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					        What is RFID?
• RFID is a technology that uses
  radio-frequency waves to
  transfer data between a reader
  and a movable item to identify,
  categorize, track...
• RFID is fast, reliable, and does
  not require physical sight or
  contact between
  reader/scanner and the tagged

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Inlays for RFID Tags for
        13.56 Mhz

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• Low: 30-300Khz(Passive & short range
  applications (Livestock & antitheft
  automobiles) typical: 125-134Khz

• High (3-30 Mhz) Applications: Smart cards
  & smart label baggage tracking or small
  product labeling Typical: 13.56Mhz

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  Frequencies continued
• Very high (300Mhz-3 Ghz)
  Applications: Highway toll collection
 U.S.A typical 900Mhz or 2.45 Ghz
  in Europe 5.8Ghz

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      Why use RFID ?
• To determine authentication of a

• To provide automated traceability of
  an item

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Motivation of using RFID

• Generate Revenue

• Reduce operating costs

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The RFID Reader Anti-
   collision protocol

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  What is RFID? -- The
• Tags can be attached to
  almost anything:
  – pallets or cases of product
  – vehicles
  – company assets or personnel
  – items such as apparel,
    luggage, laundry
  – people, livestock, or pets
  – high value electronics such
    as computers, TVs, camcorders
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     Are All Tags The
Basic Types:
    • Tag transmits radio signal
    • Battery powered memory, radio &
    • High Read Range (300 feet)
    • Tag reflects radio signal from reader
    • Reader powered
    • Shorter Read Range (4 inches - 15 feet)
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     Are All Tags The
•   Variations:
    – Memory
       • Size (16 bits - 512KBytes +)
       • Read-Only, Read/Write or WORM
       • Type: EEProm, Antifuse, FeRam
    – Arbitration (Anti-collision)
       • Ability to read/write one or
         many tags at a time
    – Frequency
       • 125KHz - 5.8 GHz
    – Physical Dimensions
       • Thumbnail to Brick sizes
    – Price ($0.50 to $250)
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   Types of Tags - Memory
 Read Only (Factory Programmed)

 WORM - Write Once, Read Many

 Reprogrammable (Field

 Read/Write (In-Use Programmable)

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RFID Application in a Factory Canteen
  • it is very interesting to notice that in the
    factory canteen’s environment, RFID tags
    are attached at the bottom of the plates
    to identify the cooked food and its price.
  • The staff of the factory need only to pick
    up the food on the tray and place the tray
    on top of a RFID reader.
  • The RFID reader will identify the products
    and its price. The staff need only to place
    the cash card to pay for the food.

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Paperless Maintenance Senario at Frankfort

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Case Study:Logistics
  processes at HP

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      Access control
      Biohazard area
• A card holder leaves one containment
  area into non secure area without
  activating decontamination
• RFID reader ascertains card holder
  did not pass decontamination and
  deny access

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Senario of Washing Cloth
• Bob decides help his wife in washing

• A disaster happens

• RFID saves cloths

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  Personal identification
• Tracking personnel inside a secure
  area by wearing a wrist band

• Security guards can be monitored in
  real time

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  Blood Tissue andOrgan
• RFID ideal solution to minimise
  errors in patient identification,
  transplant organs and blood

• Identify source of samples

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      Other applications
•   Hazardous waste management
•   Fleet management
•   Vehicle identification
•   Pigeon racing
•   Production line monitoring

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   Car body production
• Painting car’s body with proper colour

• Car body in right place, at right time

• Proper info sent to robotic painter
  along assembly line

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    Medication tablets
• As pill removed registered
• Patient can record his experience
• How well did he sleep?
• Did he suffer from exceeding heart
• Information sent back to physician

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     Postal application
• Using RFID can record if package
  was opened, stolen or tampered with
• Can record if fragile items were
  handled properly
• Can be used for large containers( Not
  supposed to be opened during its
  travel rout

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• RFID can be woven: ‫مخيطة‬
• Identification for anti-counterfeit or
  detecting gray market
• Example: Marks & Spenser: Privacy
  only specific information( size,style,
  colour) stored.

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     Promise of RFID
• For supply chain improve demand
• For Pharmaceutical manufacturers
  combat counterfeit drugs and reduce
• Attaching tag object “internet of

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• For businesses faster order
  automation, tighter control of
• Information sharing of goods with
  business partners

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RFID network

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A reader Architecture

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       Reader Collision
• Signal from one reader can interfere with
  signal from other
• Apply TDMA (Time division multiple access
• Readers read at different times
• System has to be setup not to read tag
• Readers have Capability to receive data
  from as many as 1000 tags per second

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Muhammad Wasim Raad   29
 What is EPC (Electronic
   Product Coding)?
• EPC is a globally unique serial number
  identifying individual item attached
  to it
• Enables enquiries to be made about
  individual item wherever it is in the
  global supply chain

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     The EPC Network
• EPCglobal network enable immediate
  retrieval accurate trusted
• EPC network uses RFID+EPC +
  internet to allow trading partners to
  share this information securely

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Benefits EPCglobal RFID
•   Faster and more precise reads
•   Accurate and trusted data
•   Lower inventory levels
•   Fewer out of stock
•   Better asset utilization

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Example and Structure
  of An EPC Number

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EPC Information Service

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 What is EAS(Electronic
 Article Surveillance)?
• Books, hairdryers.. Bear small tags
  for theft prevention
• Initially at book shelf tag has a bit
  of 0
• At point of sale sales clerk
  deactivate tags by setting bit to 1

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       Smart Shelves
• Antennas have to be optimally placed
  on shelves
• Still expensive, requires numerous
• Smart shopper carts scan items and
  objects on shelves

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 What are chipless tags?
• No IC
• Use RF fibers or materials reflect
  reader’s signal producing unique serial no
• Cost: 10-25 cents each
• Tolerates wide range temperature,
• Less sensitive RF

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        Chipless tags
• 2.5% of RFID market
• Less usable in supply chain

• Expected to become 30% in 2010

• Chipless RFID smart labels have a
  range of 10 meters

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        Chipless tags
• Each Transponder emits a unique
  signal cannot be forged
• Suitable authentication and anti-
• Antenna different shapes: Fine
  threads reflect unique

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• V. small antenna (5 micron diameter,
  1mm length)
• Frequencies: 24Ghz-60Ghz
• Cost < 50% RFID chip
• Soon < $.05
• Embedded paper labels

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• Privacy bit on tag
• Tags belong to consumers
• If privacy bit=1 it will be invisible to
• Readers watch on each other: private
  tag command
• What is blocker tag?

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       The privacy bit
• Blocker tag command can prevent
  privacy violations before they occur
• A blocker effectively jams readers
  that emit private-read commands
• When it detects it, it simulates all
  possible RFID tags in the world
  rendering reader incapable

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Market Trend

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• RFID readers: 1000$
• Tags: > 20 cents.
• Active tags: 1$-5$
• Tags will become cost effective when
  production inlay very high
• Only handful of quality suppliers

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        Cost continue
• Production methods and materials
  used to build RFID inlays being
• Tag antennas metallic, very expensive
  and large size
• Chip less Tags much cheaper: .1-10

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• Low & high frequency tags less
  expensive than UHF, but slower data
• UHF range up to 25 feet or more and
  use more power and faster data
• Needs direct path: Rail car tracking

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• Low frequency use less power better
  penetrate non-metallic substances
• Ideal for scanning objects with high
  water content such as fruits
• Range is limited 1 foot (0.33meters)
• High frequency tags maximum range:
  3 feet (1 meter)

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    Tradeoff Chipless tags
         Vs Chip tag
•   Chipless tags cheaper by 50%
•   No good for supply chain
•   No authentication possible
•   Ideal for security of documents

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  Implementation issues
• Does the intended application require both
  read and write capability?

• Where will tag be physically attached to
  pallet or container?

• Will it be placed in a location that will
  make it difficult to be read?

• Will tag be affixed to products contain
  metal (blocks signal) or liquid which absorb

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  Implementation issues
• Does environment make surface
  dirty, greasy or covered paint?
• Are products being shipped packaged
  in such a way multiple tags will enter
  field of reader same time? Requiring
  anticollision algorithm?

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• What is cost of not implementing
  RFID? Will Profitability decrease
  over time?
• Will implementing RFID result in
  better supply chain management,
  stronger customer loyalty?

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 Future: Science Fiction
• Transparent packages will light up in
  moving color advertisement

• Disposable smart labels will detect
  viruses and specific chemicals

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• RFID book by Steven Shepard, McGraw-
  Hill 2005-ISBN-0-07-144299-5
• RFID Field Guide Deploying Radio
  Frequency Identification systems By
  Manish Bhuptani-ISBN-0-13-185355-4

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