Video The Explorers Ancient Civilizations of Mexico The Maya and the Aztec

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					 Video: Explorers: Ancient Civilizations of
     Mexico: The Maya and the Aztec:
Introduction: The Spanish in the Americas
What 2 Watch 4
1. What is the region of
   southern Mexico and
   northern central
   America?
2. How much did the
   native population of
   Mesoamerica decline
   over the next century
   after the arrival of the
   Spanish explorers          (1:18)
   and what caused
   these declines?
  What is the region of
  southern Mexico and
northern Central America?
       Mesoamerica
How much did the native population
  of Mesoamerica decline over the
 next century after the arrival of the
Spanish explorers and what caused
          these declines?
                  By 90%
                  Warfare
 European diseases carried by the Spaniards
  Harsh treatment of the enslaved survivors
   “When Christopher Columbus arrived in 1492 the
population of Mesoamerica exceeded 25 million people.”
Video: Explorers: Ancient Civilizations
 of Mexico: The Maya and the Aztec:
    Mayan Cities and Agriculture
What 2 Watch 4
1. Where was the
   Mayan culture
   located?
2. What was the
   principle crop in
   Mesoamerica?
3. Who imported
   cattle, horses,
   and other types
   of livestock?        (2:41)
Where was the Mayan culture
        located?
Southern Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula
            Guatemala
               Belize
         Parts of Honduras
        Parts of El Salvador
What was the principle crop in
      Mesoamerica?
                  Maize or corn
          “Maize is a grain that was first
        domesticated from wild grasses in
         southern Mexico around 7,000
                    years ago.”
           “Most maize was ground into
           flower and made into tortillas
         which were the mainstay of the
                   Mayan diet.”
Who imported cattle, horses, and
   other types of livestock?
    The Spanish explorers and colonists
Video: Explorers: Ancient Civilizations
 of Mexico: The Maya and the Aztec:
   Mayan Intellectual Development
What 2 Watch 4
1. What was Mayan
   religion centered on
   to appease the gods
   and keep their world
   in balance?
2. What was one goal
   in their frequent
   tribal warfare?
3. How did the Mayans
   buy and sell things    (3:02)
   with one another?
What was Mayan religion centered
on to appease the gods and keep
      their world in balance?
                   Ritual sacrifice
          “Religion and astronomy deeply
           influenced the daily lives of the
         Maya determining even the design
             and placement of important
                      buildings.”
         “Mayans believed that pleasing the
            gods would lead to long lives,
              good fortune and plentiful
                      harvests.”
What was one goal in their frequent
         tribal warfare?
            “To capture rivals for use as
               sacrificial offerings.”
           “They also competed for territory
                      and trade.”
How did the Mayans buy and sell
   things with one another?
                      Barter
        “Mayans occasionally used cacao
            beans as a form of money.”
          “But they mainly bartered such
        goods as salt, honey, carved jade,
        cotton, animal skins and feathers.”
       Video: Explorers: Ancient
Civilizations of Mexico: The Maya and
 the Aztec: The Decline of the Maya
What 2 Watch 4
1. Why were many of
   the greatest Mayan
   cities abandoned
   by the 9th century?




                         (1:02)
 Why were many of the greatest
Mayan cities abandoned by the 9th
             century?
             Drought
          Overpopulation
             Warfare
Video: Explorers: Ancient Civilizations
 of Mexico: The Maya and the Aztec:
 The Aztec Successors of the Toltec
What 2 Watch 4
1. What else were the Aztec
   called?
2. Why did Aztec priests decide
   to settle at Lake Texcoco
   and build on that spot?
3. What were the canals that
   crisscrossed Tenochtitlan      (2:02)
   used for?
4. Where was nearly half of the
   food local to Tenochtitlan
   raised?
What else were the Aztec called?
                     Mexica
          Mexico gets its name from the
                     Mexica
          Only the Spaniards called them
                    the Aztec
  Why did Aztec priests decide to
settle at Lake Texcoco and build on
             that spot?
            “Because of a strange omen
           they had seen there. An eagle
          perched atop a cactus grabbing
                a snake in its beak.”
              “Today the Mexican flag
            commemorates this legendary
                      event.”
     What were the canals that
crisscrossed Tenochtitlan used for?
           Transportation
              Irrigation
Where was nearly half of the food
 local to Tenochtitlan raised?
                on the Chinampas
          “Lush gardens grew on artificial
            islands called Chinampas.”
Video: Explorers: Ancient        (4:01)
Civilizations of Mexico: The Maya
and the Aztec: Aztec Religion
What 2 Watch 4
1. What was the focus of Aztec life?
2. Why do dancers known as the Voladores twirl 13 times around
   the pole during their flying dance?
3. How many months in the Aztec year and how many days in
   each month?
4. Why did the Aztec and various other cultures throughout
   Mesoamerica practice human sacrifice?
5. Who were most of the people sacrificed to the gods as part of
   the Aztec religion?
6. Who was the Spanish conquistador who lead the pale skinned
   invaders that had arrived from the east in giant canoes and had
   damaged several villages by throwing bolts of lighting at them?
7. How long did it take the Spanish to overwhelm and then
   destroying the huge Aztec empire?
What was the focus of Aztec life?
                    Religion
         “Gods associated with agriculture
           dominated the Aztec religion.”
                    Corn god
                    Rain god
                  God of fertility
  Why do dancers known as the
Voladores twirl 13 times around the
  pole during their flying dance?
               “These 52 revolutions
             represented the number of
           years in a century on the Aztec
                  sacred calendar.”
How many months in the Aztec year
and how many days in each month?
                  “18 months…”
            “…each lasting 20 days”
                   18 x 20 = 360
           360 + 5 unlucky days = 365
    The same number of days in a year on our
                 modern calendars
 “Calendars were essential to Aztec way of life.”
“They believed that certain days were especially
  favorable for such activities as planting seeds,
        building houses or going to war.”
          Why did the Aztec and
          various other cultures
        throughout Mesoamerica
        practice human sacrifice?
   “For the Aztec this practice was a key element in
              their religious ceremonies.”
    “Aztec priests made offerings to the gods in the
 hopes that their tribe would be bless with victories
                 and bountiful harvests.”
“Throughout Mesoamerica various cultures believed that
 the gods aided humans only if humans nourished them
  through religious offerings including human sacrifice.”
  Who were most of the people
sacrificed to the gods as part of the
           Aztec religion?
            “Most sacrificial victims were
                  captured in wars.”
            “But a few were volunteers who
             were honored and treated with
              great respected before their
                   ceremonial death.”
   Who was the Spanish conquistador
who lead the pale skinned invaders that
    had arrived from the east in giant
    canoes and had damaged several
villages by throwing bolts of lightning at
                  them?
              Hernan Cortes
How long did it take the Spanish to
overwhelm and then destroying the
      huge Aztec empire?
          A little more than two years after
                   arriving in Mexico
  Video: Explorers: Ancient Civilizations of
Mexico: The Maya and the Aztec: The Colony of
New Spain After the Destruction of the Natives
What 2 Watch 4
1. What was the capital of the
   enormous colony of New Spain?
2. Why did the Spanish eventually
   convert most of the
   Mesoamericans to Catholicism?
                                     (2:12)
3. In 1547 what killed 90% of the
   Native Americans in
   Mesoamerica?
4. What U.S. states were once part
   of the colony of New Spain?
  What was the capital of the
enormous colony of New Spain?
               Mexico City
      “…on the ruins of Tenochtitlan.”
  Why did the Spanish eventually
convert most of the Mesoamericans
         to Catholicism?
           “The Spaniards believe that it
           was their duty as Christians to
             erase all traces the native
                 religions of Mexico.”
          “The native people were forced to
             give up much of their unique
          culture in exchange for the beliefs
               of the Spanish colonists.”
          “…they executed the Aztec priests
            and demolished their temples.”
  In 1547 what killed 90% of the
Native Americans in Mesoamerica?
          “A massive epidemic of Small
                          pox.”
          “A disease carried by Spaniards
               swept across the land.”
          “The native Americans had little
           natural immunity to the illness.”
         “With the death of so many native
         people the culture of Spain spread
                with little resistance.”
What U.S. states were once a part
  of the colony of New Spain?
                   New Mexico
                      Arizona
                     California
                       Texas
          As well as pieces of many other
                    U.S. states

				
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posted:9/4/2011
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