Adolescence.ppt - NSocialStudies by wuyunqing


• Period between normal onset of puberty to the
  beginning of adulthood.

    *In pre-industrial societies, people passed this stage in
     life after performing necessary puberty rites.

    *In U.S. adolescence didn’t exist before the Civil War

 Anticipatory socialization- adolescent preparin
to take on new adult roles
Puberty- physical maturing that makes an individual
capable of sexual reproduction.
Puberty rites (men & women)

• differ from society to society
• average age is 13yrs. old

    Demonstrations of strength and endurance         (simulation)

    Ritual filing of the teeth (volunteer)
•    Tattooing or scarring of the body (powerpoint)
     There are 3 factors that make
       adolescence a life stage:
1. Education- students living at home while
                in college
2. Exclusion of youth in the workforce- child
     labor laws
3. Development of the juvenile justice system-
    different sentencing guidelines based on age
      Ex. Lee Boyd Malvo- 16 yr. old sniper
4 Characteristics of Adolescence
1. Biological Growth & Development

2. Undefined Status

3. Increased Decision Making

4. Increased Pressure
   Biological Growth & Development

• Puberty is universal
• Endocrine system- hormone-producing
• Spurts in height & weight in short amount
  of time
• Pimples! 80% of adolescents have acne-
  results in anxiety/embarrassment
Undefined status- some adults treat teenagers
  like adults, some treat them like children

• Marriage at 14-18 w/o parental consent in
• Voting age- 18
• Drinking age- 21
• Driver’s License- 16-18
• Service in Armed Forces- 18
    Increased Decision Making
• What courses should I take in school?
• What sports should I play?
• What car/job should I have?
• College, tech school, take a year off, work
  for the family?
• Choosing a mate & career- MAJOR
            Increased Pressure
• Relationships with family and friends

• Job- finding one, keeping one, juggling school
  work/grades, scheduling free time

• Teenagers want to fit in:
        Parental curfews
        true friends or not?
        Advertisements to lure teens into brand
         name clothes, certain music, movies, etc.
TV Shows
             Teenagers and Dating
              • Dating is NOT universal!
    • Dating didn’t exist before WWI- it was
      called courting.

•Very few dates with the person you chose to marry!
• If left alone in a room, one foot had to be on the
floor& the door always open.
        4 forms of dating
1.   Recreation
2.   Socialization
3.   Attain status
4.   Fulfill psychological needs

List at least 20 recreational activities to do on a
               date! Keep it clean!
            Dating Patterns
                       (up to 1960)
                 •Male to female contact
               •Visible sign of commitment
•Certain times of the week to make plans for the weekend

               •Both contact each other
               •Group friendship at first
          •Parents don’t have as much control
For many of the Old Order Amish young people, pairing
up begins at Sunday evening singings. The boy will take
the girl home in his buggy. The couple is secretive about
their courtship. Several days to two weeks before the
wedding, the couple is published in church and their
intentions to marry are made known. Weddings are in
November, or at the very latest in early December. That's
after the busy fall harvesting season is over. Weddings are
on Tuesdays or Thursdays-the least busy days of the week
on an Amish farm. The wedding is held at the home of the
bride and the sermon and ceremony will last about four
hours. Weddings usually begin at 8:30 a.m. There are no
kisses, rings, photography, flowers or caterers. There are
usually 200 or more guests. After the wedding there is a
dinner of chicken, filling, mashed potatoes, gravy, ham,
canned fruit, plus many cookies, cakes and pies.
Was used to set the time a
gentleman caller could spend
courting a young girl. The girl's
father would light and raise or
lower the candle the height he
felt appropriate as the courter
arrived. If the father thought the
young man was a good prospect
for his daughter, the candle was
set high. On the other hand, if he
disapproved, he made sure the
candle was set very low.
Everyone knew that when the
candle burned down to the top of
the candleholder, it was time to
say goodnight.
Amish Case Study (2001)

Community records: Out of 200 Amish
members, there hasn’t been one divorce!

Question: Maybe our societal views on
dating should change to lower our
devastating divorce rate- which is 1.5
out of 2 marriages in 2005 ended!
                     Stages of dating
1.   Casual (recreation/amusement)
2.   Steady (no interest in anyone else)
3.   Engagement (ring and a date)
4.   Marriage
                    Sequence of dating
•Degree of commitment increases w/ each stage
•Stages may be skipped (love at first site?)
•Can be stopped at any time (runaway bride)
  How did the Industrial Revolution change
            courting in the U.S.?

1. Cars- easier to communicate (neighbors)
2. Males no longer on farms- become
   independent, workplace acquaintances
3. Creation of co-ed public school system
4. Establishment of child labor laws allows
   for more “free time”
5. Women in the workforce in the 1920’s!
      Willard Waller- (Penn State) sociologist that
               studied dating people.

        He made a bold conclusion that dating had
        little to do with mate selection and more to
        do with having fun!

            THEN                          TODAY
•Mother/Father of my        •Popularity & good looks
 children                   • False sense of tremendous wealth
•Inheritance is sizable     • Education

Homogomy- individuals marry people who
have social characteristics similar to their own

                         Cinderella is a
                           fairy tale!

1. Pregnancy & AIDS
2. Drugs
3. Suicide
           Early sexual activity =
        Negative Health Consequences
        Here are two of the many you need to remember!
Do you know what the 6th leading cause of death is among adolescents?

Sociologists attribute this horrifying statistic to
  three causes:
Do you have any guesses?

1. Unprotected sex
2. Drug use
3. Rape
 Comprehensive AIDS website
Aids Memorial Quilt
Herpes               Crabs

         Genital Warts
The U.S. teenage pregnancy rate is
5x that of Germany, Japan, or
  Background to the social problem:
• In the 1960’s, the Sexual
  Revolution happened and the
  Birth Control Pill was

• Love-Inns & Swinging parties
  were common.

             TV Censorship timeline
In 2005- 99% of TV programs had
   sexual material in the script
  Reasons for early sexual activity:

• Socio and economical factors
   2 parents & high income- lowest rate
   Single parent & low income- highest rate

• Religious participation

• Drug use & peer pressure
    Consequences of early sexual activity:

•   Teenage mothers become drop-outs
•   Teenage mothers have lower paying jobs
•   Children of teenagers have more learning difficulties
•   Children of teenagers have a higher rate of
    becoming teenage parents themselves

      STAT: Over 10% of mothers are
#2 problem
Cocaine and Heroin ads
    Harrison Narcotic Act (1914)-
    outlawed heroin and cocaine for
    recreational or medicinal purposes
• Extreme mood swings
• Increase in criminal activities
• Crack cocaine is #1 drug in gang violence
• Marijuana- leading drug in high schools
• Cigarettes- 20% of teenagers are
  addicted to nicotine by the age of 17
• Alcohol abuse by teens has decreased
  slightly in the past decade
WHY do teens use drugs?
  #1 reason…
2. Social and academic problems

3. Living in a hostile or rejecting family

             Department of Health &
               Human Services
Problem #3
 Best resource for suicide information:
              Center for Disease and Control

      Disclaimer: Suicides stats. are often wrong.
            Many are reported as accidents
    (single-car/no brake marks) or drug overdoses.
•Alcohol and/or drug use- Why?
 1. Low level of self-control
 2. Use it as a method to commit suicide
 3. Easily frustrated & more likely to act on impulse
                More predictors cont.-
• Triggering Events- unwanted pregnancy, poor grades,
  family crisis, loss/rejection of an important person

• Age- 3rd leading cause of death among people
       aged 15-24
      (1. Accidents 2. Homicides)

• Gender- Females are 3x more likely to attempt
          suicide but fail (pills/superficial cuts)
          Males more likely to succeed b/c they
           use weapons
              Suicide predictors cont.-
• Family Relations- violence in the home, intense
  marital conflicts, recent loss of parent due to divorce
  or death.
*Suicide is more common in families whose parent/s
  show rejection or hostility towards their children.*

• Population Density- under populated areas have a
  higher suicide rate b/c there are fewer social services
  and more social isolation
Geographically, fewer suicides happen where?
East coast, West coast or Midwest?          Western
• Cluster Effect- one suicide often leads to a COPYCAT suicide within a
community. The news acts like a fuse with already unstable teens.

Social Factors that affect suicide rates:
Emile Durkheim (1897)- famous for the
most comprehensive case study of suicide
to date!

    He wanted to know why some groups within a society have
    higher suicide rates then others. He concluded this:
    It depends on the their level of social integration.
Social Integration- the degree of attachment one
has to a social group or society.

• Opposite ends of             Eskimos in Greenland
  the spectrum; if    In many societies, primarily nomadic or
                      very poor ones, it is not uncommon
  you place your      that old members of the tribe will
  groups’ needs       commit suicide to avoid continuing life
  above your own      as weak and pitiable creatures that are
  because you are     a burden on their community. Among
                      the Eskimos, such motives appeared to
  very socially       be quite frequent, and a person might
  integrated- you     be placed in a kayak on the ocean to
  have an increased   sail toward the sunrise, or be left
  risk.               behind in the wilderness. Last recorded
                      case- 1939.

          Iluilissat Ice fjord
• People w/ low levels of social
  integration have the highest
  rate of suicide.
   What groups are you involved
• Rates also increase during
  periods of social
  Examples: natural disasters,
  war, sudden change in
  economic conditions

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