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Poisonous Plants - PowerPoint

VIEWS: 156 PAGES: 29

									        Northwest Florida
    Equine Management School
Identifying Poisonous Weeds in the Pasture
             October 12, 2009




           Dan Mullins, IFAS Extension Agent
                   Santa Rosa County           1
             Poisonous Plants
   Include over sixty plant species with the
    potential to poison horses.
   Only a few species cause most of the
    problems.
   Both native and exotic
   Most are broadleaved plants



                                                2
   Some Plant Poisoning Effects
  (A wide range depending upon the plant and
                  conditions)
Diarrhea, weakness, labored breathing,
vomiting, gastroenteritis, tremors,
sweating, weak or accelerated pulse, high
temperature, low temperature, coma,
convulsions, dizziness, paralysis,
cardiac/circulatory failure, hemorrhaging,
liver or kidney damage, skin rash or
blisters, fainting, bloating, depression, loss
of appetite, dilated pupils, stupor,
increased blood pressure, death.
                                               3
Conditions Under Which Poisonous
         Plants are Eaten
          Starvation
          Deficient Rations
          Overgrazing and Drought
          Fed Inadvertently as Fodder
          Incidental and Curiosity
          Some Taste Good! Ex. Maple
          Unknown
                                         4
     Poisonous Plants Most Often Found
          Under These Conditions
   New Pastures
   Neglected, overgrazed pastures
   Old burn Piles and decomposing trash piles
   Areas with recent soil disturbance
   Dry or partially dry water holes
   Fence Rows
   Creek/ditch edges
   “Rich areas” – feeding sites, manure piles

                                                 5
Florida’s Climate is Ideal for Dozens of
      Species of Poisonous Plants
    Prevent Plant Poisoning
  by Identification and Control



I.D. as to Genus and species
Not just the local common name!

     Walk the pasture frequently and observe
     Collect and submit samples of any unfamiliar or suspicious
      plant
     Take a knowledgeable person along for another set of eyes
      and an objective view.                                    7
Bracken Fern – Pteridium aquilinum


                      All parts (fresh or dry)
                      are toxic with
                      thiaminaseA

                      The enzyme inactivates
                      thiamine in the horse.

                      The toxic principle has
                      an accumulative action.

                      Affected horses stand
                      with legs apart, arch
                      their back and have
                      neck spasms.
                                                 8
                       Showy Crotalaria –
                       Crotalaria spectabilis

                                                       Toxic Parts
                                                       All parts, with highest
                                                       concentration in the
                                                       seed.

                                                       Alkaloids cause
                                                       congestion of the liver.
                                                       Acute poisoning:
                                                       gastroenteritis,
                                                       depression, bloody
                                                       feces
                                                       Chronic Poisoning: may
                                                       have no symptoms
Toxic Constituents
All parts with pyrrolizidine alkaloids- Toxic to all                             9
livestock and fowl.
   Lantana – Lantana camara L.
                                      Acute Symptoms:
                                      Sluggishness,
                                      weakness, bloody
                                      stools, paralysis,
                                      death within 3 to 4
                                      days.

                                      Chronic Symptoms:
                                      Skin and mucous
                                      membrane becomes
                                      yellow. Skin cracks
                                      and peels and
                                      sometimes becomes
                                      detached.
Toxic Parts & Constituents
All parts esp. the leaves and green
berries w/ lantadene A (lantanin)&
                                                        10
unknowns.
                The Nightshades
                  Solanaceae
Includes:
• Tomatoes

• Irish Potatoes                         Solanine Poisoning
• Eggplant
                                         Paralysis of the motor
                                         and respiratory centers
• Black Night-                           of the brain
  shade                                  Weakness, stupor,
• Horsenettle                            staggers, nervousness.
                                         Symptoms develop
• Jimsonweed
                 Toxicity: All parts
                                         rapidly.
                     except ripe fruit

                                                           11
    Spotted Water Hemlock – Cicuta maculata
             (Spotted Cowbane, Spotted Parsley)
   Most toxic plant in U.S.
   Causes violent and
    painful convulsions.
   Death from ingestion in
    as little as 15 minutes.
   A member of the carrot
    family.
   Has flat topped white
    flower clusters like wild
    carrot.
   Grows near the shoreline
    of lakes,rivers and
    swamps.

                                                  12
          Red Maple – Acer rubrum
   Toxin is concentrated in
    leaves when in a wilted
    condition.
   Leaves on a fallen branch
    in pasture are most toxic.
   High in sugars and tasty to
    horses.
   Toxin causes hemolysis –
    breaks down red blood
    cells.
   1 to 3 pounds of wilted
    leaves can kill a 1,000 lb.
    horse.

                                    13
 Prunus-All Species
Leaves, Bark and Seeds




                          Laurel Cherry
Includes: Laurel Cherry; Black
Cherry; Plum; Peach; Apricot;             14
          Nectarine
           Prunus-All Species
     Peach Tree
                               Chickasaw Plum




                               Toxic Constituents
                      Cherry   Dried Parts also Very
                                      Toxic
                               •Cyanogenic glyosides
Respiratory failure                 •amygdalin &
                               mandelonitrile glucoside
  within 1 hour                 which form toxic HCN
                                                       15
                       The Daturas
Devils Trumpet
                                                    Angels Trumpet
                                          Yellow Angel’s Trumpet




                                    Symptoms                Toxicity
                 Jimsonweed   Delirium, convulsions, All parts-Especially
                                rapid and feeble           the Seeds
                              pulse, dilated pupils,        •atropine
                                  rarely vomiting        •scopolamine
                                                           (hyoscine)
                                                      •hyosyamine and
                                                         other tropane 16
                                                            alkaloids
                     The Cassias
   Fourteen Cassia species
    listed as being poisonous,
    including several popular
    ornamentals
   All parts toxic, especially
    the seed.                     Sicklepod
   Anthraquinone causes
    diarrhea, tremors in hind
    legs, coffee-colored urine.
    Animal unable to rise
    after going down. No
    fever.
                                  Candle Bush

                                                17
Oleander

            All parts of the plant
            are poisonous to
            humans and livestock.

            15- 20 grams of leaves
            are sufficient to induce
            death in mature cattle
            and horses. Dry leaves
            are also toxic.


       Toxic Constituents:
       Two toxic glucosides
       have been isolated.

                                     18
Perilla Mint

         Contains ketones that
          cause acute respiratory
          distress syndrome.
         All parts are toxic,
          especially the flowering
          structures.
         A problem in late
          summer and early fall

                                 19
Carolina Jessamine
        Toxic Parts
        All parts including the flower
        nectar.

        Poisons are cumulative. They
        chiefly depress and paralyze the
        motor nerve endings.




       Toxic Constituents:
       Cystalline alkaloid gelsemine and the
       amorphous alkaloids gelseminine and
       gelsemoidine.
                                               20
Heath Family
       Rhodendrons
           Azaleas
           Wild Honey Suckle
           Mountain Laurel




            Toxic Parts & Constituents
            All parts including the pollen with
              andromedotoxin (a resinoid)         21
             Heath Family ctd…
          Lyonia lucida - Staggerbush
   Symptoms: Watering of
    mouth and eyes.
    Convulsions, progressive
    paralysis, respiratory
                           F
    failure.
                               e
                               t
   All parts including the    t
    pollen with                e
    andromedotoxin ( a         r
    resinoid).l                b
                               u
                               s
                               h        22
                         Pokeberry
                 Phytolacca americana

   First plant to appear in
    recently disturbed soil.
   All parts contain oxalic acid
    and saponin.
   Causes cramping, severe
    gastroenteritis, diarrhea and
    convulsions
   Poisoning can occur in
    spring, summer or fall.


                                        23
                     Tung Tree
   Small deciduous tree
   Large, heart shaped
    leaves with long stems.
   Two reddish glands at the
    base of leaf blade (see
    photo)
   All known poisonings
    from discarded broken
    branches or prunings.
   Saponin and another
    unidentified substance
    causes gastro-enteritis,
    dizziness, diarrhea,
    dehydration.
                                 24
                    Sorghum
           Including Johnson Grass, Sudan

   Under conditions of
    stress (drought,
    trampling, frost or
    second growth) plants
    may contain cyanide.
   Heavy fertilization
    with N can result in
    nitrate poisoning.


                                            25
Mushrooms ?




              26
       Other Poisonous Plants
                    Non-native Honeysuckle
                    Hydrangea
                   ■ Boxwood
                    Chinaberry
                    Sweet Potato
                    Hypericum (St John’s Wort)
                    Delphinium (Larkspur)
                    Croton
                    Milkweed
                    Rosary Pea
Bulbs:              Black Locust
   Narcissus       Castor Bean
   Amaryllis       Red Buckeye
   Iris            Rattlebox
   Crinum          Bladderpod                   27
                    Conclusions:
   Most poisonous pasture weeds are broadleaved plants
    (dicots), both native and exotics.
   The Sorghums (monocots) are an exception as they can
    cause nitrate or cyanide poisoning when grown under
    stressful conditons (drought, trampling,frost or
    overfertilization).
   Know your hay source as poisonings can result from
    feeding infested hay.
   Any cultural practice that results in species diversity in
    the pasture increases the chances of plant poisoning.
   Don’t allow your horse to graze in the yard. Many exotic
    landscape plants are toxic and unfamiliar to the animals.

                                                            28
Questions?




             29

								
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