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General Description of L2
Composition for Academic
Organizing & Content

   Paragraph Development
               1. The Topic Sentence
1. Indentation and Length: Most paragraphs have more than three
   sentences. (100-200 words)
2. Identifying Irrelevant Sentences.
   Different people spend their weekends in different ways. Some
   enjoy going to the mountains to hike, ski, or just relax. Water
   skiing is much more difficult than snow skiing. Others prefer
   going to the beach to enjoy the seashore activities and to get
   a suntan. Some of these people work very hard during the
   week; others have rather relaxing jobs. Still others like to relax
   by staying home and reading a good book.
3. _____________________. First, with a word processor it is
   possible to type over a word or words that you want to change,
   while with a standard typewriter it is necessary either to erase
   or use corrections. The second advantage is that you can add
   words or sentences in the middle of a paragraph and then
   command the computer to put your text back in proper
   paragraph form. When using a standard typewriter, the only
   way to add new information is to retype the entire paragraph.
   2. Supporting Topic Sentences-Examples
1. Structures of Examplification:
   Some words in English represent people’s names.
        A good example (illustration) of this is the word lynch.
        This can be illustrated by the word boycott.
        Other words in this category include lynch and boycott.
2. Guided Analysis of the Use of Examples
   In order to be considered a hero by his or her own and
   subsequent generations, a person must display extraordinary
   physical or intellectual powers. The physical hero-one who
   exhibits great strength to overcome monumental obstacles and
   emerge a victor-is frequently found in literature.

  Topic Sentence:
      Example (Physical Hero):
      Example (Physical Hero):
     2. Supporting Topic Sentences-Details
1. A detail is a particular part or characteristic of a whole thing or
   a whole idea. Details are frequently used in a description.
2. Guided Analysis of the Use of Details
   Landlords usually require a renter to sign a very complicated
   contract called a lease. It stipulates the length of time the
   person must stay in the apartment and the amount of rent he
   or she must pay. It can limit the number of people allowed to
   live in the apartment and restrict the renter from having pets.
   The agreement also includes the responsibilities of the
   landlord, such as providing adequate heat, garbage removal,
   and exterior maintenance of the apartment building.

Topic Sentence:
  Detail: length of time
  Detail: _____________
  Detail: _____________
  Detail: _____________
  Detail: _____________
       example: _________ , ________ , _________
   2. Supporting Topic Sentences-Anecdotes
 1. An anecdote is a short, entertaining account of some
    happening. It is usually personal or lengthy example.
 2. Guided Analysis of the Use of Details
    Physical gesture and body language have different meanings
    in different cultures, and misunderstanding these signals can
    sometimes be embarassing.

 Topic Sentence:
   ANECDOTE: (the entire paragraph)

 2. Supporting Topic Sentences-Facts and 통계
1. Guided Analysis of the Use of Details
   Exams apparently have a marked effect on the blood pressure
   of the students taking them. In a recent study, it was shown
   that the average student’s blood pressure rose from 115/55
   before the exam to 155/115 at the end of the exam. Ten
   minutes after the examination period had ended, the students’
   blood pressures were still quite high, averaging 15/110.
                      3. Enumeration
1. Enumeration (kinds, types..) refers to a logical and cohesive
   manner in arranging supporting sentences. In the type of
   paragraph development, a writer starts with a general class,
   then proceeds to break it down by listing some or all of its
   members or parts.
2. Listing signals: First, Second, Third, Last…
3. Descending (More importantless important)/ Ascending

              4. Process and Chronology
1. Process: When supporting sentences are arranged in a step-
   by-step sequence which tells how something is made or done,
   this development is called process. (List signals: step, stage..)
2. Chronological Order: Enumerators are rarely used in
   chronological order. We might occasionally write “the next
   thing” or “the next event.”
3. Time Clues: Verb Choice (begin, start, continue, become,
   develop, end, finish, remain, culminate), Time clauses
   (simultaneous actions-while, as/ sequential actions-when,
   before, after, until)/ sentence connectors of time-during this
   period, at the same time, afterwards, then, meanwhile, at the
   point, following that)
                   5. Cause and Effect
1. In a cause-effect development, there is always a causal
   relationship between the topic sentence and the supporting
   sentences, or even between major supporting sentences and
   minor ones.
2. Focus on cause(C1,C2,C3->Situation) & on effect (SE1,E2,E3)
3. Cause-Effect Development: Structural Signals
   Sentence connectors:
   In some areas, water levels will fall; [as a result, consequently,
   therefore, because of this, hence,] these areas will no longer be
   able to support industry.
   Conjunctions: so, for
   Clause Structure: so..that, such…that, such a … that
   Phrase Structure: [Because of, Due to, In view of] the increase..
   Predicate Structures: cause, result in, be responsible for, lead to..
4. Chain Reaction: In developing a causal relationship, you will
   frequently find that the effect of one situation becomes the cause
   of the next. When this relationship exists, we have what is called
   a chain reaction.
                   5. Cause and Effect
5. Model Paragraph: Focus on Effect
   Some scientists warn that the gradual warming of the earth’s
   atmosphere, known as the Greenhouse Effect, will cause
   dramatic changes in the world as we now know it. First of all,
   because of the increase in temperature of up to 10 degrees F
   by the end of the next century, which some believe has
   already begun, there will be changes in existing patterns of
   agriculture. Such fertile areas as the U.S. Great Plains may
   become deserts, while the now arid lands in Saudi Arabia may
   become grain-producing farmland.
6. Focus on Cause
   Why is it that American working women complain about job
   discrimination? Statistics suggest that there is a basis for their
   grievances. According to recent Census Bureau statistics,
   nearly 45 percent of all women of working age are in the labor
   force. Although they have made progress in recent years,
   women are still underrepresented in traditionally male
   professions. Second area of complaint is women’s median
   weekly and yearly earnings in comparison with men’s. The
   average male factory worker earns &336 per week, while a
   female worker earns only $225.
             6. Comparison and Contrast
1. Structures of Comparison
   1) Adjective/Preposition: Kennedy was killed on the same day of
   the week as Lincoln. [similar to, like..]
   2) Attached Statements: Kennedy was succeeded by a Southern
   Democrat, and Lincoln was too. [and so was Lincoln]
   3) Correlative Conjunctions: Both..and.., Neither..nor..
   4) Sentence Connector: similarly, correspondingly, likewise, in the
   same way, by the same token.
2. Structures of Contrast
   1) Comparatives: -er…than; more…than; less..than;
   2) Prepositions: Unlike, Contrary to, As opposed to
   3) Adverbial clauses: Whereas, while
   4) Verbal Structures: [contrast with/differ from/be different from]
   5) Sentence Connectors: [however/on the other hand/in contrast]
   6) Conjunctions: [but]
   7) Punctuation Only: The introvert likes books; the extrovert, people.
3. Methods of Contrast
   1) Method 1: The contrast are made one at a time, point-by-point.
        sociability:[extrovertintrovert] Rist-taking:[exin]
   2) Method 2: Extrovert [sociability, risk-taking, feelings] 
                 Introvert [sociability, risk-taking, feelings]
                        7. Definition
1. Formal Def.: meaning in the dictionary, Term(e.g. wristwatch),
   Class(device), Distinguish features (mechanical)
   Structures of Definition: The [term/word] voca [means/signifies,
   refers to/designates] a what. 그외 is called, is known as
2. The extended definition: Additional info.
3. Problems in definition
   1) The circular definition: The term being defined is repeated in the
   definition. Ex) Economics is the study of the economy.
   2) The overextended definition: The definition can be applied to
   more things than just the term being defined. “Lemonade as a
   refreshing drink” There are many other things which fall into this
   3) The overrestricted definition: Table is defined only as a place
   where one eats.
4. Stipulated Def.: one which you explain how you are using a term for
   a particular purpose, or in which you explain your particular
   interpretation of the term.
        8. From Paragraph to Composition
Organizing Frame (Skeleton) Prewriting activity
  Main Topic: A child is a better language learner than an adult.
       Topic Sentence:_____________ (Which type ________)
              Supporting Sentence:____________
              Supporting Sentence:____________
              Supporting Sentence:____________
       Topic Sentence:_____________ (Which type ________)
              Supporting Sentence:____________
              Supporting Sentence:____________
              Supporting Sentence:____________
       Topic Sentence:_____________ (Which type ________)
              Supporting Sentence:____________
              Supporting Sentence:____________
              Supporting Sentence:____________
Language Use

 Eradicate Errors
                     1. Mistakes/Errors
1. The Use of Article & Number
   Researches of the mid-1970s led to some very careful defining of
   specific learning strategy. In some of most comprehensive
   research, some scholars studied use of strategies by a learner of
   English as second language in United States.
2. The Use of Tense
   Please refer to the attached file.
3. Unnecessary Repetition
   The hard-working workers try to investigate whether the theory can
   fully examine the aspects. Some researchers firmly uprooted the
   foundation of the theory since it did not include the real, authentic,
   and particular situations to be researched.
4. Complexity
   This comparatively difficult and painstaking job, which in boredom
   lasted over 3 hours from dawn-breaking morning to dark evening,
   demanded the reliable workers to spend and use up their energies
   and causes them to fall into a deep sleep as soon as they finished
   the job and arrived at home.
5. Repetitions of the same word in a paragraph.
                       2. General Rule
1. Omit Unneeded words (e.g. There were some passengers who
    were injured. Circular in shape, digital system computer)
    1) In the case of a poor teacher, there is nothing to do but remove
    him from his job. Needless to say, he is what might be called
    ineffective.  1st revise2nd reviseFinal
    2) This is a tiger. It is huge. It is dangerous. It has stripes. It eats
    people. It lives in the grass lands of Asia.  Your suggestion?
2. Use Active, Rather than Passive, English writing.
    Educational values are strongly respected in the classroom.
3. Be concise.
    ex) In my opinion, the sentence is excessively long. I believe the
    sentence is too long.
4. Omit Unneeded Prepositional Phrases
   ex) In the following discussion we will consider the world
   economic situation.  The following discussion considers the
   world economy.
   ex) For the final report we limited the subjects covered.  ?
                      2. General Rule

5. Avoid Unnecessary Noun Phrases
   ex) 10 cm in length  10 cm long
6. Avoid Unnecessary Repetition
   The modern engineer of today usually has about three or four
   absolutely essential tasks to perform in any design. Today’s
   engineer performs three or four essential tasks in (any) design.
7. Use Simple (Familiar) Words and Expressions – In general writings
   (However, formal style of writings will be employed for the specific
   and/or academic purposes.)
8. Avoid “Smothered Verbs (Noun-like Verb at the subject)”
   * In hiring new employees, careful initial selection and
   classification are important procedures in the elimination of
   potential maladjusted personnel.
   O If a company carefully selects and classifies new employees, it
   will have few maladjusted people.
   O A company that carefully selects and classifies new employees
   will have few maladjusted people.
                       2. General Rule
9. Omit Unneeded Adjective Clauses Beginning with That, Who or
   The furniture, which is soft and comfortable, gives the room a
   pleasing look. 
10. Use Direct English Writing
   It is with deep regret that I must inform you that I will be unable to
   pay a visit to you next week.
11. Use Concrete and Specific Nouns.
   The case of the missing equipment will be investigated by the
   company. 
12. Use Analytical- Rather than Catalogical-Writing Style.
   The analytical writing style provides information in the way of the
   logical and concise form. Catalogical style simply numerates the
   information largely by using smothered verbs and passive forms.
   ex) The need in the school for great increases in space caused by
   a steady growth in research work, has necessitated the addition of
   a new wing to the laboratory.  Because our research has grown
   steadily, we are adding a wing that will increase our laboratory
   space 2,000 sqaure feet.

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