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					   Mould




An
      ?
Informational
Brochure
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National Mould                                        Mould
Task Force
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The Canadian Construction
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Association (CCA) has created a
National Mould Task Force to investigate
 Mould Mould
and assess the various issues regarding mould Mould
contamination and its effects on the construction
 Mould the Task Force was to
industry. The objective of Mould Mould


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draft advice for the industry on the effective management
                  of mould issues in the construction industry,


 Mould Mouldassessments, and   to conduct mould Mould
                            including prevention practices, how



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                                remediation protocols.



 Mould Mould and insurance        provided on legal Mould
                                 In addition, information will be



                            and other resources Mould
 Mould Mouldwhich are available to
                                implications, mould sampling/testing,



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                            stakeholders. The work of the Task Force
                               will be available through documents,

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                                   training workshops and on the
                                      CCA website.

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The Emerging
Challenge
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Mould has emerged as a major challenge to the construction
industry since concerns about asbestos prompted lawsuits,

Mould                   Mould
abatement programs, and government action two
decades ago. This challenge can be effectively
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managed by careful attention to the guidance
available from governmental agencies and other
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Mould
cognizant authorities.
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Who are the Stakeholders?
The financing, planning, design, construction, renovation, operation,
maintenance, and demolition of buildings have many stakeholders, all of
whom have important roles and responsibilities regarding the issue of
mould. Stakeholders include:
l Architects

l Building managers

l Contractors

l Consultants

l Designers

l Engineers

l Governments

l Industrial Hygienists

l Insurers

l Lending institutions

l Occupational Hygienists

l Owners

l Sub-contractors

l Suppliers

l Tenants
What Are Moulds?
Mould is the common name for fungi often seen on
wet building materials and are in the same kingdom
as wood rot and sap-stain fungi. There are a few
dozen species of moulds often found on building
materials. In nature, these species live in the soil
and degrade organic materials. Their reproductive
structures, mainly spores, are present in outdoor
and indoor air and on all surfaces. These spores
are in a dormant condition and do not damage
building or other materials unless the materials get
wet. Different moulds grow on different types of
building materials depending both on the nutrients
and the amount of water present [damp or soaking
wet]. Building-associated moulds are sometimes
called “toxic” mould. This arises from the fact
that a few of the species that occur on building
materials have the potential to produce potent
compounds that may adversely affect a person’s
health.
Health Effects Relating
To Mould Exposure
      Everyone is exposed to the fungi that grow naturally on plants and
leaves. About 10% of Canadians are allergic to the moulds in outdoor air
                                          and suffer hay fever. Exposure
                                      to airborne fungal spores or spore
                                          fragments growing on building
                                                 materials can result in:
                                                      a) Building-related
                                                     asthma and related
                                                        allergic diseases;
                                                         b) Exacerbation
                                                              of asthma in
                                                         mould-sensitive
                                                               asthmatics;
                                                             c) Increased
                                                            rates of upper
                                                     respiratory disease;
                                                              d) Infection;
                                                       e) Nose, throat or
                                                        eye irritation; and
                                                   f) Skin irritation from
                                               handling mould-damaged
                                                       building materials.

                                            Because individual suscepti-
                                                bilities and health effects
                                                  vary so much based on
                                                         exposure to mould
                                                        spores, federal and
                                                       provincial regulatory
                                                           authorities have
                                                         concluded it is not
   possible to develop exposure thresholds. That is, there are no “safe”
  or “unsafe” exposure levels. Instead, authorities have determined that
          mould growth should be prevented in buildings and the risk of
              exposure should be minimized. Personnel handing mouldy
           materials need to follow established remediation procedures.
Susceptible Groups
The most susceptible individuals to
mould exposure are those with pre-existing
conditions and/or compromised or suppressed
immune systems, for example:
l Individuals living with HIV/AIDS;

l Persons taking certain drugs, including steroids;

l Anyone with cystic fibrosis;

l Those receiving or just off chemotherapy; and

l Persons with diabetes or respiratory disease.




Recognized Authority
Documents on Building-
Associated Mould
Government Agencies and Professional Associations have published
important guidance documents on building-associated mould. These
include:
l Report of the Federal-Provincial Advisory Committee on

   Environmental and Occupational Health*, Health Canada, 1995
l   Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor
    Environments*, New York City Department of Health, 2000
l   Guidelines for the Investigation, Assessment, & Remediation of
    Mould in Workplaces*, Manitoba Department of Labour, 2001
l   Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings*, U.S.
    Environmental Protection Agency, 2001
l   Remedial Procedures for Water Damage in Buildings*, Public
    Works and Government Services Canada, 2001
l   Construction-Related Nosocomial Infections in Patients in Health
    Care Facilities – Decreasing the Risk*, Health Canada, 2001
l   Les risques à la santé associés à la présence de moisissures en milieu
    intérieur*. Institut national de santé publique du Quebec, 2002
l   Fighting Mould – The Homeowner’s Guide, Canada Mortgage
    and Housing Corporation
l   Bioaerosols: Assessment and Control, American Conference of
    Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1999
l   Report of the Microbial Growth Task Force, American Industrial
    Hygiene Association, 2001

* Website links to these publications are available
on CCA’s mould page.
Key Mould Prevention
Strategies
The essential elements to avoid mould growth are the control of
moisture, good work practices, and timely remediation. Several key
mould prevention strategies on which the construction industry should
focus on include:
l Providing stakeholder education and training;

l Keeping materials clean and dry;

l Drying wet materials within 48 hours;

l Conducting an assessment of dried materials to determine if they

   are acceptable for their intended use;
l Documenting wet material incidents complete with corrective

   measures and retain on
   project file; and
l Implementing a

   monitoring and
   accountability program.
What Buildings May Be
Affected By Mould Growth?
Virtually any building (new or old) can become contaminated with mould.

There are many examples (and media articles) of buildings which have
experienced mould growth, including:
l Condominiums

l Courthouses

l Homes

l Hospitals

l Office buildings

l Portable classrooms

l Schools
What Are Some Common
Causes Of Indoor Mould
Growth?
Some of
the causes
of indoor
mould growth
are the result of:
l Compromised

   building envelope
   (broken vapour
   barrier, air/moisture
   infiltration);
l Inadequate insulation

   or sealants;
l Leaky foundation, poor

   drainage;
l Roof and plumbing

   leaks;
l Condensation

   on windows, cold
   surfaces;
l High indoor humidity (over 60%);

l Improper maintenance and equipment operations;

l Inadequate ventilation; and

l Water damage due to fire suppression efforts, etc.




What About Flooding Or
Sewer Back-Up?
Flooding and sewer back-ups should be effectively handled with the
assistance of a professional restoration contractor or consultant because
other pathogenic agents such as bacteria and viruses may complicate
these situations.
What Are The Signs Of
Potential Indoor Mould Growth?
Signs that mould may be growing indoors include:
l Evidence of condensation or icing on building walls, windows or

   near building penetrations;
l Evidence of water leakage, dripping, water pooling or stains;

   damp areas;
l Discoloration on walls, ceiling tiles, carpets, floors or furnishings;

l Discoloration returns after being cleaned;

l Musty or earthy odors within the building; and

l Poorly designed, operated, or maintained HVAC system and wet

   subsurfaces.


Hidden/Concealed Mould
While visible mould is a clear indication of a problem, often contamina-
tion is hidden within wall cavities, behind wallpaper and vinyl sheets, in
the ceiling, under the roof, floor, carpets or coverings, or in the HVAC
system – anywhere there was a past or present water intrusion incident.



What Should Be Done If
Indoor Mould Occurs
Indoor mould growth should be removed to prevent human exposure and
damage to the materials and building.

First, the moisture intrusion problem should be effectively dealt with to
prevent further mould growth. Isolation of the site and protection of non-
damaged materials may be warranted.

Second, follow the correct remediation procedure which is governed by
the extent of mould growth and safety considerations. Large contamin-
ated areas will require management by a qualified and experienced person.
Sample For Mould
If mould growth is visible, then sampling is usually not required.
Sampling is typically carried out in order to document exposure and
to detect mould in hidden, non-accessible areas. Documenting areas
of growth and identifying species can assist in the development and
implementation of control and remediation strategies and assess their
effectiveness. It may also be appropriate to take samples when there
are health complaints or the possibility of liability issues and future legal
action.

Sampling and the interpretation of results require experienced and
specialized expertise and should be part of an investigation strategy with
clear objectives. The laboratory selected to quantify and identify mould
species must have demonstrated qualifications.




Due Diligence
Stakeholders must be aware of the potential legal implications associated
with mould in buildings. Some items which should be considered to
establish Due Diligence, include:
l Being proactive;

l Seeking out information pertaining to mould;

l Providing education and training;

l Being knowledgeable on the topic of mould;

l Implementing a quality assurance program;

l Implementing proper policies, practices and procedures; and

l Seeking expert advice.
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                            Summary
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                      As
Mould Mouldpublic awareness Mould
                   and concerns regarding
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              mould contamination within
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Mouldbuildings and homes continue to
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      increase, all stakeholders within the
        construction industry should work
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         together to prevent indoor mould
    growth. The CCA Mould
Mould Mouldhas provided the
 forum for the sharing of Mould
Mould Mould knowledge and
             technology to achieve this goal.




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                 Canadian Construction Association
                        400-75 Albert Street
                       Ottawa, ON K1P 5E7
                Tel: 613.236.9455 Fax: 613.236.9526
                           www.cca-acc.com
Photos: EyeWire, Inc., PhotoDisc, Inc.

				
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posted:9/4/2011
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