LGA Guide final 100106 by gdf57j


									                                  Program Title
Protecting Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps and the
   Mount Lofty Ranges Southern Emu-wren
         M Hammer

                       S Walker

   A Guide for Landowners, Land Advisers,
      Property Planners and Developers

  Mt Lofty Ranges Southern Emu-wren and
 Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps Recovery Team
Purpose of this booklet
Inappropriate land management, development and landuse pose
significant threats to the native flora and fauna found within the Fleurieu
Peninsula. Two of the most endangered species and communities within this
area are the Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps (FPS) and the Mount Lofty Ranges
Southern Emu-wren (MLRSEW).
The FPS are a distinct and unique ecological community that are listed as
critically endangered under the Australian Government’s Environment
Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). This listing
recognises that the long-term survival of the FPS is susceptible to ongoing
threats including continued vegetation clearance, water extraction,
inappropriate management, introduced species, isolation and fragmentation.
These threats are compounded by the small size of the remaining swamps. It
has been estimated that less than 25% of the FPS former distribution
The MLRSEW is one of many bird species that have undergone major
population declines in the Mount Lofty Ranges region due to habitat loss,
degradation and fragmentation. There are only about 20 populations of the
MLRSEW remaining and many of these occur in swamps. The total population
comprises of around 400 to 800 individuals. The MLRSEW is listed as
endangered unde r the EPBC Act and endangered in South Australia under
the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972.
This booklet has been produced by the MLRSEW and FPS Recovery Team as
part of a range of tools tailored to landholders, landholder advisers, property
planners and developers to foster a greater understanding of why FPS and
MLRSEW are important, how they can be identified and how to make
management decisions on properties that will not adversely affect these
unique birds and ecological communities.
Associated with this booklet are hard copy maps which identify the locations
of potential and known FPS and MLSEW habitat, as well as a digital version of
the same information that allows users to view layers of information
individually or as a whole.

Funding for this booklet and the associated material was provided by the
South Australian Government’s Department for Environment and Heritage
(DEH) with support from the Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges and South
Australian Murray Darling Basin Natural Resource Management Boards.
Some of the information contained within the maps and GIS layers was adapted
from data sets provided by DEH.
Advice and direction was provided by Mellissa Bradley, Mary Crawford,
Tony Randall, Tanya Roe, Vicki-Jo Russell, Adrian Stokes and Andrew West.
The writing and production of this booklet was undertaken by Conservation
Council of SA (CCSA) staff members: Anthony Abley, Danielle Cantono, Marcus
Pickett, Greg Smith, Alys Stevens and Tim Vale .
Photos used are from the MLRSEW/FPS Recovery Team Archive except where
otherwise indicated.

Further information about Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps and the Mount Lofty
Ranges Southern Emu-wren can be obtained by contacting your nearest CCSA
Extension/Works Officer:
       Anthony Abley                  Tim Vale
       Shop 5                         Strathalbyn Natural Resource Centre
       79 Main Road                   1 Coleman Terrace
       Normanville, SA 5204            Strathalbyn, SA 5255
       (W): 8558 2779                 (W): 8536 4042
       (M): 0427 656 516              (M): 0427 264 686
       anthony.abley@ccsa.asn.au       tim.vale@ccsa.asn.au

Information can also be viewed on the FPS/ MLRSEW Recovery Team website:

    Table of Contents:
    Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps
     Introduction                                    5
     Methods of Recognition                          5
     Plant Species of Conservation Significance      6
     Plants of the Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps         7
     Animal Species of Conservation Significance     9
     Animals of the Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps        9
     Distribution of the Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps   12
     Benefits of Protection                          13
    Mount Lofty Ranges Southern Emu-wren
     Introduction                                    14
     Methods of Recognition                          14
     Current and Former Distribution                 15
     Habitat                                         17
    Legal Protection
     Environment Protection and Biodiversity         19
     Conservation Act 1999
     Native Vegetation Act 1991                      20
     Natural Resources Management Act 2004           20
     South Australian Heritage Agreements            21
    Current Threats, Potential Impacts and Recommendations
     Vegetation Clearance                            22
     Livestock Grazing                               23
     Deliberate Burning                              24

     Changes in Water Use                            25

     Infrastructure                                  27
     Dieback due to Phytophthora                     27
     Weed Invasion                                   29

    References & Glossary                            32

    Additional Information                           33
Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps
                        Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps are defined as isolated
                        wetland areas within the local catchments of
                        Tookayerta, Hindmarsh, Parawa, Myponga, Yankalilla,
                        Onkaparinga, Currency and Finniss. The y occur in high
                        rainfall areas, ranging from 600 – 950 mm/annum. The
                        swamps are freshwater communities, however, they
                        become brackish toward the mouth of the Finniss
                        River. The communities occur on waterlogged peat
                        bog, silt, silty-peat, black clay or loamy soils around
                        low-lying creeks and flats, beneath gullies or perched.
                        Intact FPS are densely and diversely vegetated. The
                        plants associated with the swamps are distinct, and
                        occur in a mosaic of structural forms which merge into
                        one another, depending on soil, hydrology and terrain.

                        Methods of Recognition
                        Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps are characterised by their
                        reedy and/ or heathy       vegetation. Trees do not
                        frequently occur in swamps, however eucalypts such
                        as Swamp Gum (Eucalyptus ovata), Cup Gum
                        ( Eucalyptus cosmophyll a)     and Stri ngy Ba rk
                        ( Eucalyptus obliqua) are sometimes found scattered
                        within the swamps and, more often, around the drier
                        Typically the swamps consist of three distinguishable
                        layers of vegetation with an additional emergent layer
                        sometimes present. It is extremely important to
                        recognise that FPS are diverse and varied
                        communities, and different combinations of species
                        within these vegetation layers, and of the presence/
                        extent of the layers themselves, do occur.
Generally speaking, emergent species such as Swamp Wattle ( Acacia sp.) and
Native Broom ( Viminaria juncea) may protrude above the shrub laye r. Below
this, the tallest shrub layer consists of plants such as the Prickly Tea-tree and
Silky Tea-tree ( Leptospermum continentale and Leptospermum lanigerum),
Swamp Honey-myrtle ( Melaleuca squamea), Totem Poles ( Melaleuca
decussata), Pink Swamp Heath ( Sprengelia incarnata) as well as
non-emergent Swamp Wattles and Native Broom.
Methods of Recognition
The medium layer consists of a diverse assemblage of various rushes and
sedges (e.g. Baumea spp., Empodisma minus, Gahnia spp., Juncus spp.,
Lepidosperma spp, Schoenus spp.), ferns (e.g. Blechnum spp., Gleichenia
microphylla,  Pteridium esculentum) and grasses ( Danthonia spp., Poa spp.).
The lowest ground layer consists of young/small individuals of the species
present in the other layers plus smaller ferns such as Screw Fern ( Lindsaea
linearis), herbaceous plants like the club-rushes ( Isolepis spp.), Centrolepis
( Centrolepis spp.), sundews ( Drosera spp.), small rushes ( Juncus spp.),
raspworts ( Gonocarpus spp., Haloragis brownii) and many other important
plants including numerous orchids (e.g. Cryptostylis subulata, Microtis spp.,
Pterostylis spp., Thelymitra spp.).
Tallest layer
Tall shrubs or tall reeds and rushes

Middle layer
rushes, sedges, ferns and short shrubs

Ground layer
small ferns, mosses, tiny sedges and
rushes, wildflowers and herbs

Plants of Conservation Significance
Fleurieu Peninsula Swamp communities contain at least 204 plant species of
which 167 are indigenous. Fifty percent of the native plant species recorded in
the swamps (84 species) are of state conservation significance and fifty-seven
percent have regional conservation status. Three nationally endangered
species of plant occur in the FPS, these being Bats Wing Fern ( Histiopteris
incisa), Osborn’s Eyebright ( Euphrasia collina ssp. osbornii) and the Maroon
Leek Orchid (Prasophyllum frenchii). The presence of these threatened species
within an already critically endangered ecosystem brings additional
responsibility for protection and improvement.

Plants of the Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps
The list provided here is a snap shot of swamp di versity to be used only as a
guide. Many more species are characteristic of the swamps. It must also be
recognised that species can occur in multiple vegetation layers depending on
life stage and growth form.
 Common Name               Scientific Name              Conservation Rating
                                                       National A State B Regional C
 Swamp Wattle              Acacia sp.
 Cup Gum                   Eucalyptus cosmophylla
 Swamp Gum                 Eucalyptus ovata                               U
 Native Broom              Viminaria juncea                       R
 Swamp Wattle              Acacia sp.
 Prickly Tea-tree          Leptospermum continentale
 Silky Tea-tree            Leptospermum lanigerum                         U
 Totem Poles               Melaleuca decussata
 Swamp Honey-myrtle        Melaleuca squamea                      R       V
 Pink Swamp Heath          Sprengelia incarnata                   R       R
 Native Broom              Viminaria juncea                       R
 Prickly Moses             Acacia verticillata
 Pale Twig-rush            Baumea acuta                           R       R
 Jointed Twig-rush         Baumea articulata                              R
 Slender Twig-rush         Baumea gunnii                          R
 Bare Twig-rush            Baumea juncea
 Lax Twig-rush             Baumea laxa                            R       R
 Soft Twig-rush            Baumea rubiginosa                              U
 Square Twig-rush          Baumea tetragona                               U
 Soft Water Fern           Blechnum minus                                 U
 Fish-bone Fern            Blechnum nudum                         R       R
 Hard Water Fern           Blechnum wattsii                       R       R
 Swamp Boronia             Boronia parviflora                     R       V
 Tall Sedge                Carex appressa
 Short-stem Sedge          Carex breviculmus
 Tassel Sedge              Carex fascicularis                             U
 Rush Sedge                Carex tereticaulis
 Tangled Rope-rush         Empodisma minus                                U
 Red fruit Cutting Sedge   Gahnia sieberiana                              U
 Cutting Grass             Gahnia trifida                                 U
 Coral Fern                Gleichenia microphylla                 R       R
 Hop Goodenia              Goodenia ovata
    Bats Wing Fern                             Histiopteris incisa                     E E                                         E
    Ruddy Ground-fern                          Hypolepis rugosula                        R                                         V
    Joint-leaf Rush                            Juncus holoschoenus
    Sea Rush                                   Juncus kraussii
    Pale Rush                                  Juncus pallidus
    Loose-flower Rush                          Juncus pauciflorus
                                               Juncus sarophorus
    Finger Rush                                Juncus subsecundus
    Pithy Sword-sedge                          Lepidosperma longitudinale
    Slender Twine-rush                         Leptocarpus tenax                                                                   U
    Hairy Beard-heath                          Leucopogon hirsutus                       R                                         R
    Lance Beard-heath                          Leucopogon lanceolatus var. lanceolatus                                             R
    Clustered Bush-pea                         Pultenaea dentata                         R                                         V
    Common Bog-rush                            Schoenus apogon
    Matted Bog-rush                            Schoenus breviculmus
    Wiry Bog-rush                              Schoenus carsei
    Slender Bog-rush                           Schoenus lepidosperma ssp. lepidosperma   R                                         R
    Tall Yellow-eye                            Xyris operculata                          R                                         R
    Tufted Centrolepis                         Centrolepis fascicularis                                                        U
    Moose Orchid                               Cryptostylis subulata                                                        V E
    Short-leaf Donkey Orchid                   Diuris brevifolia                                                            R* R
    Forked Sundew                              Drosera binata                                                               R R
    Tall Spike-rush                            Eleocharis acuta
    Slender Spike-rush                         Eleocharis gracillis                                                                U
    Osborn’s Eyebright                         Euphrasia collina ssp. osbornii                                        E     E      E
    Swamp Raspwort                             Haloragis brownii                                                            R      V
    Nodding Club-rush                          Isolepis cernua
    Swamp Club-rush                            Isolepis inundata
    Broad-leaf Rush                            Juncus planifolius
    Grassy Rush                                Juncus caespiticious
    Branching Rush                             Juncus prismatocarpus                                                        E      E
    Slender Clubmoss                           Lycopodiella lateralis                                                       R      V
    Bog Club-moss                              Lycopodiella serpentina                                                      E      E
    Maroon Leek Orchid                         Prasophyllum frenchii                                                  E     E      E
    Forked Greenhood Orchid                    Pterostylis falcata                                                          E      E
    Marsh Greenhood                            Pterostylis uliginosa                                                        E      E
    Tiny Bog-rush                              Schoenus discifer                                                            R      K
    Veined Sun-orchid                          Thelymitra venosa                                                            E      E
A As   listed under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (E = Endangered)
B   As listed under the South Australian National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (E = Endangered, V = Vulnerable, R = Rare)
CRegionally threatened species based on classifications of Lange and Kraehenbuehl (1997) E = Endangered, T = Threatened, V =
Vulnerable, K = Status uncertain: likely threatened or rare but insufficient data available for precise assessment, R = Rare and U =

* Nb This species will be evaluated to endangered at the state level when the amendments to the NPS Act schedules are adopted
Animals of Conservation Significance
Fleurieu Peninsula Swamp communities often make up the majority of
remaining native vegetation patches found throughout the landscape,
highlighting their importance as a last refuge for many animal species. The
community      contains many rare animal species including several national,
state and locally threatened species.
The   Mount   Lofty Ranges Southern Emu-wren ( Stipiturus malachurus
intermedius), endangered under the EPBC Act , is a bird of national
conservation significance with most subpopulations confined to the FPS. Other
key threatened species, which are also characteristic of FPS, include the
regionally vulnerable Tiger Snake ( Notechis scutatus), the Southern Pygmy
Perch ( Nannoperca australis), which is classified as endangered under the
South Australian National Parks Conservation Rating, the River Blackfish
(Gadopsis marmoratus) and the Yarra Pygmy Perch ( Nannoperca obscura),
which are both classed as vulnerable under the EPBC Act .

Invertebrates that are endemic to the Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps include
Nousia fuscula, a mayfly, and Leptoperla tasmanica, a stonefly. The black
Carabid ground beetle ( Acanthoferonia ferox) previously thought to be extinct
was rediscove red in 1997,    suggesting this species is also limited to the
swamps of this region.

Animals of the Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps
The following animals are typically found in Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps.
   Common Name            Scientific Name or          Conservation rating
                          Taxonomic group
                                                   NationalA       State B   Regional
Brown Thornbill       Acanthiza pusilla
Buff-banded Rail      Gallirallus philippensis
Clamorous Reed-       Acrocephalus stentoreus
Crescent Honeyeater   Phylidonyris pyrrhoptera
Golden-headed         Cisticola exilis                         R

Latham’s Snipe        Gallinago hardwickii                     V
Lewin’s Rail          Dryolimnas pectoralis                    V
Little Grassbird      Megalurus gramineus

     Common Name               Scientific Name or          Conservation rating
                               Taxonomic group
                                                       National A State B   Regional
New Holland Honeyeater Phylidonyris novaehollandiae
Silvereye                 Zosterops lateralis
Southern Emu-wren         Stipiturus malachurus        E          E
Spotless Crake            Porzana tabuensis
Superb Fairy-wren         Malurus cyaneus
Swamp Harrier             Circus approximans
White-browed              Sericornis frontalis
White-fronted Chat        Epthianura albifrons
Bush Rat                 Rattus fuscipes
Southern Brown           Isoodon obesulus              E          V
Swamp Rat                Rattus lutreolus
Water Rat                Hydromys chrysogaster
Western Grey Kangaroo Macropus fuliginosus
Yellow-footed Antechinus Antechinus flavipes
Garden Skink             Lampropholis guichenoti
Eastern Tiger Snake     Notechis scutatus                         V
Red-bellied Black Snake Pseudechis porphyriacus
Three-toed Earless (or    Hemiergis decresiensis
Yellow-bellied) Skink
Eastern Three-lined       Bassiana duperreyi
Four-toed Earless (or     Hemiergis peronii
Yellow-bellied) Skink
Yellow-bellied Water      Eulamprus heatwolei                     R
Brown (or Bibron’s)       Pseudophryne bibronii
Brown Tree Frog           Litoria ewingi
Bull (or Eastern Banjo)   Limnodynastes dumerili
Common Froglet            Crinia signifera
Spotted Grass Frog        Limnodynastes tasmaniensis
          Common Name                           Scientific Name or                 Conservation rating
                                                Taxonomic group
                                                                                    NationalA     State B    Regional
Mountain Galaxias                          Galaxias olidus                                       R*
Climbing Galaxias                          Galaxias brevipinnis                                  V*
Southern Pygmy Perch                       Nannoperca australis                                  P**, E*
Common Galaxias                            Galaxias maculatus
River Blackfish                            Gadopsis marmoratus                                   P**, E*
Yarra Pygmy Perch                          Nannoperca obscura                      V             E*
Congolli                                   Psuedaphritus urvillii                                R
Carp Gudgeons                              Hypseleotris spp.
Flathead Gudgeon                           Philypnodon grandiceps
Dwarf Flathead Gudgeon                     Philypnodon sp.                                       R*
Western Bluespot                           Pseodogobius olorum
Freshwater Yabby                           Cherax destructor
Dragonflies                                Order: Odonata
Dragonflies                                Suborder: Anisoptera
Damselflies                                Suborder: Zygoptera
Butterflies and Moths                      Order: Lepidoptera
Varied Sedge-skipper                       Heperilla donnysa
Flame Sedge-skipper                        Hesperilla idothea
Golden-haired Sedge-                       Hesperilla chrysotricha
Beetles                                    Order: Coleoptera
Scarab Beetles                             Family: Scarabaeidae
Green Scarab Beetle                        Diphucephala sp.
Mayflies                                   Order: Ephemeroptera
Flies                                      Order: Diptera
Craneflies                                 Family: Tipulidae
Robberflies                                Family: Asilidae
Mantids                                    Order: Mantodea
Wasps                                      Order: Hymenoptera
Orchid Dupe                                Lissospe rma excelsa
                                           (Family: Ichneumonidae)
Orb-web Weave rs                           Family: Araneidae
Jewel/ Christmas Spider                    Gasteracantha minax
A   As per listed under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 ( = Endangered)
B   As listed under the South Australian National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 ( = Endangered, V = Vulnerable, R = Rare)
** Protected under the Fisheries Act 1982 (Nb Fish listings based on Hammer (2006))
* As listed under draft Threatened Species Schedule, DEH, 2003 (E = Endangered, V = Vulnerable, R = Rare)

Benefits of Protection
Swamps Act as Natural Water Filters:

Swamps, and the plants in them, act as a natural filter to trap sediments and
nutrients and to break down pollutants from fertilisers and pesticides. When
water run-off passe s through swamp areas, suspended se diments and
other pollutants are absorbed by the swamp soil or mud and by the living
organisms. This improves the water quality for downstream use,
environmental stream flows or recharge of ground water.

Swamps Provide Year Round Water:
Many FPS exist where natural springs reach the surface and discharge
water. This can be an important water source for stream flow during dry

Swamps are Sponges that Control the Effects of Floods:
Swamps absorb and then slowly release rainfall and runoff over time. Boggy
peat soils in particular act like sponges. They slow the water flow and
reduce potential stream bank erosion downstream. The slow release of
water also helps maintain stream flows during dry periods.

Swamps Provide a Home for Rare Plants and Animals:
Swamps provide a home for many native plants and animals. Several
threatened species are found in FPS because they are swamp specialists.
Others use swamps as a last refuge – the last fragments of habitat available.
The birdlife supported by swamps can be particularly useful in controlling
insect pests in nearby cropping or pasture land, improving the overall health
of your prope rty. Many rare and threatened species are so abundant in a few
swamps that you could be excused for thinking them common. However,
they may grow nowhere else and swamps themselves are very rare. About
170 native plant species grow in FPS. Almost half have conservation
significance: rare or threatened with extinction at the national, state or
regional level.

Mt Lofty Ranges Southern Emu-wren
The MLRSEW is a small bird that inhabits the dense dry-heath vegetation of
Deep Creek and Cox’s Scrub Conservation Park, as well as some FPS.
Approximately 400 to 800 birds remain with around half found at Deep Creek
Conservation Park near the southern tip of the Fleurieu Peninsula. The
remaining birds are found in isolated FPS, predominantly on private property,
ranging in the east from Finniss, west to Mt. Compass/ Myponga and south to
Due to the fragmented nature of the remaining FPS and the poor flying ability of
the bird, many local extinctions have occurred ove r the last 20 years. Other
risks to the MLRSEW include habitat degradation, fire, flooding, predation,
inbreeding and other demographic factors.
Being a shy natured bird, the MLRSEW are not commonly seen in the wild, but
they can be recognised by their soft high-pitched trills and buzzy alarm calls.
They are insectivores that commonly feed upon spiders, moths, butterflies,
caterpillars, beetles, weevils, wasps, ants, and bees.
They breed in spring–summer when pairs set-up territories of about 1 ha.
Generally, two clutches of three eggs are laid. The nest is small and egg-
shaped with a wide side entrance, and is up to 1 m from the ground in dense
vegetation. Young may become independent at about two months and usually

Methods of Recognition
The MLRSEW is a small bird with body mass
around 7 g and overall length 16–19 cm
including the 9–12 cm characteristic
filamentous tail comprising just six feathers.
Its wings are short and rounded. Both sexes
are brown with dark striations on their back. Mt Lofty Ranges Southern Emu-wren ♂

Males are distinguished from females by their pale-blue upper-breast, throat
and eyebrows. This difference is discernable in the young, although the blue is
dull blue–grey at first and quickly changes so that young males are essentially
indistinguishable from older males by several months of age. Males retain the
blue colouration throughout the year.
Current Distribution
The MLRSEW occurs in the South Mount Lofty Ranges–Fleurieu Peninsula
region of South Australia. Its range extends broadly from Mount Compass in
the north to Deep Creek in the south and east to the lower Finniss River.
Occurrence outside this range is unlikely, except perhaps in the Hindmarsh
Island–Murray Mouth region, but this has not been thoroughly investigated.

Former Distribution
The MLRSEW former recorde d range extended from Yundi in the north to Deep
Creek in the south and east to the lower Finniss River. The MLRSEW pre-
European distribution was probably naturally continuous in some areas and
naturally fragmented in others. For example, it was probably more or less
continuous along some drainage systems, particularly in the Myponga–Mount
Compass–Finniss River region, whe re broad open drainage depressions most
likely supported extensive, contiguous areas of swamp, dry-heath habitat on
intervening hilly topography probably provided continuity independent of
drainage systems. Pre-European distribution was probably naturally
fragmented by non-habitat forest in the deeply dissected topography of the
Deep Creek–Parawa region.

                           Mt Lofty Ranges Southern Emu-wren ♂

                           Mt Lofty Ranges Southern Emu-wren ♀

Mt Lofty Ranges Southern
Emu-wren nest & eggs

The general structure and floristic composition of MLRSEW swamp habitat:

    Tallest Stratum        General                        Typical Species*
    (with ≥ 5% cover)
Dominant Height Foliage                Tallest Stratum       Understorey            Emergent
Life Form (m) Cover
                                         (overstorey)      (generally >70%         (<5% cover)

 reed/     2-4    >70     reedland     Phrag mites aus-   Bau mea juncea, B.      Leptospermu m
 grass                                 tralis, Typha      rubiginosa, B. tetra-   lanigeru m, Aca-
                                       do mingensis       gona, Gahnia trifida,   cia retinodes,
                                                          Juncus kraussii,        Vimi naria
                                                          Juncus spp.,            juncea
                                                          Isolepis nodosa

 sedge     1-2    >70       (wet)   Bau mea rubigi-       Blechnum minus,         Leptospermu m
                                    nosa, B. tetra-       Gleichenia micro-       continentale,
                          sedgeland gona, Gahnia          phylla, Baumea          L. lanigerum,
                                    sieberiana,           juncea, Leptocarpus     Vimi naria
                                    G. trifida, Carex     tenax, Empodis ma       juncea
                                    appressa, Juncus      mi nus, Epilobium
                                    sarophorus,           pallidiflorum
                                    Juncus spp.,
                                    Xyris operculata,
                                    Sprengelia incar-
                                    nata, Lepto-
                                    spermu m conti-
 shrub     >1     ≤ 90       (wet)  Leptospermu m         Bau mea rubiginosa,     Vimi naria
                                    continentale,         B. tetragona, B.        juncea, Euca-
                          shrubland L. lanigerum,         juncea, Gahnia          lyptus ovata,
                                    Melaleuca             sieberiana, G. tri-     E. cosmophylla,
                                    squamea,              fida, Carex ap-         E. obliqua,
                                    M. decussata,         pressa, Lepi-           Acacia
                                    Sprengelia            dosperma longitudi-     retinodes
                                    incarnata,            nale, Leptocarpus
                                    Vimi naria juncea     tenax, Patersonia
                                                          spp., Phragmites
                                                          australis, Empo-
                                                          disma minus, Xyris
                                                          operculata, Goode-
                                                          nia ovata, Sprenge-
                                                          lia incarnata, Blech-
                                                          nu m minus, Glei-
                                                          chenia microphylla,
                                                          Juncus spp.

The general structure and floristic composition of MLRSEW dry heath habitat:

          Tallest Stratum           General                    Typical Species*
       (with ≥ 5% cover)

Dominant       Height   Foliage                   Tallest         Understorey           Emergent
Life Form       (m)     Cover                     Stratum       (generally >70%        (<5% cover)
                                                (overstorey)        cover)
  shrub          >1         >70      (dry)   Allocasuarina     Austrostipa muelle-     Eucalyptus
                                             muelleriana,      riana, Pultenaea        baxteri, E.
                                   shrubland A. striata,       involucrata, Platylo-   obliqua, E.
                                             Hakea             biu m obtusangulum,     fasciculosa,
                                             rostrata,         Xanthorrhoea semi-      E. cosmo-
                                             H. carinata,      plana, Hypolaena        phylla
                                             Spyridium         fastigiata, Lepi-
                                             spathulatum,      dosperma car-
                                             S. thymi-         phoides, L. semi-
                                             folium,           teres, L. viscidum,
                                             Melaleuca         Hibbertia spp., Lep-
                                             decussata         tospermu m myri-
mallee/tree     <10         ≤ 70    mallee/ Eucalyptus         Pultenaea involu-
                                            baxteri,           crata, P. trinervis,
                                    forest/ E. obliqua, E.     Pultenaea spp.,
                                   woodland fasciculosa,       Phyllota pleuran-
                                            E. cosmo-          droides, Acacia
                                            phylla             myrtifolia, Adenan-
                                                               thos terminalis,
                                                               Daviesia spp.,
                                                               Hakea rostrata, H.
                                                               carinata, Allocasua-
                                                               rina muelleriana, A.
                                                               striata, A. pusilla,
                                                               Banksia marginata,
                                                               Platylobium ob-
                                                               tusangulum, Hibber-
                                                               tia spp., Lepto-
                                                               spermu m myrsi-
                                                               noides, Xanthor-
                                                               rhoea semiplana,
                                                               Lepidosperma car-
                                                               phoides, L. semi-
                                                               teres, Austrostipa
                                                               muelleri, Gahnia
                                                               Spyridium thymi-
                                                               folium, Cassytha
                                                               spp., Calytrix spp.

Legal Requirements
Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999

The EPBC Act provides that certain actions – in particular, actions which are
likely to have a significant impact on a matter of national environmental
significance – are subject to a rigorous asse ssment and approval proce ss. The
Commonwealth may, through bilateral agreements, delegate to the States the
responsibility for conducting assessments and, in limited circumstances, the
responsibility for deciding whether to grant approval.
The matters of national environmental significance identified in the Act as
triggers for the Commonwealth assessment and approval regime are as
   World Heritage properties
   Ramsar wetlands
   Nationally threatened species and ecological communities
   Migratory species
   Commonwealth marine areas
   Nuclear actions (including uranium mining)

The unlawful taking of an action that has a significant impact on a matter of
national environmental significance may attract a civil penalty of up to
$5.5 million or a criminal penalty of up to 7 years imprisonment.
An action does not require approval if it is a lawful continuation of an existing
use of land, sea or seabed that was occurring before the commencement of the
Act. A person will, therefore, not require approval under the Act to continue
taking an action that was commenced before 16 July 2000.
An enlargement, expansion or intensification of a use is not considered to be a
continuation of a use.

Native Vegetation Act 1991
The Native Vegetation Act provides the regulatory base to ensure that
significant native vegetation is retained, but the support of landholders and
other land users is essential to ensure that native vegetation is managed in a
positive way. Without this support, the loss of native plant and animal species is
expected to continue.
Less than 20% of native vegetation remains in South Australia's agricultural
areas with some regions lower than 10%. One-quarter of all the plants and
animals recorded in South Australia are considered to be threatened.
Because of the high levels of clearance of native vegetation within the
agricultural districts of South Australia, the State Government has given
particular attention to the protection and management of those important
remaining stands of vegetation. There have been controls on the clearance and
use of native vegetation since 1983. Currently, these controls apply through an
Act of the State Parliament, the Native Vegetation Act . This Act ensures that
areas of high conservation value are protected and that minor clearance is
subject to a thorough assessment process.
Native vegetation as defined by the Act includes any naturally occurring local
native plants. This covers the full range of native species, from tall trees to
small ground covers, native grasse s, wetland plants such as reeds and rushe s,
and marine plants. The plants may comprise natural bushland or they may be
isolated plants in a modified setting, such as single trees in pastured paddocks.

Natural Resources Management Act 2004
The Natural Resources Management (NRM) Act provides for the integrated
management and protection of South Australian natural resources. It replaces
the former Water Resource s Act 1997, the Soil Conservation and Landcare Act
1989, and the Animal and Plant Control (Agricultural Protection and Other
Purposes) Act 1986.
Provisions within the NRM Act provide for the direct protection of FPS and dry
heath MLRSEW habitat.
South Australian Heritage Agreements
South Australian landholders can create a permanent private nature refuge for
future generations by taking part in the Heritage Agreement Scheme. This
program for the conservation of South Australia's native vegetation has been in
operation since 1980. Introduced because of concern about over-clearance of
bushland in the agricultural region of the State, the Heritage Agreement
Scheme and over 1,200 Heritage Agreement landholders have ensured the
long-term protection of over 570,000 ha of the State's original vegetation.
The Heritage Agreement Scheme is a program to encourage and assist
landholders to conserve native vegetation on their properties. A 'Heritage
Agreement' is a contract between a landholder and the State Government for
the protection in perpetuity of a particular area of native vegetation. In signing
the agreement the landowner becomes eligible to receive financial assistance
for the management of the land, a rate rebate on the Heritage Agreement land,
and fencing/weed control assistance if required.

The Heritage Agreement scheme is administered by DEH on behalf of the
Native Vegetation Council and Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity

Current Threats, Potential Impacts
and Recommendations
There are seve ral types of threats to Mount Lofty Ranges Southern Emu-wrens
and Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps. Some types, such as wildfire, natural
predation, and disease causing pathogens may not always be linked to human
activity. Land use threats, by contrast, always result from human pursuits and
methods of management. Promoting appropriate development is one of the
most effective ways to reduce the threats facing FPS and MLRSEW, because
there is no need to reverse environmental damage once the developments are

The most common types of land use threats are listed below, along with their
most common impacts and recommendations for mitigating their negative

A. Vegetation Clearance:
  Vegetation clearance (which here excludes clearance by grazing and
  burning, but see Livestock Grazing and Deliberate Burning) is an ongoing
  threat to FPS and MLRSEW populations. Historically, widespread
  vegetation clearance has caused major loss, fragmentation and isolation
  of FPS and other MLRSEW habitat, but broad-scale land clearance in South
  Australia has essentially ceased and further clearance of native vegetation
  is prohibited without approval under the Native Vegetation Act 1991.
  Despite these laws, unlawful clearance continues through actions such as
  converting swamps to pasture). Whilst individual authorised or illegal
  clearances may be small in area,, incremental habitat loss may be
  substantial overall. Land clearance is a key threatening process listed
  under the EPBC Act 1999.

  Overall Recommendations:
     •   Native vegetation should not be cleared

     •   Any native vegetation clearance must be in accordance with
         requirements of the Native Vegetation Act 1991 and EPBC Act 1999

B. Livestock Grazing:
 Livestock grazing is a major threat to FPS and MLRSEW. Dry-heath habitat
 is grazed by livestock less fre quently. The main animals concerned are
 sheep and cattle, with alpacas, deer and horses also occasionally grazing
 swamp habitat. For MLRSEW populations, grazing and associated
 trampling of habitat may cause nest failure if grazing occurs during the
 spring–summer breeding season, and possibly forced dispersal, loss of
 food, shelter and nest sites. For FPS, cattle markedly impact on the
 structural integrity of swamp vegetation through grazing, trampling,
 pugging and erosion. Sheep, being smaller and lighter than cattle, have
 relatively less impact on swamp vegetation condition. Substantial damage
 to native vegetation due to livestock grazing constitutes a form of
 clearance under the South Australian Native Vegetation Act 1991.

 Overall Recommendations:
 •   FPS and dry heath vegetation should generally not be grazed by
 •   Any grazing must be in accordance with requirements of the Native
     Vegetation Act 1991 and EPBC Act 1999

 Guidelines to Minimise Impact:

 •   Occupied MLRSEW habitat should not be grazed without MLRSEW
     specific management advice
 •   Occupied MLRSEW habitat should not be grazed during the breeding
     season (Aug–Mar), especially during the main nesting period

 •   Affected sites should be protected using fencing or physical regula-
     tion of livestock access
 •   Where permitted, the grazing impact on habitat should be light and
     seasonal only

 •   Where permitted and possible, sheep grazing is preferre d to cattle

C. Deliberate Burning:
 Deliberate burning (excluding malicious acts leading to wildfire) is a minor
 threat, mainly to FPS and MLRSEW populations in swamp habitat.
 Historically, the practice has been used to reduce vegetation biomass for
 the purposes of conversion to pasture or to encourage growth of more
 palatable to livestock, sometimes in conjunction with prior application of
 herbicide to promote foliage death and flammability, but the practice
 appears to be rare nowadays. Inappropriate deliberate burning regimes
 (e.g. too frequent) may result in long-term changes in vegetation structure,
 with consequent impacts on habitat quality. Deliberate burning of native
 vegetation constitutes a form of clearance under the Native Vegetation Act
 Overall Recommendations:

 •     FPS and dry heath vegetation should generally not be burnt
 •     Any deliberate burning must be in accordance with requirements of the
       Native Vegetation Act 1991 and EPBC Act 1999

 Guidelines to Minimise Impact:
 •     FPS and other occupied should not be deliberately burnt without
       MLRSEW and FPS specific management advice
 •     Where permitted, inter-fire intervals should at least be 10 years in
       swamp habitat and 20 years in dry-heath*

 •     Where permitted, the vast majority of a given habitat patch (90% in
       swamp habitat and 95% in dry-heath) should remain unburnt per year
       (percentages relate directly to suggested minimum inter-fire intervals)*
 •     Where permitted, deliberate burning regimes must allow for provision
       of unburnt refuge MLRSEW habitat areas and maintenance of

 •     Occupied MLRSEW habitat should not be burnt during the breeding
       season (Aug–Mar), especially the main nesting period (Sep–Dec)
     * pending further investigation, provisional numerical values are provided as a
       precautionary measure
D. Changes in Water Use:
1. Dams
  Dams within or near FPS can have a dual threat, one being the potential
  to reduce stream flow and deny the ecological community downstream
  the necessary environmental water flows necessary for it to function.
  Secondly, if the site of the dam is within the swamp or a spring that has
  been dammed, the area will be inundated and the flooding may destroy
  the swamp.

2. Water Extraction
  Water extraction (e.g. dams, wells, bores) is potentially a major threat to
  FPS and MLRSEW populations in swamp habitat. Water extraction
  through plantation forestry is also poised to be one of the prime threats
  to water regimes and swamps, if current trends continue. Inefficient
  water use is a continuing problem as it results in reduced water
  availability for environmental flows which help to sustain and rehabilitate
  degraded wetlands. Over-e xploitation of groundwater resources is also
  impacting on those wetlands fed from these sources. This effects not
  just water volumes, but timing as the periods of highest water use are in
  summer when environmental water requirements of swamps are likely to
  be highest.

  Overall Recommendations:
  •    No surface or groundwater extraction from within or near swamps

  •    Water extraction from swamp habitats and areas hydrologically
       linked to swamps must not negatively impact upon the
       environmental water requirements of these systems

  •    Any water extraction from within or near swamps must be in
       accordance with requirements of the NRM Act 2004, the Native
       Vegetation Act 1991 and EPBC Act 1999

D. Changes in Water Use (continued):

     Guidelines to Minimise Impact:
     •     Plantation Forestry must not be undertaken near swamps which
           derive their main water supply from surface water (eg Parawa).
     •     For each activity likely to reduce water supply to swamps, a formal
           risk assessment process should be undertaken on a case by case
           basis until more prescriptive guidelines that encompass a range of
           impacts (not just hydrology) are formulated
     •     Landholders undertaking a water extracting activity from within or
           near swamps must monitor the impacts of their activity upon
           swamps. If any adve rse impacts are noted, operations in the area of
           impact must be ceased and damage repaired immediately.

3. Swamp Drainage:

 Swamp (surface-water) drainage is an ongoing major threat to FPS and
 MLRSEW populations in swamp habitat. Historically, deliberate swamp
 drainage has been used to make swampy areas suitable for pasture, pre-
 vent loss of pasture due to swamp incursion, or to divert water to dams, or
 away from infrastructure (e.g. houses, sheds, roads). Swamp drainage
 lowers swamp water tables, thereby threatening vegetation condition and
 therefore structural integrity of swamp habitat.

 Overall Recommendations:

 •       Further drainage works should not be permitted in swamp habitat
 •       Existing drains should not be maintained
 •       Any drainage must be in accordance with requirements of the
         NRM Act 2004, Native Vegetation Act 1991, and the EPBC Act 1999.

F. Infrastructure :
Infrastructure de velopment is a threat to FPS and MLRSEW. The greatest
threat is to swamps in the highly developed urban/rural areas (e.g. Mount
Compass district), due to incremental degradation, fragmentation or
vegetation clearance associated with infrastructure (e.g. houses, sheds,
fences, tracks, bridges, culverts, irrigation systems, water-supply
systems) or localised land-use impacts (e.g. intensification of grazing,
changes in livestock type, weed invasion, dogs, cats, fire-hazard
reduction, pollution). Impacts are potentially substantial at a local scale or

Overall Recommendations:

•      Infrastructure should not be permitted in close proximity to FPS or
       MLRSEW habitat

•      Residential developments must not be permitted in close proximity to
       occupied habitat without MLRSEW-specific management advice

•      Erection of infrastructure must be in accordance with the
       requirements of the Development Act 1993 and the EPBC Act 1999

G. Dieback due to Phytophthora
    Dieback due to root-rot fungus Phytophthora spp., a key threatening
    process listed under the EPBC Act 1999, is a potential threat to FPS and
    MLRSEW. Phytophthora is a plant pathogen that can be transported
    between infected sites in water or soil, and has the capacity to kill key
    habitat species such as Yacca ( Xanthorrhoea semiplana), Bush-peas
    ( Pultenaea spp.) and Tea-trees ( Leptospermum spp.) (DEH 2004). Both
    dry-heath and swamp habitats in areas with sufficient rainfall (>500 mm
    yearly avera ge) and high-risk soils (neutral–acid with poor drainage and
    low in nutrients and organic matter) are susceptible (Phytophthora
    Technical Group 2006).

 G. Dieback due to Phytophthora (continued):

 Overall Recommendations:

 •   A precautionary approach should be taken to manage potential for
 •   Ensure guidelines (Phytophthora Technical Group 2003) are followed
     by those working in susceptible areas . Guidelines are included on the
     enclosed CD rom.

 •   Monitor for affected plants and provide details of suspected sites to
       Ecologist Phy tophthora Managem ent
       Department f or Env ironm ent and H eritage
       PO Box 721
       Victor Harbor, SA 5211

H. Weed Invasion:
 Weed invasion is a major threat to FPS. Weeds degrade the floristic and
 structural integrity of swamp and dry heath vegetation. Woody weeds such
 as Gorse ( Ulex europaeus), Blackberry ( Rubus spp.) and Montpellier Broom
 ( Genista monspessulana) are of most concern. Pasture grass species and
 herbaceous weeds such as Yorkshire Fog ( Holcus lanitus ) and Sweet
 Vernal Grass ( Anthoxanthum odoratum) also invade swamp vegetation.
 Commercial forestry and horticulture species such as Radiata Pine
 ( Pinus radiata), Tasmanian Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus) and Olive
 ( Olea europea ) are prone to invade native vegetation. Environmental
 weeds compete with native vegetation resulting in a loss of natural species
 diversity and structural simplicity and eventuating a general loss of
 ecosystem functions.

 Overall Recommendations:
 •   Ensure weed control programs affecting FPS and dry heath vegetation
     are carefully planned with detailed consideration of methods in regard
     to host habitats, and the extent and timing of works at occupied sites
 •   Biological, mechanical and chemical treatments must be carefully
     considered with regard to the specific nature of target weeds and host
     habitats (i.e. wetland/ dryland, off-target risks).

 Guidelines to Minimise Impact:
 •    Weed control involving major disturbances should preferably be
      undertaken with MLRSEW-specific management advice
 •    Invasion of FPS and dry heath vegetation by woody weeds is the
      highest priority for weed management
 •    Weed control involving major disturbances (people, machinery)
      should not be undertaken in occupied MLRSEW habitat during the
      breeding season (Aug– Mar), especially during the main nesting period
 •    More information about the types of weed control available can be
      found on the following pages and in the appendix, as well as on the
      associated CD.

                 Major weeds in swamps
                 Woody Weeds

                 From Robertson (1994)          From Robertson (1994)           From Robertson (1994)

Common           Gorse                          Montpellier Broom               Blackberry

Scientific       Ulex europeaus                 Genista monspessulana           Rubus sp.
Height           Up to 300cm                    Up to 300cm                     Up to 500cm
What it          A dense spiky shrub with    Large shrub with several           A semi-deciduous
looks like       green ridged stems, twigs erect stems. Small yellow            scrambling shrub, with
                 with clustered spines, dark pea flowers.                       dark green to purple
                 green leaves in three leaf-                                    leaves. Flowers white and
                 lets. Old shoots become                                        produces black berry fruit.
                 brown. Produces big bright
                 yellow pea flowers.

Flowering        Spring                         Spring - summer                 Spring - summer

Similar Native   Prickly Moses (Acacia          Native Broom (Viminaria         Native Raspberry (Rubus
Plants           verticillata) is more          juncea ) is a tall willowy      parvifolius)
                 delicate, spines are in        shrub with long narrow
                 rings and flowers are like a   leaves and flowers in
                 wattle                         groups

Problem In       Out-competes native            Out-competes native shrubs Out-competes native
Swamps           shrubs and smothers un-        and smothers understorey shrubs and smothers un-
                 derstorey                                                 derstorey

Control          Pull small infestations.       Pull small infestations.        Pull small infestations.
Method           Spot spray individuals in      Slash and spot spray            Slash and spot spray
                 paddocks.                      regrowth in large               regrowth in large
                 Slash and burn large           infestations.                   infestations. Will persist
                 infestations.                  Fire followed by herbicide is   unless treated completely.
                                                often used elsewhere but is     Can regrow from both
                                                destructive in swamps and       runners and seedlings.
                                                not recommended.
Control          October to April               While flowering and before      Between flowering and
                                                seed set                        fruiting periods

Cautionary       Can be used by native          TAKE CARE with             Can harbour pest animals.
                 birds for nest sites. Do not   identification. Can be     However, can be used by
                 remove during the spring       confused with Native Broom native animals for
                 breeding season.               (Viminaria juncea)         protection from predators.

               Major weeds in swamps
                Rushes                                 Grasses

                From Jessop &                          From Dashorst       From Dashorst and From Dashorst and
                Toelken (1980)       R Duffield        and Jessop (1998)   Jessop (1998)     Jessop (1998)

Common          Jointed Rush         Soft Rush         Yorkeshire          Paspalum          Sweet Vernal
name                                                   Fog                                   Grass
Scientific      Juncus               Juncus effusus    Holcus lanatus Paspalum               Anthoxanthum
names           articulatus                                           dilatatum              odoratum

Height          15-50cm              30-150cm          30-80cm             100-200cm         30-100cm
What it         Low growing          Upright           A grass with        Perennial dark    Leaves are flat
                perennial rush.      perennial rush    soft flat bluish    green grass.      and hairy.
looks like
                Dark green           with yellowish-   leaves and          Flowerhead        Flower head
                leaves often         green soft        hairy blades.       has a distinct    has a distinc-
                reddish at base.     stems.            Produces            look of finger-   tive sweet
                Distinctive                            white feathery      like branches     smell.
                horizontal ridges                      flower heads        along flowering
                can be felt                            with touch of       stem.
                (articulations) on                     pink.
Flowering       Throughout the       Summer -early     Spring - early      Late spring -     Spring - sum-
period          year                 autumn            summer              autumn            mer
Similar Native Juncus             J. pauciflorus Look for                  Look for flower   The sweet smell
               planifolius - no   has larger     distinctive               and seed head     and pointed
Plants         ridges along leaf. flowerhead and bluish-green              arrangement of    flower-head
                J. holoschoenus narrower               colour and          Paspalum          spike of Sweet
                has harder           cylindrical       softly hairy                          Vernal Grass
                leaves, more         leaves            leaves of                             are distinctive
                upright.                               Yorkshire Fog                         features
Problem In      Compete with native rushes and         Invasive.
Swamps          grasses                                Compete with native understorey.
                                                       Possible fire hazard in summer.
Control         Pull or dig ensuring all root system   Pull or dig small infestations while flowering and
Method          removed.                               before seeds set.
                Cut back when flowering.               Spot spray large infestation when plant actively
                Replant with native rushes.            growing and leaves are green.

Control         Throughout the During flower-          During flowering period whist leaves are still
Season          year           ing period              green

Cautionary      TAKE CARE with identifications.        TAKE CARE with identification.
                Chemical and mechanical treat-
                ments not appropriate for these

 Dashorst G.R. and Jessop J.P. (1998) Plants of the Adelaide Plains and Hills.
 2nd Ed. The Botanic Gardens of Adelaide and State Herbarium: Adelaide

 Department for Environment and Heritage (SA) 2004: Phytophthora
 cinnamomi causing dieback in plants: Adelaide

 Hammer, M (2006). Report of stage one of the Southern Fleurieu Fish
 Inventory, South Australia. Native Fish Australia (SA) Inc. and Aquasave:

 Jessop, J. P. & Toelken, H. R. (eds) (1980). Flora of South Australia Part IV,
 Alismataceae - Orchidaceae. SA Government Printing Division: Adelaide.

 Lang, P. J. & Kraehenbuehl, D. N. (2006). Plants of Particular Conservation
 Significance in South Australia's Agricultural Regions. May 2006 update of
 unpubli shed    dat abase.        De pa rt ment   for    E nvironment     and
 Heritage: Adelaide.

 Phytophthora Technical Group (2006) Phytophthora Management
 Guidelines . Department for Environment and Heritage: South Australia

 Robertson M (1994) Stop Bushland Weeds, Nature Conservation Society of
 South Australia Inc: Adelaide

Glossary of terms and abbreviations
FPS: Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps

MLRSEW: Mount Lofty Ranges Southern Emu-wren

EPBC Act: Environmental Protection Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999

NRM: Natural Resource Management

DEH: Department of Environment and Heritage, South Australia

Emergent species: Plants which are taller than the dominant canopy layer.

Perched swamps: A swamp that typically occurs on hillsides as opposed to
low-lying land due to underground features which allow hold water (eg a
tight clay layer).

Peat: An accumulation of partially decomposed vegetation matter

Additional Information
This guide has been produced to help landholders, landholder advisors,
property planners and developers understand why Fleurieu Peninsula
Swamps and Mount Lofty Ranges Southern Emu-wrens are important, how
they can be identified, and how property management decisions can be best
made to avoid adversely impacting these unique birds and ecological
Supplementary tools to aid in this pursuit are included in the back cover of
this booklet. These tools include the following:

  •     A CD containing the following information:
            ⇒    A map in PDF format highlighting locations of known and
                 potential MLRSEW habitat as well as potential areas of
            ⇒    GIS shape files which contain locations known to include
                 MLRSEW habitat, areas which may contain MLRSEW
                 habitat, and areas which may contain FPS
            ⇒    Phytophthora Management Guidelines
            ⇒    A guide for people wishing to submit development
                 applications to local councils when the proposed develop-
                 ment is in the vicinity of or may potentially have an impact
                 on a FPS / MLRSEW habitat

Questions or suggestions pertaining to this booklet’s content should be
directed to the Program Manager of the MLRSEW/ FPS Recovery Program,
who can reached at the Conservation Council of South Australia
120 Wakefield Street, Adelaide, SA 5000. Ph: 8223-5155.

 Note of caution when using the spatial data
 Due to limitations regarding the underlying spatial data used
 in the analysis, which are known to be incomplete, THE

 The data are intended to partially aid the identification of
 MLRSEW     habitat    or    FPS,   and   users    MUST     consider
 supplementary data sources.         The map producer and data
 suppliers make no warranty as to the accuracy, currency or
 completeness of the information shown, and accept no liability
 for use of or reliance upon the data.

 The information of this CD does not replace the need for an
 on-site   assessment       when    uncertainty   exists   over   the
 identification or extent of a FPS or MLRSEW habitat.

     This booklet has been printed on 100% recycled paper


To top