THE GREAT DEPRESSION

Document Sample
THE GREAT DEPRESSION Powered By Docstoc
					                                    HOLT
                                           CALL TO
    Chapter 14
                                    FREEDOM 1865 to the Present


    THE GREAT DEPRESSION
    (1929-1939)
    Section 1: The End of Prosperity
    Section 2: Hoover and the Depression
    Section 3: Roosevelt and the New Deal
    Section 4: The Second New Deal


1                                  HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section l:                         HOLT
                                          CALL TO
The End of Prosperity              FREEDOM1865 to the Present



    OBJECTIVES
     Why did many Americans invest in the stock
      market in the 1920’s?
     What took place during the stock market
      crash, and how did it affect the nation?
     What economic factors contributed to the
      Great Depression, and how did the crisis
      affect Americans?
2                                 HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section l:                                 HOLT
                                                  CALL TO
The End of Prosperity                      FREEDOM1865 to the Present

    The Stock Market Soars
     The healthy economy in the late 1920’s led many
       people to purchase stocks.
     Rising demand for stocks led to higher prices for
       shares and a bull market. Experts saw no end to the
       bull market.
     Many investors were buying on margin – buying
       stocks on credit with a loan from a broker – in hopes
       of making a great profit.
    bull market – continuing rise in stock prices
3                                         HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section l:                               HOLT
                                                CALL TO
The End of Prosperity                     FREEDOM
                                                1865 to the Present

    The Stock Market Crash and
    It’s Effect on the Nation
     On September 3, 1929, stock prices hit an all time
      high and then began to slide downward.
     On October 24, 1929 large-scale investors sold huge
      block of share, causing prices to fall even more.
     On October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday, the
      stock market collapsed and investors began to panic.
     People were fearful and confused and it resulted in
      the Panic of 1929 effecting almost all Americans.
4                                        HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section l:                       HOLT
                                        CALL TO
The End of Prosperity            FREEDOM1865 to the Present

    Economic Factors that Contributed to
    the Great Depression
     stock market crash
     bank failures
     overproduction




5                               HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section l:                         HOLT
                                          CALL TO
The End of Prosperity               FREEDOM
                                          1865 to the Present



    Effect on Americans
     Many Americans lacked the resources to deal
      with the economic crisis.
     People could not afford to buy goods that
      were produced.
     Americans that had bought goods on credit
      could not pay off their debts.

6                                  HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 2:                          HOLT
                                           CALL TO
Hoover and the Depression            FREEDOM
                                           1865 to the Present



    OBJECTIVES
     In what ways did the Great Depression affect
      the everyday lives of Americans?
     What actions did President Hoover take to
      help Americans during the depression?
     How did Hoover respond to the Bonus
      Army’s demands?

7                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 2:                           HOLT
                                            CALL TO
Hoover and the Depression            FREEDOM1865 to the Present

    Depression Hits Home
     U.S. unemployment rate in 1932 was about 24
      percent.
     Hundreds of thousands of people left their
      homes in search of jobs.
     Living conditions in the cities were difficult
      and sometimes people were forced to find
      shelter in Hoovervilles – camps full of shacks
      built from cardboard boxes or scrap wood.
8                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 2:                           HOLT
                                            CALL TO
Hoover and the Depression
    (continued)
                                      FREEDOM
                                            1865 to the Present

    Depression Hits Home
     Farm families struggled.
     Minorities and immigrants were hit especially
      hard.
     The poverty of the depression hurt the pride of
      Americans.
     Private organizations began providing direct
      relief.

9                                    HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 2:                            HOLT
                                             CALL TO
Hoover and the Depression             FREEDOM1865 to the Present

     Hoover’s Response
      Started a program to stimulate the economy
      Established the Reconstruction Finance
       Corporation (1932) – loaned money to
       businesses and banks to help keep them
       operating
      Cut federal taxes and encouraged the federal
       government to spend about $150 million on
       public works
10                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 2:                           HOLT
                                            CALL TO
Hoover and the Depression
     (continued)
                                     FREEDOM1865 to the Present

     Hoover’s Response
      Assisted farmers in getting loans to buy
       animal feed and farm equipment
      Supported the 1932 Federal Home Loan Bank
       Act which provided money to banks, financial
       institutions, and insurance companies to
       provide low-interest mortgages


11                                  HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 2:                                 HOLT
                                                  CALL TO
Hoover and the Depression                   FREEDOM
                                                  1865 to the Present

     Hoover’s Response to the Bonus Army
      Their protest, in May 1932, convinced the House of
       Representatives to pass a bill calling for immediate
       payment of the bonus but the bill was defeated by
       the Senate.
      A riot broke out and Hoover ordered General
       Douglas MacArthur to restore order.
      The army’s camp was destroyed and Hoover
       defended his action as necessary to protect the
       public.
12                                        HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 3:                            HOLT
                                             CALL TO
Roosevelt and the New Deal            FREEDOM1865 to the Present

     OBJECTIVES
      What steps did Franklin D. Roosevelt take
       immediately after becoming president to fight
       the depression?
      How did New Deal programs address the
       problem of unemployment in the United
       States?
      What programs addressed the needs of
       industry and agriculture?
13                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 3:                           HOLT
                                            CALL TO
Roosevelt and the New Deal            FREEDOM
                                            1865 to the Present

     FDR Fights the Depression
     Immediately After Becoming President
      Roosevelt selected experienced reformers to
       his cabinet.
      He placed many African Americans in
       government positions.
      First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt played an
       important role in the administration by
       meeting with many political allies.
14                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 3:                           HOLT
                                            CALL TO
Roosevelt and the New Deal           FREEDOM1865 to the Present



     The New Deal and Unemployment
      Civilian Conservation Corps – gave jobs to
       unmarried men ages 18-25 putting nearly 3
       million of them to work.
      Civil Works Administration – supplied
       temporary work during the winter of 1933 and
       provided work for more than 4 million
       Americans.
15                                  HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 3:                         HOLT
                                          CALL TO
Roosevelt and the New Deal         FREEDOM1865 to the Present

     Programs for Industry and Agriculture
 The National Industrial Recovery Act (1933)
  created the National Recovery Administration to
  develop codes for industry that set prices, wages,
  and work hours.
 The NRA tried to end child labor and sweatshops.
 The NRA was ruled unconstitutional in 1935 by the
  Supreme Court
16                                HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 3:                           HOLT
                                            CALL TO
Roosevelt and the New Deal
     (continued)
                                      FREEDOM
                                            1865 to the Present



     Programs for Industry and Agriculture
      The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) of
       1933 paid farmers to reduce their production
       of many crops, dairy products, and hogs.
      In 1933 the government paid farmers to plow
       under 10 million acres of cotton.


17                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 4:                          HOLT
                                           CALL TO
The Second New Deal                 FREEDOM1865 to the Present

     OBJECTIVES
      Why were some people critical of the New
       Deal?
      How did the programs of the Second New
       Deal address the nation’s needs?
      How did President Roosevelt try to prevent
       the Supreme Court from overturning his New
       Deal programs?

18                                 HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 4:                                HOLT
                                                 CALL TO
The Second New Deal                        FREEDOM
                                                 1865 to the Present

     New Deal Critics
      The American Liberty League, a group of business
       leaders, opposed the New Deal claiming that it
       discouraged free enterprise and was the beginning of
       socialism.
      Other critics claimed that the New Deal had not done
       enough for the public.
      Father Charles E. Coughlin, a Catholic priest in
       Detroit, called for ever stronger government control
       over banking, business and money.
19                                       HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 4:                                 HOLT
                                                  CALL TO
The Second New Deal
     (continued)
                                            FREEDOM
                                                  1865 to the Present

     New Deal Critics
      U.S. Senator Huey P. Long of Louisiana
       advocated his Share-Our-Wealth program.
     Share-Our-Wealth – plan organized in 1934 by U.S.
     Senator Long that called for the federal government to
     limit the side of all personal fortunes so that every
     family would be guaranteed a minimum income of
     $2,500 a year


20                                         HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 4:                               HOLT
                                                CALL TO
The Second New Deal                      FREEDOM1865 to the Present

     The Second New Deal
     Addresses the Nation’s Needs
      In April 1935 Congress passed the Emergency
       Relief Appropriation Act.
        provided $4.8 billion to help the unemployed
        created the Works Progress Administration
         (WPA) that employed more than 8.5 million
         Americans between 1935 and 1943 building
         bridges, parks, public buildings, and roads

21                                      HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 4:                            HOLT
                                             CALL TO
The Second New Deal
     (continued)
                                      FREEDOM1865 to the Present

     The Second New Deal
     Addresses the Nation’s Needs
      Federal projects were begun to employ artists
       in need of employment.
      Some WPA relief money went to the National
       Youth Administration (NYA) to give part-
       time jobs to more than 4.5 million high school
       and college-age students.

22                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
Section 4:                            HOLT
                                             CALL TO
The Second New Deal                   FREEDOM1865 to the Present

     Roosevelt, the New Deal,
     and the Supreme Court
      Roosevelt came up with a new bill to change
       the structure of the Supreme Court by
       increasing the maximum number of justices
       from 9 to 15.
      As president, Roosevelt would appoint new
       judges, selecting those who would support his
       New Deal programs.
23                                   HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:6
posted:9/4/2011
language:English
pages:23