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					Carbon Capture, Sequestration &
  CDM Opportunities in Power
           Sector
            Presented By:
    The Major Contradictory Challenges
        Faced by Developing world


    Quest for increased Generation
     capacity - Terawatt Challenge

    Climate Change
              - rising GHG level
    Continued focus on coal       based
     generation
Government of India’s National Missions

     National Solar Mission 2009
   National Renewable Energy Mission
    “A target of 10% of Renewable Energy by 2012”

   National Mission on Combating Climate Change
    through Green & Clean Power
   National Bio-diesel Mission
   National Mission of Hydro Potential Exploitation
   National Mission on „Clean Coal Technologies‟ for
    Mega Power Generation
          Jawahar Lal Nehru National Solar Mission
Objectives:
 To achieve solar energy production at a scale which
  leads to cost reduction and rapid diffusion and
  deployment of solar technologies across the country.
 For the purpose; set up enabling policy environment and
  regulatory framework.
 Road Map:

 Application Segment                  Target for            Cumulative      Cumulative Target for
                                       Phase I           Target for Phase 2         Phase 3
                                      (2010-13)              (2013-17)          (2017-22)
 Grid Solar Power Including           1,100 MW                4,000 MW           20,000 MW
 rooftop
 Off-grid Solar Applications           200 MW                 1,000 MW            2,000 MW
 (Including Rural Solar Lights)
 Solar Collectors                 7 million sq. meters   15 million sq. meters    20 million
                                                                                  sq. meters
  The National Solar Mission
The National Solar Mission is a major
initiative of the Government of India
and State Government to promote
ecologically sustainable growth while
addressing India’s energy security
challenge.

It will also constitute a major
contribution by India to the Global
efforts to meet the challenges of
Climate Change
 Main targets for National mission
The objective of the National Mission is to
establish India as a global leader in solar
energy through:

       20,000MW of installed solar generation
       capacity by 2022.

      Solar cost reduction to achieve grid parity
       by 2022.
     Proposed Milestones for MP
   Phase-I
         Year 2009-2013
          Grid Connected   :   75MW
          off grid         :   2MW


   Phase-II
         Year 2013-2017
          Grid Connected   :   150MW
          off grid         :   5MW
   Phase-III
         Year 2017-2022
          Grid Connected   :   750MW
          off grid         :   25MW
Sustained economic growth at 8 to 9%
requires that by the year 2012, we must
have installed capacity at a level of
over 2,00,000 MW and by 2050 at the
level of 10 Lakh MW i.e. a trillion or
Terra Watt – This poses a Terra watt
challenges for India.
Green House Gas level rise to a current level of 390
ppm and consequent climate change, floods and
draughts has affected 260 million people between
2000 and 2004 through natural calamities, of these,
98% were in developing nations.
Developed countries with population of 15% of
world population have the share of CO2 emissions at
50%.
CO2 level has risen to 390 ppm from 1975 level of
330 ppm.
There is so much    momentum in the system that
we will certainly double CO2 level by end of the
century.
Global temperature rise by 3 to 4 0C will cause
displacement of over 330 million people in
developing world.
•   China and India are projected to account
    for 30% of the world’s         increase in
    energy consumption between 2000-2020
    and 92% of increase in coal use.
•    World Green House inventory is over
    29,000     Million  tones    per    annum
    (MTPA) with US over 20% (India with
    total emission of about 1400 MTPA is
    only at 4.8 %.)
•   Coal is going to remain main stay for
    power generation in at least next Three
    decades for India (99,861 MW Coal
    based generation out of 1,56,092 MW
    total power installed capacity)
 Green House inventory for India for
Energy Sector (Million Tonnes of CO2)


Energy Sector        CO2          CO2 equivalent
                                   (CO2+CH4+NOX)


Total Emission       834              928
                 (58% of total)   (64% of total)



                                  Source: IAE: 1999
Atmospheric Concentration of GHG increasing


 • Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have
   increased significantly since industrial revolution

        – Carbon dioxide +30%; Methane +100%;Nitrous
          oxide +15%

        – Greenhouse gas concentrations projected to reach
          double pre-industrial levels by about 2060

 • Many greenhouse gases remain in atmosphere for a
  longtime (decades to centuries)
        The Fourth Assessment Report of the
    Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change
               (IPCC) has confirmed:
   The temperature of the earth’s surface has increased by 0.76˚C
    over the past century.

   It is very likely (more than 90˚ probability) that most of this global
    warming       was due to increased GHGs(green house gases ),
    resulting from human activity.

   Eleven of the last 12 years (1995-2006) were among the 12
    warmest years on the instrumental record of global surface
    temperature.

   Mountain glaciers are receding and snow cover has declined in
    both the hemispheres.

   Best estimate regarding the future changes in climate by 2099 for
    low scenario is 1.8” and for high scenario is 4.0”sea level rise
    INDIAN POWER SECTOR JOINS TERA CLUB
                  BY 2010

   POWER GENERATION BY UTILITIES TODAY
     1,56,092 MW …600 Billion kWh per annum
   TARGETTED CAPACITY ADDITION IN 11TH PLAN
        Central                    46,500 MW
        State & IPP                41,800 MW
        NCES                       10,700 MW
        Nuclear                    6,400 MW
        Total                      105,400 MW

   BY 2012 WE NEED TO GENERATE ANNULLY
                       …Over 1000 Billion kWh
   THUS WE WILL BE A TRILLION or TERA kWh (Unit)
    GENERATING POWER SECTOR BY 2010
Tera-watt Challenge for synergy in Energy
            & Environment
   A terawatt Challenge of 2012 for India
    To give over one billion people in India the minimum Electrical Energy
    they need by 2010, we need to generate over 0.2 terra watt (oil
    equivalent to over 3 million barrels of oil per day) and 1 TW by
    2050,primarily through Advanced fossil fuel technologies like CCTs for
    limiting GHG emission levels
   By 2020 our mix of generation would have the Peak in
    Thermal, certainly it would be the Green Thermal
    Power:
            Thermal                     326,000MW
            Renewable & Hydro           104,000 MW
            Nuclear                      20,000 MW
            Total                       450,000 MW
     Energy Security – Indian
           Perspective

AGENDA FOR THE ENERGY GENERATION SECTOR:
 Increased use of Advanced Fossil Fuel
Technology.
 Promote CCT in countries like India & China where
coal is main stay fuel for Power Generation.
 Reduce Atmospheric Pollution from Energy
Generating Systems.
 Enhance productivity through Advanced Fossil
Fuel Technology.
 Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies in
Rural Sector
Energy for the Earth Planet- Non-CO2 Options


    World Generates 15 Terawatt of Energy (the US -
     about 3TW, India - 0.156 TW) today to support 10
     billion world population. This is Equivalent to230
     million barrels of oil /day.
    By 2050 it is projected to need about 35 TW. The
     world would need about 20 TW of non-CO2 energy
     to stabilize CO2 in the atmosphere by mid
     century.
    Among the non-CO2 options , it is possible that
     solar is the only one that can meet this Terawatt
     challenge and at the same time contribute to the
     reduction of climate change, with about 125,000
     TW of global incident sunlight.
Energy for the Earth Planet- Non-CO2 Options…Contd.



   Key scenario for stabilizing CO2 in the
    atmosphere during 21st century turn on the
    viability of CO2 sequestration. This implies CO2
    capture, storage and then pumping to aquifers,
    to stay for millennia.
   In any case minimum 10 TW is needed within a
    decade from Breeder Nuclear , Clean Coal
    Technologies (CCTs) and Renewables.
   Biomass CO2 sequestration could also meet this
    challenge to some extent.
           POWER SCENARIO IN INDIA

    Installed capacity in Utilities as on December 09
                                             …1, 56,092 MW
   Thermal Installed Capacity…99,861 MW
    (Coal 81,605 MW, Gas 17,055 MW, Diesel 1201 MW + Others- cogen etc.)

   Hydro Power …36, 885 MW
   Nuclear Power … 4120 MW
   Renewable Energy Sources …15,226 MW
   No. of Villages Electrified… 4,98,286
   Length of Trans. Lines… 64,97,727 kM
   Total energy generation… 587 billion kWh
   Per Capita Energy Consumption 606 kWh
   NCES POTENTIAL AND INSTALLED CAPACITY (In MW)
           Renewable Energy Source     All India      MP

Wind          - Potential               45,000        5500

               - Installed               3595        159.49

Bio Mass     - Potential                19,500
+ Co-gen.                                             100
                                         750
              - Installed                             9.86

Small Hydro – Potential                  5000        410.13

              - Installed
                                         1705          40
                                                        -
Energy      - Potential
                                         1700
from Waste
                                                       -
           - Installed
                                          42
                                                       -
Solar PV     - Potential             20 MW/Sq. km
            - Installed
                                         264        100 k Wp
     INDIAN POWER SECTOR - TOWARDS
     SUSTAINABLE POWER DEVELOPMENT
   Total Installed Capacity … 1,56,092 MW
   Thermal Generation      … over 64 %
   Although no GHG reduction targets for India
    but taken steps through adoption of
    Renewable Energy Technologies,Combined
    cycles, Co-generation, Coal beneficiation,Plant
    Performance optimization
   Under Kyoto Protocol; Clean Development
    Mechanism (CDM) conceived to reduce cost of
    GHG mitigation, while promoting sustainable
    development as per Framework Convention on
    Climate change (FCCC)
     FRONTALS IN ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT

   GREEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES – PRIMARILY THE
    CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES

   ZERO EMISSION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSPORT,
    POWER PLANTS & INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

   AFFORDABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

   ENERGY EFFICIENCY

   CDM OPPORTUNITIES IN ENERGY SECTOR
     There are three main techniques for
     Capture of CO2 in Power Generation

   Post-combustion capture
   Pre-combustion capture
   Oxy-fuel combustion
Techniques for removal of CO2 from Flue Gas

Carbon dioxide can be removed from flue gas and waste
gas streams produced from carbon usage by various
methods.
1. Absorption with a solvent,
2. Membrane separation,
3. Cryogenic fractionation,
4. Adsorption using molecular sieves.

Capture of CO2 from absorption method is most widely
used technique.
Absorption Approach Using Chemical Solvents
   CO2 can be removed from flue gases using solvents that
   rely on chemical or physical absorption.
   The most common solvents used for neutralizing CO2
   in chemical absorption systems are alkanol-amines such
   as mono-ethanol-amine (MEA), di-ethanol-amine (DEA),
   and methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA).
  Chemical absorption with MEA solvent is the most common
  capture technology, is readily available and can be integrated
   into new plants.
   Prior to CO2 removal, the flue gas is typically cooled,
   then treated to reduce particulars and other impurities.
   It is then passed in to absorption tower where it comes
   in contact with the absorption solution.
    Carbon Capture & Sequestration
•   India’s position with regard to Carbon
    Capture & Storage (CCS) is very clear. We
    don’t make any commitment at this stage
    regarding deployment of CCS technologies.
    India advocates very strongly the Carbon
    Capture & Sequestration.
•   Some of the demo pilot projects include.
    -Pilot project on Geological CO2
    sequestration      in basalt rock formation.
    The question of adoption of CCS will depend
    on this      technology being cost effective.
    -Projects under DST sponsored National
    Program on         Carbon     Sequestration
    (NPCS)
                                FLUE GAS                                     LEGEND
                             FROM GASIFIER
                                                                                               STEAM
                               H2            N2     N2                                         F.G.
                                                                                               CO2
                                                                                               MEA
CH4   CATALYTIC            MEA-01        MEA-02   MEA-03                                       CO
      CONVERTER
       METHANE
                                                                LIGNITE                        H2
      HYDROGEN                                                                                 CH4
      PRODUCER
                                                                    CO         ASH
                                                                 CONVERTOR

  GAS SCRUBBER
        04
                                                                               ST     ST
              NaHCO3                                            CO2 STRIPPER
                                                                     05




        PURE MEA         PURE H2 FOR                       SATURATED CO2                   S
           06             FULE CELL                          MEA -07                       T
                                                                                           E
                                                                                           A
                                                                       FLUE                M
                                                                       GAS


        P1
                                                                               BOILER
                       CO2 CAPTURE PILOT PLANT AT RGPV
   Rated Capacity of the Capture of CO2 : 500 kg/
    day

   Source of CO2
        - Boiler of capacity 100kg/hr. steam & Biomass
          Gasifier of 10kW
   Solvent used for capture of CO2 :
                             Mono Ethanol Amine (MEA)
   SOx & NOx Removal :
                                NaHCO3
   Catalytic Converters / Reduction Unit
            - For Methane.... Input CO and H2, Catalyst
            - For Hydrogen.... Input CO and Steam, Catalyst
            - For Carbon Monoxide...Fe3C & Lignite
    CO2 mitigation Options: Case of Electricity
                     Sector

   Coal: Dominates the electricity sector today
   Fuel switching (Coal NG)
   Conventional Plants + Carbon Capture &
    Sequestration (CCS)
    (Post –Combustion CO2 Capture)
   Gasification/ Reforming + CCS
    (Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture)
   Oxyfuel Combustion + CCS
                ‘Kyoto’ Back-ground
   1992: United Nations Framework convention on
    Climate Change, adopted by most of the countries
    at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro
   1997:Kyoto Protocol was adopted
   An important step towards stabilization of GHG
    concentration to prevent dangerous impacts on climate
    system
   Industrialized countries are required to reduce their
    combined GHG emissions by at least 5.2% compared to
    1990 levels by the first commitment period(2008-2012)
   2005:Kyoto protocol entered into force
   Met 55 / 55%condition, after ratification by the Russian
    Federation
   Is now fully operational
           Kyoto Protocol Mechanism

   Joint Implementation (Article 6):
      Emission reduction arising from project investment in
    other developed countries (with own emission targets)

   Clean Development Mechanism (Article 12):
      Emission reduction arising from project investments in
    developing countries (don't have emission targets)

   Emission Trading (Article 17)
      Portions of developed country’s emission allowances can
    be bought ? Sold in international C trading market. A
    Supplement to domestic action.
              Strategic Response

   Prevention
    - Energy Conservation
    - Green practices, change in lifestyle
   Abatement
    - GHG emission mitigation through :
•    Improved energy efficiency
•    Cleaner energy sources / technologies
•    Preventing deforestation
•    Reducing methane emission (by improved
    Waste management practices)
          Where is CDM Applicable ?

   Renewable Energy: Wind, Solar, Biomass, Hydel
    power
   Fuel switching: Fossil fuels to green fuel
   Energy     efficiency    measures      related  to:
    Boilers,pumps,turbines,cooling system etc.
   Introduction of new, efficient power generation
    technologies; Reduction in technical T&D losses
   Improved      waste              management
    practieses:e.g.Capturing landfill methane for
    power generation
   Transport: Modal shift , fuel switch
   Forestry:Afforestration
CDM: Disqualifiers

   Emission reduction from Nuclear
    facilities

   A diversion of official development
    assistance (ODA) from Annex – I
    countries

   Any other type of sequestration
    activities apart from afforestation and
    reforerstation!
      CDM- A WIN-WIN SITUATION

              Industrialized countries (AI)
                             To assist in meeting their
                             emission limitation commitments


Investors                                     Project proponents

                     CDM project
(private business,                              (private business,
                       activity                 governments, NGOs)
governments, NGOs)



             Developing countries (Non-AI)
                                   To assist in achieving
                                   sustainable development
What makes a project activity a CDM
project activity?


       GHG
                                  “What would have happened” situation
                                          (fictitious situation) = baseline

                                      CERs
                                                 CDM project activity




               Start of CDM
               project activity
                                                 time
                                     GHG = Greenhouse gas emissions
                                     CERs =certified emissions reduction
CDM Projects Status

   Total projects registered by EB –
    1000
   Equivalent CERs – 340 Million
   Projects from India – 47 (~ 30%)
   Total Baseline Methodologies
    approved > 50
   Majority of the projects: Biomass –
    energy
   Majority of CERs generated: HFC
    oxidation
Typical CDM Projects Categories in
India

        Renewable energy (e.g. solar, wind, biomass,
         hydro)
        Fuel switching (e.g. oil to gas, coal to gas)
        Energy efficiency (e.g. lighting, insulation,
         process optimization)
        Waste processing (e.g. land fill gas extraction,
         waste incineration)
        Waste heat recovery projects including power
         generation
        Energy saving by elimination of reheating
         processes
        Thermal oxidation of HFC
        Afforestation
         Towards 2012 and Beyond

   Continue to mobilize private sector participation in the
    CDM, willing to respond positively to CDM criteria

   Encourage CDM participation of large public sector
    emitters (e.g. power & transport sector) possibly in sector
    CDM arrangements

   Information infrastructure to support a functioning market
    – e.g. baseline for major sectors like Power, Cement, Iron
    and Steel

   Explore opportunities for sector trading schemes (Sectoral
    & Programmatic CDM )

   Integration of GHG emission reduction activities and
    national development programmes
Mission Energy Security and Energy independence

      Climate Change – Nature‟s Fury
      Solar for irrigation
      High Efficiency CNT Based PV Cells
      Hydrogen as Fuel for future
      Accelerated Program on Thorium based Nuclear
       Reactor
      Clean coal Technologies like SCR, IGCC
      Bio-fuels for Railways and Mass Transport
      Energy Security by 2020, Energy Independence
       by2030
   ….Reference: Address by President of India 14th Aug 2005
Prime Clean Coal Technology Options for
       India for 11th & 12th Plans

     Supercritical Power Plants
     Integrated Gasification Combined
      Cycle (IGCC) Power Plants
    Circulating Fluidized Bed
     Combustion (CFBC) Power Plants
         SUPER CRITICAL UNITS
   Standardized Unit Size 660 MW, 246 ata, 537
    o
     C
   Station Size 2x660 MW (Minimum)
   Common Off site facility
   FW Temperature 270 oC – 275 oC with 6
    Heaters.

Total Capacity Planned                14,560 MW *
Number of Units                       22 Units

                 * Includes 6x720 MW and 2x500 MW Imported sets.
            Main advantages of
           Super-Critical Steam Cycle
   Reduced fuel cost due to improved thermal
    efficiency
   Reduction of CO2 emissions by 15% per unit of
    Power generated compared to sub-critical
   Very good part load efficiencies
   Plant costs are comparable with sub-critical units
     Current State-of-Art
Super-critical Steam Power Generation Plants
     Pressure     -    300 bar
     Temperature -     600oC
     Efficiency   -    45% (LHV Basis)

Nickel based alloys allows up 650oC
      By the year 2005 -      620 oC
      By the year 2020 -      650-700 oC
      Cycle Efficiency  -     50-55%
                     IGCC TECHNOLOGY ...
   Gasification of coal is the cleanest way of utilization of coal, while
    combined cycle power generation gives the highest efficiency.

   Integration of these two technologies in IGCC power generation
    offers the benefits of very low emissions and efficiencies of the
    order of 44-48%.

   The comparative indices show that in case of IGCC, emission of
    particulate, NOx and SOx are:
             7.1%, 20% and 16%, respectively, of the
     corresponding emissions from PC plant.

- Three major areas of technology that will contribute to
  improvements in IGCC are :
        hot gas de-sulfurisation
        hot gas particulate removal
        advanced turbine systems
                           IGCC
                         Gas
                       Clean Up
                                         Fuel
COAL
           Raw Gas
                       Steam      Combustion
            Cooler
                                   Chamber

                       Air
Gasifier
             Booster                                    Alternator

                        Comp.                   Turb.



  Ash                   Air

             Steam                                      Alternator

                                                 ST




                 Exhaust
                  Gases

                                            Condenser
                                   WHB
     Circulating fluidized Bed Combustion

   Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC)
    technology has selectively been applied in India
    for firing high sulphur refinery residues, lignite,
    etc.

    CFBC Technology is superior to PC Power Plant
     Technology:

        Lower NOx formation and the ability to capture SO2
         with limestone injection the furnace.
             Circulating Fluidised Bed Boiler
                                              Steam to Super Heater




                           Cyclone

                                               Back-Pass
Coal Feed
                 Furnace
Hopper
                                                                ESP



                             External
                             Heat-Exchanger
Ash Cooler
                           HP Air
 CFBC Vs Other Clean Coal Technologies

                              PF+FGD/SC
        ITEM          CFBC                  IGCC
                                  R

 Cycle Efficiency %   34.8       36.7       41-42

 Relative Capital                           1.15-
                      1.0      1.03-1.19
 Cost/kW                                    1.42

 Relative O&M
                      1.0        1.49      0.8-0.98
 Cost/kW

At present pulverized fuel firing with FGD are less
costly than prevailing IGCC technology. However,
firing in CFB Boiler is still more economical when
using high sulfur lignite and low-grade coals and
rejects.
      Green Energy solutions

 Promote CCT in countries like India & China
  where coal is main stay fuel for Power
  Generation.
 Increased use of Advanced Fossil Fuel
  Technology
 Energy Farming
 Energy Efficiency
 Major shift towards Green Technologies
 Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies in
  Rural Sector
Coming back to CDM as applied to Energy Sector & CCTs

Sector –wise CDM Potential is given in the Table 01 below:

                         Table: 01

  S.No.         Sector               GHG emission
    1.         Power                     51%
    2.        Transport                  16%
    3.          Steel                    10%
    4.         Cement                    04%
    5.        Chemicals                  03%
    6.         Others                    15%
    Weighted average emission factor, simple Operating
   Margin (OM), Build Margin (BM) and Combined Margin
     (CM) of all Indian Regional Grids in t CO2 / MWh
                        Average           OM               BM               CM

       North            0.72              0.99             0.60             0.80
       East             1.05              1.13             0.97             1.05
       South            0.74              1.01             0.71             0.86
       West             0.88              0.99             0.63             0.81
       North –East 0.33                   0.70             0.15             0.42
       India            0.81              1.02             0.68             0.85

OM is the average emission from all the stations excluding the low cost/ must run sources.
BM is the average emission of the 20% (by net generation) most recent capacity addition in the
grid.
CM is a weighted average of the OM and BM (here weighted 50:50)
                                   Table: 03

     Technology-wise expected CDM funds flow.
S.                 Sector                 Expected Carbon    CDM Flow
No                                           reduction      Million US$/Yr
                                             (MT/Yr)
1.           Renewable Energy                   60               660
2.      Coal Based IGCC Power Plant             05               55
3.      Agriculture-Energy Efficiency           18               198
4.          T&D loss reduction                  32               352
5.    Energy in Industries Caustic Soda        0.12              1.32
          Efficiency         Cement             1.1              12.1

                            Aluminum            --                --

6.         Municipal Solid Waste                --                --
              Management
                                     Table: 04
                 Potential CDM Projects for India targeted to meet
                             National Mitigation targets

       GHG mitigation option              Abatement cost    National mitigation
                                              range         potential (thousand
                                                               tons of CO2)
Mega Power Generation
Renovation & modernization               High              8579
Fluidized bed combustion                 Low               8166
Integrated gasification combined cycle   High              14610 (large potential)
Renewable Energy
Wind power (grid-connected)              High              526
Wind based water pumps                   Medium            <1
Solar thermal power (grid –connected)    High              300
Industrial efficiency
Iron Steel-dry coke quenching            Low               950
Pulp & Paper                             Medium            904
Replacement of Industrial Motors         Medium            36
                                Table: 05
       Cost of various CO2 (carbon dioxide) mitigation options in India
          Technology                     Greenhouse gas       Investment cost         Cost-effectiveness
                                        emission reduction                           (dollars/tonne CO2)
Green Power generation
Cogeneration                          1.50 kg/kWh            900 dollars/kW     10 (most cost effective)
Combined cycle                        0.96 kg/kWh            818 dollars/kW     54 (cost effective)
Inter-cooled steam-injected gas       0.76 kg/kWh            947 dollars/kW     77
turbine
Pressurized      fluidized     bed    0.18 kg/kWh            1894 dollars/kW    503
combustion
Integrated            gasification    0.23 kg/kWh            1578 dollars/kW    340 (at par)
combined cycle
Pulverized      coal super-critical   0.18 kg/kWh            1202 dollars/kW    342 (at par)
boilers
Coal washing                          0.125 kg/kWh           11 dollars/kW      179
CFBC                                  0.20 kg/kWh            1000 dollars/kW    250
Renewable energy for power
small hydro                           1.3 kg/kWh             1950 dollars/kW    88 (cost effective)
wind farms                            1.3 kg/kWh             1405 dollars/kW    257
Biomass                               1.6 kg/kWh             710 dollars/kW     102 (cost effective)
Solar thermal                         1.3 kg/kWh             3730 dollars/kW    592
Solar PV (photovoltaic)               1.6 kg/kWh             5952 dollars/kW    541
    Issues before the house
   Technology break thoughts in the areas like CO2
    capture and Clean Coal Technologies
   Development of low cost solar photo voltaic cells
   Bringing Energy Efficiency & Energy Conservation
    on the top of the National Agenda
   Promotion of Carbon Trading on the strength of
    Energy Efficiency and Green Environment
    initiatives.
   Base line methodologies for variety of Clean and
    Green Technologies need to be redefined.
            RGTU INITIATIVES
    Hybrid power plant of Wind, Solar & Biomass has been
    setup which will pave way for sustainable power supply for
    variety of biomass fuels & environment limitations.
    Biomass Gasifier (10kW) & Bio-diesel Plant (100 LPD) has
    been commissioned
    Green Energy Technology Center has been set up to focus
    on following areas:
     - Clean Coal Technology & CDM
     - Bio-fuels and bio-diesel
     - Renewable Energy devices (hybrid) targeted to
        produce 1 MW Power for the campus
     - Energy Conservation & Management
     - CO2 Sequestration & CO2 capture technologies
.
    Impact Green Projects at RGTU
   CO2 Capture, Sequestration and Production of
    Multi-purpose fuels – Hydrogen, Methane and
    Biodiesel through Algae route
   Production of CNG from Coal–gasification route
   Solar, Wind & Biomass Hybrid System
   60 kW Solar-Wind Hybrid system at Hill top of
    RGTU
   High yield Jatropha plantation and Bio-diesel
    production using indigenously designed Bio-diesel
    reactors