of water density relationships. The Las Vegas Wash waters have a significantly higher
specific conductance (salinity) than those found in Lake Mead and as such have the potential for higher densities. The
Las Vegas Wash waters are also susceptible to significant diurnal and seasonal temperature variability which has an
even larger impact on changes in density causing the density to rise and fall more frequently. This combination of fac-
tors result in the Las Vegas Wash waters entering Lake Mead as an overflow, underflow or interflow at different times
of the year and further that during the summer months the Las Vegas Wash waters enter the surface of Lake Mead
during the warm daylight hours and entered deeper in the water column during the cooler nighttime hours. Further
confounding these interactions is the seasonal progression of water column stratification in Lake Mead. The complex
interactions between these two water bodies confounds the interpretation of Lake Mead data as the fate of Las Vegas
Wash waters can vary dramatically over short periods of time.
                                                                              Technical Session E:
                                                                         Changing Hydrologic Conditions
                                                            Water: A Matter of Perspective
                                8:30 a.m. – 9:45 a.m. Thursday, February 3

                   Effects of Groundwater Development — Not that Uncertain

                                                   Keith J. Halford
                                               Groundwater Specialist
                                 U.S. Geological Survey, Nevada Water Science Center
                                2730 North Deer Run Road, Carson City, Nevada 89071
                                                  khalford@usgs.gov
                                                    775-887-7614

Capture is the reduction of groundwater discharge to streams, springs, wetlands, and phreatophytic plants. Uncertain-
ty in the timing and magnitude of capture from groundwater development can be attributed primarily to hydraulic
diffusivity estimates. Hydraulic diffusivity is transmissivity divided by storage coefficient. Characterizing aquifers with
hydraulic diffusivity implies vertical differences in drawdown are minor. This simplification is reasonable for estimating
capture during decades of groundwater development. Groundwater discharge locations and aquifer system extent
also affect capture estimates, but these are mappable features with relatively well-defined surface expressions. Trans-
missivity is the primary source of uncertainty in hydraulic diffusivity estimates.

Most groundwater development occurs in basin fill where transmissivity distributions are not mysterious. Transmis-
sivity estimates in basin fill mostly range between 1,000 and 30,000 ft2/d without considering depositional environ-
ment. Transmissivity estimates vary less than tenfold where basin fill is differentiated into playa, alluvial, and fluvial
sediments. Aquifer systems are better characterized with pumping aquifer tests because transmissivity is estimated.
These estimates typically represent the product of hydraulic conductivity times the full aquifer thickness where trans-
missivity exceeds 1,000 ft2/d.

Distributions of transmissivity and other hydraulic properties are becoming less mysterious in Nevada as more esti-
mates become available from the USGS Aquifer Test website, http://nevada.usgs.gov/water/aquifertests/index.htm.
Techniques for detection of minute drawdowns and integrated analysis of multiple, multi-well aquifer tests are used in
select analyses reported in the database. These approaches expand the volume of aquifer investigated by aquifer tests
and allow the hydraulic properties of fault structures to be quantified.
                                                                            Technical Session E:
                                                                        Changing Hydrologic Conditions
                                                           Water: A Matter of Perspective
                              8:30 a.m. – 9:45 a.m. Thursday, February 3

  Surface Water — Groundwater Interactions in Great Basin Mountain-Front Streams

                                                 Christine E. Hatch
                                              Post-Doctoral Researcher
                                                University of Nevada
                            Mail Stop 172, 1664 North Virginia Street, Reno, Nevada 89557
                                                  chatch@unr.edu
                                                   775-784-4509

                                                    David Prudic
                                                 University of Nevada

                                                   Tracie Jackson
                                                 University of Nevada

                                                  K. Elaine Dotson
                                                 University of Nevada

                                                    Scott W. Tyler
                                                 University of Nevada

Nevada’s population is concentrated in the south, the driest region of the state. Diminishing local resources may even-
tually be insufficient to supply municipal and agricultural demands, thus groundwater from east-central Nevada is
being considered as an additional source. The National Park Service sought to evaluate and quantify how proposed
groundwater withdrawals adjacent to Great Basin National Park in Snake Valley might affect surface water resources
in the park. Accurate assessment of surface and groundwater interaction over reaches of Lehman, Baker, and Snake
creeks along the southern Snake Range mountain front is paramount to determination of potential effects of ground-
water pumping.

We applied a range of independent techniques to locate, quantify and understand SW-GW interactions in these creeks.
Streamflows were measured at multiple locations, streambed piezometers installed along experimental reaches were
tested for hydraulic conductivity (slug tests), hydraulic gradient (manually and with pressure transducers), and instru-
mented with temperature loggers. Pairs of thermal time series were used to estimate seepage rates and directions
within the streambed sediments. Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) was used along 1-2 km sections to assess the
character and location of groundwater inflows.

During winter months when streamflows are low and cold, DTS proved to be an effective tool for identifying where
relatively warm(er) groundwater enters the streams. Bedrock geology and stream chemistry provide important con-
trols on bed permeability, and upper limits on the magnitude of interaction that can occur. Finally, time-series of seep-
age rates and hydraulic gradients illustrate seasonal variability of SW-GW interactions in this complex mountain-front
system.
                                                                            Technical Session E:
                                                                        Changing Hydrologic Conditions
                                                           Water: A Matter of Perspective
                                8:30 a.m. – 9:45 a.m. Thursday, February 3

                               Trends of Streamflow on the Carson River

                                                   Alexandra Lutz
                                            Assistant Research Professor
                                              Desert Research Institute
                                           Division of Hydrologic Sciences
                                      2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, Nevada 89503
                                                    alex@dri.edu
                                                    775-673-7418

                                                   Edwin James
                                        Carson Water Subconservancy District

With limited upstream storage in the Carson River Watershed, changes in snow fall amount and runoff patterns can
have significant impact on future water resource needs. Streamflow records from four gauges on the Carson River and
records from nearby climate stations were evaluated for the presence of trends between 1940 and 2010. Analysis of
streamflow records emphasized timing and volume of spring runoff. Visually discernable trends, though not statisti-
cally supported, suggest peak runoff at the East Fork, Carson City, and Ft. Churchill gauges to be occurring earlier by
approximately 7, 9, and 8 days, respectively. There is no discernable change of peak runoff at the West Fork gauge.
These trends also suggest that the median of runoff (half of runoff ) occurs earlier by approximately 8 days at the West
and East Fork gauges and 17 days at the Carson City and Ft. Churchill gauges. Evaluating monthly flow shows a dis-
cernable change that is statistically supported during: March, June, and July at the East Fork gauge; March, July, and
August at the West Fork gauge; March and June at the Carson City gauge; and March at the Ft. Churchill gauge. With
respect to climate, a visually discernable trend suggests minimum temperature to be increasing by approximately 2.3,
9.4, and 3.7 °F at Glenbrook, Twin Lakes, and Woodfords, respectively. This trend is statistically supported only at Twin
Lakes. It is presently unclear if the trend detected in temperature is related to the trends detected in streamflow.
                                                      Board of Directors
                   NWRA 2011 Annual Conference, February 1–February 3, 2011
                                       Water: A Matter of Perspective

District 1 – Clark, Lincoln, Nye and Esmeralda Counties
Dylan Vern Frehner (2011) — Lincoln County Water District      775-962-5164
Jeff Johnson (2012) — SNWA Surface Water Resources             702-862-3748
Michael Johnson (2011) — Hydrogeologist                        702-498-8172
Kenneth Lykens (2013) — MWH Americas, Inc.                     702-878-8010

District 2 – Mineral, Lyon, Douglas, Storey, Carson and Churchill Counties
Rick Felling (2013) — Nevada Division of Water Resources         775-684-2866
Edwin James, P.E. (2011) — Carson Water Subconservancy District 775-887-7450
Brad T. Goetsch (2011) — Churchill County                        775-423-5136
Lari Knochenmus (2012) — U.S. Geological Survey                  775-887-7613

District 3 – Lander, Eureka, Elko and White Pine Counties
Jay Dixon, P.E., WRS (2011) — Kinross/Round Mountain Gold Corp. 775-377-3165
Scott R. (Randy) Brown, P.L.S., W.R.S. (2011) —
   Elko County Community Development                        775-738-6816 x212
Bill Listerud (2012) — Barrick Goldstrike Mines, Inc.            775-934-9464
Jay Fischer (2013) — Newmont Mining Corporation                  775-635-4340

District 4 – Humboldt, Pershing and Washoe Counties
Mike Hardy (2013) — Lumos & Associates, Inc.                   775-827-6111
Dave Wathen (2012) — U.S. District Court Water Master          775-742-8932
Bwire Ojiambo (2011) — Truckee Meadows Water Authority         775-834-8028
Mike Widmer (2011) — Washoe County Dept. of Water Resources    775-954-4600

Jason King — State Engineer                                    775-684-2861
Tina Triplett — Executive Director                             775-473-5473

				
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