K 11 Boom _ Bust by stariya

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									                                    Boom and Bust
                                      1918-1940
01. Which of the following developments did not take place in the 1920s? (A) the first
“talking” motion pictures (B) development of commercial radio (C) the end of
Prohibition (D) rebirth of the Ku-Klux Klan.

02. In many Americans minds in the 1920s, union members (A) were nothing but
dangerous communists (B) were entitled to strike for better wages and working
conditions (C) should obey the Clayton Anti-Trust law (D) caused the Depression of
1921.

03. In the 1920s, the United States refused to cancel the war debts of her European
allies because the United States (A) wanted to force Germany to pay reparations (B)
needed the money to pay for economic development (C) considered that all honestly
incurred debts should be paid (D) thought that debt repayment would reduce the arms
race in Europe.

04. President Coolidge’s attitude toward business was (A) suspicious (B) friendly (C)
radical (D) all of these.

05. Critics who felt that Franklin Roosevelt was not going far enough to help the poor
wanted to (A) increase taxes on all citizens (B) raise taxes on the rich only (C) protect
jobs by raising the tariffs (D) assure high interest rates for those who saved.

06. The result of United States trade policies in the 1920s was that (A) American
industry suffered from foreign competition (B) other countries found it difficult to sell to
the United States (C) American industry had no difficulty in selling abroad (D) American
agricultural products were more easily sold abroad than manufactured products.

07. Which of the following was a Democratic candidate for President? (A) James Cox
(B) Al Smith (C) Franklin D Roosevelt (D) all of these.

08. By “speculation” we mean (A) buying for investment, risking profit/loss (B) buying
stocks unlawfully (C) a letdown of moral standards (D) none of these.

09. The Democratic presidential candidate in 1924 was hindered by the (A) high
unemployment rates (B) inability to win states outside the South (C) dissatisfaction of
voters with Populism (D) appeal of progressivism.

10. The period 1920-29 was characterized by (A) a letdown of social and moral
standards (B) extravagance of different kinds (C) immigration restrictions (D) all of
these.
11. What was the aim of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation? (A) to prevent
bankruptcies of major institutions (B) to provide loans to small businesses (C) to provide
price supports for farmers (D) to provide jobs and housing.

12. In the Presidential campaign (1928), (A) the Republicans pledged to raise the tariff
(B) the Democrats pledged to end Prohibition (C) the Democratic Candidate was Catholic
(D) all of these

13. The McNary-Haugen Bill (A) was designed to raise farm prices (B) fixed the
exchange of gold (C) attempted to bring “pooling” arrangements under Federal control
(D) none of these.

14. Which of the following was not a reason for Prohibition? (A) the brewers were
German-Americans (B) drinking alcohol was a moral sin (C) liquor tax was no longer
needed (D) grain was needed for the war effort.

15. Which of the following increased the popularity of the Republicans in the 1920s?
(A) the Democrats lack of interest in reform (B) the Republican support for labor unions
(C) the realistic Republican foreign policy (D) prosperity under the Republicans.

16. One negative result of the New Deal was (A) the absolute power it gave FDR (B)
the many riots and rebellions it caused (C) the tremendous growth in the size of the
government bureaucracy (D) its failure to help distressed Americans.

17. The automobile changed American life by (A) stimulating paved road construction
(B) creating urban sprawl (C) consolidating rural education (D) all of the above.

18. The sit-down strikes of the 1930s (A) aided the UAW in gaining recognition (B)
angered the CIO (C) outraged the president of Republic Steel (D) were major factors in
FDR’s 1936 victory.

19. A recurring American anxiety since the 1920s has been (A) fear of communism (B)
distrust of foreigners (C) racial dislike (D) hatred of Catholics.

20. Which of the following was not one of Franklin Roosevelt’s financial reforms? (A)
the insuring of bank deposits (B) the devaluation of the dollar (C) a mild deflation of the
currency (D) a departure from the all gold standard.

21. Which of the following served as Secretary of Treasury under both Hoover and
Coolidge? (A) Andrew Mellon (B) Charles Evans Hughes (C) Alfred Smith (D) Frank
Kellogg.

22. Hoover’s attempts to have private welfare groups help the needy failed because the
organizations (A) received no citizen support (B) were corrupt and disorganized (C)
could not find strong leadership (D) could not keep up with the demand for help.
23. The Johnson Emigration Act provided for a quota system based on (A) country of
birth (B) economic conditions (C) political party affiliation (D) educational and
occupational qualifications.

24. Work provided for Americans by the CWA and WPA included (A) building dams
to provide electricity (B) building roads and painting murals (C) building firebreaks and
campgrounds (D) maintaining school grounds.

25. American money was loaned to Germany as a result of the (A) Fordney-McCumber
Act (B) 5 Powers Treaty (C) Young Plan (D) Dawes Plan.

26. Teapot Dome refers to a scandal which involved (A) government oil reserves (B)
military contracts (C) land grants to railroads (D) road construction.

27. The Emergency Quota Act and the National Origins Act were concerned with (A)
employment for minorities (B) immigration (C) loans to foreign countries (D) tariffs on
imports.

28. Which of the following had the greatest impact on the decline of rural isolation? (A)
diesel engine (B) airplane (C) radio (D) automobile.

29. One reason for the decline in farm income in the 1920s was (A) inflation (B)
overproduction (C) high tariff duties (D) shortage of farm labor.

30. Persons who speculate “on margin” are (A) buying land for resale (B) risking
money on oil wells (C) buying stocks on credit (D) dealing in gold.

31. Which of the following is generally considered to mark the beginning of the Great
Depression? (A) collapse of the stock market (1929) (B) new tariff laws (1923) (C)
election of Hoover (1928) (D) default of European war loans (1931).

32. The Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930) resulted in increased (A) markets for American
farmers (B) tariff retaliation by foreign countries (C) imports by American manufacturers
(D) competition among large corporations.

33. The reasons for riots in American cities (1919) was (A) the “Red Scare” (B)
discrimination against Black Americans (C) Police Strikes (D) Stock Market Crash.

34. Which of the following occurred during the Hoover Administration? (A) Stock
Market Crash (B) “New Deal” (C) Emergency Banking Act (D) none of these.

35. All of the following were true about American Indians in the 1920s except: (A) the
policy of “Americanizing” the Indians was a failure (B) the Indian population was
decreasing (C) Indians became American citizens (D) Indians had the highest poverty
level.
36. The impact of the New Deal on the family (A) resulted in more mothers working
(B) resulted in a higher birth rate (C) resulted in a lower birth rate (D) all of the above.

37. Sacco and Vanzetti may have been found guilty because (A) they killed two
anarchists (B) of their disfavor with the American Civil Liberties Union and American
liberals (C) of their unpopular political viewpoints (D) of their union activities.

38. According to Keynesian economics, in a depression the government should (A)
increase government spending (B) deflate the currency (C) raise taxes (D) increase the
prime interest rate.

39. The revival of the Ku-Klux Klan in the 1920s led to (A) national legislation against
racial and religious prejudice (B) violence, but limited to the South (C) harassment of
foreigners, Catholics, Jews and Blacks (D) none of the above.

40. Prohibition was harmful to the American public in the long run because it (A) made
even beer and wine impossible to get in the United States (B) resulted in contempt for the
law (C) became law without their approval (D) created gangsters like Al Capone.

41. Which of the following is arranged in correct chronological order? (A) Wilson,
Hoover, Harding, Coolidge (B) Wilson, Hoover, Coolidge, Harding (C) Wilson, Harding,
Coolidge, Hoover (D) Coolidge, Wilson, Hoover, Harding.

42. All of the following have been advanced as causes of the Great Depression except:
(A) farm prosperity (B) excessive borrowing (C) business cycle (D) the Stock Market
Crash.

43. The immigration quota system was based on the number of immigrants as a percent
of (A) a nation’s total population (B) the number of persons of a nationality living in the
United States (C) the number of people in a national that wanted to emigrate (D) none of
these.

44. The “New Woman” of the 1920s rejected all of the following except: (A) the
superior competence of men (B) separate standards for men and women (C) traditional
female roles (D) social equality and freedom.

45. The most famous baseball hero of the 1920s was (A) Al Jolsen (B) Babe Ruth (C)
Red Grange (D) Ty Cobb.

46. Which of the following concerned Prohibition? (A) 18th Amendment (B) Volstead
Act (C) 21st Amendment (D) all of these.

47. Americans elected Warren Harding president because (A) he was a reservationist on
the League of Nations issue (B) they were weary of the turmoil of international affairs
and progressives reforms (C) his prior political record showed a dynamic reformer and
capable administrator (D) he was fair in his treatment of unions and management alike.
48. American literature in the 1920s could be described as subscribing to (A) fantasy
(B) idealism (C) romanticism (D) realism.

49. Demobilization after World War I resulted in (A) the transferring of large numbers
of United States troops from France to Siberia (B) the revoking of the Esch-Cummins Act
(C) runaway inflation (D) the Depression of 1921.

50. Probably the most widely known of the Harlem Renaissance novelists was (A)
Richard Wright (B) Countee Cullen (C) Erskine Caldwell (D) Claude McKay.

51. During the Great Depression, Hoover took all of the following actions to help the
nation recover except: (A) providing direct federal help for those in need (B) starting new
public works projects (C) creating the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (D) passing
the Home Loan Bank Act.

52. Which of the following American Depression authors was still setting his novels
overseas? (A) John Dos Passos (B) Thomas Wolfe (C) James T. Farrell (D) Ernest
Hemingway.

53. All of the following occurred during President Harding’s Administration except:
(A) Teapot Dome Scandal (B) passage of the Budget and Accounting Act (C) passage of
the Fordney- McCumber Tariff (D) ratification of the 20th Amendment.

54. The prosperity of the “Golden 20s” was not shared by (A) Indians (B) farmers (C)
Blacks (D) all of these.

55. Hoover’s presidential prestige was most seriously hurt by (A) his veto of the
Norris-Muscle Shoals Bill (B) the rejection of his Supreme Court nominee John Parker
(C) his dispersal of the Bonus Marchers (D) his support of the Reconstruction Finance
Corporation.

56. During the Stock Market Crash, one factor that forced prices sharply down was
heavy selling by (A) pension and insurance companies (B) private individuals (C)
government employees (D) stock market employees.

57. The 1920s were characterized by all of the following except: (A) more business
opportunities for women (B) fewer labor saving devices in the home (C) more social
opportunities for women (D) more labor opportunities for women.

58. Which of the following was not a part of the Republican plan to return to
“normalcy?” (A) Johnson Emigration Act (B) Jones-Reid Act (C) Fordney-McCumber
Act (D) Budget and Accounting Act.

59. All of the following were fiction writers in the 1920s except: (A) F Scott Fitzgerald
(B) Sinclair Lewis (C) Willa Cather (D) Frank Lloyd Wright.
60. Hoover’s approach to fighting the depression was to (A) continue to support
laissez-faire (B) initiate widespread welfare programs to give aid to the needy (C)
repudiate supply-side economics and the gold standard (D) aid private industry with
federal funds.

61. The activities of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and the Public Works
Administration were referred to as (A) a Bank Holiday (B) devaluing the dollar (C)
“pump priming” (D) boondoggling.

62. An attempt to correct political campaign irregularities was initiated by the New
Deal in the (A) Frazier-Lemke Act (B) Butler v. United States case (C) Hatch Acts (D)
Norris-LaGuardia Act.

63. Which of the following was both Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and
President? (A) Charles Evans Hughes (B) William Howard Taft (C) Oliver Wendall
Holmes (D) John Marshall.

64. Which industry was the least prosperous during the period 1921-29? (A)
manufacturing (B) agriculture (C) public utilities (D) advertising.

65. America’s BASIC foreign policy toward Europe (1918-1928) was to (A) abolish all
customs barriers (B) have as little as possible to do with European political affairs (C)
encourage all international political relations with a view toward an eventual union of
democratic nations (D) prepare for the possibility of another war against a united Europe.

66. In which period was immigration to the United States the greatest? (A) 1840-59 (B)
1860-79 (C) 1880-89 (D) 1900-19.

67. The Great Depression grew worse during 1931 because of (A) occupation of
Washington by the “Bonus Army” (B) the obstruction of the Hoover program by a
coalition of Democrats and Progressive Republicans (C) the near collapse of the
European economy, which led to an economic war of tariffs and devalued currencies (D)
none of these.

68. Latin America was most impressed with the United States by (A) the United States
application for membership in the World Court (B) the Clark Memorandum (C)
Morrow’s winning compensation for Mexican nationalization of the oil industry (D) the
United States establishing a National Guard for Nicaragua.

69. Which of the following was not a reason for the Allies inability to repay their war
debts to the United States? (A) high United States tariffs inhibiting trade (B) the inability
of Germany to make reparation payments to the Allies (C) the lack of gold to make
payments with (D) the collapse of trade within the British Commonwealth.
70. The Washington Conference failed to accomplish United States goals because (A)
Japan openly cheated (B) the United States failed to expand the treaty to include non-
capital ships (C) the United States failed to build up to its quota (D) of the end of the
Open Door policy in China.

71. Which of the following is generally described as the “catalyst” which set off the
Great Depression? (A) Stock Market Crash (B) End of World War I (C) election of F D
Roosevelt (D) rise of Hitler to power in Germany.

72. An important factor contributing to the Great Depression in the United States was
(A) decline in farm prosperity in the 1920s (B) excessively large military budgets of the
1920s (C) rapid development of our mineral resources (D) large importation of foreign
goods.

73. The phenomenon of greatest benefit to the advertising business of the 1920s was the
(A) growing number of radios and broadcasting stations in the United States (B)
development of the “hard sell” technique (C) adoption of the enticing commercial (D)
creation of the highway billboard.

74. The primary issue in the election campaign of 1932 was (A) Treaty of Versailles
(B) Morris Act (C) Depression (D) corruption in government.

75. Prohibition of alcohol failed primarily because (A) no real effort was made to
enforce the Volstead Act (B) “bathtub gin” was too easy to make (C) the prohibitionists
lacked zeal (D) public opinion was hostile to prohibition in the large cities.

76. The purpose of the CAYUGA was to (A) save the environment (B) build large scale
public works (C) provide jobs for young men (D) employ men and women of all ages.

77. What is most commonly associated with the Administrations of Warren G Harding
and
U S Grant? (A) depression (B) corruption in government (C) humanitarian reforms (D)
territorial expansion.

78. The Fordney-McCumber Tariff and the first immigration quota law were enacted
during the administration of (A) Harding (B) Hoover (C) Coolidge (D) F D Roosevelt.

79. Which of the following was the most capable and at the same time, colorful,
challenger for the presidency in the 1920s? (A) Charles Bryan (B) John Davis (C) James
Cox (D) Al Smith.

80. The World Court was (A) opposed by the presidents of the 1920s (B) never entered
by the United States (C) disassociated from the League of Nations (D) approved by the
Senate without reservations.
81. After World War I, the condition of agriculture in the United States was
characterized by (A) increased farm tenancy and the production of farm surpluses (B)
increased land ownership due to steadily rising land values (C) much greater increase in
prices than in labor costs (D) repudiation of cooperative organizations as a means of
obtaining relief.

82. Following World War I, financial organizations helped to increase the consumption
of expensive commodities such as automobiles and radios by (A) reducing the legal
interest rate (B) curtailing loans for speculation (C) lending money by companies which
agreed to set retain prices at cost plus 10% (D) handling the financing of such purchases
on a deferred basis.

83. According to some economists, the Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930) contributed to the
Depression by (A) cutting off the supply of needed raw materials (B) raising the cost of
living for the American worker (C) injuring the American merchant marine (D) leading
to high tariffs everywhere, thus stifling world trade.


84. Which of the following is the chief cause of the strained relations between the
United States and Mexico after World War I? (A) Mexico’s inability to establish a
democratic government (B) Mexico’s refusal to cooperate with the United States to
prevent illegal immigration to the United States (C) confiscation by the Mexican
government of United States property in Mexico (D) Mexico’s refusal to pay war debts to
the United States.

85. Which of the following industries grew most rapidly in the 1920s? (A) railroad (B)
farm machinery (C) automobile (D) shipbuilding.

86. The best solution of the war debt problem of the 1920s probably would have been
(A) an across the board cancellation of debts among the victors (B) a heavier reparations
bill for Germany (C) an inflation of the German currency (D) more revenue through
higher tariffs.

87. In what year did the total urban population approximately equal the rural
population? (A) 1860 (B) 1880 (C) 1900 (D) 1920.

88. The purpose of the parity program for farmers was to (A) set maximum prices for
farm products (B) raise consumer prices (C) stimulate the economy (D) cut government
waste.

89. From which area has the United States received the largest number of immigrants?
(A) Northern and Western Europe (B) Southern and Eastern Europe (C) Latin America
(D) Asia.
90. Which of the following was not one of the electrical innovations of the first two
decades of the 1900s? (A) electric light bulb (B) Hollywood movies (C) home appliances
(D) commercial radio.

91. The McNary-Haugen Bill aimed to help the farmers by (A) decreasing the amount
of land in production (B) buying up the farm surpluses for export (C) stockpiling surplus
grains (D) reducing farm taxes and lowering interest on loans.

92. Which of the following insured individual deposits in a bank to the amount of
$2500? (A) Farm Credits Act (B) Reconstruction Finance Corporation (C) Federal
Deposit Insurance Corporation (D) Agricultural Adjustment Act.

93. Opponents of President Franklin Roosevelt criticized the New Deal because it (A)
weakened the power of the Presidency (B) failed to lower tariffs (C) failed to help labor
(D) cost too much.

94. The New Deal law which favored organized labor was the (A) Wagner Act (B)
Works Progress Act (C) Civilian Conservation Corps (D) Federal Housing Act.

95. During his “First Hundred Days” Franklin D Roosevelt (A) closed all the banks (B)
created the FCC (C) let Congress control the entire economy (D) went back to the gold
standard.

96. Which of the following authors was least intent on criticizing American social
values? (A) F. Scott Fitzgerald (B) Sinclair Lewis (C) Robert Frost (D) H.L. Mencken.

97. After the Supreme Court ruled key New Deal legislation unconstitutional (A) FDR
asked Congress to increase the number of court justices (B) Congress objected and
refused to uphold the Court’s rulings (C) FDR appointed a new justice to replace each
sitting judge over 70 (D) Congress publicly proved the Court wrong.

98. Secretary of the Treasury Mellon’s tax measures (A) forced the rich to invest in tax-
exempt securities (B) obviously favored the middle class (C) discouraged excessive
speculation (D) unduly favored the wealthy.

99. Which of the following New Deal programs was not declared unconstitutional by
the Supreme Court? (A) AAA (B) Fair Labor Standards Act (C) Frazier-Lemke Act (D)
NRA.

100. The bonus for veterans of the 1920s involved (A) partial compensation for time in
the service (B) adjusted health benefits to veterans (C) compensation for injuries and
wounds (D) tax relief adjustments on property.

101. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (A) was bitterly opposed by Hoover (B)
provided direct unemployment relief (C) lent money directly to large businesses (D)
financed the Hoover moratorium.
102. Probably the model for Sinclair Lewis’ Elmer Gantry was (A) Billy Sunday (B)
William J. Bryan (C) Clarence Darrow (D) Billy Graham.

103. The Townshend Plan was designed to stimulate the economy by giving $200 a
month to (A) every American (B) farmers (C) the unemployed (D) every person over 60.

104. The New Deal agricultural program was criticized for all of the following except:
(A) it was bureaucratic (B) it was paid for by urban consumers (C) it decreased food
supplies (D) only sharecroppers benefited.

105. The New Deal offered special relief to the nation’s youth through the (A) WPA and
PWA (B) Social Security Act (C) Federal Emergency Relief Administration (D) CCC
and NYA.

106. To help restore the nation’s economic health in 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt
(A) ordered the nation’s banks to close (B) increased the gold value of the dollar (C)
urged people to withdraw their money from banks (D) all of these.

107. By devaluing the dollar, the New Deal hoped to (A) increase prices (B) decrease
prices (C) keep prices the same (D) increase the value of money.

108. Latin American relations with the United States were improved by all of the
following except: (A) Coolidge’s dealings with Nicaragua (B) Morrow’s diplomacy with
Mexico (C) the Clark Memorandum (D) compensation to Colombia for the loss of
Panama.

109. President Roosevelt defended the NIRA on all of the following grounds except: (A)
it abolished child labor (B) it ended many unfair trade practices (C) the fair trade practice
codes were easy to enforce (D) it raised the annual wages of the nation.

110. The Supreme Court declared the NIRA unconstitutional because (A) it gave the
President legislative powers not authorized by the Constitution (B) industry codes were
not legally binding upon business (C) the government did not have the power to regulate
business (D) all of these.

111. Most of the provisions of the NIRA which labor unions favored were later included
in (A) Howard-Wheeler Act (B) Wagner Act (C) Wheeler-Rayburn Act (D) Ickes-
Perkins Act.

112. Critics of the Tennessee Valley Authority were most dissatisfied with the fact that
(A) floods were controlled in the Tennessee Valley (B) inexpensive power in one region
was paid for by the entire nation (C) industry was attracted to the Tennessee Valley (D)
agriculture was improved in the Tennessee Valley.
113. Which of the following resulted in the GREATEST amount of negative criticism
of Roosevelt’s New Deal? (A) the 1938 recession (B) the attempted Supreme Court
packing (C) the bimetallic monetary standard (D) labor disputes in the steel and auto
industries.

114. American tariff legislation of the early 1920s resulted in (A) lowered American
tariffs (B) lowered European tariffs (C) prolonging the European economic crisis (D)
reducing duties on many key manufactured products.

115. Which of the following New Deal programs survived the Depression? (A) WPA (B)
SEC (C) CCC (D) PWA.

116. President Franklin Roosevelt’s reform proposal for the Supreme Court included (A)
abolishing the Supreme Court (B) forcing aged Justice to retire (C) adding additional
Justices to the Court (D) replacing Republican Justices with Democrats.

117. After the defeat of Roosevelt’s Court Reform Proposal, the Supreme Court declared
constitutional (A) the National Labor Relations Act (B) the Social Security Act (C) the
Washington State minimum wage law (D) all of these.

118. The Fair Labor Standards Act provided for (A) a minimum wage scale and a
maximum work week (B) a legal maximum work week of 48 hours (C) a minimum wage
of $1 per hour (D) a maximum work week of 40 hours for children under 16 years of age.

119. After the Supreme Court declared the AAA of 1933 unconstitutional Congress tried
to help American farmers by passing (A) Wagner-Steagall Act (B) the Wages and Hours
Act (C) Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act (D) all of these.

120. The farm depression of the 1920s was caused by (A) cheap foreign imports (B) the
selling of farms for delinquent taxes (C) mechanization and overplanting (D) inflation of
agricultural farm prices.

121. Roosevelt’s greatest contribution as President was perhaps in (A) decentralizing the
federal government (B) balancing an unwieldy federal budget (C) saving the capitalistic
system from outright socialism (D) redistributing income among all American social
classes.

122. The Ku-Klux Klan of the 1920s was (A) found almost exclusively in the South (B)
similar in aims to the Klan of Reconstruction days (C) aimed primarily at putting Blacks
in their place (D) an expression of ultra-conservative and anti-foreigner sentiments.

123. John Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath was a (A) tome to the perseverance of the human
spirit (B) brutal assault against the capitalistic system (C) propaganda piece extolling
communism (D) book with a theme similar to Gone With the Wind.
124. The Great Depression of the 1930s (A) started in America (B) was triggered by
United States crop failures (C) resulted in a stock market collapse (D) all of the above.

125. One of the most reproduced painters of the 1930s was (A) Edward Hopper (B)
Henry Tanner (C) Grant Woods (D) Thomas Hart Benton.

126. Changes in the New Deal after 1938, included all of the following except: (A) TVA
ended operations (B) CCC ended operations (C) funds for many New Deal projects were
cut (D) the PWA shifted its attention to projects for national defense.

127. The Agricultural Adjustment Act (1938) contained all of the following provisions
except: (A) encouraged farmers to increase production (B) provided for government
storage of surplus crops (C) authorized price supports based on parity (D) authorized the
government to insure wheat crops.

128. The Election of 1940 was significant in United States history because (A) it broke
the two term tradition (B) it reaffirmed the two term tradition (C) the Republicans
received a greater popular vote than the Democrats (D) it was the closest in United States
history.

129. Many business leaders opposed the New Deal because (A) high taxes on
corporations (B) large national debt (C) spending policies (D) all of these.

130. During the 1930s, the Great Depression (A) forced President Roosevelt to trim the
size of the federal bureaucracy (B) the national debt doubled (C) business people
eventually came to admire President Roosevelt’s New Deal programs (D) the New Deal
substantially closed the gap between production and consumption in the American
economy.

131. By 1940, which of the following had been achieved by the New Deal? (A) lowered
costs of products purchased by farmers (B) increased farm income (C) eliminated farm
surpluses (D) guaranteed income for farm families.

132. The most urgent task facing President Franklin Roosevelt [1933] was (A) relief to
the unemployed (B) tariff reform (C) keeping the nation out of war (D) protecting
territorial possessions.

133. The New Deal tried to raise the price farmers received for their products by (A)
paying farmers to remove some of their land from production (B) granting direct relief to
farmers (C) providing consumers with more money to buy farm products (D)
encouraging farmers to plant more crops.

134. The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) included all of the following except:
(A) cooperation in business to replace competition (B) industries were to adopt fair
business codes (C) rigorous enforcement of the anti-trust laws (D) rights of workers to
bargain collectively were guaranteed.
135. Under the NIRA, the government discarded the (A) Social Security Act (B) Clayton
Anti-Trust Act (C) Wagner Act (D) Agricultural Adjustment Act.

136. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) was created to (A) guarantee the
savings of bank depositors (B) supervise individual banks (C) regulate the stock market
(D) all of these

137. The case of Sacco-Vanzetti aroused sympathy because the two men (A) were
summarily lynched (B) presumably did not receive a fair trial (C) were promptly
executed (D) were imprisoned for an unduly long time without a trial.

138. Keynesian economics (A) was endorsed by Alf Landon in the 1936 campaign (B) is
similar to Fascism (C) is much simpler to implement than supply-side economics (D)
requires accurate government monitoring of the economy.

139. Which of the following was not a trend in America during the Depression era? (A)
rise of the CIO (B) increase in Communist influence (C) growth in utopian movements
(D) decrease in literary accomplishments.

140. All of the following were goals of the Social Security Act (1935) except: (A) to
provide jobs for older citizens (B) to provide unemployment insurance (C) to provide
old-age pensions (D) to help handicapped children.

141. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was established to accomplish all of the
following goals except: (A) provide flood control (B) restore soil fertility (C) eliminate
private power interests (D) improve the social and economic conditions of the region.

142. Which of the following was not true of the Social Security Act? (A) a logical
continuation of the Progressive/New Freedom legislation (B) an attempt to catch up with
more enlightened European nations (C) designed solely to help retired workers (D) a long
range New Deal reform.

143. The Great Depression of the 1930s was caused primarily by (A) overproduction and
under-consumption (B) an inadequate expansion of credit (C) the failure of an Austrian
banking house (D) the high wages of organized labor.

144. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was created primarily to (A) develop
irrigation projects (B) improve the economic life of an entire region (C) make money for
the federal government (D) protect wildlife.

145. Critics of the New Deal insisted that all of the following were true except: (A)
President Roosevelt was acting as a dictator (B) Roosevelt was opposed to organized
labor (C) the American way of life was being replaced by socialism (D) the New Deal
had piled up a huge national debt.
146. The Recession of 1937-38 was probably caused by (A) increased federal spending
(B) unrest of labor unions (C) failure of the new banking laws (D) reduced federal
spending.

147. All of the following were true of the sit-down strike except: (A) workers sat down
at their jobs (B) strikebreakers were ineffective (C) they led to the acceptance of the
United Auto Workers Union by the auto industry (D) the Supreme Court ruled they were
legal.

148. Supporters of the parity price support program maintained all of the following
except: (A) it improved the economic position of many farmers (B) it tended to destroy
the farmers independence (C) it increased the fertility of millions of acres of land (D) it
enabled the United States to feed a large portion of the war-devastated world.

149. The Fair Employment Practices Committee came into being largely as a result of
the work of (A) Ralph Bunche (B) Robert Weaver (C) Phillip Murray (D) A Phillip
Randolph.

150. The financial policies of the New Deal included all of the following except: (A)
inflation (B) price controls (C) deficit spending (D) raising taxes.

151. The term, “deficit spending” refers to (A) installment buying by individuals (B)
government spending accompanied by an unbalanced budget (C) reckless spending by
consumers (D) all of these.

152. The primary issue in the Presidential campaign (1932) was (A) Treaty of Versailles
(B) Morrill Act (C) corruption in government (D) Depression.

153. An important factor contributing to the Great Depression in the United States was
(A) decline in farm prosperity in the 1920s (B) excessively large military budgets of the
1920s (C) rapid development of our mineral resources (D) large importation of foreign
goods.

154. Between 1932-1938, the Federal government spent large sums to (A) fight World
War II (B) pay a large part of the bill for public education (C) provide work for the
unemployed (D) lend money to foreign countries.

155. In describing the New Deal Era, most historians would agree that the Federal
government (A) preserved states’ rights as supreme over federal powers (B) increased its
control over the American economy (C) restricted the activities of labor unions (D)
retarded the establishment of a social welfare program.

156. In 1934, Huey Long’s “Share the Wealth” program promised a home and an income
to (A) every American (B) farmers (C) stock market investors (D) industrialists.
157. Which is the reason why Franklin D Roosevelt asked Congress to increase the
number of Supreme Court Justices? (A) the Court declared many New Deal measures
unconstitutional (B) there was too much work for nine men (C) more experienced men
were needed for the work (D) until 1932 there had been more than nine justices.

158. Which of the following New Deal agencies is still in existence? (A) Public Works
Administration (PWA) (B) National Recovery Administration (NRA) (C) Civilian
Conservation Corps (CCC) (D) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).

159. Which of the following was a significant result of the Great Depression? (A) failure
of the Republican Party to win the Presidency since that time (B) sharp increase in the
proportion of Americans engaged in agriculture (C) establishment by the Federal
government of certain safeguards against depression (D) elimination of poverty in the
United States.

160. Which of the following statements relating to the Administration of Franklin D
Roosevelt Administration is not true? (A) FDR shattered the two term tradition (B) FDR
declared a national banking holiday in 1933 (C) “fireside chats” were common during the
New Deal (D) the New Deal resulted in the passage of the Hawley-Smoot Tariff, and
other protective tariff measures.

161. At the time Franklin D Roosevelt was inaugurated, his plans for the solution of the
Great Depression (A) rested on his optimism and his willingness to experiment (B) had
been clearly spelled out in his campaign speeches (C) reflected his belief that the
Depression had its origins in Europe (D) called for a huge increase in federal taxation.

162. Which of the following was hailed as the “Magna Carta of Labor”? (A) Schechter v
United States (B) Wagner Act (C) Social Security Act (D) Federal Deposit Insurance
Corporation.

163. What decreased almost every year in the 1920s? (A) car production (B) personal
income (C) the national debt (D) housing development.

164. Which of the following contributed most to the labor unrest in 1919? (A) inflation
and shortage of goods (B) low unemployment (C) food surpluses and excessive farm
profits (D) bank failures.

165. The Red Scare (1919-20) reflected widespread fear of government takeover by (A)
the military (B) invading forces`from Germany (C) Communists & Anarchists (D)
industrial leaders.

166. Who were the two men convicted of murder largely because they were anarchists?
(A) Palmer & Coolidge (B) Lewis & Clark (C) Scopes & Bryan (D) Sacco & Vanzetti.

167. How did President Harding encourage economic growth? (A) raised income taxes
(B) raised taxes on industry (C) cut income taxes (D) cut taxes on industry.
168. Under President Harding, Congress raised taxes in order to (A) protect and
encourage business expansion (B) lower prices of goods for consumers (C) hurt unions
(D) increase wages.

169. What was the most important new form of music in the 1920s? (A) rock (B) swing
(C) rap (D) jazz.

170. Which writer often criticized small town life? (A) Claude McKay (B) Robert Frost
(C) Countee Cullen (D) Sinclair Lewis.

171. Both Harding and Coolidge believed that business performed best when
government (A) set wage standards (B) left business alone (C) provided price supports
(D) encouraged the growth of unions.

172. The term “Lost Generation” applied to American writers whose work between the
wars expressed (A) enthusiasm for life (B) disillusionment (C) commitment to social
progress (D) rage over discrimination.

173. Why did many farmers move to the city in the 1920s? (A) the government bought
them out (B) farms were very prosperous (C) the demand for food went up (D) they could
not pay the debts on their farms.

174. Which Black Nationalist leader tried to establish an African homeland for Black
Americans? (A) WEB DuBois (B) Louis Armstrong (C) Marcus Garvey (D) Claude
McKay.

175. The Scopes Trial focused on the right of public school teachers to teach (A) biology
(B) the Bible (C) evolution (D) communism.

176. In the 1920s, the Ku-Klux Klan renewed its (A) support for liberal candidates for
public office (B) attacks against minority citizens (C) fund-raising for union activities (D)
campaign for women’s rights.

177. Who wrote, The Great Gatsby, a novel about spiritual poverty and material wealth?
(A) F Scott Fitzgerald (B) Sinclair Lewis (C) Ernest Hemingway (D) H L Mencken.

178. What was one reason for the rise of organized crime in the 1920s? (A) farm
foreclosures (B) overproduction of goods (C) the conviction of Sacco and Vanzetti (D)
Prohibition.

179. What was the outcome of the Steel Strike (1919)? (A) strikers destroyed several
factories (B) workers received a wage increase (C) the work week was reduced to 35
hours (D) the strike was crushed by state and local police.
180. What issue was the focus of the literary movement called “The Harlem
Renaissance”? (A) Black life (B) War (C) medieval art (D) ancient culture.

181. Clarence Darrow defended the right of public school teachers to teach evolution
during the (A) Palmer Raids (B) Teapot Dome Scandal (C) Sacco/Vanzetti Trial (D)
Scopes Trial.

182. Langston Hughes was part of the literary movement called (A) Lost Generation (B)
Harlem Renaissance (C) Speakeasy (D) Flappers.

183. Good examples of the prosperity of the 1920s were (A) car ownership and use of
credit (B) production of guns and heavy artillery (C) farm ownership and farm profits (D)
high business taxes and the national debt.

184. What was the chief cause of the Stock Market Crash (1929)? (A) over speculation
(B) high taxation (C) institutional investment (D) excessive personal savings.

185. Buying on margin , one cause of the Stock Market Crash of 1929, means buying
stocks (A) for more than their declared cost (B) with money borrowed from brokers (C)
by mortgaging property (D) with stolen money.

186. What practice in farming and industry weakened in the 1920s? (A) underproduction
(B) overproduction (C) institutional investment (D) unionization.

187. High tariffs helped to undermine the economy because they (A) lowered the prices
of foreign goods (B) caused bank failures (C) created food shortages (D) caused a
slowdown in international trade.

188. The chief goal of the New Deal was to counteract the Depression by (A) removing
all regulation from business (B) adhere to laissez faire economics (C) starting programs
that would accomplish relief, reform and recovery (D) nationalizing the banks.

189. What was the goal of the Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933)? (A) to lower
production and raise farm prices (B) to end the system of farm subsidies (C) to provide
hydroelectric power (D) to increase agricultural production.

190. To stop the outflow of gold to foreign investors, and to encourage inflation,
President Franklin Roosevelt (A) removed the nation from the gold standard (B) founded
the United States mint (C) shut down the Securities and Exchange Commission (D)
banned the use of paper money.

191. The WPA put people to work building (A) bridges (B) playgrounds (C) painting
murals in schools (D) all of these.
192. In the 1930s, what did the novels of John Steinbeck, John Dos Passos and Erskine
Caldwell criticize? (A) United States foreign policy (B) the New Deal (C) social
conditions in the United States (D) the literature of the 1930s.

193. The New Deal restored America’s belief in (A) democracy (B) a balanced federal
budget (C) the League of Nations (D) laissez-faire business practices.

194. Why did FDR take the nation off the gold standard? (A) to mint silver freely (B) to
form the SEC (C) to slow the printing of paper money (D) to stop the outflow of gold and
to encourage inflation.

195. What advancements did Black Americans make in the 1930s? (A) major civil rights
legislation was passed (B) government work programs paid Blacks higher wages (C)
Black farmers received special subsidies (D) Franklin Roosevelt appointed many Blacks
to federal positions.

196. The “Red Scare” 1918-19 was provoked by (A) the wartime migration of rural
blacks to northern cities (B) the strict enforcement of Prohibition laws (C) evolutionary
science’s challenge to the Biblical story of Creation (D) the public’s association of labor
violence with its fear of revolution.

197. The Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s was a reaction against (A) capitalism (B) new
immigration law (1924) (C) the nativists movements that had their origins in the 1850s
(D) the forces of diversity and modernity that were transforming American culture.

198. The immigration restrictions of the 1920s were the result of (A) increased migration
of blacks to the North (B) the nativist belief that northern Europeans were superior to
southern and eastern Europeans (C) a desire to rid the country of the quota system (D) the
desire to halt immigration from Latin America.

199. The Ku Klux Klan advocated all of the following in the 1920s except: (A)
fundamentalist religion (B) opposition to birth control (C) opposition to prohibition (D)
repression of pacifists.

200. The most tenacious pursuer of “radical” elements during the Red Scare was (A)
Frederick W Taylor (B) William Jennings Bryan (C) A Mitchell Palmer (D) F Scott
Fitzgerald.

201. The Immigration Act (1924) was formulated to impose immigration quotas based
on (A) economic skills (B) literacy (C) religious beliefs (D) nationality.

202. Generally, the quota system adopted in 1924 tended to discriminate against (A)
Canadians (B) northern and western Europeans (C) Latin Americans (D) southern and
eastern Europeans.
203. When Prohibition was passed, most Americans assumed that it would (A) be
permanent (B) soon be overturned (C) could not be enforced in the South (D) be a total
failure.

204. John Dewey can rightly be called the Father of (A) vocational training (B)
progressive education (C) evolutionary science (D) modern psychoanalysis.

205. Which of the following is the least related to the other three? (A) John T Scopes (B)
Clarence Darrow (C) Frederick W Taylor (D) William Jennings Bryan.

206. The trial of John Scopes (1925) centered on the issue of (A) progressive education
(B) schools trying to create socially useful adults (C) teachers belonging to the Ku-Klux
Klan (D) teaching evolution in the public schools.

207. Business people used the Red Scare to (A) establish closed shops throughout the
nation (B) break the backs of fledgling unions (C) break the railroad strike of 1919 (D)
secure passage of laws making unions illegal.

208. The post-World War I Ku Klux Klan advocated all of the following except:(A)
fundamentalist religion (B) opposition to birth control (C) opposition to prohibition (D)
repression of pacifists.

209. Immigration restrictions of the 1920s were the result of (A) increased migration of
blacks to the North (B) the nativist belief that northern Europeans were superior to
southern and eastern Europeans (C) a desire to rid the country of the quota system (D) the
desire to halt immigration from Latin America.

210. Of the following, the enforcement of the Volstead Act was most strongly resisted
by (A) women (B) eastern city dwellers (C) midwesterners (D) southerners.

211. As a result of the United States raising its tariffs in the 1920s, (A) European nations
raised their tariffs (B) the post-war chaos in Europe was prolonged (C) international
economic distress was deepened (D) all of the above.

212. The Teapot Dome scandal involved the mishandling of (A) naval oil reserves (B)
funds for veterans hospitals (C) the budget for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (D) European
war-debt payments.

213. When ratified in the thirties, the Twentieth Amendment _________, while the
Twenty First Amendment _________ (A) shortened the time between presidential
election and inauguration; ended prohibition (B) limited a president to two complete
terms in office; repealed the Eighteenth Amendment (C) rendered most New Deal
programs unconstitutional; limited a president to two complete terms in office (D) ended
prohibition; shortened the time between presidential election and inauguration
214. After Franklin Roosevelt’s attempt to “pack” the Supreme Court failed, (A) FDR
was unable to make any changes in the Court (B) the Democrats lost the next election in
1940 (C) the Court began to support New Deal programs (D) much of the New Deal
legislation was ruled unconstitutional.

215. As a result of the 1937 “Roosevelt recession,” (A) Roosevelt backed away from
farther economic experiments (B) Social Security taxes were reduced (C) Republicans
gained control of the Senate in 1938 (D) Roosevelt adopted Keynesian (planned deficit
spending) economics.

216. The 1932 Democratic party platform on which Franklin Roosevelt ran for the
Presidency called for (A) repeal of prohibition (B) deficit spending (C) higher tariffs (D)
maintaining the gold standard.

217. The major political scandal of Harding’s administration resulted in the conviction
and imprisonment of his secretary of (A) treasury (B) state (C) interior (D) commerce.

218. Of the following, the descriptive attribute least characteristic of President Coolidge
was his (A) honesty (B) frugality (C) shyness (D) strong leadership.

219. During Coolidge’s presidency, government policy was largely set by the interests
and values of (A) farmers and wage earners (B) the business community (C) racial and
ethnic minorities (D) progressive reformers.

220. After the initial shock, many Americans reacted to the Harding scandals by (A)
demanding that all those involved be sent to prison (B) excusing some of the wrongdoers
on the grounds that “they had gotten away with it” (C) demanding the impeachment of
the President (D) suggesting that Harding resign the presidency so that Calvin Coolidge
could take control.

221. One of the major problems farmers faced in the 1920s was (A) overproduction (B)
the inability to purchase modem farm equipment (C) passage of the McNary-Haugen Bill
(D) the prosecution of cooperatives under antitrust laws.

222. In the mid-twenties President Coolidge twice refused to support legislation
proposing to (A) exempt farmers’ cooperatives from the antitrust laws (B) subsidize farm
prices (C) make the United States a member of the World Court (D) lower taxes.

223. The intended beneficiaries of the McNary-Haugen Bill and the intended
beneficiaries of the Norris-LaGuardia Act were (A) railroad corporations; labor unions
(B) farmers; labor unions (C) banks; railroad corporations (D) farmers; banks.

224. The Progressive party did not do well in the 1924 election because (A) it could not
win the farm vote (B) too many people shared in prosperity to care about reform (C) it
was too caught up in internal discord (D) the liberal vote was split with the Democratic
Party.
225. In 1924, the Democratic party convention came within a single vote of adopting a
resolution condemning (A) the Ku Klux Klan (B) immigration restriction legislation (C)
prohibition (D) Fundamentalism.

226. Easily the most colorful presidential candidate of the 1920s was (A) Calvin
Coolidge (B) John W. Davis (C) Alfred E. Smith (D) Herbert Hoover.

227. America’s insistence that war debts be repaid resulted in (A) the French and British
demanding enormous reparation payments from Germany (B) a drastic deflation of the
German mark (C) nearly all U.S. allies repaying their loans (D) the United States
becoming more involved in European affairs to ensure repayment.

228. America’s European allies argued that they should not have to repay loans the
United States made to them during World War I because (A) the United States had owed
them about $4 billion before the war (B) the amount of money involved was not that
significant (C) they had paid a much heavier price in lost lives, so it was only fair for the
United States to write off the debt (D) the United States was making so much money on
Mexican oil that it did not need the extra dollars.

229. America’s major foreign-policy problem in the 1920s was addressed by the Dawes
Plan, which (A) ended the big-stick policy of armed intervention in Central America and
the Caribbean (B) established a ratio of allowable naval strength between the United
States, Britain, and Japan (C) condemned the Japanese aggression against Manchuria (D)
tried to solve the tangle of war-debt and war-reparations payments.

230. All of the following were political liabilities for Alfred E. Smith except his (A)
being Catholic (B) supporting repeal of Prohibition (C) being from a big city (D) failing
to win the support of American labor.

231. One of Herbert Hoover’s chief strengths as a presidential candidate was his (A)
adaptability to the give-and-take of political accommodation (B) considerable experience
in running for political office (C) talent for administration (D) ability to face criticism.

232. When elected to the Presidency in 1928, Herbert Hoover (A) was militantly
antilabor (B) brought little administrative talent or experience to the job (C) understood
that his major challenge was to find a solution to the problem of the Great Depression (D)
was a millionaire.

233. The Federal Farm Board, created by the Agricultural Marketing Act, loaned money
to farmers primarily to help them (A) organize producers and cooperatives (B) learn a
new and more profitable trade (C) open new land to cultivation (D) purchase expensive
new farm machinery.
234. The Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930) caused (A) the worldwide depression to deepen
(B) the duties on agricultural products to decrease (C) American economic isolationism
to end (D) campaign promises to labor to be kept.

235. In America, the Great Depression caused (A) people to blame the economic system,
not themselves, for their problems (B) a decade long decline in the birthrate (C) an
increase of foreign investment since prices were so low (D) the price of common stock to
remain low when blue-chip stocks suffered only moderate losses.

236. President Herbert Hoover believed that the Great Depression could be ended by
doing all of the following except (A) providing direct aid to the people (B) directly
assisting businesses and banks (C) keeping faith in the efficiency of the industrial system
(D) continuing to rely on the American tradition of rugged individualism.

237. President Hoover’s approach to the Great Depression was to (A) leave the economy
alone to work itself out of trouble (B) nationalize major industries (C) adopt
unprecedented federal initiatives to combat it (D) blame it on big business.

238. In response to the League of Nations investigation into Japan’s invasion and
occupation of Manchuria, (A) the United States became an official member of the League
(B) Japan withdrew its troops (C) a boycott of Japanese goods was initiated (D) Japan left
the League.

239. An “alphabetical agency” set up under Hoover’s administration to bring the
government into the anti-depression effort was the (A) Civilian Conservation Corps
(CCC) (B) National Recovery Administration (NRA) (C) Works Progress Administration
(WPA) (D) Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC).

240. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was established by Herbert Hoover to (A)
provide direct economic assistance to labor (B) make loans to businesses, banks, and
state and local governments (C) outlaw “Yellow dog” (antiunion) contracts (D) provide
money for construction of dams on the Tennessee River.

241. The Bonus Expeditionary Force marched on Washington, D.C., in 1932 to demand
(A) the removal of American troops from Nicaragua (B) passage of legislation of a lower
tariff (C) immediate full payment of bonus payments promised to World War I veterans
(D) punishment for those who had forced unemployed veterans to leave Washington,
D.C.

241. President Hoover’s public image was severely damaged by his (A) decision to
abandon the principle of “rugged individualism” (B) handling of the dispersal of the
Bonus Army (C) agreeing to provide a federal dole to the unemployed (D) refusal to do
anything to try to solve the Great Depression.

242. The 1932 Hoover-Stinson doctrine (A) reversed the United States’ long-standing
interventionist policy in Latin America (B) committed the United States to join the
League of Nations effort to impose economic sanctions against Japan for its invasion of
Manchuria (C) announced the United States’ willingness to outlaw war as an instrument
of national policy (D) declared that the United States would not recognize any territorial
acquisition achieved by force of arms.

243. Republican economic policies under Warren G. Harding (A) sought to continue the
same laissez-faire doctrine as had been the practice under William McKinley (B) hoped
to encourage the government to help guide business along the path to profits (C) worked
to get stand patters out of administration bureaus (D) aimed at supporting increased
competition in business.

244. During the twenties the Supreme Court (A) often ruled against progressive
legislation (B) rigorously upheld the antitrust laws (C) generally promoted government
regulation of the economy (D) staunchly defended the right of organized labor.

245. Which of the following was adversely affected by the demobilization policies
adopted by the federal government at the end of World War I. (A) The cement industry
(B) The railroad industry (C) The American Legion (D) Organized labor.

246. During World War I, thousands of Blacks moved north because (A) northern cities
had finally started to desegregate (B) southerners finally allowed them to leave (C) the
best paying jobs were located in the industrialized north (D) they would be better
protected by northern anti-lynching laws.

247. The non-business group that realized the most significant, lasting gains from World
War I was (A) labor (B) blacks (C) the Ku Klux Klan (D) needy veterans.

248. The United States became involved in the Middle East despite President Warren
G. Harding’s policy of isolationism to (A) protect the Jews (B) prevent the League of
Nations from establishing a protectorate in the region (C) stop the Soviet Union from
dominating the area (D) secure oil drilling concessions for American companies.

249. Warren G. Harding was willing to seize the initiative on the international issue of
disarmament because (A) he feared renewed war in Europe (B) foreign policy was his
biggest interest (C) business people were unwilling to help pay for a bigger United States
Navy (D) he did not want the League of Nations to take the lead on this problem.

250. The Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) (A) formally ended World War I for the United
States, since it had refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles (B) set a schedule for German
war reparations payments (C) hoped to outlaw war as an acceptable solution to
international rivalry (D) condemned Japan for its unprovoked attack on Manchuria.

251. In the 1920s, the Fordney-McCumber Tariff tariff _____rates and the Hawley-
Smoot Tariff tariff _____rates, so that, by 1936, the tariff rates had been_____
substantially from the opening of the decade (A) raised; lowered; lowered (B) lowered;
raised; raised (C) raised; raised; raised (D) lowered; lowered; lowered
252. As a result of the United States raising its tariffs in the 1920s, (A) European nations
raised their tariffs (B) the post-war chaos in Europe was prolonged (C) international
economic distress was deepened (D) all of the above.

253. The Teapot Dome scandal involved the mishandling of (A) naval oil reserves (B)
funds for veterans’ hospitals (C) the budget for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (D)
European war-debt payments.

254. Bruce Barton, author of The Man Nobody Knows, expressed admiration for Jesus
Christ because he (A) was a deeply religious man (B) respected Christ’s image of self-
sacrifice (C) believed that Christ was the best advertising man of all time (D) felt Christ
supported capitalism.

255. The prosperity that developed in the 1920s helped (A) accumulate a cloud of debt
(B) reduce buying on credit (C) labor unions gain strength (D) even the railroads to make
more profits.

256. Henry Ford’s contribution to the automobile industry was that (A) his Ford
automobiles were relatively cheap (B) he invented the internal combustion engine (C) his
River Rouge plant produced an enormous variety of automobile models with varied
colors (D) he concentrated on design changes that improved speed.

257. The central character in Bruce Barton’s The Man Nobody Knows was (A) Calvin
Coolidge (B) Henry Ford (C) Jesus Christ (D) Al Capone.

258. Frederick W. Taylor, a prominent inventor and engineer, was best known for his
(A) development of the gasoline engine (B) thoughts on Darwinian evolution (C)
cleaning up polluted cities (D) efforts to promote efficiency by eliminating wasted
motions.

259. The first “talkie” motion picture was (A) The Great Train Robbery (B) The Birth of
a Nation (C) A Farewell to Arms (D) The Jazz Singer.

260. A common feature of the automobile, radio, and motion picture was that these new
technological advances (A) were less popular than had been anticipated (B) contributed
to the standardization of American national life (C) really had little impact on traditional
life-styles and values (D) were for the most part too expensive for ordinary working
families.

261. The 1920 census revealed that for the first time most (A) American men worked in
manufacturing (B) American adult women were employed outside the home (C)
Americans lived in cities (D) Americans lived in the trans-Mississippi West.

262. Margaret Sanger was most noted for her advocacy of (A) abortion rights (B)
women’s suffrage (C) birth control (D) free love.
263. Job opportunities for women in the 1920s (A) expanded dramatically (B) offered
higher paying positions (C) tended to cluster in a few low-paying fields (D) were mainly
in the area of education.

264. To justify their new sexual frankness, many Americans cited (A) increased
consumption of alcohol (B) a rejection of Fundamentalism (C) the development of the
National Women’s Party (D) the theories of Sigmund Freud.

265. Jazz music was developed by (A) European immigrants (B) American Blacks (C)
Caucasian impresarios (D) teenage Americans.

266. Marcus Garvey, founder of the United Negro Improvement Association, is known
for all of the following except: (A) promoting the resettlement of American blacks in
Africa (B) establishing the idea of the talented tenth to lead African-Americans (C)
cultivating feelings of self-confidence and self-reliance among blacks (D) being sent to
prison after a conviction for fraud.

267. Critics of the parity price support program maintained all of the following except:
(A) it led to higher prices for consumers (B) it meant government control over production
(C) it cost relatively little money (D) it led to a decrease in imports.

268. During Andrew Mellon’s long tenure as secretary of the treasury, his policies (A)
raised taxes (B) lowered the national debt (C) provided substantial government regulation
of the stock market (D) discouraged capital investment.

269. As Secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon placed the tax burden on the (A)
middle-income groups (B) wealthy (C) lower class (D) business community.

270. In 1932 Franklin Roosevelt campaigned on the promise that as president he would
attack the Great Depression by (A) nationalizing all banks and major industries (B)
experimenting with bold new programs for economic and social reform (C) returning to
the traditional policies of laissez-faire capitalism (D) continuing the policies already
undertaken by President Hoover.

271. The “champion of the dispossessed,” that is, the poor and minorities in the thirties
was (A) Harold Ickes (B) Alfred E. Smith (C) Eleanor Roosevelt (D) Frances Perkins.

272. The phrase “Hundred Days” refers to (A) the worst weeks of the Great Depression
(B) the time it took for Congress to begin acting on President Roosevelt’s plans for
combating the Great Depression (C) the first weeks of Franklin Roosevelt’s presidency
(D) the “lame-duck” period between Franklin Roosevelt’s election and his inauguration.

273. One striking feature of the 1932 Presidential election was that (A) the South had
shifted to the Republican party (B) African-Americans became a vital element in the
Democratic party (C) urban Americans finally cast more votes than rural Americans (D)
women played a less active role in the campaign.

274. While Franklin Roosevelt waited to assume the Presidency, Herbert Hoover tried to
get the President elect to cooperate on long term solutions to the depression because (A)
he and Roosevelt had similar ideas on programs to combat the hard times (B) the
Hawley-Smoot Tariff was up for immediate renewal (C) he hoped to bind his successor
to an anti-inflationary policy that would make much of the New Deal impossible (D) he
wanted to show how willing he was to cooperate with the political opposition.

275. The most pressing problem facing Franklin Roosevelt when he became President
was (A) a chaotic banking situation (B) the national debt (C) silencing demagogic rabble-
rousers such as Huey Long (D) unemployment.

276. When Franklin Roosevelt assumed the presidency in March, 1933 (A) Congress
refused to grant him any legislative authority (B) he knew exactly what he wanted to do
(C) he received unprecedented congressional support (D) he wanted to make sure he
would make as few mistakes as possible.

277. The Works Progress Administration was a major _____ program of the New Deal;
the Public Works Administration was a long range _____ program; and the Social
Security Act was a major _____ program. (A) relief, recovery; reform (B) reform;
recovery; relief (C) recovery; relief; reform (D) relief; reform; recovery.

278. The Glass-Steagall Act (A) took the United States off the gold standard (B)
empowered President Roosevelt to temporarily close all banks (C) created the Securities
and Exchange Commission to regulate the stock exchange (D) created the Federal
Deposit Insurance Corporation to insure individual bank deposits.

279. President Roosevelt’s chief “administrator of relief” was (A) George Norris (B)
John L. Lewis (C) Harry Hopkins (D) Harold Ickes.

280. The _____ was probably the most popular New Deal program; the_____ was one of
the most complex, and the ______was the most radical. (A) Works Progress
Administration; Agricultural Adjustment Act; Civilian Conservation Corps (B)
Agricultural Adjustment Act; Public Works Administration; Tennessee Valley Authority
(C) National Recovery Act; Tennessee Valley Authority; Works Progress Administration
(D) Civilian Conservation Corps; National Recovery Act; Tennessee Valley Authority.

281. The goal of Franklin Roosevelt’s “managed currency” was to (A) stimulate inflation
(B) reduce the price of gold (C) restore confidence in banks (D) reduce the amount of
money in circulation.

282. The major goals of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) included all of the
following except to (A) provide handouts to the unemployed (B) quiet the groundswell of
protest produced by Huey Long and Dr. Francis Townsend (C) provide employment on
useful projects (D) produce works of art.

283. The Social Security Act (1935) provided all of the following except: (A)
unemployment insurance (B) old-age pensions (C) economic provisions for the blind and
physically handicapped (D) health care for the poor.

284. The Wagner Act of 1935 proved to be a trailblazing law that (A) gave labor the
right to bargain collectively (B) established the NRA (C) established the Social Security
System (D) authorized the Public Works Administration (PWA).

285. The National Labor Relations Act proved most beneficial to (A) employers (B)
unskilled workers (C) the unemployed (D) trade associations.

286. The Congress of Industrial Organizations’ (CIO) primary interest was (A) the
effective enforcement of “yellow dog” contracts (B) organizing trade unions (C) the
maintenance of “open shop” industries (D) organization of all workers within an industry.

287. The 1936 election was made notable by (A) a strong third party effort by the
American Liberty League (B) the bitter class struggle between the poor and the rich (C)
the large number of blacks who still voted Republican in gratitude for Abraham Lincoln
(D) the strong socialist effort.

288. President Roosevelt’s Court-packing scheme in 1937 reflected his desire to make
the Supreme Court (A) more conservative (B) more independent of Congress (C) more
sympathetic to New Deal Programs (D) less burdened with appellate cases.

289. The Agricultural Adjustment Act proposed to solve the “farm problem” by (A)
reducing agricultural production (B) inflating the currency (C) encouraging farmers to
switch to industrial employment (D) helping farmers pay their mortgages.

290. In 1935, President Roosevelt set up the Resettlement Administration to (A) move
farmers who were victims of the Dust Bowl to better land (B) place unemployed
industrial workers in areas where their labor was needed (C) move Indians from land that
could be farmed by victims of the Dust Bowl (D) find jobs for farmers in industry.

291. The Federal Securities Act was designed to (A) halt the sale of stocks on the margin
(B) force stock brokers to register with the federal government (C) control public holding
companies (D) force stock promoters to give the investor information regarding the
soundness of their stocks.

292. Of the following the one least related to the other three is (A) the Securities and
Exchange Commission (B) the Tennessee Valley Authority (C) George W. Norris (D)
Muscle Shoals.
293. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was criticized because it (A) lacked
government control (B) produced electricity inefficiently (C) aroused fears of creeping
socialism (D) followed unsuccessful European plans too closely.

294. The most controversial aspect of the Tennessee Valley Authority was its plans
concerning (A) electrical power (B) flood control (C) soil conservation (D) reforestation.

295. Senator Huey P. Long of Louisiana gained national popularity by (A) advocating
social justice for all (B) blaming Jews for the depression (C) promising to give every
family five thousand dollars (D) supporting a $200-a-month old-age pension.

296. The National Recovery Act (NRA) began to fail because (A) too few industries
joined the agency (B) it required too much self-sacrifice on the part of industry, labor,
and the public (C) Harold Ickes, the head of the agency, blocked its ability to provide
maximum relief (D) it did not provide enough protection for labor to bargain with
management.

297. The first Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) raised the money paid to farmers not
to grow crops by (A) raising the tariff (B) taxing processors of farm products (C) selling
government surplus grain (D) increasing taxes on the wealthy.

298. The disabled, the aged and those laid off from work received protection (1935)
from the (A) American Liberty League B) National Labor Relations Act (C) National
Recovery Administration (D) Social Security Act.

299. With the “welfare state” of the New Deal, Americans came to expect that
government would provide every citizens with (A) a job (B) guaranteed income (C) a
house (D)basic economic security.

300. The phrase "pump priming" means using federal funds to (A) help water
conservation (B) repair naval ships (C) stimulate the economy (D) cut government waste.

301. The purpose of the parity program for farmers was to (A) set maximum prices for
farm crops (B) raise consumer prices (C) insure credit for crop loans (D) guarantee farm
purchasing power.

302. The New Deal law which favored organized labor was the (A) Wagner Act (B)
Works Progress Act (C) Civilian Conservation Corps (D) Federal Housing Act.
under the National Recovery Act? (A) a post in the President's cabinet (B) the closed
shop (C) unemployment insurance (D) the right of collective bargaining.

303. Opponents of President Roosevelt criticized the New Deal because it (A) weakened
the power of the Presidency (B) failed to lower tariffs (C) cost too much (D) failed to
help labor.
304. Roosevelt's plan to "pack the court" failed because (A) he lost his majority in
Congress (B) he overestimated his public support (C) the Constitution would have to be
changed (D) it would weaken the powers of the President.

305. Which of these was a major check on New Deal programs during F.D.R.'s first
term? (A) opposition in Congress (B) the Supreme Court (C) lower Federal revenues (D)
lack of national support.

306. The Reciprocal Tariff policy of the United States was instituted after the election of
(A) Theodore Roosevelt (B) Woodrow Wilson (C) Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) Harry
Truman

307. The concept of parity for farm payments is best defined as (A) a temporary loan to
the farmer on his land (B) payment to farmers to cover storage and transportation costs
(C) a form of guaranteed annual income (D) a level of farm prices based on the average
of a base period.

308. One reason why the Federal government adopted the parity price supports for
farmers was (A) to encourage production of foodstuffs (B) to increase employment in
rural areas (C) increase the real income of farmers (D) protect the consumer.

308. A trend of American agriculture today is toward (A) smaller and more economic
farm units (B) increase in the productivity per acre (C) an increase in the number of
tenant farmers (D) a reduction of imports to maintain the price level.

310. The major reason for declining farm income in recent years is (A) consumer
resistance to higher prices (B) lower government support payments (C) the failure to find
new domestic markets for surpluses (D) failure of farmers' cooperatives.

311. The mechanization of agriculture resulted in (A) the decrease in the number of
small farms (B) a decrease in the amount of capital needed to begin farming (C) an
increase in the cost of production per bushel (D) smaller crop surpluses.

312. Which of the following is a basic cause of the other three? (A) the decline of our
rural population (B) creation of farm surpluses (C) Federal farm price supports (D)
mechanization of farming.

313. A major criticism of our farm price support program is that (A) prices are kept
artificially high for consumers (B) farmers do not want government regulation (C) it has
reduced the farmer's income.

314. The Great Lakes region developed a high concentration of industry at the turn of the
century for all of the following reasons except (A) availability of cheap labor (B) access
to transportation facilities (C) decline of the railroads (D) growth of the iron and steel
industry
315. The Teapot Dome scandal of the Harding administration involved (A) government
timberland (B) bribery of Congressmen (C) naval oil reserves (D) illegal acts of the
Treasury Secretary

316. The major reason for the failure of Prohibition was the (A) refusal of officials to
enforce the (B) popular resistance to its enforcement (C) difficulty of guarding the long
U.S. border (D) involvement of organized crime

317. Which of the following is the strongest explanation for the general intolerance of
the 1920's? fear of new ideas and social change (B) opposition of organized labor (C) the
long post-war depression (D) disillusionment over political scandals.

318. "Their false group-loyalty, masked violence and reform by terrorism, are a stain on
American democracy". The speaker was probably referring to (A) alien minorities (B)
Socialist labor leaders (C) militant black groups (D) the Klu Klux Klan.

319. In which way was the decade of the 1920's similar to that of the 1960's? (A)
younger voters came politically involved (B) opposition to the draft was widespread (C)
morals and life style changed significantly (D) social welfare programs were widened.

320. Which of the following events has generally been considered to mark the end of the
"Jazz Age" (A) the Hoover landslide (B) the stock market crash (C) the first election of
Franklin Roosevelt (D) the end of Prohibition.

321. Roosevelt's handling of the currency problem shortly after assuming office (A)
resulted in a lowering of the value of the dollar in relation to gold (B) helped promote
economic recovery (C) produced a dramatic rise in prices but frightened many
conservatives (D) indicated that he was willing to cooperate in international monetary
arrangements.

322. In the election of 1936 (A) farm, Negro, and labor support gave Roosevelt an
overwhelming victory (B) Roosevelt won easily, but saw his 1932 margin reduced
appreciably (C) Roosevelt was the overwhelming choice of the nation's newspapers (D)
Landon won only in a few states of the far West.

323. In the election of 1932 (A) the combined popular vote of Hoover and independent
candidates was greater than that of Roosevelt (B) Hoover held the Midwest, but lost
elsewhere (C) the Communists and Socialists polled nearly I O@o of the popular vote
(D) Roosevelt carried all but 6 states.

324. In general, the major economic problems of the 1917-40 period were caused by the
(A) devastation of European countries during World War 1. (B) high military
expenditures for U.S. armed forces in the 1920's. (C) expense of implementing the
Progressive Era consumer protection laws. (D) dictatorial way government managed the
economy during World War I.
325. In which type of economy is the primary decision-making power placed in the
hands of economic planners? (A) laissez-faire (B) command (C) market (D)
underdeveloped

326. What caused the 1919 - 1921 economic contraction? (A) an increase in minority
groups in the labor force (B) investment of war profits by businesses (C) people cashing
in war bonds (D) a decrease in government spending.

327. During the war, railroads were (A)forced to operate at huge losses. (B) plagued by
frequent strikes. (C) run by government agencies. (D) replaced by the trucking industry.

328. During World War I, financier Bernard Baruch, labor leader Samuel Gompers, and
public administrator Herbert Hoover (A) managed the transportation systems of the
nation. (B) increased taxes and raised funds for the government. (C)helped to mobilize
the American economy. (D) assisted Wilson in readjusting the economy after the war.

329. Employment in war industries had some positive influence on the status of women
and black Americans, because they were (A) allowed to join unions for the first time. (B)
given pay equal to that of white males. (C) performing well in management positions. (D)
filling large gaps in the labor force.

330. Money to finance war expenditures came from (A) selling liberty bonds. (B)
rationing of scarce goods. (C) building and selling ships. (D) increasing tariffs.

331. During the war, the government's Public Information Committee (A) settled strikes
peacefully. (B) preserved the civil rights of dissenters. (C) ran propaganda campaigns.
(D) staged rallies to sell war bonds.

332. In the election of 1920, Warren Harding's idea of a "return to normalcy" appealed to
the voters' mood because they wanted (A) a new reform movement in politics. (B) an end
to frequent government scandals. (C) to pursue the 'American Dream.' (D) to play an
influential new role in world affairs.

333. European economic recovery after World War I, was difficult because (A)
American forces withdrew too quickly. (B) enormous war debts had to be repaid. (C) the
U.S. Senate did not ratify the peace treaty. (D) emergency food supplies were
mismanaged.

334. Rapid government demobilization after wars usually causes (C) economic
expansion. (D) economic contraction.

335. Harding's administration was hurt by , (A) unscrupulous behavior by officials. (B)
the president's unpopularity. (C) over-regulation of business. (D) women's suffrage.
336. The guiding principle during the Coolidge prosperity of the middle-1920's was (A)
progressive reform. (B) strict commercial regulation. (C) tariff reciprocation. (D) laissez-
faire.

337. Which aided business growth in the early and middle 1920's? (A) technological
advancement, mergers, and efficiency (B) progressive legislation by Congress (C)
government anti-trust prosecutions (D) generous wage agreements with labor.

338. Farm problems of the 1920's were caused by (A) scandals in government farm aid
programs. (B) high food prices. (C) slow recovery by European farmers. (D)
overproduction and declining demand.

339. Secretary of the Treasury Mellon's tax policies (A) favored big business. (B) aided
European economic recovery. (C) were opposed by the Supreme Court. (D) improved
farm production.

340. The widespread stock speculation in the 1920's, revealed that (A) the government
strictly enforced financial regulations. (B) efficiency studies improved industrial
production. (C) farming income declined. (D) overconfidence made investors reckless.

341. Reciprocation by Europe and Japan to high U.S. tariff policies resulted in (A) lower
prices on imported goods. (B) higher wages for most American workers. (C) cutting
down American exports. (D) increased consumption by the middle class.

342. Which invention had the greatest socioeconomic change on American life? (A) the
phonograph (B) cinematography (C) refrigeration (D) the automobile.

343. Prohibition was a political attempt to (A) regulate morality. (B) limit due process
rights. (C) fight organized crime. (D) regulate a particular industry.

344. Writers of the 1920's, (A) glorified technological achievement. (B) questioned the
materialism of the age. (C) encouraged a return to traditional values. (D) focused on
patriotic themes.

345. The "Red Scare" of 1919-1920, led to (A) repression of civil liberties. (B) a new
military buildup. (C) a move to the suburbs. (D) more socialist legislation.

346. The Ku Klux Klan enjoyed wide popularity because of (A) America's new
leadership role in world affairs. (B) intellectual disillusionment with society. (C) reaction
to rapid change and mass immigration. (D) a need to protect civil liberties.

347. Women in the 1920's, (A) returned to pre-World War(A) social status. (B) lost
political and economic power. (C) were brought into important government positions. (D)
assumed new social roles.
348. The National Origins Act of 1929, (A) set up prejudicial quotas. (B) encouraged the
flow of immigrants. (C) aided World War(A) refugees. (D) abolished the practice of
xenophobia.

349. The Sacco-Vanzetti trial symbolized (A) the materialism of modern life. (A) the
materialism of modern life (B) the failure of prohibition (C) women's emancipation. (D)
denial of due process.

350. Which episode demonstrates a clash between traditional beliefs and new (A) the
Red Scare (B) the Scopes Trial (C) the Prohibition issue (D) the Sacco-Vanzetti case.

     "No nation in the history of the world was ever sitting as pretty. If we want
anything, all we have to do is go buy it on credit. So that leaves us without any
problems whatsoever, except perhaps some day to have to pay for them."

351. Of which aspect of the 1920's economy is Rogers being critical? (A) high tariffs (B)
installment plans (C) laissez-faire (D)over speculation

352. A major reason for the collapse of the American economy after 1929, was (A) the
failure of the prohibition experiment. (B) over-regulation of banking by the Federal
Reserve. (C)restriction of the free flow of immigration. (D) wage levels did not keep pace
with economic growth.

353. The tariff policies of the U.S. government in the 1920's led to (A) increased profits
for farmers. (B) a decrease in world trade. (C)overexpansion of European industry. (D)
over-speculation in the stock market.

354. Economic thinking which dominated the Republican administrations of the 1920's,
rested on creating prosperity by (A) implementing programs favorable to business
investment. (B) stimulation of military spending. (C) setting production incentives for
agriculture. (D)expanding the lower class consumption capacity.

355. As the Great Depression deepened, President Hoover (A) refused to launch
programs to aid the needy. (B) adopted a limited program to aid business investment. (C)
pressed Congress to lower tariffs. (D) demanded European nations pay their war debts.

356. Because of the 'Bonus Army' episode in 1932, President Hoover (A) began to try
new approaches to the economic crisis. (B) increased military spending to stimulate the
economy. (C)suspended war debt payments for European nations. (D) lost public
confidence.

357. In the campaign of 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (A) had no previous
experience in dealing with the Depression. (B) supported the 'trickle-down theory.' (C)
made only vague promises about fighting the Depression. (D) denounced Hoover's
struggle to keep the budget balanced.
358. Immediately after taking office, FDR (A) closed the banks. (B) ordered pensions for
the aged. (C) raised the minimum wage. (D)expanded minority rights.

359. FDR tried to have the federal court system revised because (A) the justices needed a
better retirement plan. (B) he felt life terms were undemocratic. (C) the courts were
falling behind in their work. (D) the courts were dismantling his New Deal programs.

360. During the "Hundred Days" in 1933, Congress (A) passed many work-relief
programs. (B) blocked FDR's New Deal. (C) fought the President to preserve laissez-
faire. (D) eliminated the unemployment problem.

361. The Wagner Act symbolized reform because it (A) created a national old-age
pension system. (B) focused on reclaiming the "Dust Bowl." (C) established collective
bargaining rights, (D) provided for unemployment insurance.

363. Social Security symbolized reform, because it established (A) insurance of bank
deposits. (B) pensions and unemployment insurance. (C) -a federal minimum wage. (D)
guaranteed employment for the jobless.

364. One characteristic New Dealers shared with Roosevelt was their (A) pragmatic
approach to problems. (B) belief in command economies. (C) socialistic philosophy. (D)
escapist attitude.

365. Which concept rejects the New Deal approach to social responsibility? (A)
Interaction between buyer and seller is all the consumer protection necessary. (B) The
federal government's power over the economy should be limited. (C) Moderation of the
effects of the business cycle is a Federal government function. (D) Government policies
should be approved by the boards of directors of the major corporations.

366. Two important New Deal measures that were declared unconstitutional were the
(A) Civilian Conservation Corps and the Works Progress Administration. (B) National
Industrial Recovery Act and the Agricultural Adjustment Act. (C) Fair Labor Standards
Act and the National Labor Relations Act. (D) Social Security Act and the Home Owners
Loan Corporation.

367. The ATA embodied both the relief and recovery ideas of the New Deal, because it
(A) hired the unemployed and stimulated purchasing. (B) promoted the creative arts.
(C)restored public buildings. (D) set production quotas for industry.

368. Which generalization can be validly drawn from the chart above? (A) The New
Deal restored employment to its 1929 level. (B) Industrial production improved after
1933. (C) New Deal legislation improved working conditions. (D) Employment levels
generally improved in the New Deal era.

369. A key advisor to FDR on relief programs was (A) Douglas MacArthur. (B) Al
Smith. (C) Andrew Mellon. (D) Harry Hopkins.
370. Father Charles Coughlin, Dr. Charles Townsend, and Senator Huey Long were
leaders of (A) the Roosevelt coalition. (B) the Ohio Gang. (C) anti-Roosevelt groups. (D)
the Brains Trust.

371. One of Calvin Coolidge's first priorities upon acceding to the Presidency was (A)
recovering for businessmen the privileges taken from them by an activist Congress under
Harding (B) reviving more sympathetic attitudes toward labor union demands (C)
reestablishing the integrity of the executive (D) restoring the role of the federal
government to its previous status in initiating domestic programs.

372. Which of the following statements best summarizes Calvin Coolidge's views on
economic and social policy? (A) "Poverty must be eradicated in our time." (B) "The
public be damned." (C) "Business must be made to serve the public interest." (D) "The
business of America is business."

373. The 1920s were characterized by all of the following economic trends except (A)
declining real wages (B) low unemployment (C) increased speculation (D) expanding
credit.

374. The profession of industrial engineering that flowered in the 1920s depended on all
except (A) specialization of labor tasks (B) established skilled craftsmen (C) assembly-
line methods (D) time-motion studies.

375. Frederick Taylor's main concern in rationalizing factory production was (A)
minimum wages (B) quality control (C) job enrichment (D) scientific management.

376. Henry Ford originated the idea in industrial production of (A) giving labor
specialized tasks to perform (B) producing standard interchangeable parts for a product
(C) bringing work to stationary laborers via conveyor belts, gravity slides, and overhead
monorails (D) paying workers according to what they produced.

377. One immediate effect of the introduction of new production techniques in the first
part of this century was (A) a flood of consumer products on the market (B) a loss of
commitment to the work ethic (C) an increase in the rate of unemployment (D) a sharp
decline in business profits.

378. Which of the following trends affecting business didn't emerge in the 1920s? (A)
increased professionalization of management (B) greater stockholder control of policy
(C) more refined marketing strategies (D) corporate retention of current profits for future
investment.

379. Thorstein Veblen distinguished himself during the 1920s by (A) winning Nobel
Peace prizes (B) becoming innovative members of the Coolidge cabinet (C) exposing the
dangers to personal liberty of public planning (D) attacking the materialism and
inequities of the American economic system.
380. The effect of the immigration quotas set by the National Origins Act of 1924 was to
(A) open new opportunities to ethnic and racial minority groups discriminated against
during the early twentieth century (B) encourage foreign immigration to urban areas to
provide needed manpower for the mass-production era (C) restore credibility to the 1921
Gentleman's Agreement with Japan (D) reduce immigration to a trickle from eastern and
southern Europe and exclude Asians altogether.

381. In the early 1920s, the power of the Ku Klux Klan (A) declined when the federal
government started to enforce the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments in the South (B)
remained strong in the South, where racial prejudice flourished, but took root in no other
section of the country (C) increased as membership became nationwide (D) diminished
because blacks started forming self-help organizations in the South.

382. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between
Prohibition and organized crime in the
1920s? (A) Prohibition created organized crime. (B) Demand for Prohibition arose
because of organized crime's link with the sale of alcoholic beverages. (C) Prohibition
created a vast new area for organized crime to exploit. (D) There was no link between
Prohibition and organized crime.

383. The famous Scopes trial of 1925 resulted in the (A) beginning of a period of decline
for the Ku Klux Klan (B) nomination of William Jennings Bryan as the presidential
candidate of a rejuvenated Populist party (C) loss of power of the Democratic party in the
South (D) discrediting of the fundamentalist stand on evolution.

384. The defeat of the Democrats in the election of 1924 suggested that (A) the time was
ripe for the formation of a new third party (B) the Democrats would have to become more
pro-business to win a national election (C) the party had to form a new, more liberal
coalition to remain viable (D) only the loss of the farm vote to the Progressive candidate
had deprived the Democrats of the Presidency.

385. Advertising encouraged all of the following trends in the 192Os (A) renewed
competition among manufacturers on the basis of price (B) a convergence of urban and
rural life styles (C) growing consumer dependence on installment buying (D) increased
production of shoddy products.

386. All of the following figures played a significant role in the formulation of American
foreign policy during the Coolidge Administration except (A) Charles Evans Hughes (B)
Charles Gates Dawes (C) Cordell Hull (D) Frank B. Kellogg.

387. During the Coolidge Administration, United States foreign policy toward Central
America included all except (A) using American marines to keep order in other nations
of this hemisphere (B) withholding recognition of dictatorial regimes (C) supporting the
more reactionary elements in most countries (D) advocating our right to intervene in
other countries.
388. The United States played a key role in fostering a European financial crisis in the
1920s by (A) refusing to scale down the reparation payments of Germany (B) defaulting
on loans from Europe made during World War I (C) canceling German reparation
payments but insisting that the Allies repay their war debts to the United States (D)
insisting that European nations repay war debts, but making repayment through trade
impossible by the imposition of a high tariff.

389. In the 1920s, General "Billy" Mitchell was one of the few to recognize that (A) the
United States lagged behind most other countries militarily (B) American military
defenses were inadequate without a strong air force (C) world conflict was inevitable
without disarmament (D) disarmament would not work without a set of international
controls.

390. What position did the United States Senate take on the World Court in the 1920s?
(A) The Senate allowed this country to join the World Court, while disavowing any
association with the League of Nations. (B) It allowed the Court to render opinions on
matters concerning this country but disallowed adherence if the national interest was
adversely affected (C) It recommended conditional adherence, but the suggestion was
resisted by both Coolidge and Hoover. (D) The Senate repeatedly rejected presidential
recommendations for U.S. adherence to the Court

391. The Kellogg-Briand pact of 1928 was (A) a hollow international pledge to settle all
future disputes peacefully (B) a bilateral defense agreement between France and the
United States (C) the first serious international attempt to bring about disarmament (D)
the predecessor of the NATO alliance

392. The stock market speculation of the 192Os was unhealthy because (A) only the very
rich had access to this means of increasing their personal wealth (B) stocks were
generally bought with loans that the average buyer could not afford to repay if the stocks
declined (C) most of the speculation was in stocks for the development of worthless real
estate (D) the new corporate policy of retaining profits for research and development
seriously depressed stockholders' dividends.

393. Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon advocated tax measures that (A) forced
the rich to invest in tax exempt securities (B) discouraged stock market speculation (C)
gave relief to small businessmen (D) increased the net profits of wealthy businessmen.

394. Intellectual protest in the 1920s usually took the form of (A) joining the Communist
party (B) dropping out of the business world and serving the disadvantaged through
volunteer programs (C) participating in direct political action to effect change (D)
expressing advanced sexual ideas and sometimes acting upon them.

395. A major theme of T. S. Eliot, William Faulkner, and other writers of the 192Os was
(A) the need for social reform (B) the alienation of modern Americans (C) nostalgia for
bygone rural ways (D) the glorification of war.
396. The foremost representative of the Harlem Renaissance of black writers during the
1920s was (A) Maya Angelou (B) Le Roi Jones (C) Ralph Ellison (D) Langston Hughes

397. During the 1920s, the progressive impulse was discernible in all of the following
except (A) federal tax cuts to reduce Treasury surpluses (B) Charles Beard's
interpretation of history (C) the introduction of an equal rights amendment (D)
Nebraska's adoption of a public power system

398. The purpose of the McNary-Haugen farm bills proposed in 1924, 1927, and 1928
was to (A) make rural electrification a federal responsibility (B) keep farm prices at
parity by government purchases of surpluses (C) lower the tariff and thereby give some
relief to farmers (D) lease the publicly owned water-power facilities at Muscle Shoals to
private interests

399. Herbert Hoover's landslide victory over Al Smith in the 1928 presidential election
was due to all of the following factors except (A) Hoover's reputation for business
efficiency and humaneness in the Harding-Coolidge Administrations (B) Smith's inability
to carry the traditionally Democratic Northern cities (C) the nation's booming prosperity
in November, 1928 (D) Smith's Catholicism.

400. The New Deal reflected the idea that the United States government should (A)
regulate and reform the economy. (B) restrict its actions to foreign affairs and defense.
(C) own and operate vital industries. (D) reduce the scope of the welfare system.

401. When Herbert Hoover took office in 1929, the mood of the country was (A)
pessimistic, because all sectors of the economy were grinding to a halt (B) optimistic,
because the country was apparently prosperous (C) cautious, because certain economic
indicators, notably employment figures, looked bad (D) hopeful, because Hoover
promised relief for those hardest hit by the mini-depression of 1928.

402. President Hoover fulfilled his image as a "good businessman" from his
Administration's start by doing all except (A) appointing Cabinet members highly
sympathetic to business interests (B) diluting government regulation of the powerful
private utilities (C) vetoing the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929 (D) withdrawing
federal control from public lands and conservation projects.

403. The major fault of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929 was that it (A) imposed
no controls over farm production (B) gave the federal government no control over the
marketing of farm products (C) was administered by businessmen with no ties to the
farming community (D) encouraged farmers to live beyond their means by extending
cheap credit to them.

404. Most economists argued against the Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930 because they
thought it would (A) fuel an already overheated economy (B) increase imports, which
would give this country an unfavorable balance of trade for the first time in its history (C)
expose American infant industries to harmful foreign competition (D) cause foreign
retaliation and ultimately hurt American exports abroad.

405. The immediate cause of the stock-market crash of 1929 was the (A) cutback in
speculation despite rising investment rates (B) excessive speculation in stocks despite
signs of industrial decline (C) inability of local and state banks to keep pace with rising
stock-market values (D) inability of the stock market to keep pace with rising investment
rates and consumer demands.

406. The uneven distribution of income and wealth in the 1920s helped bring on the
depression by (A) lessening the purchasing power of the middle class, thus diminishing
the market for homes and cars (B) leaving the upper class with insufficient funds for
investment (C) giving too much responsibility for the country's economic welfare to the
middle and lower classes (D) depriving corporations of an adequate corporate profit to
ensure their expansion.

407. Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon advised Hoover to cope with the
economic decline in 1929 by (A) channeling federal funds into business (B) turning
federal funds over to state and local agencies for distribution to business (C) establishing
federal work programs and emergency welfare funds (D) letting the economy bottom out
and then recover by itself.

408. Early in the depression President Hoover regarded as most important the need to
(A) prevent further deflation (B) provide for the unemployed (C) restore the people's
optimism and soothe businessmen (D) pay the veterans' bonus.

409. President Hoover responded to the depression during 1929-30 by (A) following
Andrew Mellon's philosophy (B) taking limited steps to encourage business investment
and stabilization of farm prices (C) committing the government to deficit spending and
some inflation in order to stimulate economic growth (D) giving special aid to the middle
class and the farmers worst hit by the depression.

410. During the Hoover Administration, investment, industrial production, wages, and
salaries (A) actually rose modestly (B) remained at about their pre-1929 levels (C)
continued to fall off steadily (D) fell drastically at first and then began to recover.

411. As a result of the congressional elections of 1930 (A) President Hoover stood a far
better chance of implementing his depression program (B) the Republicans lost working
control of both houses of Congress (C) Republicans firmly controlled both houses for the
first time since the elections of 1920 (D) a coalition of Republicans and conservative
Democrats controlled the House of Representatives.

412. The main difficulty with Hoover's policies concerning the unemployed and the
needy was that (A) no federal machinery was set up to administer the funds Hoover had
asked Congress to authorize (B) the nation was not ready to accept the federal
government as an employer of those out of work (C) the welfare benefits he proposed
exceeded government revenues from tax sources (D) neither local governments nor
private charities had sufficient funds to provide adequate relief.

413. President Hoover believed the depression to be caused basically by (A) European
economic and political disasters, which in turn affected the United States (B) laziness
among the unemployed and unprofitable small farm enterprises (C) government's too
belated aid to needy segments of the economy (D) the lack of international trade revenues
caused by high American protectionist tariffs.

414. President Hoover shared responsibility for formulating foreign policy with his
Secretary of State (A) Charles Curtis (B) Charles Evans Hughes (C) Cordell Hull (D)
Henry L. Stimson.

415. During the Hoover Administration, United States relations with Latin America (A)
improved, because of Hoover's repudiation of the Roosevelt Corollary authorizing
American interventions (B) continued to improve, because Hoover followed the same
good neighbor policies as his two Republican processors (C) deteriorated, because of
several military interventions to protect American business property (D) worsened,
because of stepped up American interference in the internal affairs of Latin America.

416. The "escalator clause" agreed to at the London naval conference in 1930 committed
the major powers to (A) lifting the ban on the building of new ships imposed in 1922 (B)
expanding their fleets if they felt their national security was jeopardized by the
construction programs of other nations (C) admitting the full equality of Japan with
France, England, and the United States in naval strength (D) extending the "holiday" on
the construction of capital ships.

417. In 1930, Hoover attempted to mitigate the international depression by (A) canceling
all debts owed the United States (B) encouraging foreign governments to borrow money
in the United States (C) calling for a one-year moratorium on all governmental war debts
(D) calling for significant reductions in all tariffs among nations.

418. The "standstill" agreements of 1930-33 were negotiated because (A) European
barks threatened to default on loans made by American harks (B) farmers and home
owners were defaulting on mortgages at an alarming rate (C) continued worldwide tariff
increases threatened to halt world trade (D) European governments were no longer in a
position to repay war debts to the United States.

419. When Japan occupied Manchuria in 1931, the United States responded by (A)
asking the parties to submit their dispute to the World Court (B) demanding that the
League of Nations condemn Japan (C) initiating an arms embargo against Japan (D)
reviving the Bryan doctrine of nonrecognition.

420. Confronted by Japanese aggression in Manchuria, the League of Nations (A)
imposed economic sanctions (B) imposed diplomatic sanctions (C) condemned Japan, but
took no action (D) refused to consider the issue.
421. Toward the end of his Administration, Hoover finally took steps to help the ailing
middle class by (A) passing the Glass-Steagall Act, which took this country off the gold
standard (B) establishing a system of home loan barks to decrease the number of
foreclosures on mortgages (C) establishing the National Credit Association to prevent
further personal bank policies (D) imposing strict controls on personal credit.

422. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation, established in 1932, lent money primarily
to (A) financial institutions (B) small businesses (C) farmers (D) home owners with
mortgages.

423. In 1931-32, Hoover sought to relieve unemployment mainly by (A) increasing
veterans' bonuses (B) urging the establishment of a direct federal relief system (C)
launching the Works Progress Administration (D) continually stressing the ultimate local
responsibility for relief programs.

424. When the Federal Farm Board proposed production controls to help raise
agricultural prices, President Hoover (A) reluctantly agreed (B) willingly agreed (C) let
Congress defeat the measure (D) rejected the idea.

425. The veterans who converged on Washington in 1932 wanted (A) more aggressive
foreign policy that would stimulate employment in war-related industries (B) the
impeachment of Hoover (C) the nationalization of barks and a federal guarantee of work
(D) immediate payment of a bonus promised them for w&time service.

426. President Hoover responded to the veterans' march on Washington by (A) calling
out troops to clear Washington of the veterans (B) establishing investigatory
commissions to look into their demands (C) urging Congress to grant their demand for
immediate cash (D) setting up the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

427. The basis of Franklin Roosevelt's political strength in 1932 was the link he had
forged between (A) farmers and big business (B) reformers and big business (C) city
machines and Southern Democrats (D) New England merchants and Western farmers.

428. In 1932, Roosevelt broke with Democratic patty precedent by (A) campaigning in
state primaries for the nomination (B) choosing his own running mate (C) coming out for
repeal of Prohibition (D) accepting the nomination of the party at the convention.

429. During his campaign, Franklin Roosevelt was equivocal on the issues of (A) federal
regulation of utilities and the deployment of public power (B) tariff reduction and
balancing the budget (C) federal loans to farmers and controls on farm production (D)
Prohibition repeal and the need for national planning.

430. A major difference between Hoover and Roosevelt was that Roosevelt (A) was
pessimistic about the ability of the economy to recover (B) had little faith in the capitalist
system (C) believed in an active federal government to bring about social change (D) saw
the roots of the depression in world economic conditions.

431. Franklin Roosevelt and Theodore Roosevelt were alike in their (A) membership in
the Democratic party (B) belief in activist government to effect reform (C) interventionist
policies in Latin America (D) conviction that Congress, not the President, should
formulate government policy.

432. Three prominent members of Roosevelt's "brain trust"--Adolph Berle, Rexford
Tugwell, and Gardiner Means--were alike in believing that the solutions to the economic
crisis lay in (A) central planning (B) reinvigorated competition (C) inflationary policies
(D) sound-money policies.

433. In formulating his economic thinking, President Roosevelt consistently followed the
advice of (A) economic theorists devoted to central planning (B) economists who wanted
to reinvigorate competition (C) advocates of inflationary policies (D) no single set of
economic theorists.

434. The first order of business for the special session of Congress called by President
Roosevelt was (A) housing legislation (B) antitrust legislation (C) relief legislation (D)
banking legislation.

435. The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 was designed to (A) help the consumer by
reducing the prices of agricultural commodities (B) help the small farmers and
sharecroppers by fragmenting certain huge farm enterprises (C) raise the real income of
farmers to "parity" by controlling production and offering government payments (D)
repeal the agricultural legislation passed by Congress at the end of President Hoover's
term.

436. The National Industrial Recovery Act provided for all of the following except (A)
federal guarantees of the right of trade unions to bargain collectively (B) creation of the
Public Works Administration to employ those without work (C) mandatory minimum
wages and maximum hours (D) establishment of the National Recovery Administration
to stabilize industrial production

437. As a reform measure, the National Recovery Administration aimed at (A) slowing
the growth of giant trusts (B) raising wages and bettering the conditions of labor (C)
increasing the rate of investment in new industrial facilities (D) fostering more
competition in business.

438. To accomplish reform in the banking and securities industries, Congress provided
for all of the following except (A) separation of commercial and investment banking (B)
disclosure of information on new stocks and bonds (C) establishment of a commission to
oversee the stock exchange (D) decentralization of the authority of the Federal Reserve.
439. Measures such as the House Owner's Loan Act and the Federal Deposit Insurance
Corporation were meant to help (A) industry rather than individuals (B) credit institutions
exclusively (C) credit institutions and individuals (D) debtors rather than creditors.

440. The great success of the Tennessee Valley Authority was in (A) combining
grassroots democracy with government economic planning (B) establishing a cooperative
partnership between blacks and whites on an area wide project in a sensitive border state
(C) helping the private power companies of the area to withstand the financial crisis of
the depression (D) helping to raise farm incomes by ensuring parity for crops grown
under the TVA plan.

441. The "Share our Wealth" movement was the name given to (A) Charles E.
Coughlin's program for nationalizing the banks (B) Huey Long's program for taxing the
rich and distributing receipts to the poor (C) The American Liberty League's organized
opposition to Franklin Roosevelt's policies toward industry (D) the CIO's lobbying efforts
to win a minimum wage for labor.

442. Who of the following would have supported in principle the passage of the Social
Security Act? (A) Herbert Hoover (B) Townshend Plan advocates (C) Gospel of Wealth
advocates (D) Liberty League members.

443. The main support for leftist critics of Franklin Roosevelt came from (A)
businessmen (B) blacks (C) Western farmers (D) the lower middle class.

444. A pivotal factor in destroying the first phase of the New Deal was (A) its
vulnerability to attacks by Berle and Tugwell (B) Roosevelt's quarrels with his own
economic-planning advisers (C) the 1935 Supreme Court ruling that the National
Industrial Recovery Act was unconstitutional (D) The failure of the National Recovery
Authority to win support from the trade unions.

445. In the second phase of the New Deal, Roosevelt abandoned his emphasis on
national planning and adopted policies to (A) foster economic concentration for more
efficiency in industry (B) extend the dole to more and more needy Americans (C) give
the states more power over industry (D) protect the underprivileged with programs to
assure individual economic security.

446. The political alliance between the Roosevelt Administration and organized labor
was consolidated by all of the following legislation except the (A) Public Utilities
Holding Company Act (B) Wagner Act (C) Public Contracts Act (D) Social Security Act.

447. By creating the Resettlement Administration in 1935, Congress hoped to aid (A)
Southern blacks who wished to find industrial work in the North (B) eastern Europeans
displaced in Hitler's incursions (C) home owners who lost their homes by defaulting on
mortgages (D) tenants and small farmers who lost their land after passage of the AAA.
448. As a result of the tax acts passed in 1935,1936, and 1937 (A) the wealthy lost most
of their tax shelters (B) the government was able to raise enough revenue to pay for
federal work projects (C) most states did away with regressive sales taxes and adopted
progressive income taxes (D) the groundwork was laid for a more progressive federal tax
structure.

449. Late in the 1930s, the New Dealers became interested in implementing the new
Keynes-Eccles economic theory of (A) the dole (B) compensatory deficit spending (C)
full employment (D) public works.

450. The chief conservative argument against New Deal programs was that they (A)
discriminated against the wealthy (B) discouraged investments in a way that previous
Republican policies had not (C) threatened individual liberty (D) favored the industrial
over the agricultural sector of the economy.

451. The Democratic party picked up a new bloc of voters in the 1936 election-- (A)
Northern working cllass blacks (B) urban immigrants (C) Southern conservatives (D)
reformers.

452. The net effect of Roosevelt's plan to "pack," or enlarge, the Supreme Court was to
(A) "scare" the Court out of its conservative mood (B) widen the rift in the Democratic
party between conservatives and reformers (C) raise opposition to some of Roosevelt's
programs where none had existed before (D) give Republicans a majority in Congress in
the 1938 election

453. During the 1930s, unionism grew most rapidly among (A) farm laborers (B)
industrial workers (C) craft workers (D) office workers.

454. During the recession of 1937-38, Roosevelt's advisers were divided over the issue
of (A) return to the gold standard (B) regulating industry (C) balancing the budget (D)
raising the tariff.

455. The harsh debate over the New Deal in 1937-38 gave birth to a political
phenomenon that has confronted all Presidents from that time on-- (A) the need to win
Supreme Court support through expansion of its membership (B) a sizable percentage of
voters supporting socialist and even communist candidates (C) the need to win third-party
support in order to govern (D) a congressional coalition between conservative
Republicans and Southern Democrats.

456. When Franklin D. Roosevelt sought to defeat conservative Democrats in the
primaries of 1938, the result was (A) complete vindication of the President (B) partial
victory for the President (C) almost total defeat for the President (D) unclear.

457. Radicalism was not an attractive alternative to Americans in the 1930s mainly
because (A) fascist and communist dictatorships abroad discredited the radical
alternatives (B) the New Deal brought about enough social change to blunt the force of
radical critiques (C) success in business was still a strong motivating ideal of working-
class people (D) the Red scare of the 1920s left most Americans fearful of retaliation if
they joined radical groups

458. One of the ways minority groups--blacks, women, and ethnics--benefited from the
New Deal was by U (A) federal guarantees of equal access to jobs (B) prohibitions
against discrimination in federally funded programs (C) increased recruitment of minority
members to fill government posts (D) federal aid to education programs

459. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 repudiated the Dawes Act of 1887 by (A)
removing Indians from federal jurisdiction (B) allowing native Americans to become
citizens and vote (C) forbidding discrimination against Indians ( (D) disallowing the
practice of dividing Indian lands into individual parcels.

460. The New Deal accomplished all of the following except (A) enlarging the middle
class (B) radically redistributing wealth and income (C) stabilizing the economy against
future crashes (D) underwriting the nation's social health through public insurance
programs.

461. The radio and film industries blossomed in the 1930's, because they (A) offered
jobs to the unemployed. (B) provided an escape from dismal reality. (C) were considered
luxuries for the rich. (D) received many government subsidies.

82. The New Republic was founded as a magazine of (A) protest and reform. (B)
business and commerce. (C) status quo economics (D) theology and philosophy.

83. In the 1930s, writers concentrated on (A) the individual. (B) communal living. (C)
the triumph of capitalism. (D) the social novel.

84. Writers of the 1920s felt that the American people were all of the following except
(A) materialistic. (B) anti-cultural and anti-intellectual. (C) business oriented. (D)
altruistic.

85. The book that set the stage for the culture of the 1920s was (A) The Old Man and
The Sea. (B) This Side of Paradise. (C) An American Tragedy. (D) For whom the Bell
Tolls.

86. The first American writer to receive the Nobel Prize for literature was (A) Sinclair
Lewis. (B) Ernest Hemingway. (C) John Des Passos. (D) F. Scott Fitzgerald.

87. Henry Ford (A) raised prices and lowered workers' wages. (B) raised workers'
wages and lowered prices. (C) encouraged the formation of labor unions. (D) did none of
the above.
89. Calvin Coolidge was selected as the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1920
because of his (A) military record. (B) progressive policies. (C) suppression of the
Boston Police Strike. (D) bombastic campaign style.

90. The American Plan for labor meant (A) renewed collective bargaining. (B) a closed
shop. (C) a rise in union membership. (D) an increase in fringe benefits.

91. Those people chosen for the Supreme Court in the 1920s were basically (A) liberal.
(B) moderate. (C) non-political. (D) conservative.

92. The McNary-Haugen Bill, had it not been vetoed, would have allowed the
government to (A) buy in foreign markets and sell domestically. (B) buy domestically
and then sell surplus farm products abroad. (C) limit farm production. (D) place export
tariffs on agricultural products.

93. In the 1920s, the so-called laissez-faire government did aid business in all the
following ways except (A) guaranteed bank-deposits. (B) the Fordney-McCumber Tariff.
(C) subsidies to the shipping and aircraft industries. (D) easy credit.

94. In the 1920s, many regulatory agencies were tilled with (A) the very people they
were to regulate. (B) advocates of consumer interests. (C) socialists. (D) progressive
reformers.

95. In 1920, the New York State Assembly expelled its (A) Speaker. (B) five
Communist Party members. (C) five Liberal Party members. (D) five Socialist Party
members.

96. In the 1920s, there was a tremendous real estate boom in (A) California. (B) Texas.
(C) Florida. (D) Arizona.

97. All of the following were members of Warren G. Harding's Cabinet except (A)
Herbert Hoover (B) Andrew Mellon. (C) George Norris. (D) Charles Evans Hughes.

98. The Washington Conference in 1921 was called because (A) Japan feared the rising
United States naval power. (B) France feared the British naval power. (C) Italy and
Germany wanted greater naval strength. (D) many believed that naval competition had
been a major cause of the Great War.

99. All of the following were connected with the Harding scandals except (A) Albert
Fall. (B) Jesse Smith. (C) Charles Evans Hughes. (D) Charles Forbes.

100. The one country which refused even to consider repaying its World War I debt to
the United States was (A) Great Britain. (B) France. (C) the Soviet Union. (D) Italy.
101. The Kellogg-Briand Pact was impotent because (A) too few countries signed it. (B)
the United States did not sign it. (C) defensive war was outlawed. (D) no means of
enforcement was provided.

102. After World War I, the relationship of the United States with Latin America
changed because (A) Spain rather than the United States became its major trade partner.
(B) Great Britain rather than the United States became its major trade partner. (C) the
United States rather than Great Britain was the major trade partner. (D) of none of the
above.

103. Magazines in the 1920s which featured news, cultural events, and criticism included
all of the following except (A) Time. (B) The American Mercury. (C) New Masses. (D)
The Liberator.

104. The editor of the American Mercury and the most famous critic of the intellectual
climate of the 1920s was (A) Ernest Hemingway. (B) F. Scott Fitzgerald (C) Edmund
Wilson. (D) H.L. Mencken.

105. Tabloid newspapers in this period concentrated on (A) sensationalism. (B) business.
(C) sports. (D) international events.

106. An examination of small town life, morals, and culture of the 1920s was featured in
books by (A) Ernest Hemingway. (B) F. Scott Fitzgerald. (C) Pearl Buck. (D) Sinclair
Lewis.

107. The writer who dealt most effectively with lower and decadent upper classes of the
South was (A) Ernest Hemingway. (B) F. Scott Fitzgerald. (C) William Faulkner. (D)
Lillian Hellman.

108. All of the following events made people turn to the Left in the 1920s except the (A)
Sacco Vanzetti trial. (B) Scopes trial. (C) Fordney-McCumber Tariff. (D) stock market
crash.

109. During the 1920s and 1930s, many of the American intellectuals became (A)
moderates. (B) leftists. (C) reactionaries. (D) rightists.

110. Novels of the 1920s emphasized (A) communal living. (B) reform. (C) the
individual. (D) collectivism.

111. The nation that built ships to its limit as imposed by the Washington Conference of
1921 was (A) the United States. (B) Japan. (C) Great Britain. (D) France.

112. Those who were absolutely against the participation of the United States in the
League of Nations were called (A) Irreconcilables. (B) Mild Reservationists. (C) Regular
Democrats. (D) Moderate Republicans.
113. The European nations did not feel that the loans made to them by the United States
during the Great War should be repaid because these loans were (A) used to support the
allied effort. (B) paid back in terms of damage done and lives lost. (C) used to pay for
defending the Western World against the menace of a militaristic enemy. (D) used for all
of the above.

114. The 20th amendment was known as the (A) Women's Rights amendment. (B) lame
duck amendment. (C) Prohibition amendment. (D) income tax amendment.

115. Franklin Roosevelt took the United States (A) out of the League of Nations. (B) out
of the World Court. (C) off the gold standard. (D) off the bimetallic standard.

116. The business of the railroads improved in the early 1940s because of the (A) rising
price of gasoline. (B) development of transcontinental railroads. (C) government takeover
of the railroads. (D) impending war.

117. All of the following presidents were in office during a depression except (A)
Woodrow Wilson. (B) Herbert Hoover. (C) Grover Cleveland. (D) Martin Van Buren.

118. The Hawley-Smoot Tariff (A) was welcomed by foreign nations. (B) lowered the
tariff considerably. (C) encouraged foreign nations to increase tariff duties. (D) was
vetoed by Herbert Hoover.

119. A major difference between the progressive reform period and the New Deal reform
period is that one (A) took place in an expanding economy and the other took place in an
economy thought to have reached it limits. (B) emphasized government intervention and
the other did not. (C) offered a series of reforms to aid the African Americans and the
other was silent on the issue. (D) emphasized military protectionism and the other sought
to deemphasize the military component of our government.

121. The Works Progress Administration was criticized by many members of all of the
following groups except (A) conservatives. (B) Republicans (C) the arts community. (D)
labor unions.

122. The New Deal program was based on the philosophy of (A) laissez faire. (B)
positive government intervention in the economy. (C) government support of business
interests. (D) rugged individualism.

123. The National Recovery Administration was based on (A) business and government
cooperation. (B) business dominance of government. (C) strong government regulation.
(D) labor control of business.

124. The building of large planes in this period was due to (A) government ownership of
the aviation industry. (B) the failure of the shipping industry. (C) government support for
the space-mile principle in carrying mail. (D) competition with the Germans.
125. The New Deal wanted to (A) destroy capitalism. (B) institute socialism. (C)
institute laissez-faire. (D) reform capitalism.

126. Each of the following groups supported the Democrats in the 1936 election except
the (A) African Americans. (B) aristocracy. (C) white southerners. (D) urban ethnic
groups.

127. Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed (A) no Supreme Court justices. (B) more justices
than any president since Washington. (C) two Supreme Court justices. (D) the first
female Supreme Court Justice.

128. The major reason for opposition to the Tennessee Valley Authority was that it
would (A) destroy farms and homes. (B) not be effective. (C) compete with private
industry. (D) be too costly.

129. To many of the wealthy, Franklin Roosevelt seemed like a (A) savior. (B) prophet
without honor. (C) traitor to his class. (D) prototype of his class.

143. "It is hereby declared to be the policy of Congress to promote the orderly marketing
of basic agricultural commodities in interstate and foreign commerce and to that end to
provide for the control and disposition of surpluses of such commodities." These words
were found in the (A) 1st Agricultural Adjustment Act. (B) 2nd Agricultural Adjustment
Act. (C) McNary-Haugen Bill. (D) Norris Bill.

144. "I have never known any conflict between my official duties and my religious
beliefs." These words were spoken by (A) Herbert Hoover. (B) William McAdoo. (C)
Calvin Coolidge. (D) Alfred Smith.

145. ".... . is a good man, and when he says that he made every effort to give a fair trial
to the anarchists brought before him, undoubtedly he thinks it and he means it." The man
being described is (A) John Raulston. (B) Clarence Darrow. (C) Webster Thayer. (D)
William Jennings Bryan.

146. "Every family to be furnished by the government a homestead allowance, free of
debt, of not less than on-third the average family wealth of the country, which means, at
the lowest, that every family shall have the reasonable comforts of life up to a value of
from $5000 to $6000." This plan was suggested by (A) Dr. Brandis Townsend. (B) Father
Coughlin. (C) Huey Long. (D) Franklin Roosevelt.

147. "The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely
shouting `fire' in a theater and causing a panic. It does not even protect a man from an
injunction against uttering words that may have all the effect of force. The question in
every case is whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a
nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive
evils that Congress has a right to prevent." This dear and present danger doctrine was
enunciated in (A) Schenck v. United States. (B) Schechter v. United States. (C) Hammer
v. Dagenhart. (D) Muller v. Oregon.

151. Prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States was, for all intents and
purposes, involved in (A) a naval war in the Pacific. (B) an air war in North Africa. (C)
an air war in the Pacific. (D) a naval war in the Atlantic.

152. In 1929, a great deal of capital left the United States and returned to (A) Italy. (B)
Great Britain. (C) France. (D) the Soviet Union.

153. All of the following were causes of the Depression except (A) the overextension of
credit. (B) unsound banking policies. (C) the lack of controls on the stock market. (D) the
government's intervention in the economy.

154. The Hoover Dam was built to harness the power of the (A) Colorado River. (B)
Tennessee River. (C) Mississippi River. (D) Rio Grande River.

155. Unlike William Jennings Bryan, Herbert Hoover was a strong supporter of the (A)
silver standard. (B) bimetallic standard. (C) expansion of paper money. (D) gold
standard.

156. Herbert Hoover negotiated a treaty (which the Senate later failed to ratify) with
Canada to (A) settle the Main-New Brunswick boundary. (B) fortify the border between
the United States and Canada. (C) establish the Alaska-Canada border. (D) undertake the
St. Lawrence Seaway project.

157. The Socialist and Communist Parties' presidential candidates in the 1930s were (A)
Eugene Debs and Gus Hall. (B) Eugene Debs and William Foster. (C) Norman Thomas
and William Foster. (D) Norman Thomas and Gus Hall.

158. The National Recovery Administration was designed to stop (A) business profits.
(B) the organization of labor unions. (C) unfair competition. (D) government
involvement in business.

159. Under the National Recovery Administration, each industry drew up a (A) code. (B)
plan of organization. (C) charter. (D) profit-sharing plan.

160. Section 7 A of the National Industrial Recovery Act stated that (A) employees have
no right to bargain collectively. (B) courts have the right to issue injunctions against
strikes. (C) employees have the right to bargain collectively. (D) only skilled workers
have the right to join unions.

161. In Schechter v. United States, the National Industrial Recovery Act was declared
unconstitutional because (A) Congress had taken too much power unto itself. (B)
Congress had conferred too much power on the Executive. (C) Congress had conferred
too much power upon the Judiciary. (D) of all of the above.
162. The Congress of industrial Organizations guaranteed unionization (A) of coal
miners. (B) of textile workers. (C) industry-wide. (D) of skilled workers only.

163. The new type of strike introduced by the labor unions in the late 1930s was the (A)
sit-down. (B) industry-wide. (C) walkout. (D) slowdown.

164. When Franklin Roosevelt chose his Cabinet, many of them were (A) prominent
figures in American politics. (B) cabinet members of previous administrations. (C) not
household names or nationally known figures. (D) members of the Wall Street crowd.

165. Franklin Roosevelt's philosophy of the presidency was shared by (A) Woodrow
Wilson and Warren Harding. (B) Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. (C) William
Howard Tart and Warren Harding. (D) Theodore Roosevelt and Calvin Coolidge.

166. African American voters in the 1930s (A) continued their historic loyalty to the
Republican Party. (B) were attracted in large numbers to the Communist Party. (C)
shifted their allegiance in large numbers to the Democratic Party. (D) showed little
interest in politics.

167. Franklin Roosevelt's First Inaugural Address stressed (A) the belief that the
economy would right itself. (B) a firm belief that the federal government ought to stay
out of the economy. (C) the only thing we have to fear is fear itself. (D) the need for
deficit spending.

168. During the First Hundred Days, Franklin Roosevelt did all the following except (A)
close the banks. (B) put the stock market under government supervision. (C) call for a
Social Security Act. (D) establish the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

169. Franklin Roosevelt won the 1932 election because of (A) Herbert Hoover's
unpopularity. (B) a well-run campaign. (C) an uncanny political sense. (D) all of the
above.

170. Franklin Roosevelt's victory in the 1936 election showed that (A) people wanted to
stay out of war. (B) the majority of the American people liked and accepted the New
Deal. (C) Alfred Landon was an unpopular figure. (D) people did not want to change
"horses" in war time.

171. At the core of the New Deal is the idea of (A) limiting government activity. (B)
positive government intervention. (C) favoritism to business interests. (D) government
ownership of utilities and public transportation.

172. By the end of the 1930s, the concept of Big Business had been joined by the
concepts of (A) big labor and big government. (B) big labor and big agriculture. (C) big
government and big military. (D) big agriculture and big military.
173. The genesis of Roosevelt's social security program may well have been the plan of
(A) Dr. Francis Townsend. (B) A. Philip Randolph. (C) Father Coughlin. (D) Alfred
Landon.

174. Labor under the New Deal received (A) little government support. (B) moderate
government support. (C) no support at all from the federal government (D) positive
government support.

175. At the core of the Agriculture Adjustment Acts lay the concept of (A) limiting
production by offering subsidies. (B) encouraging farmers to produce more. (C)
encouraging the fanners to seek industrial jobs. (D) breaking up large firms into smaller
units.

176. The 1st Agricultural Adjustment Act was declared unconstitutional in the case of
(A) Schechter v. United States. (B)United States v. Butler. (C) Schenck v. United States.
(D) Adkins v. Children's Hospital.

177. The National Industrial Recovery Act was declared unconstitutional in the case of
(A) Schechter v. United States. (B) Schenck v. United States. (C) United States v. Butler.
(D) Adkins v. Children's Hospital.

178. The National Industrial Recovery Act was declared unconstitutional because (A)
business interests opposed it. (B) it violated the concept of separation of powers. (C) it
was too unwieldy to administer. (D) consumer groups opposed it.

2. In 1919, eighty-three Black men, including soldiers who fought in World War I,
were ________ in the United States. (A) awarded medals (B) were lynched (C) thrown
out of the army (D) Inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.

3. ________ was one of the great jazz musicians of the Harlem Renaissance. (A)
George Walker (B) Will Marion Cook (C) Louis Armstrong (D) none of the above.

4. By the 1920s, Harlem had become a center of: (A) gang violence (B) artistic
creativity (C) wealth and power (D) all of the above.

5. During the 1930s, which of the following was described as the largest and most
powerful Black movement in U.S. history? (A) the Harlem Renaissance (B) the African
American Association (C) the NAACP magazine, The Crisis (D) the Universal Negro
Improvement Association.

6. McKay and Dunbar were two Black poets who represented what change in Black
literature? (A) For the first time Black poetry could be described as passionate. (B) Black
literature began to ignore the problems Blacks faced living in American society. (C) All
Black poetry was now based on current events. (D) Some Black literature was developing
a more militant tone.
7. Black writers and poets of this era became more: (A) fearful of oppression (B)
assertive of their individuality (C) hopeless about their individual futures (D) resigned to
discrimination.

8.    ________ was one of the most significant poets of the Harlem Renaissance. (A)
Jean Toomer (B) Countee Cullen (C) Zora Neale Hurston (D) Martin Luther King, Sr.

11. Where did Black writers begin to turn for inspiration? (A) new jazz compositions
(B) their African ancestry (C) poets of eighteenth century England (D) the work of their
fellow poets.

12. The Harlem Renaissance writers remain important because they: (A) initiated Black
creativity in literature (B) encouraged Black pride (C) enhanced an era’s understanding of
Black people (D) all of the above.

1. ________, which was always important in Black communities, became even
________ during the depression.
    (A) Living in the South . . . more important
    (B) Religion . . . less important
    (C) Migration . . . more important
    (D) Religion . . . more important

2. During the depression, Black church leaders: (A) gained esteem in the Black
community (B) were all members of Congress (C) preached only on street corners (D) all
of the above.

3.   Father Divine’s ________ made him a ________ to his followers.
     (A)      miracles . . .              savior
     (B)      dedication to service . . . hero
     (C)      paranoia . . .              threat
     (D)      skill . . .                 surprise

4. In 1930 and 1931, most Black men and women were unemployed and needed
________ from the government to keep from starving. (A) subscriptions (B) substitutes
(C) subsidies (D) freedom.

5. In 1933, what President offered hope to the desperate people of the country? (A)
Franklin Roosevelt (B) Douglas MacArthur (C) Herbert Hoover (D) Harry S. Truman.

6. Some new laws and programs of the New Deal actually caused some Black workers
to: (A) become rich (B) lose their jobs (C) accept wages that were lower than Whites’ (D)
both A and B (E) both B and C.

7. The Wagner Act seemed the most promising of the New Deal measures for Blacks
because it allowed workers: (A) to run the industries themselves (B) to organize into
labor unions (C) to bargain as a group for better wages and working conditions (D) both
B and C (E) both A and B.

8. The American Federation of Labor began a new movement to ________ skilled and
unskilled workers in unions. (A) separate (B) identify (C) bring together (D) none of the
above.

9. ________ progress was made for Black workers due to the developments of the
New Deal. (A) Temporary (B) Limited (C) No (D) Tremendous.

10. Among the heroes and heroines of Black Americans in the 1930s were:
    (A)    Eleanor Roosevelt, Jim Crow, Kennesaw Landis
    (B)    Theodore Roosevelt, Thurgood Marshall, Thomas P. Cook
    (C)    Eleanor Roosevelt, Mary McLeod Bethune, Thurgood Marshall
    (D)    Satchel Paige, Strom Thurmond, Bill Cosby.

11. The projects created by the Works Progress Administration allowed Black
________ to develop their talents. (A) painters (B) sculptors (C) actors (D) all of the
above.

12. During this period, Blacks began to make their mark in:
    (A)      theater, music, and writing
    (B)      writing, music, and dance
    (C)      music and theater
    (D)      all of the above

14. Blacks who pursued careers in science and medicine ________ racism. (A) were
protected from (B) still suffered from (C) were not affected by (D) espoused.

15. By 1941, the situation for Blacks in America had: (A) greatly improved (B)
worsened (C) changed little (D) reached equality.

16. Many Black men served with great valor in the armed forces and were rewarded
with promotions in rank. (A) true (B) false.

37. Franklin Roosevelt's _______contributed the most to his development of
compassion and strength of will. (A) education (B) political experience (C) family ties
with Teddy Roosevelt (D) affliction with infantile paralysis

38. The "champion of the dispossessed" that is, the poor and minorities in the 1930s
was (A) Harold Ickes. (B) Alfred E. Smith (C) Eleanor Roosevelt (D) Frances Perkins.

39. The 1932 Democratic party platform on which Franklin Roosevelt ran for the
presidency called for (A) repeat of prohibition (B) deficit spending (C) higher tariffs (D)
adherence to the gold standard.
32. The red scare of 1919-1920 was provoked by (A) the wartime migration of rural
blacks to northern cities. (B) the strict enforcement of prohibition laws. (C) evolutionary
science's challenge to the biblical story of the Creation. (D) the public's association of
labor violence with its fear of revolution.

33. Disillusioned by war and peace, Americans in the 1920s did all of the following
except (A) denounce "radical" foreign ideas. (B) condemn "un-American" life-styles. (C)
enter a decade of economic difficulties. (D) shun diplomatic commitments to foreign
countries.

34. Businesspeople used the red scare to (A) establish closed shops throughout the
nation. (B) break the backs of fledgling unions. (C) break the railroad strike of 1919. (D)
secure passage of laws making unions illegal.

35. The most tenacious pursuer of "radical" elements during the red scare was (A)
Frederick W. Taylor. (B) William Jennings Bryan. (C) A. Mitchell Palmer. (D) F. Scott
Fitzgerald.

36. The post World War I Ku Klux Klan advocated all of the following except (A)
Fundamentalist religion. (B) opposition to birth control. (C) opposition to prohibition.
(D) repression of pacifists.

37. The Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s was a reaction against (A) capitalism. (B) new
immigration laws passed in 1924. (C) the nativist movements that had their origins in the
1850s. (D) the forces of diversity and modernity that were transforming American
culture.

38. Immigration restrictions of the 1920s were introduced as a result of (A) increased
migration of blacks to the North. (B) the nativist belief that northern Europeans were
superior to southern and eastern Europeans. (C) a desire to rid the country of the quota
system. (D) the desire to halt immigration from Latin America.

39. The Immigration Act of 1924 was formulated to impose immigration quotas based
on (A) economic skills. (B) literacy. (C) religious beliefs. (D) nationality.

40. Generally, the immigration quota system adopted in the 1920s tended to
discriminate against (A) Canadians. (B) northern and western Europeans. (C) Latin
Americans. (D) southern and eastern Europeans.

41. To achieve class and political solidarity, immigrant workers primarily had to
overcome (A) ethnic diversity. (B) the lack of a reform impulse in America. (C) the lack
of sufficient funds to form a union. (D) the Immigration Act of 1924.

42. Enforcement of the Volstead Act met the strongest resistance from (A) women. (B)
eastern city dwellers. (C) midwesterners. (D) southerners.
43. The first Polish immigrants to come to America arrived (A) in the late nineteenth
century. (B) during the Revolutionary War. (C) during the Great Depression. (D) at
Jamestown in 1608.

44. Many Polish peasants learned about America from all of the following sources
except (A) agents from U.S. railroads. (B) letters from friends and relatives. (C) agents
from steamship lines. (D) Catholic missionaries.

45. Most Americans assumed that prohibition (A) would be permanent. (B) would soon
be overturned. (C) could never be enforced in the South. (D) would be a total failure.

46. The most spectacular example of lawlessness in the 1920s was (A) New York City.
(B) New Orleans. (C) Brooklyn. (D) Chicago.

47. John Dewey can rightly be called the "father of __________." (A) vocational
training (B) progressive education (C) evolutionary science (D) modern psychoanalysis

48. According to John Dewey, a teacher's primary goal is to (A) reduce permissiveness
in the classroom. (B) emphasize the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic. (C)
educate a student for life. (D) teach the biblical theory of Creation.

49. Of the following, the one least related to the other three is (A) John T. Scopes. (B)
Clarence Darrow. (C) Frederick W. Taylor. (D) William Jennings Bryan.

50. The trial of John Scopes in 1925 centered on the issue of (A) progressive education.
(B) schools' efforts to create socially useful adults. (C) teachers' membership in the Ku
Klux Klan. (D) teaching evolution in public schools.

51. After the Scopes "Monkey Trial," (A) Fundamentalist religion remained a vibrant
force in American spiritual life. (B) John Scopes was sentenced to serve time in jail. (C)
Christians found it increasingly difficult to reconcile the revelations of religion with
modern science. (D) the gap between theology and biology began to close.

52. All of the following helped to make the prosperity of the 1920s possible except (A)
government's neglect of the economy. (B) rapid expansion of capital. (C) increased
productivity of workers. (D) perfection of assembly-line production.

53. The main problem faced by American manufacturers in the 1920s involved (A)
increasing the level of production. (B) encouraging people to buy their products. (C)
reducing the level of government involvement in business. (D) keeping labor unrest to a
minimum.

54. Bruce Barton, author of The Man Nobody Knows, expressed admiration for Jesus
Christ because Barton (A) was a deeply religious man. (B) respected Christ's image of
self-sacrifice. (C) believed that Christ was the best advertising man of all time. (D) felt
that Christ supported capitalism.
55. The prosperity that developed in the 1920s helped (A) to accumulate a cloud of
debt. (B) to reduce buying on credit. (C) labor unions to gain strength. (D) even the
railroads to make more profits.

56. The central character in Bruce Barton's The Man Nobody Knows was (A) Calvin
Coolidge. (B) Henry Ford. (C) Jesus Christ. (D) Al Capone.

57. Henry Ford's contribution to the automobile industry was (A) relatively cheap
automobiles. (B) the internal combustion engine. (C) an enormous variety of automobile
models with varied colors. (D) design changes that improved speed.

58. Frederick W. Taylor, a prominent inventor and engineer, was best known for his
(A) development of the gasoline engine. (B) thoughts on Darwinian evolution. (C) efforts
to clean up polluted cities. (D) efforts to promote efficiency by eliminating wasted
motions.

59. Before the automobile, the __________ industry dominated the American economy.
(A) railroad (B) farming (C) oil (D) steel

60. The automobile revolution resulted in all of the following except (A) the
consolidation of schools. (B) the increased dependence of women on men. (C) the spread
of suburbs. (D) a loss of population in less attractive states.

61. One complaint lodged by the U.S. Immigration Commission against Polish
immigrants was that (A) they took skilled jobs from Americans. (B) too many returned to
their homeland. (C) they sent too much money home. (D) they wrote home with too
many negative stories about America.

62. The first "talkie" motion picture was (A) The Great Train Robbery. (B) The Birth of
a Nation. (C) A Farewell to Arms. (D) The Jazz Singer.

63. With the advent of radio and motion pictures, (A) many people believed that
popular tastes were elevated. (B) American culture became more parochial. (C) much of
the rich diversity of immigrant culture was lost. (D) the emergence of a working-class
political coalition was halted.

64. Automobiles, radios, and motion pictures (A) were less popular than had been
anticipated. (B) contributed to the standardization of American life. (C) had little impact
on traditional life-styles and values. (D) were for the most part too expensive for ordinary
working families.

65. The 1920 census revealed that for the first time most (A) men worked in
manufacturing. (B) adult women were employed outside the home. (C) Americans lived
in cities. (D) Americans lived in the trans-Mississippi West.
66. Margaret Sanger was most noted for her advocacy of (A) abortion rights. (B)
woman suffrage. (C) birth control. (D) free love.

67. Job opportunities for women in the 1920s (A) expanded dramatically. (B) offered
higher-paying positions than before. (C) tended to cluster in a few low-paying fields. (D)
existed mainly in the area of education.

68. To justify their new sexual frankness, many Americans cited (A) increased
consumption of alcohol. (B) a rejection of Fundamentalism. (C) the development of the
National Women's party. (D) the theories of Sigmund Freud.

69. Jazz music was developed by (A) European immigrants. (B) American blacks. (C)
Caucasian impresarios. (D) teenage Americans.

70. Marcus Garvey, founder of the United Negro Improvement Association, is known
for all of the following except (A) promoting the resettlement of American blacks in
Africa. (B) establishing the idea of the talented tenth to lead African-Americans. (C)
cultivating feelings of self-confidence and self-reliance among blacks. (D) being sent to
prison after a conviction for fraud.

71. Match each literary figure below with the correct work.
A. Ernest Hemingway         1. The Sun Also Rises
B. F. Scott Fitzgerald      2. Main Street
C. Sinclair Lewis           3. The Sound and the Fury
                            4. The Great Gatsby

(A) A-3, B-2, C-4
(B) A-1, B-3, C-2
(C) A-2, B-1, C-3
(D) A-1, B-4, C-2

72. Buying stock "on margin" meant (A) purchasing only a few shares. (B) purchasing
inexpensive stock. (C) purchasing little-known stock. (D) making only a small down
payment.

73. During Andrew Mellon's long tenure as secretary of the treasury, his policies (A)
raised taxes. (B) lowered the national debt. (C) provided substantial government
regulation of the stock market. (D) discouraged capital investment.

74. As secretary of the treasury, Andrew Mellon placed the tax burden on the (A)
middle-income groups. (B) wealthy. (C) lower class. (D) business community.

76. The postwar anxiety and intolerance of Americans in the 1920s was manifested in
the (A) Sacco and Vanzetti case. (B) Scopes trial. (C) resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan.
(D) all of the above.
80. The mass production of automobiles in the 1920s led to the growth of (A)
installment buying. (B) the petroleum industry. (C) suburban communities. (D) all of the
above.

29. Warren G. Harding's weaknesses as president included all of the following except
a(n) (A) lack of political experience. (B) mediocre mind. (C) inability to detect moral
weaknesses in his associates. (D) unwillingness to hurt people's feelings by saying no.

30. Match each member of President Harding's cabinet below with his major area of
responsibility.
A. Charles Evans Hughes          1. taxes and tariffs
B. Andrew Mellon                 2. naval oil reserves
C. Herbert Hoover                3. naval arms limitation
D. Albert Fall                   4. foreign trade and trade associations

(A) A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4
(B) A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2
(C) A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1
(D) A-4, B-2, C-1, D-3

31. Which of the following individuals was considered one of the "worst minds" of
President Harding's cabinet? (A) Herbert Hoover (B) Albert Fall (C) Andrew Mellon (D)
Charles Evans Hughes

32. Republican economic policies under Warren G. Harding (A) sought to continue the
same laissez-faire doctrine as had been the practice under William McKinley. (B) hoped
to encourage the government to guide business along the path to profits. (C) worked to
get standpatters out of administration bureaus. (D) aimed at supporting increased
competition in business.

33. During the 1920s, the Supreme Court (A) often ruled against progressive
legislation. (B) rigorously upheld the antitrust laws. (C) generally promoted government
regulation of the economy. (D) staunchly defended the rights of organized labor.

34. __________ was adversely affected by the demobilization policies adopted by the
federal government at the end of World War I. (A) The cement industry (B) The railroad
industry (C) The American Legion (D) Organized labor

35. The Supreme Court cases of Muller and Adkins centered on (A) racial differences.
(B) affirmative action. (C) "right to work" laws from several states. (D) the question of
whether women merited special legal and social treatment.

36. The non-business group that realized the most significant, lasting gains from World
War I was (A) labor. (B) blacks. (C) the Ku Klux Klan. (D) needy veterans.
37. Despite President Warren G. Harding's policy of isolationism, the United States
became involved in the Middle East to (A) protect the Jews. (B) prevent the League of
Nations from establishing a protectorate in the region. (C) stop the Soviet Union from
dominating the area. (D) secure oil-drilling concessions for American companies.

38. Warren G. Harding was willing to seize the initiative on the issue of international
disarmament because (A) he feared renewed war in Europe. (B) foreign policy was his
biggest interest. (C) businesspeople were unwilling to help pay for a larger United States
Navy. (D) he did not want the League of Nations to take the lead on this problem.

39. The 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact (A) formally ended World War I for the United
States, for it had refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles. (B) set a schedule for German
payment of war reparations. (C) hoped to outlaw war as a solution to international rivalry.
(D) condemned Japan for its unprovoked attack on Manchuria.

40. In the 1920s the Fordney-McCumber Tariff __________ tariff rates and the
Hawley-Smoot Tariff __________ tariff rates, so that by 1930 the tariff rates had been
substantially __________ from the opening of the decade. (A) raised; lowered; lowered
(B) lowered; raised; raised (C) raised; raised; raised (D) lowered; lowered; lowered

41. Because the United States raised its tariffs in the 1920s, (A) European nations
raised their tariffs. (B) the postwar chaos in Europe was prolonged. (C) international
economic distress deepened. (D) all of the above.

42. The Teapot Dome scandal involved the mishandling of (A) naval oil reserves. (B)
funds for veterans' hospitals. (C) the budget for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. (D)
European war-debt payments.

43. The major political scandal of Harding's administration resulted in the conviction
and imprisonment of his secretary of (A) the treasury. (B) state. (C) the interior. (D)
commerce.

44. Which of the following descriptive attributes is least characteristic of President
Coolidge? (A) honesty (B) frugality (C) shyness (D) strong leadership

45. During Coolidge's presidency, government policy was set largely by the interests
and values of (A) farmers and wage earners. (B) the business community. (C) racial and
ethnic minorities. (D) progressive reformers.

46. After the initial shock of the Harding scandals, many Americans reacted by (A)
demanding that all those involved be sent to prison. (B) excusing some of the wrongdoers
on the grounds that "they had gotten away with it." (C) demanding the impeachment of
the president. (D) suggesting that Harding resign the presidency so that Calvin Coolidge
could take control.
47. One of the major problems facing farmers in the 1920s was (A) overproduction. (B)
the inability to purchase modern farm equipment. (C) passage of the McNary-Haugen
Bill. (D) the prosecution of cooperatives under antitrust laws.

48. In the mid-1920s President Coolidge twice refused to sign legislation proposing to
(A) exempt farmers' cooperatives from the antitrust laws. (B) subsidize farm prices. (C)
make the United States a member of the World Court. (D) lower taxes.

49. The intended beneficiaries of the McNary-Haugen Bill were _________; the
intended beneficiaries of the Norris-LaGuardia Act were _________. (A) railroad
corporations; labor unions (B) farmers; labor unions (C) banks; railroad corporations (D)
farmers; banks

50. Which of the following splits did not affect the Democratic party in 1924? (A)
"wets" versus "drys" (B) immigrants versus old-stock Americans (C) urbanites versus
suburbanites (D) Fundamentalists versus Modernists

51. Bob La Follette's Progressive party advocated all of the following except (A)
government ownership of railroads. (B) relief for farmers. (C) opposition to antilabor
injunctions. (D) increased power for the Supreme Court.

52. In 1924 the Democratic party convention came within a single vote of adopting a
resolution condemning (A) the Ku Klux Klan. (B) immigration restrictions. (C)
prohibition. (D) Fundamentalism.

53. The Progressive party did not do well in the 1924 election because (A) it could not
win the farm vote. (B) too many people shared in prosperity to care about reform. (C) it
was too caught up in internal discord. (D) the liberal vote was split between it and the
Democratic party.

54. In the early 1920s, the United States' __________ was a glaring exception to its
general indifference to the outside world. (A) involvement in the World Court (B) armed
intervention in the Caribbean and Central America (C) eventual involvement in the
League of Nations (D) naval buildup

55. America's European allies argued that they should not have to repay loans that the
United States made to them during World War I because (A) the United States had owed
them about $4 billion before the war. (B) the amount of money involved was not
significant. (C) they had paid a much heavier price in lost lives, so it was only fair for the
United States to write off the debt. (D) the United States was making so much money
from Mexican oil that it did not need extra dollars.

56. As a result of America's insistence that war debts be repaid, (A) the French and
British demanded enormous reparations payments from Germany. (B) the German mark
was drastically deflated. (C) nearly all U.S. allies repaid their loans. (D) the United States
became more involved in European affairs to ensure repayment.
57. America's major foreign-policy problem in the 1920s was addressed by the Dawes
Plan, which (A) ended the big-stick policy of armed intervention in Central America and
the Caribbean. (B) established a ratio of allowable naval strength between the United
States, Britain, and Japan. (C) condemned the Japanese aggression against Manchuria.
(D) tried to solve the tangle of war-debt and war-reparations payments.

58. The most colorful presidential candidate of the 1920s was (A) Calvin Coolidge. (B)
John W. Davis. (C) Alfred E. Smith. (D) Herbert Hoover.

59. All of the following were political liabilities for Alfred E. Smith except his (A)
Catholic religion. (B) support for the repeal of prohibition. (C) big-city background. (D)
failure to win the support of American labor.

60. One of Herbert Hoover's chief strengths as a presidential candidate was his (A)
adaptability to the give-and-take of political accommodation. (B) considerable experience
in running for political office. (C) talent for administration. (D) ability to face criticism.

61. When elected to the presidency in 1928, Herbert Hoover (A) was militantly
antilabor. (B) brought little administrative talent or experience to the job. (C) understood
that his major challenge was to find a solution to the Great Depression. (D) was a
millionaire.

62. The Federal Farm Board, created by the Agricultural Marketing Act, lent money to
farmers primarily to help them to (A) organize producers' cooperatives. (B) learn a new
and more profitable trade. (C) open new land to cultivation. (D) purchase expensive new
farm machinery.

63. As a result of the Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930, (A) the worldwide depression
deepened. (B) duties on agricultural products decreased. (C) American economic
isolationism ended. (D) campaign promises to labor were fulfilled.

64. In America, the Great Depression caused (A) people to blame the economic system,
not themselves, for their problems. (B) a decade-long decline in the birthrate. (C) an
increase of foreign investment because prices were so low. (D) the price of common
stock to remain low while blue-chip stocks suffered only moderate losses.

65. President Herbert Hoover believed that the Great Depression could be ended by
doing all of the following except (A) providing direct aid to the people. (B) directly
assisting businesses and banks. (C) keeping faith in the efficiency of the industrial
system. (D) continuing to rely on the American tradition of rugged individualism.

66. President Hoover's approach to the Great Depression was to (A) leave the economy
alone to work itself out of trouble. (B) nationalize major industries. (C) adopt
unprecedented federal initiatives to combat it. (D) blame it on big business.
67. The __________ was an "alphabetical agency" set up under Hoover's
administration to bring the government into the antidepression effort. (A) Civilian
Conservation Corps (CCC) (B) National Recovery Administration (NRA) (C) Works
Progress Administration (WPA) (D) Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)

68. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was established to (A) provide direct
economic assistance to labor. (B) make loans to businesses, banks, and state and local
governments. (C) outlaw "yellow dog" (antiunion) contracts. (D) provide money for
construction of dams on the Tennessee River.

69. The Bonus Expeditionary Force marched on Washington, D.C., in 1932 to demand
(A) the removal of American troops from Nicaragua. (B) passage of legislation
introducing a lower tariff. (C) immediate full payment of bonus payments promised to
World War I veterans. (D) punishment for those who had forced unemployed veterans to
leave Washington, D.C.

70. President Hoover's public image was severely damaged by his (A) decision to
abandon the principle of "rugged individualism." (B) handling of the dispersal of the
Bonus Army. (C) agreement to provide a federal dole to the unemployed. (D) refusal to
do anything to try to solve the Great Depression.

71. In response to the League of Nations' investigation into Japan's invasion and
occupation of Manchuria, (A) the United States became an official member of the
League. (B) Japan withdrew its troops. (C) it initiated a boycott of Japanese goods. (D)
Japan left the League.

72. The 1932 Hoover-Stimson doctrine (A) reversed the United States' long-standing
interventionist policy in Latin America. (B) committed the United States to join the
League of Nations' effort to impose economic sanctions against Japan for its invasion of
Manchuria. (C) announced the United States' willingness to outlaw war as an instrument
of national policy. (D) declared that the United States would not recognize any territorial
acquisition achieved by force of arms.

75. The high government officials involved in scandals during the Harding
administration included (A) Charles Forbes. (B) Albert Fall. (C) Harry Daugherty. (D)
All of the above

76. The causes of the Great Depression included (A) agricultural overproduction. (B)
unequal distribution of wealth. (C) overextension of credit. (D) all of the above.

37. Franklin Roosevelt's __________ contributed the most to his development of
compassion and strength of will. (A) education (B) political experience (C) family ties
with Teddy Roosevelt (D) affliction with infantile paralysis
38. The "champion of the dispossessed" ƒƒ that is, the poor and minorities ƒƒ in the
1930s was (A) Harold Ickes. (B) Alfred E. Smith. (C) Eleanor Roosevelt. (D) Frances
Perkins.

39. The 1932 Democratic party platform on which Franklin Roosevelt ran for the
presidency called for (A) repeal of prohibition. (B) deficit spending. (C) higher tariffs.
(D) adherence to the gold standard.

40. In 1932 Franklin Roosevelt campaigned on the promise that as president he would
attack the Great Depression by (A) nationalizing all banks and major industries. (B)
experimenting with bold new programs for economic and social reform. (C) returning to
the traditional policies of laissez-faire capitalism. (D) continuing the policies already
undertaken by President Hoover.

41. The phrase "Hundred Days" refers to (A) the worst weeks of the Great Depression.
(B) the time it took for Congress to begin acting on President Roosevelt's plans for
combating the Great Depression. (C) the first weeks of Franklin Roosevelt's presidency.
(D) the "lame-duck" period between Franklin Roosevelt's election and his inauguration.

42. One striking feature of the 1932 presidential election was that (A) the South had
shifted to the Republican party. (B) African-Americans became a vital element in the
Democratic party. (C) urban Americans finally cast more votes than rural Americans. (D)
women played a less active role in the campaign than before.

43. While Franklin Roosevelt waited to assume the presidency, Herbert Hoover tried to
get the president-elect to cooperate on long-term solutions to the Depression because (A)
he and Roosevelt had similar ideas on programs to combat the hard times. (B) the
Hawley-Smoot Tariff was up for immediate renewal. (C) he hoped to bind his successor
to an anti-inflationary policy that would make much of the New Deal impossible. (D) he
wanted to show how willing he was to cooperate with the political opposition.

44. When Franklin Roosevelt assumed the presidency in March 1933, (A) Congress
refused to grant him any legislative authority. (B) he knew exactly what he wanted to do.
(C) he received unprecedented congressional support. (D) he wanted to make as few
mistakes as possible.

45. The Works Progress Administration was a major __________ program of the New
Deal; the Public Works Administration was a long-range __________ program; and the
Social Security Act was a major __________ program.
 (A) relief; recovery; reform
 (B) reform; recovery; relief
 (C) recovery; relief; reform
 (D) relief; reform; recovery

46. The Glass-Steagall Act (A) took the United States off the gold standard. (B)
empowered President Roosevelt to close all banks temporarily. (C) created the Securities
and Exchange Commission to regulate the stock exchange. (D) created the Federal
Deposit Insurance Corporation to insure individual bank deposits.

47. The most pressing problem facing Franklin Roosevelt when he became president
was (A) a chaotic banking situation. (B) the national debt. (C) the need to silence
demagogic rabble-rousers such as Huey Long. (D) unemployment.

48. Franklin Roosevelt's "managed currency" aimed to (A) stimulate inflation. (B)
reduce the price of gold. (C) restore confidence in banks. (D) reduce the amount of
money in circulation.

49. The __________ was probably the most popular New Deal program; the
__________ was one of the most complex; and the __________ was the most radical.
 (A) Works Progress Administration; Agricultural Adjustment Act; Civilian Conservation
Corps
 (B) Agricultural Adjustment Act; Public Works Administration; Tennessee Valley
Authority
 (C) National Recovery Act; Tennessee Valley Authority; Works Progress Administration
 (D) Civilian Conservation Corps; National Recovery Act; Tennessee Valley Authority

50. President Roosevelt's chief "administrator of relief" was (A) George Norris. (B)
John L. Lewis. (C) Harry Hopkins. (D) Harold Ickes.

51. Match each New Deal critic below with the "cause" that he promoted.
A. Father Coughlin                1. "social justice"
B. Huey Long                      2. "share our wealth"
C. Francis Townsend               3. parity
                                  4. old-age pensions

(A) A-1, B-2, C-4
(B) A-2, B-1, C-3
(C) A-3, B-4, C-2
(D) A-4, B-3, C-1

52. Senator Huey P. Long of Louisiana gained national popularity by (A) advocating
social justice for all. (B) blaming Jews for the Depression. (C) promising to give every
family $5,000. (D) supporting a $200-a-month old-age pension.

53. The Works Progress Administration (WPA) aimed to do all of the following except
(A) provide handouts to the unemployed. (B) quiet the groundswell of protest produced
by Huey Long and Dr. Francis Townsend. (C) provide employment on useful projects.
(D) produce works of art.

54. Match each New Dealer below with the federal program with which he was closely
identified.
A. Robert Wagner         1. Social Security
B. Harry Hopkins               2. Public Works Administration
C. Harold Ickes                3. Works Progress Administration
                               4. National Labor Relations Act

(A) A-1, B-2, C-3
(B) A-4, B-3, C-2
(C) A-3, B-1, C-4
(D) A-4, B-3, C-2

55. The National Recovery Act (NRA) began to fail because (A) too few industries
joined the agency. (B) it required too much self-sacrifice on the part of industry, labor,
and the public. (C) Harold Ickes, the head of the agency, blocked its ability to provide
maximum relief. (D) it did not provide enough protection for labor to bargain with
management.

56. The first Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) raised the money paid to farmers not
to grow crops by (A) raising the tariff. (B) taxing processors of farm products. (C) selling
government surplus grain. (D) increasing taxes on the wealthy.

57. The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) proposed to solve the "farm problem" by
(A) reducing agricultural production. (B) inflating the currency. (C) encouraging farmers
to switch to industrial employment. (D) helping farmers to pay their mortgages.

58. Both ratified in the 1930s, the Twentieth Amendment __________; the Twenty-first
Amendment __________. (A) shortened the time between presidential election and
inauguration; ended prohibition (B) limited a president to two complete terms in office;
repealed the Eighteenth Amendment (C) rendered most New Deal programs
unconstitutional: limited a president to two complete terms in office (D) ended
prohibition; shortened the time between presidential election and inauguration

59. All of the following contributed to the Dust Bowl of the 1930s except (A) dry-
farming techniques. (B) drought. (C) farmers' failure to use steam tractors and other
modern equipment. (D) wind.

60. In 1935, President Roosevelt set up the Resettlement Administration to (A) move
farmers who were victims of the Dust Bowl to better land. (B) place unemployed
industrial workers in areas where their labor was needed. (C) move Indians from land that
could be farmed by victims of the Dust Bowl. (D) find jobs for farmers in industry.

61. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 attempted to
 (A) reverse the forced assimilation of Native Americans into white society.
 (B) encourage Native Americans to give up their land claims.
 (C) reinforce the Dawes Act of 1887.
 (D) pressure Native Americans to renounce self-government.
62. Most Dust Bowl migrants headed to (A) Oklahoma. (B) Arizona. (C) Nevada. (D)
California.

63. Most "Okies" in California escaped the deprivation and uncertainty of seasonal
farm labor when they (A) found yearlong work in the San Joaquin Valley. (B) purchased
land. (C) found jobs in defense industries during World War II. (D) joined the armed
forces in World War II.

64. The Federal Securities Act aimed to (A) halt the sale of stocks on margin. (B) force
stockbrokers to register with the federal government. (C) control public holding
companies. (D) force stock promoters to give investors information regarding the
soundness of their stocks.

65. Of the following, the one least related to the other three is (A) the Securities and
Exchange Commission. (B) the Tennessee Valley Authority. (C) George W. Norris. (D)
Muscle Shoals.

66. New Dealers argued that their multifront war on the Depression primarily sought to
(A) reduce the national debt. (B) overthrow capitalism. (C) destroy the Republican party.
(D) provide relief.

67. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) drew criticism because it (A) lacked
government control. (B) produced electricity inefficiently. (C) aroused fears of creeping
socialism. (D) followed unsuccessful European plans too closely.

68. The most controversial aspect of the Tennessee Valley Authority was its plans
concerning (A) electrical power. (B) flood control. (C) soil conservation. (D)
reforestation.

69. The Social Security Act of 1935 provided all of the following except (A)
unemployment insurance. (B) old-age pensions. (C) economic provisions for the blind
and disabled. (D) health care for the poor.

70. The Wagner Act of 1935 proved to be a trailblazing law that (A) gave labor the
right to bargain collectively. (B) established the NRA. (C) established the Social Security
system. (D) authorized the Public Works Administration (PWA).

71. The National Labor Relations Act proved most beneficial to (A) employers. (B)
unskilled workers. (C) the unemployed. (D) trade associations.

72. The primary interest of the Congress of Industrial Organizations was
 (A) the effective enforcement of "yellow dog" contracts.
 (B) the organization of trade unions.
 (C) the maintenance of "open shop" industries.
 (D) the organization of all workers within an industry.
73. The 1936 election was made notable by (A) a strong third-party effort by the
American Liberty League. (B) the bitter class struggle between the poor and the rich. (C)
the large number of blacks who still voted Republican out of gratitude to Abraham
Lincoln. (D) the strong socialist effort.

74. President Roosevelt's "Court-packing" scheme in 1937 reflected his desire to make
the Supreme Court (A) more conservative. (B) more independent of Congress. (C) more
sympathetic to New Deal programs. (D) less burdened with appellate cases.

75. After Franklin Roosevelt's failed attempt to "pack" the Supreme Court, (A)
Roosevelt was unable to make any changes in the Court. (B) the Democrats lost the next
election in 1940. (C) the Court began to support New Deal programs. (D) much New
Deal legislation was ruled unconstitutional.

76. As a result of the 1937 "Roosevelt recession," (A) Roosevelt backed away from
further economic experiments. (B) Social Security taxes were reduced. (C) Republicans
gained control of the Senate in 1938. (D) Roosevelt adopted Keynesian (planned deficit
spending) economics.

77. During the 1930s, (A) the Great Depression forced President Roosevelt to trim the
size of the federal bureaucracy. (B) the national debt doubled. (C) businesspeople
eventually came to admire President Roosevelt's New Deal programs. (D) the New Deal
substantially closed the gap between production and consumption in the American
economy.

78. Many economists believe that the New Deal could have cured the ills of the
Depression by (A) engaging in greater deficit spending. (B) spending less money. (C)
remaining on the gold standard and keeping a sound currency. (D) allowing the private
sector to solve the problems.

79. Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal programs (A) were almost no help for the poor. (B)
did not end the Depression. (C) created the biggest federal deficits in American history.
(D) aided only farmers.

80. Before he was elected president in 1932, Franklin Roosevelt had at one time been
(A) governor of New York. (B) nominated for vice president. (C) an assistant secretary of
the navy. (D) all of the above.

82. The National Recovery Act (A) formally guaranteed labor's right to organize and
bargain collectively. (B) outlawed "yellow dog" contracts. (C) was declared
unconstitutional in the Schechter case. (D) all of the above.

1. The General Motors workers in Flint, Michigan illustrated the power of this labor
tactic in 1937: (A) the stretch-out (B) community union (C) the sit-down (D) parity.
2. The United Automobile Workers had this 1936 New Deal law behind them when
trying to organize Flint GM workers: (A) NLRA or Wagner Act (C) Works Progress Act
(B) Fair Labor Standards Act (D) NIRA.

3. The sit-down method of striking was particularly effective because (A) the workers
could threaten to destroy the plant. (B) a tightly-knit temporary community was
established (C) the National Guards would not usually go into a plant. (D) unions used
military systems of organizations.

4. "Buying on the margin" was a risky way to buy stock since it meant (A) borrowing
money and buying on an instant installment plan. (B) speculating on the weakest
companies in hopes of improvement. (C) buying on a paper value rather than a real value.
(D) foregoing the dividend and using it for further speculation.

5. Which one of the following was NOT an underlying weakness of the American
economy of the 1920's that contributed to the Great Depression? (A) wages that did not
rise with productivity (B) overproduction in many industries (C) unequal distribution of
income (D) difficulty of obtaining credit

6. By 1933 this number of Americans were without jobs: (A) one-twentieth (B) one-
quarter (C) one-eighth (D) one-half

7. Hoover's commissions that he called to deal with the Depression focused on (A)
encouraging private efforts at the local level. (B) work relief projects at the local level.
(C) trying to improve consumer buying power. (D) international solutions to the crisis.

8. President Hoover's plan for recovery focused on restoring the confidence of (A) the
consumer. (B) business. (C) local governments. (D) stock market.

9. The creation of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation reflected President
Hoover's philosophy that the federal government should (A) restore business expansion.
(B) address the public's low purchasing power. (C) create agencies to do what
competition failed to do. (D) organize work relief through private companies.

10. The Bonus Army that marched on Washington in 1932 demanded (A) public work
projects for the unemployed (B) reinstatement of lost savings from failed banks. (C) an
early payment of a World War I veteran's bond (D) an increase of the military to provide
jobs.

11. The first problem area that President Franklin (D) Roosevelt dealt with was the (A)
ailing bank system (B) Bonus Army demands. (C) stock market. (D) agricultural
overproduction.

12. Which one of the following programs is NOT correctly matched to its purpose? (A)
CCC/employed jobless young men in conservation projects (B) FERA/direct relief to
states to fund work projects (C) AAA/active federal role in agricultural planning and
price setting (D) NRA/provide jobs through federal construction projects

13. Which of the following is NOT true of the Tennessee Valley Authority? (A) It
dated to a WW I attempt to build a large hydroelectric complex. (B) It was opposed by
the Southern Tenant Farmers Union. (C) It brought cheap electricity to six southern
states. (D) Some denounced it as a step toward socialism.

14. One of the anti-Roosevelt groups, the American Liberty League (A) funded father
Charles Coughlin's Wall Street attacks. (B) was made up of Republicans and conservative
democrats. (C) demanded more socialistic programs from the New Deal. (D) proposed
the Old Age Revolving pension Plan.

15. Of all Roosevelt's critics, this one probably was the most politically strong and a
potential third party presidential candidate: (A) Al Smith (B) Francis E. Townsend (C)
Upton Sinclair (D) Huey Long

16. The Share our Wealth Society attacked the New Deal from the left, proposing to
(A) increase the income tax on the wealthy. (B) distribute the wealthy's fortunes evenly
among Americans. (C) nationalize the banking system. (D) redistribute government lands
according to need.

17. Roosevelt and his advisors concentrated the Second Hundred Days
 programs on (A) economic recovery (B) expanding the military. (C) social reform (D)
agriculture.

18. The Social Security Act of 1935 not only provided for old-age pensions
 but also for (A) a minimum wage. (B) expanding the military (C) health insurance. (D)
an eight-hour day.

19. Called the "Magna Carta for labor," the Wagner Act (A) guaranteed the right of
workers to form or join a union. (B) established a federal minimum wage standard (C)
pulled unions together into the Committee for Industrial Organization. (D) prohibited
child labor in interstate commerce.

20. In contrast to the American federation of labor, the Congress of Industrial
Organizations organized workers by (A) craft. (B) income. (C) location. (D) industry.

21. Which one of the following has the LEAST association with the other three (A)
Rexford Tugwell (B) Resettlement Administration (C) model greenbelt communities (D)
Section 7A of NIRA

22. Which one of the following would NOT be a member of the New Deal coalition
that appeared in Democratic politics in the 1930's? (A) a union member in Flint,
Michigan (B) a ward boss in Chicago, Illinois (C) an executive with General Motors (D)
an Italian immigrant in New York City
23. The Dust Bowl calamity in the southern Great Plains was caused by a combination
of cyclical drought and (A) overgrazing by livestock. (B) destruction of native vegetation
by wheat farmers. (C) severe winters with little snow cover. (D) a series of insect
plagues.

24. Establishment of the Soil Conservation Service indicated the federal government's
intention to (A) protect the public domain from exploitation. (B) reverse erosion and
restore grasslands. (C) manage stock grazing on public domain lands. (D) link payment
of farm subsidies to conservation.

25. The majority of "Okies" migrating to California were (A) victims of the Dust Bowl.
(B) already migrant laborers. (C) blue-collar workers and small businessmen. (D) mostly
Mexican farm laborers.

26. Which one of the following Bureau of Reclamation projects is NOT correctly
matched with the area or river affected? (A) Boulder Dam/Colorado river (B) Grand
Coulee Dam/Columbia River (C) Central Valley Project/Sacramento River (D) Muscle
Shoals/Tennessee River.

27. The main intent of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 was to (A) restore tribal
structures and independence. (B) move remaining Indian tribes to one central reservation.
(C) assimilate Indian populations into the white society. (D) reinforce the goals of the
Dawes Act

28. The 1934 Margold opinion (A) reinstated most of the provisions of the Dawes Act.
(B) led to many tribal rights and land (C) reasserted Indian religious freedom. (D)
stopped reclamation projects from taking reservation land.

29. Which one of the following has the LEAST to do with the other three? (A) Federal
One (B) Lewis Hine (B) documentary impulse (C) Abraham Lincoln.

30. Under the direction of Hallie Flanagan, this New Deal arts project was successful:
(A) theater (B) photography (C) music (D) painting

31. A prominent style in 1930's cultural expression was (A) escape entertainment. (B)
search for historical parallels. (C) the documentary approach. (D) pessimistic moralist.

32. The most popular form of entertainment in the 1930s was/were (A) radio (B)
movies. (C) spectator sport (D) theater.

33. Mass culture industries such as movies production, radio shows, and popular music,
emerged from the Great Depression (A) weakened by a financially precarious situation.
(B) expanded because of popularity. (C) lost out to more inexpensive vaudeville. (D) had
less market since advertisers were bankrupt.
34. In its beginnings, radio news (A) was not particularly popular. (B) covered all
events, even controversial ones. (C) was not relied on by the average American (D) failed
to cover politically controversial events.

35. President Roosevelt's attempt to restructure the Supreme Court in 1937 (A) passed
overwhelmingly in Congress. (B) resulted in an overturning of all his New Deal
programs. (C) Cost him in political power in Congress including his own party. (D)
delighted conservatives but appalled his own liberal supporters.

36. Which one of the following was NOT one of the ways that Eleanor Roosevelt saw
her job as First Lady? (A) a social ceremonial position (B) a base for independent action
(C) a guardian of human values within the administration (D) a buffer between
depression victims and the government bureaucracy

37. Which one of the following members of the New Deal "women's
 network" is NOT correctly matched with her position? (A) Ellen Woodward/head of
women's project in the FERA (B) Molly Dewson/ director of the Women's division of the
Democratic Party (C) Frances Perkins/Secretary of Labor (D) Mary McLeod
Bethune/Head of women's division of the CCC

38. While they made up 37 percent of the unemployed women represented this percent
in work relief program employment:
 (A) 2 (B) 10 (C) 19 (D) 50

39. While New Deal programs were discriminatory, Roosevelt issued an executive
order banning discrimination in the (A) Works Progress Administration. (B) Tennessee
Valley authority. (C) Civilian Conservation Corps. (D) National Recovery
Administration.

40. The "Battle of the Running Bulls" referred to (A) the sporting arena atmosphere of
the bull market in the 1920s. (B) the government's ownership of the cattle industry. (C)
labor strife at General Motors in Flint. (D) Roosevelt's conflict with conservative
Supreme Court justices.

41. When FDR became president, one of the first things he did to reestablish
confidence in the economy was (A) set up the Temporary Emergency Relief
Administration. (B) declare a four-day bank holiday to shore up the banking system. (C)
establish the President's Emergency Committee for Unemployment. (D) have Congress
Create the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

42. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration was set up on principles
 based on proposals made by this earlier group: (A) 1900s progressives (B) Patrons of
Husbandry (C) 1890s Populists (D) American Socialist Party

43. The Public Works Administration or PWA was based on the principle of "priming
the pump" which meant stimulating the economy through (A) providing jobs and
increasing consumer spending. (B) making credit available to businesses, banks and
industries. (C) encouraging small businesses and self-employment. (D) setting prices at
1909 to 1914 purchasing power average.

44. Al Smith was to the American Liberty League as Huey Long was to the (A)
American Socialist Party. (B) Abraham Lincoln Brigade. (C) EPIC Society. (D) Share
Our Wealth Society.

45. When militant union leaders John L. Lewis and Sidney Hillman pushed to form a
committee within the AEL to study industrial organizing, their goal was to (A) run their
own presidential candidate for the 1936 election. (B) set up unions of mass production
workers rather than by craft. (C) draw all unions together into one huge and more
powerful organization. (D) persuade Roosevelt to enact more social reform programs.

46. The philosophy of New Deal programs that covered natural resource use would
have delighted this earlier leader: (A) Gifford Pinchot (B) Frederick Law Olmstead (C)
John Muir (D) Edward Bellamy

47. If you were a western voter in 1932, Roosevelt's support for this was significant in
winning your political backing: (A) Boulder Dam (B) All-American Canal (C) TVA (D)
Central Valley Project

48. Overall federal agricultural and reclamation programs probably helped this group the
most: (A) sharecroppers (B) Indian reservations (C) large-scale farmers (D) farm workers

49. Under John Collier and the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs
did much to improve Indian situations. The heart of the IRA and Collier's attitude was
(A) strengthening the assimilation programs of the Dawes Act. (B) the Committee of
Indian Reorganization (CIO) to lobby the Congress. (C) preserving Indian history
through the Federal Writers Project. (D) to restore tribal structures and tribal power to
Indian groups.

50. FDR's fireside chats and Charles Coughlin's Nation Union for Social Justice shared
what in common? (A) more leftist ideas (B) potential power of radio (C) wanting more
federal activism (D) populist/progressive mixtures

51. Schecter V. the United States was to the National Recovery Administration as
Butler V. United States was to the (A) national Labor Relations Act. (B) Reclamation
Bureau. (C) Federal Theater Project. (D) Agricultural Adjustment Administration.

52. Which one of the following is the CAUSE of the others? (A) Federal Reserve
System tightens credit policies. (B) Federal spending is Cut back especially in the WPA
and farm programs. (C) The Roosevelt recession worsens economic conditions. (D) The
Fair Labor Standards Act is passed.
53 While New Deal programs were less numerous by 1938, the Fair Labor Standards Act
established this first: (A) federal minimum wage (C) public housing construction (B)
credit card laws (D) closed shop

54. Which one of the following is NOT a 1933 New Deal program? (A) CCC (B) CIO
(C) FERA (D) TVA

55. FDR beats Alfred Landon in an election landslide in (A) 1928. (B) 1932. (C) 1936.
(D) 1940.

56. The continued perils of union organizing are shown in the Memorial Day massacre
in Chicago in (A) 1930. (B)1933. (C)1935 (D)1937.

57. In 1938 this group withdraws from the American Federation of Labor: (A) African
Americans (B) NLRA (C) CIO (D) UAW.

58. Which one of the following was NOT a state that voted for Hoover in the 1932
election? (A) Maine (B) Pennsylvania (C) Vermont (D) Idaho.

59. The Muscle Shoals Dam of the TVA is the state of (A) Kentucky. (B) Tennessee.
(C) Alabama (D) North Carolina.

60. Western Kansas, eastern Colorado, western Oklahoma, the Texas Panhandle, and
eastern New Mexico describes the (A) states most affected by the construction of Boulder
Dam. (B) areas hardest hit by the Dust Bowl. (C) TVA states. (D) agricultural areas
covered in the AAA.

61. Which one of the following does NOT happen in 1935? (1) FDR is elected
president for first time. (2) Sit-down strike begins at General Motors Plant in Flint,
Michigan. (3) Twenty-first Amendment repeals prohibition. (4) Bonus Army marches on
Washington.
      (A) 1,4,2,3                (C) 4,1,3,2
      (B) 2,3,1,4                (D) 3,4,2,2

62. Which one of the following does NOT happen in 1935? (A) The Committee for
Industrial Organization is established (B) The Second New Deal begins. (C) Dust storms
turn the southern Great Plains into the Dust Bowl. (D) The Dawes Severalty Act is
repealed.

1. In his first inaugural address, Roosevelt (A) promised to get the federal government
off the backs of the American people (B) put forward a specific, detailed program to deal
with the Depression (C) pledged to use extraordinary presidential power to meet the
economic crisis (D) opposed any direct federal intervention in the economy.
2. All of the following are true of FDR except (A) he married his distant cousin
Eleanor (B) he was assistant secretary of the navy (C) he served as vice president before
being elected president (D) he was stricken with polio while still in his twenties.

3. What effect did polio have on FDR? (A) It forced him to accept that he would
always be an invalid. (B) It ended forever his natural optimism and confidence. (C) It
made him more arrogant and impatient. (D) It gave him a new understanding of and
sympathy for the disadvantaged.

4. As governor of New York, Roosevelt (A) shunned public relations as a waste of
precious time (B) used the power of the state to respond forcefully to the Depression (C)
surrounded himself with a group of conservative advisers (D) fought hard to keep the
government out of the affairs of the economy.

 5. In the election of 1932, Roosevelt (A) refused to blame the Republicans for the
Depression (B) laid out a ten-point plan for ending the economic crisis (C) rejected the
capitalist system (D) won a landslide victory.

6. Roosevelt's success in dealing with the Depression came from all of the following
except (A) his ability to synthesize conflicting positions (B) his adherence to rigid
ideological positions (C) his political skills (D) his public relations skills.

7. Roosevelt's overriding goal was to (A) rescue and strengthen the capitalist system
(B) replace the capitalist system with socialism (C) replace the capitalist system with a
modified communism (D) end government regulation of the economy.

10. To address the problem of jobless young men, the New Deal instituted the (A) bank
holiday (B) CCC (C) AAA (D) FDIC (E) HOLC.

11. As first lady, Eleanor Roosevelt (A) was universally loved by the American people
(B) handled only the ceremonial duties expected of a first lady (C) was an activist who
spoke out on a wide variety of social issues (D) reaffirmed the traditional role of
American first ladies.

12. The most comprehensive relief measure during the first hundred days was the (A)
FERA (B) NBA (C) FDIC (D) AAA (E) TVA.

13. The Agricultural Adjustment Act attempted to deal with the farm crisis by (A)
eliminating the crop surplus and limiting production (B) making available new fertilizers
to increase production (C) giving farmers cash incentives to increase production (D)
encouraging the use of new techn*~ogy and scientific methods to increase production

14. The chief beneficiaries of the first AAA were (A) small farmers (B) black farmers.
(C) large farm operators (D) sharecroppers.
15. The National Industrial Recovery Act embodied all of the following ideas except
(A) a planned economy (B) free and unregulated competition (C) industrial self-
government (D) government-business cooperation.

16. President Roosevelt called it "the most important and far-reaching legislation ever
enacted by Congress." It was the (A) AAA (B) CCC (C) TVA (D) NIRA.

17. The NRA prompted protests from all of the following except (A) big business (B)
labor unions (C) women (D) small business (E) African Americans.

18. The Tennessee Valley Authority did all of the following except (A) enacted a
"scenic rivers" statute to prevent the damming of certain streams (B) oversaw soil
conservation and reforestation projects (C) generated inexpensive electric power (D)
assisted in flood control

19. The American Liberty League (A) strongly supported the New Deal (B) charged
that the New Deal had not gone far enough (C) was dominated by wealthy businessmen
and opposed the New Deal (D) was dominated by socialists and communists and charged
Roosevelt with selling out to big business

20. This New Deal critic advocated a "Share Our Wealth" plan which called for sharply
graduated taxes, the limitation of income to a million dollars a year, and the redistribution
of wealth to provide all families with a guaranteed annual income. He was (A) Charles
Coughlin (B) Huey Long (C) Francis E. Townsend (D) Hugh Johnson.

21. In the "Second New Deal" (A) FDR attempted to cooperate more closely with the
business community (B) FDR attempted to steal the thunder of his critics on the political
left (C) the emphasis shifted away from social reform and social justice (D) FDR's
greatest support came from the American Liberty League and conservative Democrats in
Congress

22. The WPA differed from the FERA in that it (A) placed relief workers directly on
the federal payroll (B) did away with relief payments altogether (C) was restricted to
construction projects only (D) won the full support of conservative Republicans

23. Which of the following was not a provision of the Wagner Act (NLRA) ? (A)
Workers were guaranteed the right to organize and bargain collectively. (B) Management
could not interfere with union activities. (C) It guaranteed a minimum wage to workers in
establishments with over fifty employees. (D) The National Labor Relations Board was
created to enforce provisions of the measure.

24. Which was not a provision of the Social Security Act? (A) Participation was on a
voluntary basis. (B) The program provided for unemployment insurance. (C) The plan
was funded by taxes on both employers and employees. (D) The program provided for
old-age pensions.
25. Which of the following was not a part of the Second New Deal?
 (A) Social Security (B) the Wagner Act (NLRA) (C) the CCC (D) the WPA

26. Which New Deal program brought electricity to rural areas?
 (A) RA
 (B) REA
 (C) RCA
 (D) RAF
 (E) FERA

27. In the election of 1936 (A) FDR won reelection by a landslide, and the Democrats
rolled up large majorities in Congress (B) FDR won reelection by a landslide, but the
Republicans made substantial gains in Congress (C) FDR narrowly won reelection, but
Democrats rolled up large majorities in Congress (D) FDR narrowly won reelection, and
Republicans gained control of Congress.

28. Roosevelt's Judicial Reorganization Bill (A) won easy passage in the Democrat-
controlled Congress (B) was defeated by the partisan efforts of congressional
Republicans (C) was enacted only after a long and bitter struggle in Congress (D) failed
due to strong opposition by members of both parties in Congress.

29. When the federal government sharply reduced funding for federal programs in 1937
(A) the recovery continued (B) the economy leveled off (C) the economy went into a
steep decline (D) there was no effect on the economy.

30. The actions of labor unions in the 1930s (A) tended to lend credence to right-wing
critics of the New Deal (B) were overwhelmingly supported by middle-class Americans
(C) caused the president to end his support of unions (D) led to a revision of the Wagner
Act.

31. By the end of the 1930s (A) Roosevelt’s program was more popular than ever (B)
Roosevelt's personal popularity had vanished (C) conservative groups had been
completely discredited (D) Roosevelt had essentially stopped proposing new domestic
reforms.

35. All of the following forces pushed the New Deal toward a more equitable treatment
of blacks except (A) a clear demonstration by blacks of their determination to achieve
full citizenship rights (B) the complete breakdown of the Jim Crow system m the South
(C) the increasing importance of the black vote (D) the refutation of the doctrines of
inherent and irremediable racial differences.

36. The agency that employed more blacks in administrative posts than any other New
Deal program was the (A) National Youth Administration (B) Civilian Conservation
Corps (C) Agricultural Adjustment Administration (D) president's cabinet.
37. As first lady, Eleanor Roosevelt (A) was a powerful and courageous advocate for
black civil rights (B) largely refrained from taking an active role in the advancement of
civil rights for blacks (C) urged the president to go slowly in the matter of civil rights (D)
was mainly opposed to civil rights for blacks because of her southern roots.

								
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