Docstoc

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

Document Sample
MECHANICAL SYSTEMS Powered By Docstoc
					University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15010 – "GENERAL MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS"

I.    SPECIFICATIONS: In addition to the requirements previously presented herein, each
      specification shall contain the following general information:

1.0   General:

      A.     Incorporate, by reference, Division 1 into Division 15.

      B.     Define the contractors and sub-contractors covered by Division 15 (i.e. HVAC,
             Plumbing and Drainage, Fire Protection, Insulation, Control, Testing, Balancing and
             Adjusting, etc.).

      C.     Define any specific technical terms relating to the trades covered by the section.

2.0   Laws, Ordinances, Regulations and Requirements:

      A.     State that all workmanship must conform to all pertinent laws, ordinances and
             regulations of all bodies having jurisdiction.

3.0   Commissioning, Factory Acceptance Testing and Field Testing

      A.     Commissioning

             1.     The Project Specifications shall include a commissioning plan for mechanical
                    systems developed by the A/E.
             2.     The A/E shall develop the plan during the design phases of the Project. The
                    A/E shall establish the commissioning scope as well as establish roles and
                    responsibilities during the Schematic and Design Development Phases of the
                    Project. The commissioning plan shall be completed parallel to the
                    construction documents and shall include the following:
                    a.      Definitions of the Commissioning Process.
                    b.      Requirements for Factory Acceptance Testing.
                    c.      Requirements for Installation Verification.
                    d.      Requirements to complete critical Punchlist Items.
                    e.      Requirements for Manufacturer Startup Services.
                    f.      Requirements for Operational Verification including Dynamic Testing.
                    g.      Submittal requirements for Operations and Maintenance Manuals and
                            Warranties.
                    h.      Guidance for Operational Staff Training




General Mechanical Requirements                                         Section 15010 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

             3.     The Commissioning Plan shall define the following:
                    a.    Roles and responsibilities including participation by all
                          Subcontractors.
                    b.    A list of systems (or portions thereof) to be commissioned.
                    c.    Specific Installation Verification Checklists for each system.
                    d.    Specific Operational Verification Checklists for each system that
                          outline dynamic testing requirements that are critical to system
                          operation.
                    e.    System Acceptance Sheets that can be signed by all parties.

             4.     The Commissioning Specifications shall include the requirement for a
                    Commissioning Manual be maintained for each system consisting of the
                    following:
                    a.     System design information.
                    b.     Completed Installation Confirmation Checklists.
                    c.     Start-up Procedures and Results.
                    d.     Test Reports (Factory and Field).
                    e.     Completed System Operational Checklist.
                    f.     Additional support documentation including:
                           1)      Shop Drawings.
                           2)      Operations and Maintenance Manuals.
                           3)      Recommended Spare Parts List.
                           4)      Training Documentation
                           5)      Warranties.
                    g.     Completed System Acceptance Sheets.

      B.     On a project by project basis, define the requirements for Factory Acceptance
             Testing. In general, all custom equipment that is critical to the system operation shall
             be Factory Acceptance Tested. Items such as custom air handling units, major
             electrical transformers, electrical switchgear, standby/emergency generators, chillers,
             fume hoods, skid-mounted equipment (such as Purified Water Systems) shall be
             specified to be Factory Acceptance Tested. The Specification shall define
             performance parameters and associated course of action for performance below
             specified requirements.

      C.     Fume Hood Testing

             1.     The fume hood specificationsshall include fume hood factory and field testing
                    requirements.
             2.     In general, the factory acceptance testing requirements shall include
                    ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 testing for each type of fume hood that is utilized


General Mechanical Requirements                                           Section 15010 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

                    on the project and that the test shall be conducted in an area (room) similar
                    to the final project conditions where hood face velocity and room
                    temperature, airflow and velocity can be measured.
             3.     The field fume hood testing requirements shall include a provision that all
                    fume hoods installed be tested per the “as installed” component of the
                    ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 standard including Local Visualization Challenge,
                    Large-Volume Visualization Challenge, “As Installed” Tracer Gas Testing and
                    Variable Air Volume (VAV) response test (if applicable). For laboratories
                    with multiple fume hoods, a testing plan shall be developed that considers the
                    room effects of the other exhaust devices in the space and multiple sash
                    positions to demonstrate compliance with the standard. Supply and exhaust
                    valves may need to be further adjusted, from the designed values, to
                    accommodate for a specific fume hood manufactures requirement and specific
                    design conditions/constraints. The values for airflows for fume hoods on the
                    drawings are for reference only. Each lab and fume hood will most likely need
                    specific adjusting to meet ASHRAE Standard 110-1995 and EHRS specific
                    requirements. These adjustments must be closely coordinated with EHRS,
                    fume hood manufacture, air valve manufacture and balancer.

      D.     The University Office of Environmental Health and Radiation Safety (OEHRS)
             provides yearly certifications of each fume hood. Project specifications shall
             incorporate any requirements of the department into the specifications.

      E.     Field Testing

             1.     Define the Contractor’s responsibility for execution, notification,
                    documentation of results, and witnessing coordinated with the Project
                    Construction Schedule Milestones.
             2.     Define in detail, the tests required as part of the contract. Give specific
                    details as to testing medium, duration, level, etc. Refer the Contractor to
                    other specific test requirements in other Sections of Division 15 for systems
                    such as Automatic Controls and Monitoring, Testing, Adjusting and
                    Balancing, etc. Define in detail the manufacturer’s services required for
                    equipment and systems (e.g. start-up, testing, etc.).
             3.     The following are the minimum field testing requirements for University
                    Projects. The A/E shall define additional tests as required in conjunction with
                    University Representatives.
                    a.      Duct system leak testing (after branch connections are made to the
                            main) to be witnessed by the University




General Mechanical Requirements                                         Section 15010 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

                    b.       Hydronic system pressure testing to be witnessed by the University.
                              Prior to testing all lines shall be cleaned and flushed to the
                             satisfaction of the University.
                    c.       Point to point testing of automatic control systems as well as
                             monitoring points to the Operations Control Center (OCC).

4.0   Instructing Owner's Personnel:

      A.     Require the contractor(s) and manufactures agent(s) to fully instruct the
             representatives of the University in all details of operation of the equipment installed
             under his (their) contract(s). The lengths of the instruction periods specified shall be
             determined on a project by project basis with the University Representative.

      B.     Each contractor shall be directed to provide three (3) copies of printed Operation and
             Maintenance instructions in separate hardback, three-ring loose-leaf binders. The
             instructions shall be organized by specification section and contain final approved
             submittals (with performance data), dimensional data, detail operating and
             maintenance data including wiring and piping diagrams and related equipment data
             such as motor or variable speed drive information. Each section shall be labeled and
             include detailed parts list data and the name, address and phone number of the nearest
             supply source and all warrantee information.

      C.     Each project shall pursue as many electronic submittals of the Operations and
             Maintenance Instructions as possible.

      D.     To accommodate the University’s Preventive Maintenance Program, the A/E shall
             require the Operations and Maintenance instructions to be submitted in a coordinated
             format with the University’s Preventive Maintenance Program. Examples include
             equipment and equipment components cataloged by area and process served. The
             manual shall also include equipment manufacturer’s Preventive maintenance
             procedures. The coordinated instruction manual shall be available at Operational
             Staff Training.

      E.     General catalog data for the Operations and Maintenance Manual is unacceptable.
              If manufacturer’s specification sheets are generalized in any way, they shall be
             clearly marked to show exactly which item has been supplied, and the job designation
             for that item (e.g., PRV-1) will be noted on manufacturer's specification sheet which
             includes all details for this unit, including complete model no., serial no., and
             construction and performance data.




General Mechanical Requirements                                           Section 15010 - Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

      F.     If there are differences between pieces of equipment, then include a specification
             sheet for each, properly marked.

      G.     Include control diagrams, (including Building Automation System Architecture
             diagram), sequence of operations, and service instructions (calibration, trouble
             shooting, etc.).

      H.     Provide one section for manufacturer’s preventive maintenance procedures
             (recommended lubrication materials and procedures, frequency, etc.).

      I.     Include manufacturer’s and Contractor's address and phone numbers with any other
             reference required to obtain warranty service.

      J.     Require specific warranty information for equipment (e.g. when warranty periods
             start, length of warranty, items covered, etc.). Typical warrantee periods are to be
             one (1) year after the University accepts the project. Consider options for longer
             warranties for specific equipment.

5.0   Mechanical-Electrical Coordination:

      A.     Include an article which clearly defines the extent of responsibility between the
             mechanical, electrical and control contractors (Division 13, 15 and 16 Specifications)
             regarding equipment which involves the work of both trades.

      B.     Specific items to be addressed shall include, but in no case be limited to the furnishing
             and installation of:

             1.      Motors and starters.
             2.      Variable speed drives.
             3.      Power sources for control devices and panels.
             4.      Safety disconnect switches.
             5.      Control wiring.
             6.      Termination points of wiring for each contractor.
             7.      Terminal airflow and control boxes (mounting of box controls)

      C.     The specific contractor shall be directed to pertinent sections of the electrical and
             control specifications and Section 15170 of these standards which defines wiring
             standards, conduits, starter types, motor efficiencies, controllers and automatic
             control requirements. Require that these specifications apply to all mechanical
             equipment.




General Mechanical Requirements                                            Section 15010 - Page 5
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

      D.     Require that coordinated drawings be submitted during construction. Depending on
             the size of the project, electronic submissions shall be required for all coordinated
             drawings in a format compatible with the University system.

             The specification shall include timing of the coordinated drawings generation, drawing
             scale, a defined process of generating the background drawings (sheetmetal drawings),
             subcontractor coordination sessions, a defined process of updating the drawings with
             all trades information, sign-off procedures and maintaining record copies.

             The A/E shall review the coordinated drawings for equipment service access
             especially access to damper motors, actuators and switches.

      E.     Consider adding a requirement for separate above ceiling punchlists for engineering
             systems before ceilings are installed.

6.0   Piping and Equipment Identification:

      A.     All piping and duct systems shall be required to be labeled to comply with OSHA
             and ANSI A13.1 (latest edition) standards for the identification of systems, operating
             pressure and flow.

      B.     Refer to Section 15400.

7.0   Piping Identification:

      A.     Aboveground Piping:

             1.      After all other specified work is performed on piping systems, all exposed
                     and concealed piping shall be identified by means of self-adhering markers.
             2.      Pipe markers shall be applied in the following locations.
                     a.      At changes in direction.
                     b.      At each valve.
                     c.      At each tee.
                     d.      At each point of exit and entry where pipe passes through walls,
                             floors, partitions or ceilings.
                     e.      Every 50 ft. on straight runs of pipe.

             3.      Provide an arrow marker adjacent to each pipe marker with the arrow showing
                     direction of flow and pointing away from pipe marker. Use double-headed
                     arrows or an arrow on either side of pipe marker if flow can be in both
                     directions. Indicate characteristics of fluids moving through the pipes (type


General Mechanical Requirements                                          Section 15010 - Page 6
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

                     fluid/gas, temperature, pressure). This is particularly important at the
                     influent and effluent points of service changing the conditions of the fluid, at
                     pumps, heat exchangers, compressors, PRV etc.
             4.      Marker and legend colors shall comply with ANSI and OSHA Standards.
             5.      Apply markers where view is unobstructed and legend can be easily read.
                     Apply markers in strict accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. Band
                     the ends of all markers with banding tape of same color as marker.
             6.      Pipe marker legends and background colors shall be coordinated with Owner’s
                     existing standards and approved by Owner’s Representative.
             7.      Exterior piping identification shall be similar.

8.0   Valve Identification:

      A.     Valves that isolate equipment, control valves and accessories do not require
             identification where such valves are located immediately adjacent thereto. Otherwise,
             identify all valves and control valves installed.

      B.     Charts of tagged valves shall be provided as follows:

             1.      Prepare charts and insert each chart into a separate aluminum frame with
                     plastic window.       Locate and install where directed by Owner’s
                     Representative.
             2.      Prepare a duplicate set of charts and insert each chart into a separate plastic
                     protective envelope consisting of two (2) sheets of clear vinyl plastic
                     laminated around all edges with a vinyl frame and having grommeted holes on
                     edges. Include a length of nickel plated chain for each chart assembly. Give
                     charts to Owner.
             3.      Charts of tagged valves shall be provided. Each chart shall include the
                     following.
                     a.      Identification number (coordinated with University’s Preventive
                             Maintenance Program).
                     b.      Abbreviated service identification from Key to Symbols on the
                             Drawings.
                     c.      Location (floor, column number, etc.)
                     d.      Type of valve.
                     e.      Specific purpose for the valve and area of service.

             4.      Provide electronic copy (Excel) to University of valve charts with building
                     location map indicating area served.
             5.      Tags shall be coordinated with University’s existing tag system and shall be
                     approved by Owner.


General Mechanical Requirements                                           Section 15010 - Page 7
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

              6.      Tag type shall be phenolic or brass.
              7.      Stream traps shall be identified in the same manner as valves above.
              8.      Require markers on ceiling T-bars to indicate location of devices above.
                      Marker to include device, valve or steam trap number.

9.0    Mechanical Equipment Identification:

       A.     All mechanical equipment shall be identified by the name and identification shown
              on the Schedules on the Drawings.

       B.     Require that nameplates be coordinated with University's existing nameplate system,
              and shall be approved by Owner's Representative.

       C.     Require hazards such as low ductwork, low horizontal piping, etc., to be identified
              according to OSHA standards.

       D.     Require equipment nameplates to be also provided by manufacturer for major
              equipment. Nameplate to list Manufacturer, Address, Model No., Serial No., Code
              Stamps, Size, Capacity, Performance Data, etc.). Performance data shall replicate
              drawing schedules.

10.0   Require that all equipment be identified using phenolic nameplates and labeled in accordance
       with the nomenclature used on the drawings and the Universities Preventive Maintenance
       Program.

11.0   Submittals:

       A.     Each submittal shall be identified by the following:

              1.      Project Name
              2.      Specification Section
              3.      Drawing Numbers
              4.      Product data submittals shall include but not be limited to:
                      a.      Manufacturer and Model Number.
                      b.      Complete electrical data and wiring diagrams.
                      c.      Dimensions, capacities, ratings, materials, finishes, special features
                              and storage conditions.
                      d.      Recommended installation procedures, performance, and conditions
                              of performance, testing, and calibration certifications.




General Mechanical Requirements                                           Section 15010 - Page 8
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

              5.     Each submittal shall be required to bear the review stamp of each contractor
                     associated with the processing of the document. The processing of shop
                     drawings shall follow contractual relationships between the Prime Contractor
                     and all Sub-contractors.

              6.     Submittals which require coordination of two or more trades shall be required
                     to bear the stamp of the coordinating trades.

              7.     Require for equipment submitted that is not a basis of design, the contractor
                     is to ensure the ability to fit in the original space allotted, the ability to be
                     routed into the building and all required access is maintained, and indicate
                     such on the submittal.

              8.     Each submittal shall clearly identify which product and components are being
                     furnished and eliminate reference to units, components and features not being
                     furnished.

12.0   Site Conditions:

       A.     All renovation and expansion projects shall require the Design Professional(s) and by
              specification the contractor(s) to visit the site and inspect all existing conditions.
              Any discrepancies noted between the contract documents and existing conditions
              shall be brought to the A/E’s attention prior to the issue of the Contract Documents
              by the Contractor. Change order requests shall not be considered for any additional
              work relating to the connection of new work to existing systems, relocation of
              existing systems, or adaptability of new systems to existing structures after site
              inspection(s) has (have) occurred.

       B.     For renovation projects, consider removing all the ceiling tiles to allow for a more
              complete survey during the walkthrough.

       C.     Specific consideration during site visits shall be given to extension of new required
              services to existing renovated areas. Areas out of the project scope may require
              disturbance to bring the required services to the renovated spaces. With the issue of
              the Contract Documents, fully define each condition for Contractor bid and
              University scheduling purposes.

13.0   Installation of Equipment:

       A.     Each contractor shall be responsible for all necessary rigging required for the
              completion of work under his contract.


General Mechanical Requirements                                            Section 15010 - Page 9
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007


       B.     The A/E shall be responsible for ensuring space constraints to ensure equipment is
              able to clearly fit in space allotted and that clear passage through new or existing
              building openings is available before confining walls, ceilings and other construction
              or equipment is installed. The A/E shall also be responsible for defining equipment
              removal paths from the building after construction is complete. Existing building
              constraints shall be part of the analysis and modifications identified on the Contract
              Drawings.

       C.     The A/E and by specification each Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring space
              is available for equipment replacement and service meeting minimum manufacturer’s
              recommendations. Contractor shall review service space and equipment removal
              paths during Operational Staff Training. Any item not having proper service
              clearance shall require sign-off by the University.

14.0   Servicing of Equipment and Systems:

       A.     Upon Certification of Substantial Completion of the project by the Owner, the
              warranty period of all equipment and materials will be initiated. During this period,
              the contractor shall make a minimum of two (2) visits to the site (six (6) months after
              acceptance and immediately prior to the end of the warranty period). During each
              visit, the contractor shall thoroughly check all equipment for proper operation.
              Reports shall be generated, signed-off and forwarded to the Facilities Operations
              describing the systems inspected, date of inspection and status of equipment. All
              deficiencies and adjustments shall be corrected during warranty period.

II.    DRAWINGS: The following applies to the preparation of Contract Drawings:

1.0    All Division 15 drawings shall be labeled as follows:

       A.     Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning: H-1, H-2, etc.

       B.     Plumbing and Drainage: P-1, P-2, etc.

       C.     Fire Protection: FP-1, FP-2, etc.

2.0    Separate sheets shall be used for small scale plans, large scale plans, details, schedules,
       sections, piping and airflow diagrams, and small scale plans, larger scale plans, automatic
       control diagrams.

3.0    Standard University details shall be used where applicable.


General Mechanical Requirements                                          Section 15010 - Page 10
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007


4.0    All equipment rooms or major equipment installations on the roof shall be drawn at scale not
       less than 1/4" = 1'-0" and shall show accessibility for maintenance and equipment removal.

5.0    All drawing sections shall be coordinated sections for all trades to demonstrate overall
       coordination at each typical construction condition as well as congested areas. Zones for fire
       protection services as well as electrical distribution shall be indicated in the sections.

III.   ADDITIONAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:

1.0    All equipment installed on the campus shall be globally controlled and monitored from the
       centrally located Operations Control Center (OCC). The Automatic Control and
       Monitoring Systems Section 15970 in this standard describes the specific minimum
       requirements associated with the central control and monitoring system.

2.0    Exterior HVAC equipment installations and intake and exhaust locations shall consider
       the aesthetics of the building, noise pollution, exhaust air reentrainment (wind wake),
       accessibility, maintainability, security, safety regulations and health effects. Suggested
       design professionals for wind-wake analysis are:
       1) Ali Malkawi, Associate Professor Head, Building Simulation Group
       Department of Architecture University of Pennsylvania
       Meyerson Hall G-17
       Philadelphia, PA 19104-6311
       Phone: 215-573-8718 Fax: 215-573-2192
       Email: malkawi@design.upenn.edu

       2) Bill Smeaton
       Principal/Senior Project Manager
       Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc. (RWDI) Consulting Engineers
       650 Woodlawn Road West
       Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1K 1B8
       Tel: 519.823.1311 x 2318
       Fax: 519.823.1316
       bill.smeaton@rwdi.com


3.0    The A/E shall obtain University approval during the design process for exterior mounted
       equipment, roof screens and access around equipment.

4.0    Coordination of the design for the location of all floor and wall openings, lintels,
       equipment pads, etc. is the responsibility of the A/E to design the system which
       penetrates the floor, wall or roof and provide details on the Contract Drawings.
       Coordinate with required fire and smoke ratings of new or existing construction.

5.0    The following is a list of prohibited installations:



General Mechanical Requirements                                           Section 15010 - Page 11
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007


      A.     Internally lined duct systems (small sections of the return are allowed).

      B.     Fiberglass duct systems (room transfers are the exception).

      C.     Bullhead piping connections.

      D.     Dual temperature hydronic systems. (Two-pipe fan coil unit systems).

      E.     Medium and High static pressure HVAC systems. For operational cost
             considerations, it is desired to maintain HVAC systems at as low of an operating
             pressure as possible (the minimum total pressure required for air terminal box
             operations).

      F.     Two-pipe fan coil unit systems.

      G.     Induction units.

      H.     Multi-zone units.

      I.     Packaged rooftop mounted units (exception: retail and residential applications).

      J.     Vertical pumps.

      K.     Integral mechanical fluid temperature controls (Danfoss valves).

      L.     Heat pumps (exception: Retail and Residential applications).

      M.     Internally-lined air terminal boxes which do not use an internal metal or mylar
             liner.

      N.     Single wall air handling units.

      O.     City water source electrical humidifiers.

      P.     Steam preheats on 100% O/A - AHUs.

      Q.     Hot & Cold deck systems.

      R.     Victaulic piping systems. (Exception: sprinkler systems)




General Mechanical Requirements                                        Section 15010 - Page 12
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

6.0    All equipment must be installed on raised concrete pads. Pads shall be a minimum of 4" high
       and be reinforced with steel.

7.0    Pipe and duct spaces shall be designed to adequately house the intended quantity of materials
       and to allow for a minimum future expansion of 25%. The Design Professional shall size the
       shaft and locate future expansion space so it is accessible to install parallel piping and
       ductwork in the future with minimal system disturbance or affect to current program space.
        The shaft space shall have minimum interior dimensions of 2'-0" square. Hinged and locked
       access doors shall be installed and provide access to the shaft on alternate levels. Access
       doors shall be minimum nominal 24 inches by 48 inches.

8.0    No rotating or other equipment should be designed for above ceiling installation. All
       equipment (air terminal boxes, fan coils for specific purposes, reheat coils, and duct
       humidifiers being exceptions) must be designed for equipment room installation and be
       serviceable from the floor level. When devices that are exempt are located above ceilings,
       they will be confined as much as possible to corridors and be kept out of critical spaces. For
       areas where access to the space is a hazard to employees (Vivarium) it is required that all
       terminal devices be located outside of the program space and a dedicated mechanical corridor
       be considered to maintain separate access for program functions and maintenance functions.

9.0    All valves, balancing dampers, and miscellaneous materials located above inaccessible ceilings
       must be made accessible by installing access doors of appropriate size.

10.0   Consideration must be given to the proximity of outdoor air intakes to relief outlets, exhaust
       outlets, streets, and loading docks. Outdoor air intakes located below grade should be
       avoided.

11.0   The project shall give consideration to utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD)
       analysis for vivarium holding rooms and laboratories with multiple fume hoods to optimize
       room airflow.

12.0   For renovation projects, where cooling and heating loads increase for the renovated space of
       (more than 25 tons or 500 lbs./hr.), the A/E shall provide a Utility Capacity Study and
       indicate where increased service sizes are required and where they will be connected. For
       new building projects, a similar study shall be performed in conjunction with the Office of
       the University Engineer.

13.0   Floor drains should be provided by pumps, process equipment, AHU coils, water treatment
       stations, etc. to allow drainage of equipment without installing low horizontal piping that
       would be a tripping hazard.




General Mechanical Requirements                                          Section 15010 - Page 13
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

14.0   For all 100 percent outdoor air applications the A/E shall perform a heat recovery study to
       determine the payback from recovering heat in the exhaust air stream to preheat outdoor air.

15.0   Where office space is segregated from laboratory or vivarium spaces, separate recirculating
       systems or returning the office air to the 100 percent outdoor air laboratory or vivarium
       system shall be considered.


                                      END OF SECTION




General Mechanical Requirements                                         Section 15010 - Page 14
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15050 – “BASIC MATERIALS AND METHODS”

I.    Contract Specifications Requirements:

1.0   Define the contractor's responsibility for applying, obtaining and paying for all charges
      associated with the connection to non-University owned utilities.

2.0   Prior to the connection to University owned utilities, the contractor shall obtain permission
      and coordinate such with the Office of the University Engineer. Refer to Part 1 – General,
      Article XIII – Site Utilities.

3.0   Define the contractor's responsibility for performing all excavation and removal of all
      excavations from the site.

4.0   Define shoring, excavated material storage, removal of unsuitable materials, trench depth,
      support of trench materials (i.e. pipe) and security requirements.

5.0   Include a description of the contractor's responsibility regarding removal, relocation, and
      salvage rights.

6.0   Excavation and Backfill:

      A.     As a minimum, the contract documents shall impose the following conditions upon
             the contractor:
             1.     Perform all excavation, backfilling and pumping necessary for completion of
                    work.
             2.     Carefully remove and export from the site all excavations, shrubbery, and sod.
                     When underground work is complete and trenches are backfilled reinstall new
                    sod and shrubbery to meet prior conditions or those defined by the
                    University’s Landscape Architect. Replace any damaged items to the
                    satisfaction of the University Representative.
             3.     Coordinate with the University’s Landscape Architect regarding tree
                    removal/protection standards and all other landscape standards.
             4.     Trench depth shall allow adequate cover over piping, ducts and conduit.
                    Walls shall be perpendicular to the top of piping and ducts and trench
                    bottoms shall be graded in the direction of flow as required. Where necessary
                    provide sand, pea gravel or other underlie required by the pipe or equipment
                    manufacturer.
             5.     Each contractor shall provide sheathing, shoring and bracing necessary to
                    complete his excavation and backfilling work.




Basic Materials and Methods                                              Section 15050 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

             6.     It shall be the responsibility of the design professional and each contractor to
                    check with the various utility companies and the PA 1-Call System. Each
                    contractor is responsible for damage during excavation to existing piping or
                    equipment. Such damage shall be repaired promptly without cost to the
                    Owner.
             7.     Backfill after inspection and approval. Backfill shall be made with 100% clean
                    imported earth, free from rocks, frozen particles, debris or other foreign
                    materials. Deposit in uniform layers not over six inches (6") thick with each
                    layer mechanically tamped before the next layer is applied. Partial backfill on
                    piping with all joints exposed is mandatory for all underground systems.
                    Final backfill may commence only after testing procedures have been
                    completed and approved.
             8.     Each contractor shall perform all cutting and patching to sidewalks, curbs,
                    bituminous paving, walls, etc. required by performance of excavation and
                    backfilling. Install and maintain temporary paving as required. Make repairs
                    to sidewalks, curbs, paving, etc. in complete blocks, partial patching will not
                    be acceptable.
             9.     All trenches shall be backfilled at the end of each working day. Where a
                    trench must be left open, provide steel plates of adequate size and strength
                    over entire open area.
             10.    The A/E is responsible for reviewing all City of Philadelphia Agency's,
                    Trigen-Philadelphia (Steam Service), Philadelphia Gas Works, PECO Energy
                    Company (Electric Utility), SEPTA, Telephone Companies and other
                    communications carriers, Amtrak, Local Cable Companies, and Conrail
                    requirements associated with installing, excavating and backfilling adjacent to
                    non-University owned underground utilities. The contract documents shall
                    not violate existing compliant conditions.
             11.    Contractors shall submit unit pricing for each type of work related to the
                    excavation and installation of equipment, i.e. fittings, pipe, excavation,
                    restoration etc.

II.   Design Requirements:

1.0   Basic Piping Materials:

      A.     Refer to Section 15400 for basic piping design requirements and a service listing with
             pipe material cross reference matrix

2.0   Hangers and Piping Supports:




Basic Materials and Methods                                              Section 15050 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

      A.     Hangers and supports shall be sized to fit outside diameter of uninsulated pipe and
             tubing or, for all insulated lines, outside diameter of insulated pipe (or pre-insulated
             pipe supports). Provide pre-insulated pipe supports on insulated piping and tubing
             3 inches and larger. Provide pipe insulation protection shields on all insulated piping
             and tubing up to and including 2 1/2 inches in size. All shields shall be galvanized
             steel. Length and gauge thickness of shields shall be based on MSS SP-58. Use 180
             degree high-density (140 psi compressive strength) calcium silicate insulation meeting
             ASTM C 533 at each pipe insulation protection shield. Calcium silicate insulation
             shall be at least the length of protection shield.

      B.     All hangers and supports directly in contact with the piping must be of same or
             compatible materials. The following support types should be specified:

                              PIPE                                      HANGER
              Uninsulated Carbon Steel, Cast Iron    Carbon Steel Clevis Type or Carbon Steel
              and Ductile Iron Pipe                  Roller Type
              Insulated Carbon Steel Pipe, and       Carbon Steel Extended Clevis Type, (Use
              Copper Tubing and Stainless Steel      these pipe hangers with Pre-Insulated Pipe
              Tubing.                                Supports or with Pipe Insulation Protection
                                                     Shields).
              Uninsulated Galvanized Pipe            Galvanized Clevis Type
              Uninsulated Copper and Other Non-      Copper-Plated or Copper-Colored Epoxy
              Ferrous Metal Tubing, 4 inches and     Painted Carbon Steel Clevis Type.
              Smaller.
              Uninsulated Plastic Pipe or Tubing     Continuous Carbon Steel Tray, Angles or
                                                     Sheet Metal Reinforcing Troughs, With V-
                                                     Bottom Clevis Type Hanger. Trays or troughs
                                                     shall be rigid enough so that the dead load
                                                     deflection (sag) does not exceed 0.1 inch.
              Uninsulated Sanitary Stainless         Plastic-Coated Steel Clevis Type.
              Tubing and Glass and Brass Pipe.


             Riser Clamps shall conform to the following types:
              • Specify Carbon Steel Riser Clamp for Carbon Steel, Cast Iron and Plastic
                  Pipe.
              • Specify Copper-Plated, Copper-Colored Epoxy or Painted Carbon Steel
                  Riser Clamp for Copper Tubing.
              • Specify Plastic-Coated, Copper-Plated or Copper-Colored Epoxy Painted
                  Steel Riser Clamp for Stainless Steel Tubing, and Glass and Brass Pipe.

      C.     Piping that connects to vibration-isolated (rotating) equipment shall be vibration
             isolated by means of spring hangers. If pipes exit mechanical spaces within 50 feet
             (developed pipe length) from point of connection to vibration-isolated equipment,


Basic Materials and Methods                                               Section 15050 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

              the full 50 feet of pipe must be isolated. Isolators for first three (3) support points
              adjacent to connected equipment shall achieve at least one-half specified static
              deflection of isolators supporting connected equipment.

3.0   All piping which must be provided with expansion loops shall be fitted with pipe guides in
      the quantity and spacing recommended by the manufacturer. Guides shall be firmly attached
      to the building structure.

4.0   Securely anchor all piping utilizing expansion loops to the building structure with steel angles,
      properly braced and welded to the pipe. A Structural Engineer shall review all loads imposed
      upon the structure by the piping system. The contractor shall be required to submit shop
      drawings detailing the proposed anchors for review.

5.0   Hanger Spacing:

      A.      Horizontal steel piping shall be supported as follows:

                      PIPE SIZE                 ROD DIAMETER               MAXIMUM SPACING
                       (Inches)                    (Inches)                     (Feet)
                        Up to 1                        3/8                           8
                        1 1/2 to 2                     3/8                           10
                        2 1/2 to 3                     1/2                           12
                         4 to 5                        5/8                           15
                            6                          3/4                           17
                         8 to 12                       7/8                           20
                        14 to 16                       1                             25
                        18 to 20                       1 1/4                         28
                        20 to 30                       1 1/2                         30

              Above 30" - as determined by pipe and hanger stress analysis calculations and code
              requirements.

      B.      Horizontal copper piping shall be supported as follows:




Basic Materials and Methods                                                 Section 15050 - Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

                        PIPE SIZE               ROD DIAMETER              MAXIMUM SPACING
                         (Inches)                  (Inches)                    (Feet)
                         Up to 1                      3/8                           5
                        1 1/4 to 2                    3/8                           8
                            2_                        1/2                           9
                          3 to 4                      1/2                           10

      C.     All hub or joint pipe shall be supported within the above recommendations for steel
             and at each joint.

      D.     Plastic piping systems such as (polyvinyl chloride pipe (PVC) and polypropylene
             piping) shall be supported at intervals recommended by the manufacturer for a 120oF
             fluid temperature. Other specialty piping systems, such as PVDF tubing for
             specialty water systems, shall be continuously supported as recommended by the
             manufacturer.

      E.     All pipes shall be supported within one (1) foot of elbows, valves, flanges, or fittings.

      F.     All vertical piping shall be supported at 10 feet maximum intervals or designed as
             necessary to meet MSS guidelines.

6.0   Unions and flanges: Install accessible unions or flanges and isolation devices in all supply and
      return connections to equipment and specialties as required to facilitate the removal and or
      servicing of equipment such as:

      A.     Heat exchangers

      B.     Pumps

      C.     Chillers

      D.     Steam traps

      E.     Unit heaters

      F.     Control valves

      G.     Expansion joints



Basic Materials and Methods                                                Section 15050 - Page 5
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

      H.     Pressure reducing valves

      I.     Coils

      J.     On all equipment provided with flanged connections. All flanges shall be faced,
             drilled and spot faced to ASME Standards.

      K.     Unions and flanges in steel pipe shall be:

             1.       Unions shall be ground joint, malleable iron, screw type, conforming to
                      ASTM A-197 and ANSI 16.3.
             2.       Flanges shall be forged steel conforming to ANSI B16.5, B16.42, or B16.47
                      as applicable.
             3.       Unions and flanges shall be 150 lb. or 300 lb. rated to meet system design
                      requirements.

      L.     Unions and flanges in copper piping shall be wrought copper, ground joint, solder
             ends, conforming to ANSI B16.22.

      M.     Flanges 4" and above shall be secured using B-7 bolts.

7.0   Piping Expansion Provisions: Use expansion loops in lieu of expansion joints. Approval for
      the use of expansion joints must be obtained from the Office of the University Engineer
      during the design process. The desired methods of expansion compensation in underground
      steam piping, in order of preference, are as follows:

      A.     Loops.

      B.     Ball joints.

      C.     Telescoping slip joints.

      All loops shall be constructed with long radius elbows welded into the line. All loops must
      be subjected to cold spring during installation to approximately one-half of the total
      compensation between hot and cold conditions. The use of ball joints and/or telescoping slip
      joints must be approved by the Office of the University Engineer.

8.0   Balancing and Flow Measurement Provisions - General: All systems shall be designed using
      the following general balancing provisions:

      A.     Flow Measuring Devices (Line Sizes 3 Inches and Smaller).


Basic Materials and Methods                                             Section 15050 - Page 6
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007


             1.     Device shall be fabricated of heavy brass combining a valve for linear
                    throttling, a memory stop, a dial and position pointer, and positive shut-off
                    valved pressure taps with quick-couplers.
             2.     Valve shall be full-ported and have a non-rising stem.
             3.     Valve shall be rated at 200 psi and 250 degrees F.
             4.     Furnish one (1) portable differential pressure meter [per building] to the
                    Owner with positive shut-off and vent valves with quick-couplers, and two
                    (2) 12 foot lengths of hose with quick-couplers. Meter(s) shall become the
                    property of the Owner upon completion of testing and balancing.
             5.     Approved Manufacturers:
                    a.      Balancing Valve: Series 6000 by Nicholson/Illinois,Circuit Setter Plus
                            by ITT Bell and Gossett, STA-D/STA-F by Tour & Andersson,
                            Model CBV-S/CBV-T by Armstrong.
                    b.      Meter: Model PG-1 by Nicholson/Illinois, Readout Kit by ITT Bell
                            and Gossett, DTM-C by Tour & Andersson, CompuFlo Meter by
                            Armstrong.

      B.     Flow Measuring Devices (In Line Sizes 4 Inches and Larger).

             1.     Device (pitot tube) shall be fabricated of stainless steel and be designed for
                    150 psig service utilizing one high-pressureimpact tube and one low-pressure
                    static pressure tube.
             2.     Device shall be provided with safety shut-off valves, quick-coupling
                    connectors, and a rustproof tag showing pipe size, metered fluid, design flow
                    rate and station number.
             3.     It shall be possible to rotate the sensing element so that the ports point
                    downstream.
             4.     The accuracy shall be within plus or minus 2.0 percent.
             5.     Furnish one (1) portable meter [per building] to the Owner with a flow scale
                    for direct reading in [gpm] {l/s}, a carrying case and two (2) 12 foot hoses
                    with quick-couplers. All wetted parts shall be stainless steel. Meter(s) shall
                    become the property of the Owner upon completion of testing and balancing.
             6.     Approved Manufacturers:
                    a.      Measuring Station: Annubar by Dieterich Standard Corporation,
                            as dictated by pipe size, or equivalent by Taco or Preso.
                    b.      Meter: Eagle Eye by Dieterich Standard Corporation, or equivalent
                            by Taco or Preso.
             7.     Line size service and balancing valves shall be provided in accordance with
                    details shown on Drawings and as specified in Section 15050.




Basic Materials and Methods                                             Section 15050 - Page 7
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

       C.     Chilled water primary/secondary interface shall use ultrasonic transit time flow
              meters.

       D.     Chillers over 500 tons shall be provided with an insertion type pitot tube meter with
              direct leading manometer and instrumentation interconnected with the campus
              Operations Control Center (OCC).

9.0    The designer shall indicate on the drawings the locations and size of all flow meters and
       balancing provisions. Balancing provisions shall be provided as follows:

       A.     In each heating and/or cooling circuit.

       B.     On all cooling and heating coils.

       C.     On all supply main piping adjacent to pumps.

       D.     Entrance to chillers and heat exchangers.

       E.     In all branches of hydronic systems requiring balancing.

       F.     Domestic water hot water recirculating systems to deliver the minimum recirculation
              rates indicated on the drawings.

       All measuring devices shall be installed per manufacturer's recommendations. The A/E shall
       provide allowance for the manufacturer's recommended number of diameters upstream and
       downstream of the flow measuring devices in the system design.

10.0   Valves - General: The system shall be designed for the provision of isolating valves at all
       equipment, fixtures, hydronic circuits, control valves, individual pieces of equipment, and all
       branch mains. Isolation valves shall be installed in accessible locations and provided at sub-
       mains at take-offs to each floor on multi-story buildings and on branches where two or more
       devices are served or where future renovation is anticipated. Generally, the following valves
       shall be designated:

       A.     Steam Systems:

              1.      50.0 PSIG and Above:
                      a.     Up to 2" - Forged steel body gate valves with rising stem, Class 300
                             rated for 410.0 PSIG at 800oF.
                      b.     2-1/2" and Above - Cast carbon steel body gate valves with outside
                             screw and yoke, Class 300 rated for 410.0 PSI at 800 oF.


Basic Materials and Methods                                                Section 15050 - Page 8
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007


             2.     Below 50.0 PSIG:
                    a.    Up to 2" - Forged steel body gate valves with rising stem, Class 150,
                          rated for 125.0 PSIG at 650oF.
                    b.    2-1/2" and Above - Cast carbon steel body gate valve with outside
                          screw and yoke, Class 150 rated for 125.0 PSIG at 650 oF.

      B.     Hot Water Systems

             1.     Up to 2 1/2" piping - Bronze body, two-piece full port ball valves with teflon
                    seat.
             2.     Above 2 1/2" piping - Lugged type, resilient seated butterfly valve. ANSI 150
                    cast iron body. EPDM, terpolymer of ethylene propylene and adiene, seal
                    and seat; seat fully retained mechanically with retaining rings with bronze
                    disc. 416 S.S. Shaft; 1 piece solid thru shaft, pinned to disc; Provide lever
                    handles up to and including 4". Provide handwheel operators for valves 6"
                    and above. All valves located 6’-0” or more above the valve access level shall
                    be fitted with chain operators. Valves shall be manufactured by DeZurik,
                    Jamesbury, Watts, or Keystone.

      C.     Campus Chilled Water Systems:

             1.     Up to 2 1/2" piping - Bronze body, two-piece full port ball valves with teflon
                    seat.
             2.     2 _-4" piping - Lugged type, resilient seated butterfly valve. ANSI 150 cast
                    iron body. EPDM, terpolymer of ethylene propylene and adiene, seal and
                    seat; seat fully retained mechanically with retaining rings with bronze disc.
                     416 S.S. Shaft; 1 piece solid thru shaft, pinned to disc; Provide lever handles
                    up to and including 4". Provide handwheel operators for valves 6" and above.
                     All valves located 6’-0” or more above the valve access level shall be fitted
                    with chain operators. Valves shall be manufactured by DeZurik..
             3.     6" and above piping - Lugged type ANSI 150, high performance butterfly
                    valve. BI-directional bubble tight shutoff to 285 PSI. Carbon steel body. 316
                    S.S. disc. 316 S.S. shaft; 1-piece solid thru shaft; pinned to disc; shaft to have
                    maintained groove on top flat to indicate disc position. Bearings, 317 S.S.
                    wire mesh encapsulated in PTFE liner. PTFE seat with integral hoop
                    stressed Titanium back-up ring. Provide lever handles up to and including 4".
                     Provide handwheel operators for valves 6" and above. All valves located 6’-
                    0” or more above the valve access level shall be fitted with chain operators.
                    Valves shall be manufactured by DeZurik.




Basic Materials and Methods                                                Section 15050 - Page 9
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

             4.     Campus chilled water choke valve. V-port ball valve. ANSI 150 flanged, 317
                    S.S. body. PTFE Chevron packing. 317 S.S. nickel hardened ball. 2205
                    duplex S.S. shaft. 317 S.S. PTFE bearings. Note: Choke valves must be sized
                    for proper operation. Upstream/downstream pipe sizes and pressures must
                    be provided for optimal sizing calculations. Valve shall be manufactured by
                    DeZurik.
             5.     Underground chilled water valves. Butterfly AWWA C504 valve.
                    Mechanical joint. Cast Iron body. Acrylonitrile butadiene non-adjustable
                    packing. Buna seat. AWWA Class 150B – service class. Cast iron disc with
                    316 S.S. edge. 304 S.S. shaft. Totally enclosed gear with 2” nut for buried
                    service. Valves shall be manufactured by DeZurik.

      D.     Domestic Water Systems

             1.     Up to 2 1/2" piping    Bronze body, two-piece full port ball valves with
                                           teflon seat, rated for 150 PSIG.
                             Or
                                          Bronze, non-rising stem gate valve, soldered ends, rated
                                          for 125 PSIG (Supply to emergency showers shall be
                                          Nibco Figure S-113-L with lockshield)
             2.     Above 2 1/2" piping -. Cast iron, non-rising stem gate valve, flanged ends,
                    rated for 125 PSIG (Supply to emergency showers shall be locked in the open
                    position)

      E.     Laboratory, Medical, and Process Gases (oxygen, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, compressed
             air, argon, cylinder gases)

             1.     For Zone Valves and Riser Valves – all size piping –Union ball type, bronze
                    body, chrome-plated brass ball which seals in both directions, full flow,
                    Teflon seat, seat and O-ring packing, quarter turn, threaded ends, rated for
                    300 PSIG. All valves shall be washed, degreased, and tested for medical gas
                    piping system use in accordance with NFPA 99 Standards. Ship valves
                    sealed, ready for installation
             2.     Outlet Isolation Valves - 1/2" to 2" piping - Bronze, serviceable in line ball
                    valve, quarter turn, lever- operated, 3-piece, full port, threaded connections,
                    rated for 150 PSIG.
             3.     Outlet Isolation Valves -2 1/2" and larger piping - Bronze body ball valve,
                    chrome-plated bronze ball, full flow with Teflon seats and double Teflon
                    stem seal, rated for 400 PSIG




Basic Materials and Methods                                            Section 15050 - Page 10
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

11.0   Pumps General - Design end suction pumps with suction diffusers or minimum of 5 pipe
       diameters of straight pipe at the inlet to the pump. Require that the pump manufacturer or
       his authorized representative provide start-up services which include the following:

       A.     Checking of alignment absence of pipe strain, lubrication, rotation and vibration
              (axially, horizontally and vertically). All pumps shall conform to the manufactures
              standards for proper installation / alignment / mounting. Realign pumps as necessary.

       B.     All pumps 10-HP or larger must be aligned using one of the following methods:
              reverse dial, laser or the rim and face method. Details on each method can be found
              in the “Millwrights and Mechanical Guide.” Please provide UE a report of the final
              alignment settings.

       C.     All pumps 50-hp or larger shall be aligned by a certified Millwright. Alignment shall
              comply with the manufacture requirements and shall exceed the requirements as
              specified in the “APR recommended practices 686, Section 7.”

       D.     Take suction and discharge pressure gauge readings and compare such with pump
              nameplate data.

       E.     Submit five (5) copies of a full report to the Office of the University Engineer.

       F.     Split case horizontal pumps are preferred to end suction pumps in all primary
              pumping applications and are required in all applications requiring flow rates in
              excess of 500 GPM.

       G.     Vertical pumps are prohibited.

       H.     All pumps shall be mounted as indicated on the standard University details contained
              in the Appendices and per vibration isolation guidelines in this Section.

       I.     Impeller diameter used shall not be larger than 80 percent of the maximum impeller
              diameter (casing cut water diameter) to ensure quiet pump operation.

       J.     Mechanical Shaft Seals: Parts and wear surfaces to suit the temperature, pressure and
              liquid pumped as scheduled. Mechanical seal shall include seal flushing line or be
              internally-flushed type.

       K.     Couplings: Provide pump with flexible drive coupling, and coupling guard meeting
              the requirements of Subpart O (Machinery and Machine Guarding) of referenced
              OSHA Standards.


Basic Materials and Methods                                             Section 15050 - Page 11
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007


       L.     Redundancy Considerations: The A/E shall consider for each project the level of
              service and equipment redundancy in conjunction with the criticality of the process,
              building function, and project budget. Multiple levels of full redundancy shall be
              considered as required to support the function; such as N+1 (100% capacity during
              failure or maintenance procedure), or "Emergency Mode" operation where partial
              capacity is maintained during an equipment failure or maintenance procedure.

12.0   Insulation - General: All thermal and acoustic insulating materials shall have a
       non-combustible fire and smoke hazard system rating and label as tested by ASTM-84,
       NFPA 225 and UL 73, not to exceeding a flame spread of 25, fuel contributed 50, smoke
       developed 50.

13.0   Pressure Vessels: All pressure vessels must conform to ASME Code, and the
       Commonwealth of Pennsylvania requirements, and shall be constructed, inspected and
       stamped accordingly. Certificates shall be issued to Owner and shall be hung at the vessel
       as required by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The design engineer shall notify the
       Owner regarding the size and pipe of all pressure vessels for the Owner’s use in obtaining
       city inspection.

14.0   Welding - Each welder engaged to work on any University project shall be certified as having
       passed qualification tests prescribed by the National Certified Pipe Welding Bureau or other
       reputable laboratory or agency. Specify the protection of adjacent surfaces, ventilation
       requirements and system fire alarm shutdown and fire watch as detailed in the standard
       University Scope Document. Provide dye-penetrant testing of welded joints in accordance
       with the Procedure and Acceptance requirements of the ANSI/ASME Code for Pressure
       Piping, B31.1, for high-pressure steam piping and chilled water piping 16 inches and larger.
        Imperfections revealed by examination shall be evaluated in accordance with the criteria in
       the specified (ANSI/ASME B31). Repair or replace weld joints in accordance with approved
       procedures and at no additional cost to the Owner.

15.0   Dielectric fittings - Isolate connections between dissimilar metallic materials. Use dielectric
       fittings or nipples that provide a complete isolation of the two ends using materials suitable
       for the design pressure, temperature and fluid contained.

16.0   Escutcheons - Provide escutcheons, at all locations where piping, installed exposed to view,
       penetrates walls, partitions, floors and ceilings.

17.0   Supplemental Steel - In portions of buildings which are steel-framed, attach hangers to
       building structural steel beams. Where hangers do not correspond with building structural
       steel beams, provide supplemental steel members continuously welded or bolted to building


Basic Materials and Methods                                               Section 15050 - Page 12
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

       structural steel beams. Provide two (2) coats of primer on supplemental steel. In portions
       of buildings which are concrete structure, attach hangers to concrete structure by installing
       anchors into concrete. Submit details of hanger attachments to building structure to Design
       Professional for approval before drilling or burning holes in structure.

18.0   Piping Slope:

       A.     Hot water and chilled water - Pitch piping inside the building to drain to a low point
              where the system can be drained. No portions of the system shall trap water which
              cannot be drained. Provide valved drains with 5/8 inch hose bibbs at all low points
              and valved air vents at all high points.

       B.     Condensate drainage - Slope piping 1/4 inch per foot consistently from pan to drain
              point.

       C.     Steam and Condensate - Pitch steam supply mains, and pumped and closed
              condensate return piping at 1 inch per 50 feet of pipe. Pitch open condensate return
              piping at 1 inch per 10 feet of pipe. Steam piping shall be sloped toward the trap
              when a trap is present; otherwise, it shall be sloped toward the main. Condensate
              piping shall be sloped in the direction of flow.

       D.     Domestic water - Pitch water pipe inside the building to drain to a low point where
              the system can be emptied. No portions of the water piping system shall trap water
              that cannot be drained. Install drains at all low points. Drains shall be l/2 inch valve
              with hose end.

       E.     Sanitary, Storm and Laboratory Drainage - Install horizontal drainage lines 4 inches
              and larger with a minimum uniform pitch of 1/8 inch per foot unless indicated
              otherwise. Install drainage piping 3 inches and smaller with a minimum uniform pitch
              of 1/4 inch per foot unless indicated otherwise. Make changes in pipe sizes with
              reducers or increasers.

19.0   Combination Pressure/Temperature Test Stations – Design to provide locations on contract
       drawings. Stations (not for use on steam service or high-purity water systems) shall be 1/4
       inch NPT fitting designed to receive a 1/8 inch O.D. temperature or pressure probe. Stations
       shall be solid brass with neoprene seals (for maximum 200 degrees F service), grooved test
       plug cap and chain.

20.0   Chain Operators - Install valve extension stems or chain operators where the center of valve
       handwheels is more than 6 feet-6 inches above the floor. Provide chain hooks where required
       to prevent falling of chains on equipment and to clear walkways. Terminate chains


Basic Materials and Methods                                               Section 15050 - Page 13
University of Pennsylvania                                                           Design Guide
                                                                            Final – March 15, 2007

       approximately 3 feet-6 inches above the floor. Provide worm gear operators or impact
       handwheels for all valves 6 inches and larger. Chain operators are not required on valves 2
       inches and smaller, and on valves with threaded ends.

21.0   Vacuum Breaker - Vacuum breakers shall be provided at terminal equipment controlled by
       temperature regulated modulating steam control valves to automatically relieve vacuum from
       pipe, coil, or vessel. Vacuum breakers shall be constructed of brass or stainless steel body,
       stainless internals, threaded connections, with a minimum working pressure of 125 PSIG.
        Spirax/Sarco Model VB or equal.

22.0   Sleeves:

       A.     The specifications and drawings shall define and detail the installation of grouting and
              waterproofing of sleeves and sealing of the annular spaces between piping and sleeve
              consistent with the building construction.

       B.     Pipe sleeves required where piping passes through floor slabs, grade beams, access
              floor panels, metal gratings, interior walls, partitions, fire walls, exterior walls and
              roofs.

       C.     Pipe Sleeve Type: (Exterior wall or interior concrete or masonry wall or floor
              penetration): Schedule 40 galvanized steel pipe.

       D.     Pipe Sleeve Type: (Gypsum Wallboard Interior Wall): No. 20 gauge galvanized sheet
              metal with flanged-out edges to secure sleeve to wall.

       E.     Furnish sleeves to the proper trades for installation (i.e., concrete, masonry, drywall).

       F.     In finished areas, set floor sleeves flush with the top of the finished floor surface. In
              kitchens, cafeterias, janitor’s closets and similar service areas, set floor sleeves 4
              inches above the finished floor, unless such areas are slab-on-grade. In laboratories,
              pipe chases, pipe spaces and other unfinished areas, set floor sleeves 4 inch above the
              floor, unless otherwise indicated or specified. In mechanical rooms, a 4-inch high
              concrete pad shall be provided with a minimum of 6-inch horizontal surface around
              piping penetrations. Sleeves shall be flush with the underside of slabs.

       G.     Install escutcheons on all exposed piping penetrations.

       H.     Each through penetration fire-rated sealant shall be located on as-built drawings and
              identified by UL directory file number.




Basic Materials and Methods                                                Section 15050 - Page 14
University of Pennsylvania                                                           Design Guide
                                                                            Final – March 15, 2007

23.0   Counterflashing

       A.     Provide counterflashing for piping, vents, ductwork, breechings, chimneys and stacks
              passing through roofs and exterior walls. Provide counterflashing for curbed roof
              openings except where counterflashing is an integral part of roof-mounted mechanical
              equipment.

24.0   Vibration Isolation

       A.     Provide concrete inertia bases, structural steel bases, and vibration control devices and
              accessories of appropriate sizes and proper loadings for mechanical equipment,
              piping and ductwork systems as indicated on the following schedule.

       B.     Types of isolators indicated on the schedule are as follows:
              1.     Unit FSN (Floor Spring and Neoprene).
              2.     Unit FSNTL (Floor Spring and Neoprene Travel Limited).
              3.     Unit FN (Floor Neoprene).
              4.     Unit NP (Neoprene Pad).
              5.     Unit DNP (Double Neoprene Pad).
              6.     Unit HS (Hanger Spring).
              7.     Unit HSN (Hanger Spring and Neoprene or Glass Fiber).
              8.     Unit HN (Hanger Neoprene or Glass Fiber).
              9.     Unit PCF (Precompressed Glass Fiber) Vibration and Noise Isolation Pads.

       C.     Types of bases indicated on the schedule are as follows:
              1.     Unit BSR (Base - Steel Rail).
              2.     Unit BSF (Base - Steel Frame)
              3.     Unit BIB (Base - Inertia Base).
              4.     Unit BC (Base - Curb).




Basic Materials and Methods                                                Section 15050 - Page 15
 University of Pennsylvania                                                             Design Guide
                                                                               Final – March 15, 2007




                                             VIBRATION ISOLATION SCHEDULE


                                                                 MINIMUM
                                                ISOLATOR          STATIC       BASE
                     UNIT                          TYPE         DEFLECTION     TYPE       REMARKS
                                                 (NOTE 1)         INCHES     (NOTE 1)
Centrifugal Chillers On Grade Slab                 PCF              0.25       None         (NOTE 1)


Screw Chillers On Grade Slab                       PCF              0.25       None         (NOTE 1)
Screw Chillers Above Grade                        FSNTL             1.50       None


Reciprocating Chillers On Grade Slab              FSNTL             0.75       None
Reciprocating Chillers Above Grade                FSNTL             2.5        None
Reciprocating Chillers Outdoor On Grade             -                -          -


Condensing Units On Grade Slab                    FSNTL             0.75       None
Condensing Units Above Grade                      FSNTL             2.5        None
Condensing Units Outdoor On Grade                   -                -          -


Air-Cooled Condensers - Outdoor On Grade            -                -          -
Air-Cooled Condensers - Roof-Mounted              FSNTL              .5        None


Rotary Air Compressors On Grade Slab               FSN              0.75       BIB          (NOTE 1)
Rotary Air Compressors Above Grade                 FSN              1.50       BIB


Reciprocating Air Compressors On Grade             FSN              1.50       BIB
Reciprocating Air Compressors Above Grade          FSN              2.50       BIB


Tank-Mounted Air Compressors On Grade Slab         FSN              1.50       None
Tank-Mounted Air Compressors Above Grade           FSN              2.50       None


Rotary Vacuum Pumps On Grade Slab                  FSN              0.75       BIB
Rotary Vacuum Pumps Above Grade                    FSN              1.50       BIB


Fans In All Pre-Engineered AHUs                    FSN              1.5        BSF
Pre-Engineered AHU Cabinets On Grade Slab           -                -          -
Pre-Engineered AHU Cabinets Above Grade            PCF              0.35       None


H&V Units - Floor-Mounted                          FSN              1.5        None
H&V Units – Suspended                              HSN              1.5        None


Rooftop AHUs - Curb-Mounted                         BC              1.0}       None     With Integral Base
Rooftop AHUs – Dunnage                            FSNTL             1.5        None


Centrifugal and In-Line Centrifugal Fans:



 Basic Materials and Methods                                                  Section 15050 - Page 16
 University of Pennsylvania                                                               Design Guide
                                                                                 Final – March 15, 2007


                                               VIBRATION ISOLATION SCHEDULE


                                                                   MINIMUM
                                                  ISOLATOR          STATIC       BASE
                    UNIT                             TYPE         DEFLECTION     TYPE          REMARKS
                                                   (NOTE 1)         INCHES     (NOTE 1)
Floor-Mounted; Below 10 Inches w.g. S.P.             FSN              1.5        BSF
Floor-Mounted; Above [10 Inches w.g.] {2.5           FSN              1.5        BIB
kPa} S.P.
Suspended                                            HSN              1.5        None


Axial, Tube-Axial, And Vane-Axial Fans:
Floor-Mounted                                        FSN              1.5        BIB
Suspended                                            HSN              1.5        None


Roof-Mounted Exhaust Fans (Roof Ventilators)          BC              1.0        None       With Integral Base


Fan Coil Units - Floor Mounted                        -                -          -
Fan Coil Units – Suspended                           HSN              0.75       None


Fan-Powered Terminal Boxes                           HN               0.25       None


Suspended In-Line Pumps                              HN               0.35       None


Base-Mounted Pumps Less than 1 HP On Grade           FSN              0.75       BIB
Slab, or Above Grade
Base-Mounted Pumps 1 HP and Larger On                FSN              0.75       BIB            (NOTE 1)
Grade Slab
Base-Mounted Pumps Less Greater Than 1 HP            FSN              1.5        BIB
and Less Than 150 hp Above Grade
Base-Mounted Pumps 150 hp and Larger Above           FSN              2.5        BIB
Grade


Cooling Towers Outdoor On Grade                       -                -          -
Cooling Towers Above Grade (Including Roof-         FSNTL             2.5        None
Mounted Towers)


Diesel Engine Generators                             FSN              0.75       None     With Type SN Snubbers


 NOTES: If the equipment is in a vibration-insensitive building, such as a remote Central Utility
       Plant, isolation requirements may be reduced.

                                                  END OF SECTION




 Basic Materials and Methods                                                    Section 15050 - Page 17
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15170 - “MOTORS”

1.0   All motors shall conform to the latest IEEE or NEMA standards relating to characteristics,
      dimensions, tolerances, temperature rise, insulation, and ratings for noise and vibration.

      Use NEMA Class F insulation with Class B temperature rise and 1.15 service factor in an
      ambient of 40oC maximum. Bearings shall have an ANSI/AFBMA L-10 rating of 200,000
      hours for direct connected service.

      Motors 1/3 HP and less will be 120 volt, single phase. Motors 1/2 HP and larger will be 460
      volt, three phase.

2.0   Each motor shall have the following minimum full load efficiencies: All motors 1 hp and
      larger shall be premium efficiency, constant speed, rpm as specified, squirrel cage, unless
      otherwise required to meet driven equipment's maximum starting duty. Minimum full-
      load nominal efficiencies (per IEEE Standard 112, Test Method B) shall be equal to or
      greater than those listed in Table "PE".




Motors                                                                   Section 15170 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                     Design Guide
                                                                      Final – March 15, 2007


     TABLE PE – PREMIUM-EFFICIENCY MOTOR QUALIFYING EFFICIENCIES


                        OPEN DRIP-PROOF (ODP) TYPE MOTOR
                                              SPEED (RPM)
          SIZE
          (HP)               1200           1800            3600
                               NEMA NOMINAL EFFICIENCY PERCENT
             1                 82.5           85.5            80.0
           1.5                 86.5           86.5            85.5
             2                 87.5           86.5            86.5
             3                 89.5           89.5            86.5
             5                 89.5           89.5            89.5
           7.5                 91.7           91.0            89.5
            10                 91.7           91.7            90.2
            15                 92.4           93.0            91.0
            20                 92.4           93.0            92.4
            25                 93.0           93.6            93.0
            30                 93.6           94.1            93.0
            40                 94.1           94.1            93.6
            50                 94.1           94.5            93.6 `
            60                 95.0           95.0            94.1
            75                 95.0           95.0            94.5
           100                 95.0           95.4            94.5
           125                 95.4           95.4            95.0
           150                 95.8           95.8            95.4

           200                95.4                   95.8                   95.4

NOTES:      Efficiencies shall be NEMA nominal efficiency rating from motor nameplate.
      Efficiencies shall be full-load nominal efficiencies tested in accordance with IEEE
      Standard 112, Test Method B.




Motors                                                                Section 15170 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                           Design Guide
                                                                            Final – March 15, 2007

      TABLE PE – PREMIUM-EFFICIENCY MOTOR QUALIFYING EFFICIENCIES


             TOTALLY-ENCLOSED FAN-COOLED (TEFC) TYPE MOTOR
                                                 SPEED (RPM)
          SIZE
          (HP)                1200           1800            3600
                                NEMA NOMINAL EFFICIENCY PERCENT
             1                  82.5           85.5            78.5
           1.5                  87.5           86.5            85.5
             2                  88.5           86.5            86.5
             3                  89.5           89.5            88.5
             5                  89.5           89.5            89.5
           7.5                  91.7           91.7            91.0
            10                  91.7           91.7            91.7
            15                  92.4           92.4            91.7
            20                  92.4           93.0            92.4
            25                  93.0           93.6            93.0
            30                  93.6           93.6            93.0
            40                  94.1           94.1            93.6
            50                  94.1           94.5            94.1
            60                  94.5           95.0            94.1
            75                  95.0           95.4            94.5
           100                  95.4           95.4            95.0
           125                  95.4           95.4            95.4
           150                  95.8           95.8            95.4
           200                  95.8           96.2            95.8

NOTES:      Efficiencies shall be NEMA nominal efficiency rating from motor nameplate.
      Efficiencies shall be full-load nominal efficiencies tested in accordance with IEEE
      Standard 112, Test Method B.

3.0    Speed/Torque curves for motors shall generally be NEMA Design B so that overload
       protection provided by standard motor starters will be adequate to prevent overheating
       during stall or slightly prolonged acceleration.

4.0    Starters for mechanical equipment shall be furnished by the electrical contractor. The
       electrical contractor shall install the starters and provide all power and control wiring. Where
       four or more starters are required in an area, the starters shall be located in a motor control
       center. Starters provided with skid-mounted equipment may be provided in local control
       panels.


Motors                                                                      Section 15170 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                              Design Guide
                                                                               Final – March 15, 2007


5.0    Starters shall be of the combination starter type (with circuit breaker/ MCP short circuit
       protection) complete with integral control transformers, thermal overload protection, 120
       volt coils, low voltage protection, indicating pilot lights (neon or LED type),
       hand-off-automatic switches and all necessary auxiliary contacts. Starters shall be UL508
       listed for the available short circuit current. All starters, including skid mounted starters, shall
       be NEMA rated. IEC rated starters are not acceptable.

6.0    All motors shall be mounted on the same base as the rotating equipment they serve (for
       alignment purposes).

7.0    Wet or outdoor applications shall be provided with TEFC motors only. Provide cooling
       tower motors with integral winding heaters to be energized when the motor is off.

8.0    All motors driven by Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) shall be NEMA MG-1 Part 31
       rated. VFD driven motors, 150 Hp and above, in direct driven pumping applications shall
       be provided with grounding brushes or insulated bearings to prevent bearing ground current
       damage.

9.0      Should correct section numbering.

10.0   Motors and drive assemblies shall be selected to optimize the efficiency of mechanical and
       building systems and sized only for the duty required. Motors must always be of adequate
       size to drive the equipment without exceeding the nameplate rating at the speed specified or
       at the load which may be obtained by the drive.

11.0   VFDs are the preferred method to vary the flow of water and air in mechanical systems. The
       A/E shall evaluate the specific application of each variable frequency drive. VFDs shall be
       locally mounted near to the motor to limit distance between VFD and motor to less than 75
       feet. Distances over 75 feet shall be analyzed for adverse effects on the cable insulation,
       disconnect switch and the motor insulation. VFDs shall be provided under Division 15 and
       installed by Division 16. Refer to Section 16483.


                                         END OF SECTION




Motors                                                                         Section 15170 - Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15200 – “INSULATION SYSTEMS”

SCOPE:       This section defines insulation system guidelines and requirements for piping,
             ductwork, and equipment insulation. (Interior piping and equipment, exterior piping,
             interior ductwork, and exterior ductwork).

1.0   Insulation shall be applied to mechanical systems to limit heat loss or gain, prevent
      condensation, protect people from hot or extremely cold surfaces, and improve the operating
      efficiency of all systems. Insulation types and thicknesses for services are specified within
      this Section and are generally applicable to most projects. For specialty systems and for
      large specialty projects, studies of alternative insulation systems shall be initiated and
      justified on a case by case basis.

2.0   Insulation materials approved for use in the University buildings shall have a fire hazard
      rating not to exceed 25 for flame spread and 50 for fuel contributed and smoke developed. All
      materials shall be factory tested as an assembly. Fire ratings shall be determined by the
      standard method of testing for surface-burning characteristics of building materials, ASTM
      E 84. Insulation approved for use shall have a UL label or a certified test report from an
      approved testing laboratory.

3.0   Insulation materials shall not be installed on systems until all necessary tests have been
      conducted and insulated surfaces have been thoroughly cleaned and are in a dry state.

4.0   Protect insulation during construction by covering with plastic to prevent accumulation of
      dust and debris. Protection should be kept in place until completion of construction.

5.0   All adhesives sealers, vapor barrier coatings, etc. used in conjunction with insulation shall be
      compatible with the material to which they are applied. Any cement, sealer, or coating used
      shall be resistant to vermin and mold and shall be durable. Solvent based adhesives, coatings
      and sealants shall not be used in occupied areas. The use of solvent based adhesives, coatings
      and sealants for new construction shall be coordinated with building occupancy and other
      environmental health and safety issues during construction.

6.0   All insulation surfaces shall be durable and where exposed, protected from damage due to
      maintenance operations, vandalism, weather, and normal wear and tear.

7.0   Pipe fittings, specialties, equipment and valves shall be protected using custom premolded
      fitting covers and insulation (as defined below) to allow frequent removal and reinstallation
      without damaging the jacket.




Insulation Systems                                                       Section 15200 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

      A.     Insulate all medium and high pressure (above 50 PSIG) steam piping fittings, flanges,
             valves, strainers, pressure reducing valves. For welded construction where routine
             access is not required, insulation shall match piping insulation. For non-welded
             construction and specialties requiring access, custom made insulated canvas jackets
             with "Velcro" type fastening devices shall be used.

      B.     Where lower temperature systems (low pressure steam, hot water, refrigerant hot gas
             piping, etc.) are exposed in routinely accessed areas the same consideration as above
             shall be given for personnel safety.

      C.     Systems subject to condensation such as chilled water systems shall be subject to the
             above insulation requirements.

8.0   Metallic components used for the installation of insulation systems shall be suitable for the
      intended environment and shall not corrode. Exposed external corners on duct and equipment
      insulation in occupied or mechanical areas shall be protected by corner beads consisting of
      2 inch by 2 inch by 0.016 inch thick aluminum or 316 stainless steel.

9.0   Insulation systems shall be specified to meet industry standards, and installation
      requirements shall, as a minimum, include the following:

      A.     Insulation shall be continuous at all hangers, hanger rods, supports, sleeves, and
             openings. Vapor seals must be provided for all cold surfaces and shall be continuous.
             Where supports must occur below insulation surface, the thickness shall be
             maintained over the support and extend sufficiently beyond the support to prevent
             condensation. Insulation shall be sealed where it terminates because of a valve, union,
             flange, etc.

      B.     All insulation shall be arranged to permit expansion and contraction of systems
             without causing damage to the insulation or surface.

      C.     The actual insulation thickness must be a least equal to the minimum specified at all
             locations, including supports in contact with cold surfaces.

      D.     It is critical that insulation materials be installed in a first-class manner with smooth
             and even surfaces. Scrap pieces of insulation shall not be permitted where a full-
             length section will fit.

      E.     Insulate pipe saddles and welded pipe standoffs at all points of pipe support.




Insulation Systems                                                       Section 15200 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

      F.     High density insulation shall be used were pipe saddles are located. High density
             insulation for shields shall extend 1” on all sides of the shield.

      G.     All valves and strainers shall be insulated for all welded piping constructionas defined
             above. Custom-fabricated jackets shall be used where defined above.

      H.     Strainers requiring insulation shall be insulated to permit removal of the basket
             without disturbing the insulation of the strainer.

      I.     On ductwork or equipment, accessories shall be provided as required to prevent
             distortion and sagging of insulation. Welded pins, adhesive, seal staples, vapor
             barrier coatings, sealing tape, steel bands, and wire ties shall be provided as
             recommended by the insulation manufacturer. The following attachment methods are
             preferred:
             1.      Mineral Fiber Board: Brushed on adhesive plus welded pins. (For use in
                     mechanical rooms and exposed areas)
             2.      Mineral Fiber Wrap: Brushed on adhesive with welded pins on bottom of
                     ducts greater than 24 inches wide.
             3.      Calcium Silicate: Non-corroding wire.
             4.      Ceramic Fiber Insulation: Stainless steel bands.

      J.     Duct and equipment insulation shall cover all metal surfaces with full-thickness
             insulation. Duct standing seams require only minimal insulation to prevent
             condensation. If condensation will not occur, insulation at standing seams can be
             reduced from the duct main insulation.

      K.     Equipment Insulation
             1.    Water pumps (Chilled Water, Glycol/Water Solution, Condenser Water,
                   Condensate Drainage for Air Conditioning Equipment, Cooling Tower
                   Makeup Water, and Heat Exchanger Systems) shall be insulated with
                   removable and replaceable square or rectangular covers consisting of full
                   minimum 16 gauge aluminum or 316 stainless steel metal jackets reinforced
                   at corners and edges and lined with insulation. Pumps with split casings shall
                   be constructed with insulated housing in two or more sections with the upper
                   section removable for access to the casing. Cover sections shall be flanged,
                   gasketed, and joined with stainless steel sheet metal screws. Lube fittings and
                   drain valves shall extend outside of insulated covers.
             2.    For Evaporators, Water Chillers, Air Separators, Humidifier Separators,
                   Expansion Tanks, Condenser Water Strainer, Water Storage Tanks and Water-
                   to-Water Heat Exchangers, fit board type insulation by scoring, cutting and


Insulation Systems                                                      Section 15200 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

                      mitering to fit the contour of the equipment. Fill all voids with insulating
                      cement. Insulate the water boxes or heads of evaporators by fabricating an
                      enclosure from No. 18 gauge thick galvanized steel sheet. Attach insulation
                      to the inside of the enclosure with adhesive. Slip enclosure over the
                      insulation on the shell and draw tight. Where marine water boxes of chillers
                      are to be insulated, insulate the water box head separately to permit removal
                      of the head.

       L.     Where deemed necessary by the A/E or the Office of the University Engineer, specific
              insulation details shall be added to the Contract Documents to improve the insulation
              performance for specialty areas such as at roof drain bodies and horizontal rain water
              conductors, or insulation in high humidity areas such as shower rooms and sterilizer
              areas may require special details for vapor barriers.

10.0   Insulation may be omitted on the following items at the discretion of the Office of the
       University Engineer:

       A.     Exposed brass or copper pipe specified to be chrome plated (typically applies to
              toilet rooms).

       B.     All fire protection and fuel piping.

       C.     ASME stamps on equipment.

       D.     Access plates of fan housings.

       E.     Cleanouts or handholes.

       F.     Factory-preinsulated flexible ductwork.

       G.     Factory-preinsulated HVAC equipment.

       H.     Manufacturer’s nameplates.

       I.     Vibration-isolating connections.

11.0   The minimum insulation standards for University projects and for the services listed are as
       indicated in the following Tables for Piping, Equipment, and Ductwork insulation. The A/E
       shall select the most suitable product for each individual service.




Insulation Systems                                                      Section 15200 - Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                                       Design Guide
                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

      Tables that follow are:

        •   Piping Insulation Schedule
        •   Mechanical Equipment Insulation Schedule
        •   Sheet Metal Ductwork Insulation Schedule




Insulation Systems                                     Section 15200 - Page 5
            University of Pennsylvania                                                                  Design Guide
                                                                                               Final – March 15, 2007



                                             PIPING INSULATION SCHEDULE

                 Avg.
  System         Pipe                          Pipe Location                     Jacket (e)            Insulation Thickness, Inches
    Or          Temp       Insulatio                           Below   All                                   Pipe Sizes, Inches
  Service      Degrees F    n Type     Indoo     Outdoor       Grade   Service     Metal      Fabric   0.5-2    2.5-     5-8    10-30
                                       r                                                                         4


Refrigerant       45        Flexible     X                                                             0.5     -      -        -
 Suction                    Cellular               X(a)                                                0.75    -      -        -
Refrigerant       120       Flexible     X                                                             0.5     -      -        -
 Liquid                     Cellular               X(a)                                                0.75    -      -        -
Refrigerant       135       Flexible     X                                                             0.5     -      -        -
 Hot Gas                    Cellular               X(a)                                                0.75    -      -        -

   Brine          15        Cellular     X                                X                            2       2.5    2.5      -
                             Glass                  X                                X                 2       2.5    2.5      -
                                                                 X                              X      2       2.5    2.5      -
  Chilled         50        Mineral      X                                X                            1       1      1.5      1.5
  Water                      Fiber                  X                                X                 1       1      1.5      1.5
                              OR
                            Flexible     X         X(a)                                                0.5     0.75   1        -
                            Cellular
                            Cellular                             X                                     1       1      1.5      1.5
                             Glass
Horizontal        55        Mineral      X                                X                            1       1      1        1
    [and                     Fiber                  X                                X                 1       1      1        1
 Vertical]
                              OR
 Rainwater
Conductors                  Flexible     X         X(a)                                                0.5     0.5    0.5      0.5
 and Roof                   Cellular
   Drain
   Bodies
Condensate        60        Mineral      X                                                             0.5     -      -        -
 Drains for                  Fiber
    Air-
                              OR
Conditioni
     ng                     Flexible     X         X(a)                                                0.5     -      -        -
Equipment                   Cellular
 Runouts          180       Mineral      X                                X                            1       -      -        -
     to
                             Fiber
  [Finned
    Tube                      OR
Radiation,                  Flexible     X                                                             0.5     -      -        -
 Unit and                   Cellular
  Cabinet
    Unit


            Insulation Systems                                                                Section 15200 - Page 6
            University of Pennsylvania                                                                  Design Guide
                                                                                               Final – March 15, 2007


                                             PIPING INSULATION SCHEDULE

                 Avg.
  System         Pipe                          Pipe Location                     Jacket (e)            Insulation Thickness, Inches
    Or          Temp       Insulatio                           Below   All                                   Pipe Sizes, Inches
  Service      Degrees F    n Type     Indoo     Outdoor       Grade   Service     Metal      Fabric   0.5-2    2.5-     5-8    10-30
                                       r                                                                         4

  Heaters,
 Induction
  and Fan
Coil Units,
    and
  Terminal
Boxes, and
 Hot Water
  Heating
   Coils]
[Laboratory       40          FOR
    and]           to       MAINS:       X                                X                            1       1.5    1.5      1.5
 Domestic         140       Mineral
 Cold, Hot                   Fiber
    and                       FOR
Recirculate                BRANCH
   d Hot                      ES,
   Water,                   DROPS        X                                                             0.5     -      -        -
Humidifica                   AND                                          X
tion Water,                RUNOUT
    Trap                       S:        X                                                             0.5     -      -        -
   Primer                   Mineral
   Water                     Fiber
                              OR
                            Flexible
                            Cellular
Handicappe        40        Mineral     X(b)                                                           0.5     -      -        -
 d Fixture         to        Fiber
 Trap and         140
  Supply
Hot Water         190       Mineral      X                                X                            1.5     1.5    2        2
  Heating                    Fiber                  X                                X                 1.5     1.5    2        2
                            Cellular
                                                                 X                              X      1.5     1.5    2        2
                             Glass
                              OR
                            Flexible     X                                                             1       1      -        -
                            Cellular
Condenser         60        Mineral      X                                X                            1       1      1        1
 Water            to         Fiber                  X                                X                 1.5     1.5    1.5      1.5
                  95          OR
                            Flexible     X                                                             0.5     0.75   1        -
                            Cellular
  High-           401       Calcium      X                                           X                 3.5     4.5    5        5.5



            Insulation Systems                                                                Section 15200 - Page 7
            University of Pennsylvania                                                                  Design Guide
                                                                                               Final – March 15, 2007


                                             PIPING INSULATION SCHEDULE

                 Avg.
 System          Pipe                          Pipe Location                     Jacket (e)            Insulation Thickness, Inches
   Or           Temp       Insulatio                           Below   All                                   Pipe Sizes, Inches
 Service       Degrees F    n Type     Indoo     Outdoor       Grade   Service     Metal      Fabric   0.5-2    2.5-     5-8    10-30
                                       r                                                                         4

 Pressure                   Silicate                X                                X                 3.5     4.5    5        5.5
  Steam.                      OR
                                                                                                       2.5
 125-235                    Rock         X                                           X                         3      3        3.5
   psig                                                                              X                         3      3        3.5
                            Wool                    X
                                                                X(c)                 X          X              4      4        4
                           Cellular
                            Glass



   High-          337       Mineral      X                                X                            2.5     3      3.5      3.5
 Pressure                    Fiber                  X                                X                 2.5     3      3.5      3.5
  Steam,                    Cellular                            X(c)                 X          X      4       4      4        4
 100 psig                    Glass
 Medium-          298       Mineral      X                                X                            2       2.5    3        3.5
 Pressure                    Fiber                  X                                X                 2       2.5    3        3.5
  Steam,                    Cellular                            X(c)                 X          X      4       4      4        4
  50 psig                    Glass
   Low-           250       Mineral      X                                X                            1.5     2      3        3.5
 Pressure                    Fiber                  X                                X                 1.5     2      3        3.5
  Steam,                    Cellular                            X(c)                 X          X      4       4      4        4
  15 psig                    Glass
   High-          337       Mineral      X                                X                            2.5     3      3.5      3.5
 Pressure                    Fiber                  X                                X                 2.5     3      3.5      3.5
Condensate                  Cellular                            X(c)                 X          X      4       3      3        3
                             Glass
 Medium-          298       Mineral      X                                X                            2.5     2.5    3.5      3.5
  Pressure                   Fiber                  X                                X                 2.5     2.5    3.5      3.5
Condensate                  Cellular                            X(c)                 X          X      3       3      3.5      3.5
    and                      Glass
  Pumped
Condensate
Atmospheri        250       Mineral      X                                X                            1.5     2      3.5      3.5
c and Low-                   Fiber                  X                                X                 1.5     2      3.5      3.5
  Pressure                  Cellular                            X(c)                 X          X      3       3      3.5      3.5
Condensate                   Glass




            Insulation Systems                                                                Section 15200 - Page 8
            University of Pennsylvania                                                                        Design Guide
                                                                                                     Final – March 15, 2007


                                                   PIPING INSULATION SCHEDULE

                  Avg.
  System          Pipe                              Pipe Location                      Jacket (e)            Insulation Thickness, Inches
    Or           Temp         Insulatio                             Below    All                                   Pipe Sizes, Inches
  Service       Degrees F      n Type       Indoo     Outdoor       Grade    Service     Metal      Fabric   0.5-2    2.5-     5-8    10-30
                                            r                                                                          4


Flash Tank         337          Mineral        X                                 X                           1       1       1        1
 Vents and                       Fiber                    X                                X                 1       1       1        1
Condensate
Tank/Recei
 ver Vents
    (e)
 Softened         40-85         Mineral        X                                 X                           0.5     0.5     0.5      0.5
   Water                         Fiber
                                  OR
                                Flexible       X                                                             0.5     0.5     0.5      0.5
                                Cellular
Heat-Traced         40          Mineral        X                                 X                           2       2       2        2
  Lines                          Fiber                    X                                X                 2       2       2        2
   Fuel             50          Mineral        X                                 X                           1.5     1.5     2        2
    Oil                          Fiber                    X                                X                 1.5     1.5     2        2
                                                                      X                              X       1.5     1.5     2        2
 Diesel Gas         900         Calcium        X            X         X                     X                -       4       6.5      6.5
   Engine                       Silicate
   Exhaust                        OR
 (including                     Mineral        X            X          X                    X                -         2.5    4        4
  silencer)                      Fiber
a = Jacket required on outdoor piping.
b = Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) jacket required.
c = For use with direct-buried piping (not with conduit-type systems).
d = Insulate where the piping is accessible (e.g., up to 8 feet above the finished floor).
e= Protective jackets consisting of 0.016 inches 316 stainless steel shall be used for exposed (exterior) insulation systems and where
     exposed in interior mechanical equipment rooms, or other high traffic areas (up to 10 feet above finished floor). As an alternative,
     PVC jacket and fitting covers may be used in these interior spaces.
INSULATION SPECIFICATION:
        Flexible Cellular: ASTM C 534, 5 pcf density, k = 0.27 Btu-in/h-ft2 at 75 °F
        Cellular Glass: ASTM C 552, 8.5 pcf density, k = 0.35 Btu-in/h-ft2 at 75 °F
        Calcium Silicate: ASTM C 533, 13 pcf density, k = 0.38 Btu-in/h-ft2 at 100 °F
        Mineral Fiber: ASTM C 547, 4 pcf density, k = 0.23 Btu-in/h-ft2 at 75 °F




            Insulation Systems                                                                      Section 15200 - Page 9
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007



                    MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT INSULATION SCHEDULE

                                                 EQUIPMENT       INSULATION
                                                  LOCATION
  EQUIPMENT          SURFACE     INSULATION  IN-       OUT-   DENSITY     THICKNESS    JACKET
     TYPE            METAL          TYPE    DOOR      DOOR     (PCF)       (INCHES)
                     TEMP
                   (DEGREES F)

  Return/Relief        75        Mineral Fiber    X              3            1        All-
  and Exhaust                    Board                                                 Service
  Fan Casings
  and Plenums

  Cooling Coil         55        Mineral Fiber    X              3            2}       All-
  Sections and                   Board                                                 Service
  Cooling Coil
  Condensate
  Pump Tanks

  Supply Fan,          55        Mineral Fiber    X              3                 2   All-
  Dehumidifier,         to       Board                                                 Service
  Air Blender,         140
  and Heating
  Coil Casings/
  Sections

  Pumps Serving        40        Mineral Fiber    X              3            2        See
  Cold Water            to       Board                                                 Paragraph
  Systems              180                                                             9.0.J

  Sidestream           40        Mineral Fiber    X              3            2        See Article
  Filters, Air          to       Board                                                 9.0.J
  Purgers and          180
  Air Separators
  Serving the
  Chilled Water
  and Hot Water
   Heating
  Systems

  Water-to-Water       50        Mineral Fiber    X              6           1.5       See
  Heat                  to       Board                                                 Paragraph
  Exchangers           180                                                             9.0.J




Insulation Systems                                                      Section 15200 - Page 10
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

                    MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT INSULATION SCHEDULE

                                                 EQUIPMENT       INSULATION
                                                  LOCATION
  EQUIPMENT          SURFACE     INSULATION  IN-       OUT-   DENSITY     THICKNESS   JACKET
     TYPE            METAL          TYPE    DOOR      DOOR     (PCF)       (INCHES)
                     TEMP
                   (DEGREES F)

  Chiller              40        Mineral Fiber    X              6            2       See
  Evaporator and                 Board                                                Paragraph
  Condenser                                                                           9.0.J
  Marine Water
  Boxes,
  Condenser
  Water Strainer
  and Water
  Storage Tanks

  Steam-to-            250       Calcium          X             13            3       Cement
  Water Heat                     Silicate                                             Finish
  Exchangers

  Steam                250       Calcium          X             13            3       Cement
  Condensate                     Silicate                                             Finish
  Pumps,
  Condensate
  Receivers,
  Condensate
  Coolers and
  Flash Tanks

  Water                170       Mineral Fiber    X              6           1.5      18 Gauge
  Treatment                      Board                                                Metal
  Chemical                                                                            Jacket
  Mixing/
  Storage Tanks

  Expansion            40        Mineral Fiber    X              3            2       See
  Tanks and             to       Board                                                Paragraph
  Humidifier           180                                                            9.0.J
  Separators




Insulation Systems                                                      Section 15200 - Page 11
University of Pennsylvania                                                                 Design Guide
                                                                                  Final – March 15, 2007

                    MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT INSULATION SCHEDULE

                                                 EQUIPMENT               INSULATION
                                                  LOCATION
  EQUIPMENT          SURFACE     INSULATION  IN-           OUT-     DENSITY      THICKNESS       JACKET
     TYPE            METAL          TYPE    DOOR          DOOR       (PCF)        (INCHES)
                     TEMP
                   (DEGREES F)

  Duct-Mounted         75        Mineral Fiber      X                    3             1        All-
  Sound                          Board                                                          Service
  Attenuators in
  Supply Air
  Ducts


  INSULATION SPECIFICATION:
         Flexible Cellular: ASTM C 534, k = 0.27 Btu-in/h-ft2 at 75 °F
         Cellular Glass Block: ASTM C 552, k = 0.35 Btu-in/h-ft2 at 75 °F
         Calcium Silicate: ASTM C 533, k = 0.38 Btu-in/h-ft2 at 100 °F
         Mineral Fiber Board (w/ vapor barrier): ASTM C 612, k = 0.23 Btu-in/h-ft2 at 75 °F
         Mineral Wool Felt (block or blanket): ASTM C 533, k = 0.50 to 0.58 Btu-in/h-ft2 at 600 °F




Insulation Systems                                                            Section 15200 - Page 12
   University of Pennsylvania                                                           Design Guide
                                                                               Final – March 15, 2007


                           SHEET METAL DUCTWORK INSULATION SCHEDULE
                                         PLENUM OR DUCT LOCATION          INSULATION             JACKET

PLENUM OR
DUCTWORK               INSULATION                                  DENSITY         THICKNESS
TYPE                      TYPE            INDOOR      OUTDOOR       (PCF)           (INCHES)

Rectangular Supply    Rigid Mineral          X                        3               1.5        All-Service
and Return            Fiber Board
Ductwork in                                              X            6               2          +
Mechanical Rooms,
All Exposed Areas
and Duct Shafts

Rectangular Supply    Rigid Mineral          X                        3               1.5        All-Service
and Return Duct-      Fiber Board
work in Concealed                                        X            6               2          +
Areas
                      OR

                      Mineral                                         1               2          All-Service
                      Fiber Wrap             X
                                                                      1               2          +
                                                         X

Outside Air Intake,   Rigid Mineral          X                        6               2          All-Service
Relief and Exhaust    Fiber Board
Plenums                                                  X            6               2          +

Louver Blank-Off      Rigid Mineral          X                        6               2          Galvanized
Panels                Fiber Board                                                                Sheet

                                                                                                 Metal (Two
                                                                                                 Sides)



Round and Flat-       Mineral Fiber          X                        1               2          All-Service
Oval Supply and       Wrap
Outside Air                                              X            1               2          +
Ductwork, and
Return Ductwork in
Mechanical Rooms

Kitchen Hood          Calcium Silicate       X                       13        1                 None
Exhaust Ductwork      OR
                      Ceramic Fiber
                      Blanket                X                        8        1                 None
                                                                               or
                                                                               3 (two 1.5-inch
                                                                               layers)




   Insulation Systems                                                        Section 15200 - Page 13
   University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

                          SHEET METAL DUCTWORK INSULATION SCHEDULE
                                     PLENUM OR DUCT LOCATION          INSULATION        JACKET

PLENUM OR
DUCTWORK              INSULATION                               DENSITY     THICKNESS
TYPE                     TYPE         INDOOR      OUTDOOR       (PCF)       (INCHES)

Emergency or         Rigid Mineral       X                        6            1.5      All-Purpose
Standby Power        Fiber Board                                                        Jacket with
Generator Air                                                                           Vapor Barrier
Intake Plenum,
Intake Ductwork
and Intake
Attenuator

Emergency or         Rigid Mineral       X                        6             2       Embossed
Standby Power        Fiber Board                                                        Aluminum
Generator Radiator
Air Discharge
Ductwork



Load Bank Air        Semi-Rigid          X                        6            4++      Embossed
Discharge            Mineral Fiber                                                      Aluminum
Ductwork             Board



Ductwork             Rigid Mineral       X                        6             2       Noise Barrier
Requiring Noise      Fiber Board                                                        Jacket
Transmission
Control (as
indicated on the
Drawings)




   Insulation Systems                                                    Section 15200 - Page 14
    University of Pennsylvania                                                                          Design Guide
                                                                                               Final – March 15, 2007

                            SHEET METAL DUCTWORK INSULATION SCHEDULE
                                          PLENUM OR DUCT LOCATION                      INSULATION                JACKET

PLENUM OR
DUCTWORK                INSULATION                                              DENSITY        THICKNESS
TYPE                       TYPE              INDOOR           OUTDOOR            (PCF)          (INCHES)

+   = For rectangular ducts and plenums exposed to weather, pitch ductwork or insulation board minimum 1/4 inch per foot to
      prevent rainwater from accumulating on top of duct or plenum. Additionally apply a 1/16-inch coat of mastic to the
      insulation board. Embed one layer of open mesh fiberglass or polyester reinforcing cloth into the mastic, apply 1/8-inch
      final coat of mastic covering the cloth completely. As an alternate, cover insulation board with corrugated rolled aluminum
      jacketing installed in strict accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.



++ = Use double-layer application of two 2 inch thick panels to ensure overlapping of all seams and joints to minimize heat loss
     and hot spots.


INSULATION SPECIFICATION:
        Rigid and Semi Rigid Mineral Fiber Board (w/ vapor barrier): ASTM C 612, k = 0.23 Btu-in/h-ft2 at 75 °F
        Mineral Fiber Wrap (w/ vapor barrier): ASTM C 553, k = 0.27 Btu-in/h-ft2 at 75 °F
        Calcium Silicate: ASTM C 533, k = 0.38 Btu-in/h-ft2 at 100 °F
        Ceramic Fiber Blanket: k = 0.27 Btu-in/h-ft2 with a melting point of 3200 °F and a 3-hour fire rating for 5-inch
        thickness when tested in accordance with ASTM E119
        Thermal Insulating Wool: k = 0.22 Btu-in/h-ft2 at 100 °F
        Flexible Cellular: ASTM C 534, k = 0.27 Btu-in/h-ft2 at 75 °F




                                                   END OF SECTION




    Insulation Systems                                                                     Section 15200 - Page 15
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15300 - "SPRINKLER SYSTEMS"

1.0   General

      A.     All new and renovated buildings shall be provided with automatic sprinklers
             throughout and fire standpipe systems. The design and installation of these
             systems shall be in accordance with NFPA standards, City of Philadelphia Code,
             and Factory Mutual Global requirements.

      B.     All designs must be submitted to Factory Mutual for review and approval prior to
             issuing such for bids.

      C.     A final acceptance test of the sprinkler and standpipe system must be conducted
             by a Contractor licensed and certified by the City of Philadelphia, Department of
             License and Inspection.

2.0   System Types

      A.     Generally wet-pipe sprinkler systems shall be provided throughout all buildings
             or structures except where other type of fire suppression systems are warranted
             due to the type of hazard or environmental considerations of the space(s) being
             protected, e.g. areas subject to freezing.

      B.     Single-interlock preaction sprinkler systems should be considered in spaces
             containing high value equipment or contents and spaces which are highly sensitive
             to the effects of accidental sprinkler water discharge. Examples are:

             1.      Data center/computer rooms
             2.      Laboratory spaces with high value equipment/instrumentation such as
                     NMRs, Mass Spectrometers, robotics, etc.
             3.      Electrical switchgear/substation rooms
             4.      Museum spaces
             5.      Libraries

      C.     Dry-pipe or nonfreeze (glycol) sprinkler systems should be considered in areas
             subject to freezing; cold rooms, loading docks, unheated spaces, etc.

      D.     Other options for spaces containing high value equipment or contents and spaces
             which are highly sensitive to the effects of accidental sprinkler water discharge are
             Clean Agent gaseous suppression (FM-200, Inergen, or other Halon replacement)
             and possibly new emerging technology water mist systems. The design and


Sprinkler Systems                                                        Section 15300 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

             installation of these types of systems shall comply with the appropriate NFPA
             standards and Insurance Underwriter’s standards (e.g. FM Global data sheets).

      E.     New standpipe systems shall be wet, Class I type with 2-1/2 inch hose valve
             connections for fire department use. Hose shall not be provided. Occupant use
             hoses (1-1/2 inch hose) are not required. Fire Standpipe Systems shall be provided
             for multi-story buildings as required by code.

3.0   Sprinkler Types

      A.     Sprinkler heads may be of the thermo-sensitive fusible solder link type or
             frangible glass bulb type.

      B.     Quick response sprinklers shall be provided in all light hazard occupancies as
             defined and required by NFPA 13 Standard on Installation of Sprinklers. Quick
             response sprinklers may also want to be considered in other spaces such as
             laboratories. Quick response sprinklers generally react and activate quicker than
             standard response sprinklers thereby discharging water onto a fire earlier and
             thereby minimizing fire size.

      C.     Dry pendent or dry horizontal sidewall type sprinklers may be cost effective
             options for small areas requiring suppression which may be subject to freezing
             conditions, such as small cold rooms, small outside canopy areas, etc.

      D.     Sprinkler styles (pendent, upright, concealed, recessed, flush, special application,
             etc.) shall be chosen based on the hazard being protected, consideration of
             aesthetics, NFPA 13 requirements, approval/listings and manufacturers
             recommendations.

4.0   Fire Water Supply

      A.     Fire booster pumps shall be provided only as required to provide and maintain
             adequate fire water flow and pressure in order to meet the sprinkler and/or
             standpipe system demands in accordance with the codes and standards (see
             Paragraph 1A.).

      B.     Water supplies shall be designed to meet the largest flow and pressure demands of
             the building fire suppression system(s). Where required, provide a fire pump in
             order to meet the building fire suppression fire water demand. A minimum 10 psi
             or 10 percent (10 percent of demand pressure at required flow) safety factor
             should be provided to accommodate future deterioration and increased demand on


Sprinkler Systems                                                        Section 15300 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

             fire water supplies.

      C.     All sprinkler/standpipe systems shall be hydraulically calculated in accordance
             with NFPA standards and Insurance Underwriter (e.g. FM Global) requirements
             to show that the system demand can be met by the available water supply.

5.0   Alarms/Monitoring/Control

      A.     All valves which control the flow of water to water-based fire suppression
             systems shall be provided with tamper switches.

      B.     Provide each sprinkler/standpipe system and/or zone with a waterflow switch.

      C.     All waterflow and tamper devices shall be supervised by the main fire system
             panel as a trouble or alarm point as dictated by the service.

      D.     Preaction sprinkler systems should preferably be actuated by heat detectors.
             Smoke detection is also an option; however, heat detectors will help minimize the
             possibility of tripping a preaction system based on a false trip of a smoke
             detector.

      E.     All alarms and controls for a preaction sprinkler system shall be connected to a
             local addressable preaction panel listed and approved for release. Provide dry
             contacts in the local preaction panel in order to transmit alarm and trouble signals
             for the preaction system to the main building fire alarm panel.

6.0   Materials

      A.     Piping and materials shall be in accordance with Section 15400.

      B.     Piping for dry-pipe and preaction sprinkler systems shall be galvanized.

      C.     All products and equipment shall be UL listed and/or FM Global approved for
             use as part of a fire suppression system.

7.0   Testing and Maintenance

      A.     Test, flush, and maintain the fire protection systems in accordance with the
             applicable codes and standards (see Paragraph 1A.).

      B.     The sprinkler systems shall be designed to minimize maintenance and testing


Sprinkler Systems                                                        Section 15300 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

             requirements.

      C.     The quantity and location of Inspector’s Test Connections/drains installed shall
             be in accordance with the applicable code and standards (see Paragraph 1A.).

      D.     Locate test/drain connections so that their discharge will not cause damage to the
             building or site. Provide splash blocks where test and drain connections are
             discharged to grade. All test stations shall be located in areas where testing does
             not affect occupants or programs, and water discharge does not pool or freeze.

8.0   Miscellaneous Equipment and Devices

      A.     Backflow prevention shall be provided where fire protection system connects to
             public or potable water supplies.

      B.     Where required by the Insurance Underwriter (e.g. FM Global) or the Authority
             Having Jurisdiction (AHJ), provide durable locks and chain for each interior valve
             controlling water to a sprinkler or standpipe system and each outside Post
             Indicating Valve (PIV) controlling fire water into the building or on the site, so that
             these valves may be locked in the wide open position.

      C.     For sprinkler systems in multi-story buildings, design each floor as an
             independent zone or zones, complete with a floor control valve assembly (FCVA)
             consisting of a control valve, flow switch, check valve, pressure gauge and
             test/drain connection.

      D.     For each gridded sprinkler systems provide a minimum _ inch relief valve set to
             operate a maximum pressure of 175 psig or 10 psi in excess of the normal system
             pressure where the normal system pressure is in excess of 165 psig.

9.0   System Documentation

      A.     Provide fire protection drawings and documentation as required by the codes and
             standards (see Paragraph 1A.).

      B.     The fire protection drawings shall show, at a minimum, the following:
             1       The incoming fire service(s) into the building from a point 5 ft. outside the
                     building,
             2       The main sprinkler standpipe system riser assemblies and related devices
                     and equipment at the point where the fire services enter the building,
             3       Main sprinkler/standpipe manifold piping on the ground floor,


Sprinkler Systems                                                         Section 15300 - Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                                                      Design Guide
                                                                       Final – March 15, 2007

             4      Sprinkler standpipe riser locations and routing,
             5      All sprinkler/standpipe system control valve locations,
             6      Sprinkler system floor control valve assemblies (FCVA) at each floor of
                    the stair or stairs,
             7      Test and Drain risers and connections,
             8      Fire hose valve and or hose valve cabinet locations,
             9      Sprinkler system design criteria; including at a minimum,
                    a.      Type of system,
                    b.      Zone or area description
                    c.      Design density (gpm/sq. ft.)
                    d.      Design Area (sq. ft.)
                    e.      Type of sprinkler
                    f.      Maximum sprinkler spacing (sq. ft.)

      C.     Proposed sprinkler head locations shall be shown on the architectural reflected
             ceiling plan(s).


                                    END OF SECTION




Sprinkler Systems                                                      Section 15300 - Page 5
University of Pennsylvania                                                             Design Guide
                                                                              Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15400 – “PIPING SYSTEMS”

1.0   This section is intended to define the general installation requirements for the numerous
      piping systems installed at the University of Pennsylvania. Codes which govern the actual
      sizing and installation of piping should be used during the design process. Welding shall
      conform to current standards and recommendations of the National Certified Pipe Welding
      Bureau and all OSHA, State and City fire protection, NFPA Standard 241, and the
      University’s Office of Fire and Safety requirements.

2.0   Pipe and fittings shall be specified to meet one of the numerous industry standards such as
      ANSI, ASTM, AWWA, etc. and shall be suitable for the operating temperatures and
      pressures to be encountered on the project. Pipe stress analysis shall be provided when
      deemed necessary by the University Representative or the Project Engineer.

3.0   Piping and conduits shall be designed to run parallel with the lines of the building. Electrical
      conduits shall not be hung on hangers with any other service pipes. The different service
      pipes, valves, and fittings shall be installed so that after the covering is applied, there will not
      be less than 4 inches clear space between the finished covering and other work and between
      the finished covering or parallel adjacent pipes. Hangers on different service lines, running
      parallel with each other and nearly together shall be in line with each other and parallel to the
      lines of the building.

4.0   The minimum pipe shall be _ inch for plumbing and HVAC systems, and 1 inch for fire
      protection systems. Size reductions may only occur immediately adjacent to equipment
      connections. Valves and specialties serving equipment shall be full pipe size, not the reduced
      equipment connection size.

5.0   Hangers shall be spaced to prevent sag and permit proper drainage of piping. A hanger shall
      be placed within 1 ft. of each horizontal elbow or valve.

6.0   Vertical runs of pipe and conduit less than 10 ft. long shall be supported by hangers placed
      one (1) foot or less from the elbows on the connecting horizontal runs. Vertical runs of pipe
      and conduit over 10 ft. long, but not over 30 ft. long, and not over 6 inches in size, shall be
      supported by heavy metal clamps. Clamps shall be bolted tightly around the pipes and
      conduits and shall rest securely on the building structure without blocking. When run in a
      shaft, support riser clamps on both sides of clamp. For pipes over 30 feet long or over 6
      inches in size, support base of all vertical pipe stacks (except soil pipe stacks, generator
      exhaust stacks and copper water pipe risers) with a base leg. Cut top of base leg to shape
      and completely weld to heel of base elbow. Weld leg support to a bearing plate and bolt to
      floor. Locate base leg on vertical pipe centerline. All vent stack piping shall be supported
      from below roof. Provide springs for vibration isolation where piping system movement,


Piping Systems                                                                Section 15400 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                            Design Guide
                                                                             Final – March 15, 2007

       expansion, or noise criteria dictate. Clamps may be welded to the pipes and placed below
       couplings.

7.0    In lieu of individual hangers, multiple (trapeze) hangers should be considered for water pipes
       having the same elevation and slope and for electrical conduits. Each multiple hanger shall
       be designed to support a load equal to the sum of the weights of the pipes, conduits, wire,
       and water, the weight of the hanger itself, plus 200 lbs. The size of the hanger rods shall be
       such that the stress at the root of the thread will not be over 10,000 PSI at the design load.
        No rod shall be smaller than 3/8 inches. The size of the horizontal members shall be such
       that the maximum stress will not be over 15,000 PSI design load. A structural engineer shall
       review all loads imposed upon the structure.

8.0    Steam, condensate, and other hot service piping shall be designed with loops, bends, and
       offsets to allow for thermal expansion and keep stresses within the allowable limits of the
       piping material. Expansion joints or ball joints should be avoided if possible.

9.0    Roller-type pipe supports shall be specified where significant horizontal pipe movement will
       occur due to thermal expansion, and spring-type supports shall be specified where significant
       vertical movement will occur and where vibration isolation is needed due to building usage
       and program requirements.

10.0   Piping shall be designed and installed without due stress or strain and run parallel to the lines
       of the building, except to grade them as specified in a neat and workmanlike manner using a
       minimum of fittings. Fittings, valves, and accessories shall be designed as may be required
       to meet the conditions of installation and accommodate service. Piping shall be designed to
       suit the necessities of clearance with ducts, conduits, and other work and so as not to
       interfere with any passages or doorways and allow sufficient headroom at all places.

11.0   Gas-piping systems and other hazardous services shall be designed in strict compliance with
       applicable codes.

12.0   Plumbing system vents, relief valves, rupture disc, etc., shall be piped safely outdoors.
       Overflow pipes, system drains, and relief devices shall be piped to suitable drainage facilities
       and indirectly connected. Certain pieces of equipment may have high discharge rates that can
       quickly result in flooding; drains, sumps, or other receiving devices must have the storage
       volume required. The discharge piping from all steam safety valves shall be piped to a drip
       pan elbow and then to a safe discharge point on the exterior of the building at a minimum
       height of 10 feet above roof level. The drain connections from each drip pan elbow shall be
       piped to a floor drain.




Piping Systems                                                               Section 15400 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                               Design Guide
                                                                                Final – March 15, 2007

13.0    Unions and flanges on each side of all pieces of equipment and other similar items shall be
        designed in such a manner that they can be readily disconnected. Unions and flanges shall
        not be placed in a location which will be inaccessible after completion of the project.

14.0    The project engineer shall specify testing and flushing procedures for each piping service
        installed on the project. Test procedures shall include all items required by code and be
        sufficient to prove all systems tight at conditions which exceed the maximum design
        conditions. Water sampling to establish a treatment plan, pipeline sterilization, positive
        pressure, and vacuum testing must be included as part of the procedures.

15.0    All piping systems shall be designed to meet seismic codes.

16.0    Pipe and fittings for all buildings shall be as defined as follows:

                                                             Abbrevia-        Color    Pipe   Fitting    Joints
Service                                                      tion             Code
1.    Sanitary Drainage (>10 ft. outside of building)        SAN. S.           Green
                                                              W. V.
  a. Underground                                                                        A         I        u
  b. Above ground within building                                                       B        II        b
                                                                                        C       III        c
  c. Above ground within building (optional)                                            C         I        u
  d. Vent piping                                                                        B        II        b
  e. Vent piping (optional)                                                             C       III        c

                                                             LW.LV
2.     Laboratory/Photo Processing Drainage and Vent         LW.LV            Green
                                                                                                           d
                                                                                                          white
  a. Underground                                                                        D       IV       oakum
  b. Above ground (optional)                                                            E        V         e
  c. Above ground                                                                       F       VI         F

3.   Biohazardous Waste and Vent                             BW.BV            Green
  a. Underground                                                                        D       IV         d
  b. Above ground                                                                       F       VI         f

4.   Storm water and misc. clearwater waste                  SW.D             Green
  a. Underground (>10 ft. outside of bldg.)                                             A         I        a
  b. Above ground                                                                       B        II        b


Piping Systems                                                                  Section 15400 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                      Design Guide
                                                                       Final – March 15, 2007

                                                         Abbrevia-   Color    Pipe   Fitting    Joints
Service                                                  tion        Code
  c. Above ground (optional)                                                   C      III         c
  d. Above ground (optional)                                                   H      VIII        h

5.     Foundation drain                                  FD           N/A      I       IX          i
6.     Condensate drain from equipment                   CD          Yellow    C       III         c
       All Drainage and Vent Piping above Food Service
7.     Areas                                             N/A         Green     C       III         c
8.     Domestic Cold Water                               CW          Green
  a.   Above ground – 2-1/2” and larger                                        J1      XI         k
  b.   Above ground 2-1/2” and larger (optional)                               H       X          j
  c.   Above ground 2” and smaller                                             J1      XI         k
  d.   Underground 3” and larger                                               K       XII        l
  e.   Underground 2-1/2” and smaller                                          L       XI         k

9.   Domestic Hot Water                                  HW          Yellow
  a. Above ground – 2-1/2” and larger                                          J1      XI         k
  b. Above ground – 2-1/2” and larger (optional)                               H       X          j
  c. Above ground 2” and smaller                                               J1      XI         k

10.    Domestic Hot Water Recirculating                  HWR         Yellow
 a.    Above Ground 2-1/2” and larger                                          J1      XI         K
 b.    Above Ground 2-1/2” and larger (optional)                               H       X          j
 c.    Above Ground 2-1/2” and smaller                                         J1      XI         k

11.    Tempered Water                                    TW          Yellow
  a.   Above ground – 2-1/2” and larger                                        J1      XI         K
  b.   Above ground – 2-1/2 and larger (optional)                              H       X          j
  c.   Above ground – 2” and smaller                                           J1      XI         k

12.    Drinking Water                                    DW          Green     J1      XI         k
13.    Laboratory Cold Water                             LCW         Green
  a.   Above ground – 2-1/2” and larger                                        J1      VII        h
  b.   Above ground 2-1/2” and larger (optional)                               H       X          j
  c.   Above ground – 2” and smaller                                           J1      XI         k

14.    Laboratory Hot Water                              LHW         Yellow



Piping Systems                                                         Section 15400 - Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                                                  Design Guide
                                                                   Final – March 15, 2007

                                                     Abbrevia-   Color    Pipe   Fitting    Joints
Service                                              tion        Code
  a. Above ground – 2-1/2” and larger                                      J1      XI         h
  b. Above ground – 2-1/2” and larger (optional)                           H       X          j
  c. Above ground – 2” and smaller                                         J1      XI         k

15.    Laboratory Hot Water Recirculating            LHWR        Yellow
  a.   Above ground – 2-1/2” and larger                                    J1      XI         h
  b.   Above ground – 2-1/2” and larger (optional)                         H       X          j
  c.   Above ground – 2” and smaller                                       J1      XI         k

16.  Animal Drinking Water                     ADW               Green     J1      XI         k
     Primary Building Chilled Water Supply and
17. Return                                     CHS/CHR           Green
  a. 2-1/2” and larger                                                     M      XIII        m
  b. 2” and smaller                                                        M      XV          j
  c. 2” and smaller (optional)                                             J      XI          c

18.    Secondary Chilled Water Supply and Return     SCHS/       Green
                                                     SCHR
 a. 5” and larger                                                          M      XIII        m
 b. 4” and smaller                                                         J      XI          c

19.    Glycol Water Supply and Return                GWS/        Green
                                                     GWR
 a. 2-1/2” and larger                                                      M      XIII        m
 b. 2” and smaller                                                         M      XV          j
 c. 2: and smaller (optional)                                              J      XI          c

20.    Condenser Water Supply and Return             CWS/        Green
                                                     CWR
 a. 2-1/2” and larger                                                      M      XIII        m
 b. 2-1/2” and larger (optional)                                           M      XIV         h

21.    Heating Water Supply and Return               HS/HR       Yellow
  a.   2-1/2” and larger                                                   M      XIII        m
  b.   2” and smaller                                                      M      XV          j
  c.   2” and smaller (optional)                                           J      XI          c



Piping Systems                                                     Section 15400 - Page 5
University of Pennsylvania                                             Design Guide
                                                              Final – March 15, 2007

                                                   Abbrevia- Color    Pipe   Fitting   Joints
Service                                            tion      Code
22. Reheat and Water Supply and Return             RHS/RHR Yellow
  a. 2-1/2” and larger                                                 M      XIII       m
  b. 2” and smaller                                                    M      XV         j
  c. 2” and smaller (optional)                                         J      XI         c

23.    Heat Recovery Supply and Return             HRS/HRR   Yellow
  a.   2-1/2” and larger                                               M      XIII       m
  b.   2” and smaller                                                  M      XV         j
  c.   2” and smaller (optional)                                       J      XI         c

24.    Secondary Heating Water Supply and Return   SHS/SHR   Yellow
  a.   5” and larger                                                   M      XIII       m
  b.   5” to larger (optional)                                         M      XIV        h
  c.   4” and smaller                                                  J      XI         c

25.    Steam Supply 250 psi Maximum                HPS/      Yellow
                                                   MPS/LPS
 a. 2-1/2” and larger                                                  M      XIII       m
 b. 2” and smaller                                                     M      XVI        j
 c. 2” and smaller (optional)                                          M      XVII       m

26.    Steam Relief                                SR        Yellow
  a.   2-1/2” and larger                                               M      XIII       m
  b.   2” and smaller                                                  M      XVI        j
  c.   2” and smaller (optional)                                       M      XVII       m

27.    Steam Vents                                 SV        Yellow
  a.   2-1/2” and larger                                               M      XIII       m
  b.   2” and smaller                                                  M      XVI        l
  c.   2” and smaller (optional)                                       M      XVII       m

28.    Steam Condensate                            HPR/      Yellow
                                                   MPR/LPR
 a. 2-1/2” and larger                                                  N      XIII       m
 b. 2” and smaller                                                     N      XVI        j
 c. 2” and smaller (optional)                                          N      XVII       m



Piping Systems                                                Section 15400 - Page 6
University of Pennsylvania                                             Design Guide
                                                              Final – March 15, 2007

                                                 Abbrevia-   Color    Pipe   Fitting    Joints
Service                                          tion        Code
29. Pump Condensate                              PC          Yellow
  a. 2-1/2” and larger                                                 N      XIII        m
  b. 2” and smaller                                                    N      XVI         j
  c. 2” and smaller (optional)                                         N      XVII        m

30. Steam Instrumentation                        SI          Yellow
  a. 2” and smaller                                                    M      XVI         j
  b. 2” and smaller (optional)                                         M      XVII        m

31.    Makeup Water                              MW          Green     J       XI         c
32.    Softened Water                            SW          Green     J       XI         k
33.    Distilled Water                           DIS         Green     O      XVIII       n
34.    Deionized Water                           DI          Green     P      XIX         o
35.    Reverse Osmosis Water Supply and Return   ROS/ROR     Green     Q       XX         p
36.    Oxygen                                    O           Yellow    R       XI         r
37.    Nitrogen                                  N           Green     R       XI         r
38.    Nitrous Oxide                             NO          Yellow    R       XI         r
39.    Carbon Dioxide                            CO          Yellow    R       XI         r
40.    Helium                                    H           Yellow    R       XI         r
41.    Medical Air                               MA          Yellow    R       XI         r
42.    Medical Vacuum                            MV          Yellow    R       XI         r
43.    Laboratory Air                            LA          Yellow    R       XI         r
44.    Laboratory Vacuum                         LV          Yellow    R       XI         r
45.    Gas Evacuation                            GE          Yellow    R.      XI         r
46.    Fuel Supply                               FOS/FOR     Yellow
  a.   2-1/2” and larger                                               M      XIII        m
  b.   2” and smaller                                                  M      XV          j

47.    Fuel Oil Vent                             FOV         Yellow    M      XIII        m
48.    Natural Gas                               G           Yellow
  a.   2-1/2” and larger                                               M      XIII        m
  b.   2” and smaller                                                  M      XV          j
  c.   Underground                                                     S      XXI         s

49. Compressed Air                               A            Blue
  a. Optional                                                          J       XI          c



Piping Systems                                                 Section 15400 - Page 7
University of Pennsylvania                                                              Design Guide
                                                                               Final – March 15, 2007

                                                               Abbrevia-     Color      Pipe    Fitting   Joints
Service                                                        tion          Code

50.    Control Air                                             CA             Blue          J     XI        cj
51.    Refrigerant Piping                                      RS/RL         Yellow         J     XI        r
                                                               HG
52.    Refrigerant Relief                                      RR            Yellow         M    XIII       m
53.    Generator Exhaust                                       GE             N/A           M    XIII       M
54.    Fire Sprinkler/Standpipe-Aboveground                    F(A)           Red
                                                                                                  X,
                                                                                                 XVI,
a.     2” and smaller                                                                       V    XXII       j, v
b.     2-1/2” and larger                                                                    U    XXII        v
55.    Fire Protection Underground Piping                      F(U)            Red          K     XII         l
          Note: Refer to Sec 15510 for Chilled water and Steam services “Underground”

Pipe Material indicated in the above Table shall be as follows:

Pipe Specification                                                      Designation

1.        Cast iron hub and spigot pipe, service weight, ASTM A                         A
          74
2.        Cast iron hubless pipe, service weight, CISPI 301                             B
3.        Copper drainage tubing, drain, waste, and vent, (DWV)                         C
          ASTM B 306
4.        High-silicon iron alloy hub and spigot pipe, extra-                           D
          heavyweight, ASTM A 518, Grade 1
5.        Underwriters Laboratories (UL) classified borosilicate                        E
          glass, ASTM C 1053, FS DD-G-541B, MIL-P-22561B
          (YD)
6.        Flame-retardant polypropylene acid resistant drainage                         F
          pipe, ASTM D 635, Schedule 40
7.        Flame-retardant polypropylene acid resistant drainage                         G
          pipe, ASTM D 635, Schedule 40
8.        Galvanized steel pipe ASTM A 53-906 Grade B,                                  H
          seamless, Schedule 40
9.        Porous concrete drain pipe, ASTM C 654 or AASHO M-                            I
          176
10.       Seamless copper water tube, ASTM B 88, Type K, hard                           J
10a.      Seamless copper water tube, ASTM B88, Type L, hard                            J1
11.       Ductile iron water pipe, outside coated, AWWA C 104/A                         K


Piping Systems                                                                 Section 15400 - Page 8
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

Pipe Specification                                               Designation
       21.4 cement mortar-lined, ANSI/AWWA C 151/A 21.51
       pipe
12.    Seamless copper water tube, ASTM B                                    L
       88, Type K, soft
13.    Black steel pipe, ASTM A 53/106 Grade B, seamless                     M
       Schedule 40
14.    Black steel pipe, ASTM A 53/106 Grade B, seamless                     N
       Schedule 80
15.    As required by program of requirements and required                   O
       water quality
16.    Polypropylene pipe, Type 11 copolymer, ASTM D 4101                    P
17.    As required by program of requirements and required                   Q
       water quality
18.    Seamless copper water tube, ASTM B88, Type K, hard,                   R
       prepared and labeled for oxygen service and sealed when
       delivered to the site
19.    Polyethylene pipe, ASTM D 2513, 690 kPa working                       S
       pressure, standard dimension ration (SDR), the ratio of
       pipe diameter to wall thickness, 11.5 maximum
20.    Underground chilled water with restriction joints mecolay
       or triflex.
21.    Schedule 10 Seamless, welded or electric-resistancewelded             U
       black steel or hot-dipped galvanized, ASTM A53-Grade
       A, ASTM A135 or ASTM A 795
22.    Schedule 40 Seamless, welded or electric-resistancewelded             V
       black steel or hot-dipped galvanized, ASTM A53-Grade
       A, ASTM A135 or ASTM A795


                   Fitting materials indicated in above Table shall be as follows:

Fitting Specification                                                         Designation

1.      Cast-iron hub and spigot fittings, service weight, ASTM                       I
        A 74
2.      Cast-iron hubless fittings, service weight, CISPI 301                         II
3.      Wrought copper and bronze drainage fittings, ANSI                            III
        Standards B16.23, ASNI/ASME B16.29 or ANSI/
        American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
        B16.32


Piping Systems                                                             Section 15400 - Page 9
University of Pennsylvania                                                 Design Guide
                                                                  Final – March 15, 2007

4.    High-silicon/iron alloy hub and spigot fittings extra-             IV
      heavyweight, ASTM A 518, Grade 1
5.    UL-classified borosilicate glass drainage fittings, ASTM            V
      C1053, FS DD-G-541B, or MIL-P-22561B (YD)
6.    Enfusion joint flame-retardant polypropylene acid-                 VI
      resistant drainage fittings, ASTM D635
7.    Flame-retardant, polypropylene acid-resistant, mechanical          VII
      joint-type drainage fittings, ASTM D635
8.    Galvanized steel grooved-end fittings, and couplings,              VIII
      ASTM A 47M or ASTM A 536
9.    Porous concrete drainage fittings, ASTM C 654 or                   IX
      AASHO M-176
10.   Galvanized malleable cast-iron screwed fittings, ASNI               X
      Standard B 16.3, 68 kg for less than 517 kPa and 517 kPa
      or more
11.   Wrought-copper solder joint fittings, 68 kg, ANSI                  XI
      Standard B 16.18 or ASME/ANSI B 16.22 and ASTM B
      4 copper pipe nipples with threaded end connections
12.   Ductile iron pressure fittings, AWWA C 110/A 21.10,                XII
      1724 kPa
13.   Steel butt-welding fittings, ANSI                                  XIII
      Standard B 16.9 using long-turn ells, ANSI Standard B
      16.5 weld-neck or slip-on flanges and Bonney Forge
      Woodlets and threadolets, wall thickness to match pipe
14.   Black, malleable iron-grooved fittings and couplings,              XIV
      ASTM A47.
15.   Black, malleable iron-screwed fittings, 68 kg, ANSI                XV
      Standard B 16.3 for less than 517 kPa and 136 kg for 517
      kPa or more
16.   Black, cast-iron screwed fittings, ANSI Standard B16.4,            XVI
      57 kPa less than 517 kPa and 113 kg for 517 kPa and
      more. Steam and condensate piping shall be 113 kg for all
      operating pressures
17.   Black steel socket wire fittings, ASNI Standard B 16.11           XVII
      wall thickness to match pipe
18.   As required by program of requirements and required               XVIII
      water quality
19.   Polypropylene long-radius or DWV fittings, Type II                XIX
      copolymer, ASTM D4101
20.   As required by program of requirements and required                XX
      water quality


Piping Systems                                                    Section 15400 - Page 10
University of Pennsylvania                                                            Design Guide
                                                                             Final – March 15, 2007

21.    Polyethylene socket fittings, ASTM D 2683 or butt-                             XXI
       fusion fittings, ASTM D 2513 molded
22.    Ductile Iron grooved-end fittings and mechanical type                          XXII
       fittings, and couplings, ASTM A536

                      Joint materials indicated in above Table shall be as follows:

Joint Specification                                                             Designation

1.     Premolded rubber compression gasket joint, ASTM C 564                           a
       or CISPI HSN
2.     No-hub neoprene gasket and stainless steel corrugated                           b
       shield, CISPI 310 coupling
3.     Soldered using ASTM B 32, 95-5 tin-antimony or Grade                            c
       Sn 96 tin-silver and flux containing not more than 0.2%
       lead
4.     Acid-resistant packing (white oakum) and molten lead-                           d
       filled hub
5.     Glass-to glass connection with compression-typebead-to-                         e
       bead and bead-to-plain end couplings
6.     Enfusion joint with maximum average burn time of 80 sec.                        f
       and maximum extent of burning of 20 mm in accordance
       with ASTM D 634
7.     Mechanical joints and adapters, connections containing                          g
       EVA components are prohibited
8.     ASTM A 183 coupling nuts and bolts, ASTM D 2000                                 h
       rubber gaskets for water service
9.     Tongue and groove joints sealed with mortar                                     i
10.    Threaded using American Standard for pipe threads, ANSI                         j
       Standard B 2.1
11.    Soldered using ASTM B 32, 95-5 tin-antimony or code-                            k
       approved lead-free solder
12.    AWWA C11/A21.11 rubber gasket joint for mechanical-                             l
       joint, ductile iron pressure pipe and fittings
13.    Welded engineering standards of the Mechanical                                  m
       Contractors Association of America, Inc. Part VII,
       Standard Procedure Specifications 1 & 2
14.    As required by program of requirements and required                             n
       water quality
15.    Butt-fusion technique per ASTM D 2657, Section 9                                o
16.    As required by program of requirements and required                             p


Piping Systems                                                              Section 15400 - Page 11
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

       water quality
17.    Brazed: AWS A5.8 BcuP (brazing-copper-phosphorus)                          r
       series, greater than 538oC melting temperature, cadmium-
       free brazing filler; the use of flux is prohibited
18.    Fusion of welded joints using electrically heated tools,                   s
       thermostatically controlled and equipped with
       temperature indication.
19.    Brazed: AWS A5.8 brazing filler metal Type Bag-5 with                      t
       AWS Type 3 flux, except Type BcuP or BcuP-6 maybe
       used for brazing copper-to-copper joints
20.    Hub and spigot joints sealed with lead and oakum.                          u
21.    EPDM gaskets as listed and approved with the mechanical                    v
       grooved coupling

Methods and materials for wet taps, where permitted by the Office of the University Engineer, shall
be submitted for approval by the A/E. Submittals shall include documentation on the products to
be used with complete instructions and procedures to ensure successful wet taps.

                                      END OF SECTION




Piping Systems                                                          Section 15400 - Page 12
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15410 - "PLUMBING SYSTEMS"

1.0   Valves:

      A.        All branch mains shall be provided with shutoff valves to permit servicing of systems
                without affecting other areas of the building. As a minimum, each toilet area (men's
                or women's) shall be provided with isolation valves.

      B.        Up to Two and One-half (2-1/2) inches: Full port, 2-piece, bronze body ball valves
                with teflon seat conforming to ASTM B-61 or B-62.

      C.        Three (3) inches and above: Gate valve with flanged connections, non-rising steam,
                bolted bonnet and bronze trim. Select class to meet service.

      D.        Check valves shall be swing type bronze body up to 2-1/2 inches. Above 2-1/2
                inches use water, bronze body type designed for installation between ANSI, B16.1
                flanges.

2.0   Domestic cold water service shall be provided from a connection to the existing city water
      system. Duplex constant pressure booster pumps (if required) shall be provided with each
      pump sized at 67% of the estimated requirements. Variable speed drive similar to the Delta
      Pak system from Delta P Systems shall be considered for larger systems.

      Piping shall be sized to maintain a minimum pressure of 25 psig at the farthest flush valve
      and 30 psig at the hydraulically most remote safety shower. Water velocity in the
      distribution piping system will not exceed 6 feet per second and provisions shall be made to
      reduce any water hammer with water hammer arrestors. All of the piping in the domestic
      water system will be insulated. All branches off the domestic cold water distribution main
      providing service to mechanical equipment shall be provided with backflow preventers.

      Refer to Section 15400 for piping materials.

3.0   Domestic Hot Water System

      A.        The maximum hot-water temperature produced will be 140 degrees F with service to
                laboratory sinks, lavatories, showers, washdown stations, general purpose sinks,
                service sinks, and other specific equipment mixed to 120 degrees F as required.

      B.        For kitchen equipment, dishwashers, cage, rack and glassware washers and hose
                station requirements, 140 degree F water shall be provided. Any requirements for




Plumbing Systems                                                           Section 15410 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

             higher temperature water shall be provided by local water booster heaters provided
             with the equipment.

             Domestic hot water shall be produced by duplex domestic hot water generators. The
             generators shall be sized to satisfy the domestic fixture and equipment demands of
             the kitchen. Hot water generators shall be designed, with each generator capable of
             satisfying a minimum of 67% of system demand upon the failure of any single hot
             water generator.

             Special consideration must be taken into account for the large stop / start water
             demands of washers. System serving these must be designed so that the controls
             response time is rapid so as not to over shoot or under shoot the set-point by more
             than +/- 5 F. A buffer or reservoir tank may be needed to satisfy this requirement.

4.0   Sanitary drainage, waste and vent system shall be provided including waste and vent systems
      from all toilets, lavatories, service sinks, nonprocess floor drainage, etc. Sanitary drainage
      will be connected directly into the site sanitary sewer system without treatment.

5.0   Laboratory/process waste and vent system shall be provided for all lab fixtures, equipment
      and floor drains located in lab and process areas. Laboratory/process waste shall be a
      dedicated system within the building and be connected to the site sanitary system. Sampling
      capability for effluent testing shall be provided prior to connecting to the site sanitary
      system. On a project by project basis, the need for a chemical neutralization system before
      connection into the site sanitary sewer system shall be evaluated.

      Waste systems shall not be required to filter, distill, incinerate or otherwise remove any
      toxins, particulate, solid, radioactivity, or heavy metals. Only pH neutralization and/or
      dilution will be considered.

6.0   Treatment of biological waste shall be via dedicated treatment systems before discharging into
      the site sanitary system.

7.0   Toxic, radioactive, solvent or high concentration wastes will be disposed through local, “in-
      lab” safety containers, without use of piped waste systems.

8.0   Storm water drainage system shall be provided for all roof and area drains and be
      connected into the site storm system.

      Parking area drains shall connect into the storm drainage system. Oil and sand interceptors
      shall be provided for the storm drainage from the parking facilities.




Plumbing Systems                                                          Section 15410 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

9.0    If required, sanitary, laboratory/process or storm drainage from lower building levels shall be
       lifted to the main sanitary line and draining by gravity to the site sewer system. A duplex
       sewage ejector pumping system shall be used for this purpose. Each pump shall be sized for
       a capacity of 100 percent of the load.

10.0   Natural Gas System

       A.     A natural gas system shall be provided to supply laboratory outlets, kitchen
              equipment and mechanical equipment requiring this service. Natural gas shall be
              extended into the facility from a connection to the existing or new site main and be
              distributed at 1-inch water column.

       B.     Capacity for the piping system shall be based on actual equipment demand, plus 7
              cfh per laboratory outlet with diversity factors applied based on the number of
              outlets. Diversity factors are as follows:



                                 NATURAL GAS SYSTEM DIVERSITY FACTORS
                   Number of Outlets        Use Factor - Percent           Minimum Outlets
                           1-8                        100                            ---
                           9-16                        90                              9
                          17-29                        80                             15
                          30-79                        60                             24
                          80-162                       50                             48
                        163-325                        40                             82
                        326-742                        35                           131
                        743-1570                       30                           260

       C.     A valve shall be provided at each lab module for shut-off of natural gas supply to
              lab. Valves shall not be located above ceiling spaces.

11.0   Compressed Air System

       A.     A compressed air system shall be provided to supply laboratory outlets, outlets in
              mechanical equipment rooms and equipment requiring this service. Oil-free Grade D
              compressed air shall be distributed throughout the facility at 100 psig. Branches to



Plumbing Systems                                                           Section 15410 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

              equipment will be provided with pressure regulators to reduce system pressured as
              required for specific equipment. A maximum pressure of 35 psig will be supplied to
              laboratory outlets.

        B     Compressed air shall be dried to 35 degrees F or minus 40 degrees D dewpoint prior
              to prior to distribution. The distribution system shall be designed based on one (1)
              scfm per outlet, with diversity factors applied based on the number of outlets, plus
              actual demands of equipment requiring this service. Diversity factors are as follows:

                             COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM DIVERSITY FACTORS
                  Number of Outlets        Use Factor - Percent           Minimum Outlets
                           1-2                      100                            ---
                           3-12                       80                             3
                          13-38                       60                            10
                          39-115                      40                            25
                          116-316                     30                            50
                          317-700                     20                            95

        C.    Installed equipment shall provide for a minimum of 67 percent system capacity upon
              the failure of any single compressor or drier.

        D.    Air shall be filtered centrally to 5 microns with additional branch or point of use
              filtration where necessary. Redundant filtration devices shall be provided for on-line
              maintenance.

12.0.   Nitrogen System

        A.    A gaseous nitrogen system shall be provided to supply laboratory outlets and
              equipment requiring this service. Nitrogen shall be delivered and distributed either
              from central manifolding cylinder system or from liquid nitrogen storage and
              vaporizer system. For manifolded cylinders applications, automatic changeover
              capabilities shall be provided between cylinders. Local alarms shall be provided.

        B.    Gaseous nitrogen shall be distributed to the laboratories at 50 psig, with 35 psig
              maximum at laboratory outlets.




Plumbing Systems                                                          Section 15410 - Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

       C.     The distribution system shall be designed based on one (1) scfm per outlet, with
              diversity factors applied based on the number of outlets, plus actual demands of
              equipment requiring this service.

                                   NITROGEN SYSTEM DIVERSITY FACTORS
                   Number of Outlets        Use Factor - Percent           Minimum Outlets
                           1-5                        100                            ---
                           6-12                        80                              5
                          13-38                        60                             10
                          39-115                       40                             25
                        116-316                        30                             50
                        317-700                        20                             95

13.0   Special Gas Systems

       Other laboratory gases (Argon, Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen and any other specialty gases) shall
       be delivered, handled, and distributed from cylinders on a local basis, via central manifolding
       and distribution systems where practical based on system capacity requirements and user
       locations or via bulk storage tanks. Gases shall be distributed from protected and ventilated
       areas. There shall be separate areas provided for storage of flammable and oxidizing gases in
       cylinders. For manifolded cylinder, applications, automatic changeover capabilities shall be
       provided between cylinders. Local alarms shall be provided.

14.0   Process steam shall be provided to process equipment as required. Maximum pressure and
       other specific requirements shall be evaluated based on the equipment selected on a project
       by project basis.

15.0   Laboratory Vacuum System

       A.     A dry vacuum system shall be provided for all lab areas as required.

       B.     Vacuum shall be provided at a minimum of 25 in Hg at the furthest inlet (to be
              confirmed with user group). System shall be designed based on one (1) scfm per
              inlet. Diversity factors shall be applied based on the maximum number of inlets.
              Diversity factors are as follows:

                        LABORATORY VACUUM SYSTEM DIVERSITY FACTORS


Plumbing Systems                                                           Section 15410 - Page 5
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

                  Number of Outlets       Use Factor - Percent           Minimum Outlets
                         1-5                       100                            ---
                         6-12                        80                             5
                        13-33                        60                            10
                        34-80                        50                            21
                        81-150                       40                            40
                      151-315                        35                            61
                      316-565                        30                          111

       C.    Installed equipment shall provide 67 percent standby capacity upon the failure of any
             single vacuum pump.
       D.    Vacuum pumps are to be located below the area it serves.

16.0   Purified Laboratory Water System

       A.    Laboratory grade water conforming to ASTM standards for Type III reagent grade
             water shall be provided for general laboratory uses such as general laboratory use
             and rinse water, applications where required.

       B.    Pending the review of a water sample analysis, a system utilizing pretreatment by
             sediment and carbon filtration, water softening (and brine tank), distillation, ion,
             exchange, reverse osmosis, continuous deionization unit (CDI), or a combination
             thereof, followed by polishing and .45 micron membrane filters shall be provided
             as required to produce 1.0 megohm-cm quality water as a minimum.

       C.    The water distribution loops shall have continuous flow. Pumps shall be redundant.
              System shall also incorporate a storage tank and a UV light sterilizer. Resistivity
             shall be monitored in the return line to the storage tank. A method for system
             sanitization shall be provided with sample points as required to permit testing of the
             water. All of the water system equipment shall be located in a mechanical room.
             Local point-of-use laboratory polishing units shall be provided if required to produce
             water of higher quality.

             The piping capacity shall be based on an instantaneous demand of 0.5 gpm per lab
             outlet (with applied diversity factor) plus equipment demands. Pretreatment
             equipment capacity shall be based on 2 gph per lab plus equipment demands.




Plumbing Systems                                                         Section 15410 - Page 6
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

17.0   Process Chilled Water or Cooling System

       A.     Process chilled water system shall be provided to serve laboratory equipment
              requiring cooling water. Specific requirements shall be evaluated based on the
              quantity and usage of process equipment on a project by project basis. Tees with
              ball valves shall be located at each floor for branch isolation and future needs.

18.0   Hazardous Waste Treatment Systems

       A.     The requirementsfor a laboratory waste neutralization system to treat any laboratory
              waste system to pH levels suitable for discharge to the sanitary sewer system shall
              be evaluated on a project by project basis.

       B.     The requirements for a biohazard waste treatment system to treat any biohazard
              waste shall be evaluated on a project by project basis. The treated waste shall be
              discharged to the sanitary sewer system.


                                     END OF SECTION




Plumbing Systems                                                        Section 15410 - Page 7
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15430 - "PLUMBING SPECIALTIES"

1.0   Water-hammer arrestors shall be provided to control and absorb hydrostatic shock pressure
      of the piping system, conform to American Society of Sanitary Engineers (ASSE) 1010 and
      be sized in accordance with Plumbing and Drainage Institute (PDI) WH-201. Field-
      manufactured water-hammer arrestors are not acceptable.

2.0   All systems shall be provided with cleanouts where the sanitary or waste main change
      direction and in all straight mains on a maximum spacing of 50 ft. Provide access covers in
      finished areas.

3.0   Provide hose bibs on the exterior of all buildings. A minimum of one (1) bib shall be installed
      on each building face and the maximum distance between bibs shall not exceed 100 ft. The
      hose bibs shall be of the non-freeze type housed in a lockable wall box.

4.0   Drain Traps

      A.     Provide separate traps for drains not fruited with integral traps.

      B.     Piping materials (fittings) for drain shall be as specified in related Section 15400.

5.0   Trap Primers

      A.     Provide trap primers conforming to ANSI/ASSE 1018.

             1.      Single Trap Primers: Cast bronze with 1/2 inch NPT female connections.
             2.      Multiple Trap Primers: With distribution units.

      B.     When required provide trap primers with time clock equipped with 24-hour dial with
             replaceable trippers suitable for 120 V, 60 Hz operation. Interval timer shall be base-
             mounted. Solenoid valve shall be all-bronze with threaded connections suitable for
             120 v, 60 Hz operation.

6.0   Fresh Air Inlets

      A.     Provide wall-type fresh air inlets with protective perforated cover, pipe clamp, set
             screw and vandalproof cover screw. Exposed parts shall receive statuary bronze
             finish.

7.0   Washing machine connections shall be wall box assembly containing water supply and drain
      connections. Include water supply line and single control valve with lever handle.


Plumbing Specialties                                                      Section 15430 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007


8.0    Vending Machine Connections shall be provided with valved cold water supply piping to
       vending machines using materials as specified in Section 15400.

9.0    Mechanical equipment connections shall be provided with valved cold water supply piping
       to applicable mechanical equipment with pressure reducing backflow preventer using
       materials as specified in Section 15400.

10.0   Interceptors shall be used when waste discharged into a drainage system containing
       substances which hinder sewage disposal, such as non-soluble, flammable, or hazardous
       substances.

       A.     Solids interceptors shall have cast iron body, including bolted and gasketed watertight
              cover, removable inlet baffle, removable sediment basket with bronze screens, and 2
              inch IPS threaded female inlet and outlet connections.

       B.     Oil interceptors shall have steel body with acid-resistant rubber base coating applied
              inside and outside including baffle plates, draw-off connections, double wall trap seal,
              air relief bypass, countersunk clean-out plug, sediment basket, scoriated non-skid
              neoprene gasketed cover, IPS threaded female inlet and outlet connections, two IPS
              vent connections and lift rings.

11.0   Grease Interceptors

       A.     Grease interceptors shall be floor-mounted, semi-recessed or flush-to-finished floor
              having cast iron body with anchor flange, and acid-resistant rubber base coating or
              porcelain enamel applied inside and outside.
       B.     Inceptors shall be installed with monitoring equipment that notifies occupants when
              the inceptor needs servicing.
       C.     Inceptors shall be located as close as possible to the source.
       D      Serviceability and access by a vacuum truck to the unit shall be considered a top
              priority by the AE team.
       E.     A placard in the area must describe the service requirements of the unit.

12.0   Test Tees shall be provided with screwed plug at the base of each soil, waste and vent stack,
       including interior rainwater conductors, and on every third floor in multi-storied buildings in
       accordance with local plumbing code requirements.

13.0   Thermostatic Mixing (Temperature Control) Valves.




Plumbing Specialties                                                       Section 15430 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

       A.     Provide for the Domestic Hot Water System, and any Tempered Water Systems, and
              for domestic water supply to the Laboratory Purified Water Systems. Manufactures
              shall be Leonard, Lawler, powers or approved equal.

              1.       Provide valve with swivel-action check stops, removable cartridge with
                       strainer, wall-mounted type dial thermometer, and standard rough chrome
                       finish.
              2.       Provide check valve on cold water inlet to mixing valve when mixing valve is
                       not furnished with integral check valve.

14.0   Hose Stations

       A      Wall-Mounted Hose Station: For Domestic Hot and Cold Water Service:

              1.       Unit shall be supplied with a domestic hot and cold water thermostatic mixing
                       valve, bimetal thermostat, temperature-adjusting handle, and color-coded
                       heat-resistant handles. Inlets shall be provided with unions. Outlet shall be
                       provided with dial thermometer having a range of 20 to 180 degrees F,
                       vacuum breaker, and hose connection. Degrees in Celsius and Fahrenheit shall
                       be shown on thermometer. Hose rack shall be stainless steel.
              2.       Unit shall have concealed cabinet for recessed installation, body of No. 16
                       gauge stainless steel, door and flange of No. 12 gauge stainless steel, No. 4
                       finish. Door shall be provided with piano hinge on left side of door, cylinder
                       lock and top inlets. Cabinet shall be factory assembled as a unit.

       B.     Hose: 3/4 inch 2-braid heavy-duty hose, SBR high-temperatureresistant (290 degrees
              F at 50 psig) with Nitrile-PVC cover. Length determined on a project by project
              basis.

       C.     Hose Nozzle: Provide hose nozzle with adjustablespray, self-closing automatic shut-
              off, and heavy-duty rubber cover.

       D.     Wall-Mounted Hose Station and RetractableHose Reel and Spray: For Domestic Hot
              and Cold Water Service:

              1.       Unit shall be supplied with a domestic hot and cold water thermostatic mixing
                       valve, bimetal thermostat, temperature-adjusting handle, and color-coded
                       heat-resistant handles. Inlets shall be provided with unions. Outlets shall be
                       provided with a dial thermometer having a range of 20 to 180 degrees F,
                       vacuum breaker, and hose connection. Degrees in Celsius and Fahrenheit shall
                       be shown on thermometer.


Plumbing Specialties                                                       Section 15430 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

              2.    Retractable hose reel and spray shall be supplied with a heavy-duty, 35 foot
                    hose of 3/8 inch I.D., with adjustable hose bumper, open reel, and no cover,
                    and spray nozzle with heat-resistant handle.
15.0   Backflow Preventers (Reduced-Pressure Zone and Double Check Valve Types)

       A.     Reduced-Pressure Zone Type shall be used in higher hazard applications and shall
              have iron body, stainless steel internal parts, and double-seated first check valve.
              Backflow preventer shall conform to ASSE 1013 for reduced-pressurezone principle.
              For sizes up to 2 inches, provide union connections. For sizes 2 1/2 to 6 inches,
              provide flanged connections. Backflow preventers shall be provided with test cocks.

       B.     Double Check Valve Type shall be used in minimum hazard applications and shall
              have bronze body, stainless steel internal parts, and double check valve assembly.
              Backflow preventer shall conform to ASSE 1015. For sizes up to 2 inches, provide
              union connections. Furnish backflow preventers with test cocks.

16.0   Backflow Preventers (Atmospheric Type) shall have brass body and a rubber-to-rubber
       seating design with male threads at one end and female threads on opposite end. Backflow
       preventers shall be suitable for hose bibbs and wall hydrants, and shall conform to
       ANSI/ASSE 1011.

17.0   Pressure-relief valves shall have bronze body, carbon steel spring, and shall be set at a
       maximum of 90 psig and be installed on all equipment for heating or storage of hot water.

18.0   Vacuum-Relief Valves shall be installed on all equipment used for storage and shall have brass
       body with heating-resisting disc and male inlet connection. Valves shall have a maximum
       water working pressure of 200 psi and a maximum operating temperature of 250 degrees F.
        Approved manufactures are Sarco or approved equal.

19.0   Water Pressure-Reducing Valves shall be installed when street main pressure exceeds 80
       pounds per square inch and shall conform to ASSE 1003.

       A.     For pipe sizes 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches use a diaphragm-actuated valve with bonze body,
              stainless steel spring, rubber disc, renewable stainless steel seat, and threaded ends.

       B.     For pipe sizes 3 to 4 inches use a diaphragm-actuated valve with iron body, stainless
              steel spring, stainless steel stem, rubber disc, renewable stainless steel seat, and
              threaded ends.

       C.     For pipe sizes 6 inches and larger use a diaphragm-actuated, pilot-controlled
              modulating globe valve with cast iron body and bonnet, stainless steel stem, cast


Plumbing Specialties                                                       Section 15430 - Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

              bronze seat ring, cast bronze pilot body, and flanged ends. Valve and pilot shall be
              factory assembled, including all control line tubing.

20.0   Backwater valves shall be installed where plumbing fixtures are subject to backflow from
       public sewers and shall have a cast iron body with hub and spigot connections, bronze
       flapper-type backwater valve, and ferrule and plug threaded access cover.

21.0   Electric Flush Valves and Control Panels for Flushing Drains and Large Animal room
       Trenches

       A.     Provide concealed flush valve, rough brass, 1 inch IPS wheel handle back check angle
              stop, adjustable tailpiece, vacuum breaker, 1 inch female IPS union outlet (no flush
              connection), with 24 V ac solenoid operator and electric pushbutton (remotely
              located). Exposed parts shall be chrome-plated.

       B.     Electric pushbutton for each room shall be grouped together in a stainless steel control
              panel. Panel shall be furnished with prewired momentary contacts and 120 V/24 V
              ac transformers as required. Transformers shall be sized for simultaneous solenoid
              operation plus 20 percent spare capacity. Panels shall be NEMA 4 and UL rated.

22.0   Drain pans shall be continuous watertight copper construction and installed under piping for
       the protection of computers, computer components and other electrical equipment. Pans
       shall be located directly below drainage piping, below hot and cold water supply piping and
       other piping. The minimum dimensions of the pan shall be 1 foot 6 inches wide with a 6 inch
       high wall. A drain connection shall be provided piped to the equipment room floor or to a
       floor drain.

                                      END OF SECTION




Plumbing Specialties                                                       Section 15430 - Page 5
University of Pennsylvania                                                           Design Guide
                                                                            Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15440 - "PLUMBING FIXTURES"

1.0    The number and types of plumbing fixtures shall be based on the minimum Code
       requirements. The breakdown of male and female population is assumed to be a 60/60
       percent split.

2.0    Similar plumbing fixtures installed within a building shall be of one (1) manufacturer to reduce
       stocking costs of replacement parts.

3.0    Selection of fixtures, trim, and hardware shall be approved by the Office of the University
       Engineer.

4.0    Control-stop valves shall be provided in each supply to each fixture. The finish of fittings,
       accessories, and supplies exposed to view shall be chromium-plated.

5.0    Flush valve type water closets shall be white vitreous china, wall mounted type with siphon
       jet flush valve, elongated bowl and white solid plastic elongated open-front seat. The
       flushing volume of the flush valve and water closet combination shall not exceed 1.6 gallons
       per flush.

6.0    Tank type water closets shall be white vitreous china, floor-mounted type with floor or wall
       outlet, elongated bowl and white solid plastic elongated open-front seat. The flushing
       volume shall not exceed 1.6 gallons per flush. Nonfloat swing type flush valves are not
       acceptable.

7.0    Wheelchair water closets shall be the same as above except the water closet height to top of
       seat shall be 17 to 19 inches above the floor.

8.0    Flush valve type urinals shall be white vitreous china, wall-mounted, wall outlet, siphon jet,
       integral trap and extended side shields. Water flushing volume of flush valve and urinal
       combination shall not exceed one (1) gallon per flush.

9.0    Wheelchair flush valve type urinals shall be white vitreous china, wall-mounted, wall outlet,
       blowout action, integral trap elongated projected bowl 20 inches long from wall to front of
       flare. Water flushing volume of flush valve and urinal combination shall not exceed one (1)
       gallon per flush. Front rim of urinal shall be mounted a maximum of 17 inches above floor
       and flush valve handle a maximum of 44 inches above floor.

10.0   Lavatories shall be white enamel cast-iron with concealed arm carrier support, shelf back type
       have a minimum dimensions of 20 inches wide by 18 inches front to rear. Lavatories shall
       have copper alloy center set faucets with body mounted from behind the vertical surface of


Plumbing Fixtures                                                           Section 15440 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                           Design Guide
                                                                            Final – March 15, 2007

       shelf back lavatory with aerator, pop-up drain fittings or perforated grid strainers, 1 1/4 inch
       adjustable P-traps and concealed chair carriers.

11.0   Countertop lavatories, white enamel cast-iron, having minimum oval dimensions of 19 inches
       wide by 16 inches front to rear, self-rimming type. Lavatories shall have copper alloy center
       set faucets with aerator, pop-up drain fittings or perforated grid strainers, 1 1/4 inch
       adjustable P-traps.

12.0   Lavatories for wheelchairs shall be the same as the wall-mounted or countertop lavatories
       except for the following, copper alloy center set faucets, gooseneck spout with aerator 5
       inches above rim, 4 inch wrist action handles and perforated grid strainers with offset
       tailpiece.

13.0   Service sinks, white vitreous china with integral back and wall hanger support, having
       minimum dimensions of 22 inches wide by 20 inches front to rear, floor supported wall
       outlet cast iron P-trap, stainless steel rim guards and exposed sink faucet with vacuum
       breaker, integral stops, level handles, spout with pail hook and hose end and top brace.

14.0   Mop sinks shall be terrazzo made of marble chips cast in white portland cement. Provided
       with floor outlet copper alloy body drains, cast integral with terrazzo, with nickel, polished
       stainless steel strainer and exposed sink faucet with vacuum breaker, integral stops, level
       handles, spout with pail hook and hose end and top brace.

15.0   Plastic shower stall units shall be white with slip-resistant bathing surfaces and three walls
       integrally molded in one piece or made in sections. Provided with brass body drains with
       nickel bronze perforated grid strainers and 2 inch adjustable P-trap and pressure balance
       mixing valve with single handle, volume control showerhead and adjustable high temperature
       limit stop.

16.0   Plastic bathtubs units shall be white with slip-resistant bathing surfaces and three walls
       integrally molded in one piece or made in sections. Provided with brass body drains with
       nickel bronze perforated grid strainers and 2 inch adjustable P-trap and pressure balance
       mixing valve with single handle, volume control showerhead, adjustable high temperature
       limit stop, and diverter tub spout.

17.0   Electric water coolers shall be wall-mounted, bubbler style, and air-cooled condensing unit,
       having a minimum capacity of 4.0 gph, stainless steel splash receptor and cabinet.
       Manufactures shall be Elkay or Halsey/Taylor.

18.0   Where required, emergency showers and eye wash stations shall be supplied by a pressure
       compensated tempered water supply, with system temperature held between 60 and 95


Plumbing Fixtures                                                           Section 15440 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

       degrees F for all emergency showers and emergency eye wash stations. The system shall be
       sized to include the full flow of at least one emergency shower and emergency eye wash
       station for not less than 15 minutes.

19.0   Non-freeze wall hydrants shall be provided on exterior walls of the building at doorways, at
       washdown areas, at areaways and at stairwells.

20.0   Lab sinks shall be provided with casework furniture.

21.0   Animal Holding room hose stations (where required) shall be fully recessed, sealed housing
       type shall be provided as required for holding room washdown with 140 degrees F (max.) hot
       water. Stations will be provided with integral check valves. Refer to Section 15430.

22.0   Isolation valves shall be installed on all utilities at each lab and at each floor to maximize
       system isolation.

23.0   All floor drains shall be provided with trap primers.         Rubber boot type seals are
       unacceptable.

24.0   Flush valves and faucets for bathroom fixtures.

       A.     Flush valves shall be Sloan, Zurn, Delany, or Josam.
       B.     Faucets shall be Delta, American Standard, Chicago
       C.     Sensor faucets shall be provided by Sloan, Bradley, Josam.
       D.     Sensor flush valves shall be provided by Sloan or Josam.
       E.     Plumbing fixtures shall be American Standard, Elger, or Crane.

                                       END OF SECTION




Plumbing Fixtures                                                          Section 15440 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15500 – “HVAC SYSTEMS”

1.0   Types of Systems

      A.     HVAC systems are highly diverse and must satisfy a large variety of program
             requirements. The challenge to the HVAC designer is to accurately define system
             operating parameters, control strategies, heat load data, utility requirements, and
             program equipment needs. The design engineer must take a proactive role in the early
             design stages so that operating requirements are defined clearly and concisely. HVAC
             systems must fully support the program of requirements, utilize state-of-the-art
             efficient technology, and promote the health and safety of building occupants.

      B.     Proposed system alternatives must be evaluated fairly with consideration given to
             operating and maintenance costs, reliability, flexibility, durability, redundancy, and
             the value of lost research in the event of system failures. The health and safety of
             building occupants drive the need for good indoor air quality, and all system
             alternatives must fully comply with the requirements of these guidelines.

2.0   All-Air Systems

      A.     The fan energy required for the distribution of the air can be quite significant and is
             dependent upon the quantity of the air, pressure drops in the conditioning equipment
             and ductwork, fan and drive efficiencies, and hours of operation. Although
             ventilation for reduction of contaminants may govern frequently in labs, animal
             spaces, and special spaces, the quantity of air is usually determined by the space-
             sensible cooling or heating load. Consequently, reduction in the space-cooling load
             through prudent design of the building envelope and lighting will produce a reduction
             in air volume and hence a reduction of the required energy consumption.

      B.     Fan energy consumption shall be optimized through the design of the conditioning
             equipment, selection of components, and duct design.

      C.     Air-handling equipment including intake and exhaust louvers, filters, and heating and
             cooling coils can be optimized by selection at a conservative face velocity. Lower face
             velocities can be justified by life cycle cost analysis. Filter life may be improved by
             reducing face velocity, permitting an economically justifiable lower final pressure
             drop (before replacement).

      D.     Simpler, shorter duct systems designed with conservatively low duct velocities are
             consistent with energy efficiency objectives and offer acoustical benefits. High-loss
             fittings, such as mitered elbows, abrupt transitions, and takeoffs and internal


HVAC Systems                                                             Section 15500 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                      Design Guide
                                                                       Final – March 15, 2007

             obstructions shall be avoided. Long duct runs, if necessary, should be designed with
             special consideration of pressure loss since the maximum loss for any run shall be
             imposed upon the entire fan system. Duct systems should be designed at the lowest
             pressure possible given the physical restrictions within buildings.

      E.     Air systems shall serve spaces having similar operating characteristics. Spaces with
             different periods of occupancy or substantially different ventilation requirements
             shall not be combined on the same system. Dedicating air systems to specific
             departments provides proper grouping of spaces with similar occupancy
             characteristics and environmental performance requirements and simplifies the duct
             distribution systems.

             Areas or spaces that require 24 hour operation, such as communications rooms,
             electrical rooms, data centers and other process areas, shall be provided with
             dedicated systems.

      F.     The usage of cold (low temperature) air distribution may not be considered for an
             energy conservation or cost saving method due to the supply temperature of central
             chilled water system.

             The chilled water supply temperature varies based on the following outdoor
             conditions:

                                                              CHILLED WATER SUPPLY
                   OUTDOOR TEMPERATURE                            TEMPERATURE
                          > 45 Degree F                            45 - 47 Degree F
                          < 45 degree F                           Up to 55 Degree F


             Therefore, systems with winter loads such as data centers and telecom rooms
             utilizing chilled water service to provide cooling, equipment shall be sized
             based on the winter chilled water supply temperature.

      G.     A high chilled water temperature rise in the coil is required to reduce pumping
             horsepower and to increase the efficiency of refrigeration equipment. A minimum
             15oF rise is recommended, and in some cases a rise as high as 17oF can be
             economically achieved.

      H.     The chilled water coil face velocity should not be more than 400 FPM on new
             installations and 450 FPM on replacement units. A low face velocity requires a
             larger coil and air-handling unit but achieves better coil heat transfer and a lower
             supply air temperature. A higher face velocity results in smaller equipment but is


HVAC Systems                                                            Section 15500 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

             limited by carryover of moisture from the coil into downstream ductwork, and
             prohibits future load growth.

      I.     The aspect ratio (ratio of width to height) of rectangular ducts should be minimized
             to reduce pressure losses and initial costs. Duct aspect ratios should not exceed 4:1.

3.0   Air and Water Systems

      A.     Air and water systems shall be composed of a central ventilation system and four
             pipe-fan coil units. The system shall utilize both chilled water and hot water piping
             to each terminal fan coil unit.

      B.     Controls for room fan coil units shall be sequenced to avoid simultaneous heating and
             cooling with provisions for an adjustable dead band between cooling and heating
             modes, unless relative humidity control is essential, in which case simultaneous
             cooling and heating may be considered.

      C.     Two pipe fan coil units may be utilized to provide supplemental cooling for
             equipment areas or other spaces with large internal heat gains and limited ventilation
             requirements. These FCU shall be sized for a 55 F EWT.

      D.     The central air systems will be utilized in conjunction with the fan coil units to
             maintain minimum ventilation rates. Induction-type terminal units shall not be
             utilized.

      E.     Secondary pumps designed for the heating or cooling piping loops shall be
             automatically controlled to shut off when their function is unnecessary.

      F.     Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) shall be considered for use on applicable fan and
             pumping systems with motors greater than 5 horsepower.

4.0   Unitary Equipment

      A.     The use of unitary equipment shall be restricted to serve unique areas, such as
             computer rooms and support facilities, retail facilities, or as required to maintain
             specific environmental conditions.

5.0   HVAC System Noise Criteria

      A.     Duct lining is not permitted for use in duct systems. Omission of duct lining
             usually requires sound attenuators in order to meet the specified Room Criteria (RC)


HVAC Systems                                                             Section 15500 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                      Design Guide
                                                                       Final – March 15, 2007

             levels shown below. The A/E should confirm that any breakout noise from ductwork
             passing through a space does not violate the specified RC criteria. A sound analysis
             shall be performed to ascertain the need of terminal sound attenuators.

      B.     Maximum noise criteria levels to be used in the HVAC equipment and distribution
             design are outlined below. These noise criteria levels are based upon an unoccupied
             space with only the mechanical systems operating, and do not take into account any
             noise generated by users, animals or equipment. Readings are assumed to be taken
             in the center of the room, nominally five (5) feet above the floor, unless noted
             otherwise.

             The maximum sound pressure level in any octave band frequency shall be the Room
             Criteria (RC) Neutral (N) upper level limits (5dB above the RC curve within 31.5 to
             500 Hz octaves and 3dB above the RC curve within 1000 to 8000 Hz octaves). The
             Room Criteria (RC) levels are as explained in the latest ASHRAE Fundamentals
             Handbook.

                    Criteria for space maximum noise levels from the HVAC systems. All levels
                    are measured in the center of the room unless noted otherwise.

                    Laboratories: RC50(N) maximum allowable HVAC noise level as
                    measured from nominally three (3) feet from fume hoods.

                    Laboratory Equipment Support Rooms: RC50 (N)

                    Animal Hold Room: RC50 (N)

                    Animal Procedure Room: RC50 (N)

                    Vivarium Support Rooms (Cagewash/Glasswash Rooms): RC65 (N)

                    Private Office: RC35 (N)

                    Open Office: RC40 (N)

                    Conference Room: RC35 (N)

                    Auditorium: RC35 (N)

                    Classroom: RC35 (N)




HVAC Systems                                                           Section 15500 - Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

                     Mechanical Rooms: 80dba. maximum allowable HVAC system noise
                     level a measured from the center of the room. This criteria may not be
                     able to be achieved in all mechanical rooms (such as chiller rooms). A
                     program of hearing protection will need to be considered in some
                     mechanical spaces.

      C.     Sound attenuators shall be selected for low velocities and low pressure losses. High-
             velocity selection shall be avoided due to the pressure loss and internally generated
             noise. Sound attenuators shall be fabricated to match the construction and pressure
             classification of adjoining duct or casing and be constructed of incombustible
             materials.

             Filler materials used in sound attenuators on clean systems shall be inert, vermin, and
             moisture-proof and shall have an approved moisture and particulate lining material
             between perforated metal panels and sound-attenuating filler material to prevent
             insulation fibers from becoming airborne.

             Sound attenuators used in contaminated exhaust systems shall be packless utilizing
             controlled-impedance membranes and broadly-tuned resonators for attenuation. No
             sound-absorptive material shall be used in the packless sound attenuators.

6.0   Plenums

      A.     The use of air shafts for air distribution (supply, return, or exhaust) is not permitted.
              Corridors, exit passageways, stairways, and other similar spaces shall not be used
             as plenums or transfer air paths as defined by NFPA and the BOCA National
             Building Code.

      B.     The use of building structures as plenums shall be limited to outside air intakes. The
             use of return air plenum ceilings is not permitted. Ducted return (including drops)
             air ductwork shall be extended (at a minimum) from the return air duct shaft to
             approximately 2/3 to 3/4 of the distance to the farthest extremity of the space.

7.0   Indoor Air Quality

      A.     Providing acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ) is the responsibility of the A/E.
             Typical contaminant control measures include elimination of contaminant sources,
             dilution ventilation, local exhaust ventilation, and air cleaning.

      B.     The mechanical ventilation system should be designed to maintain relatively
             comfortable and odor-free indoor spaces.


HVAC Systems                                                               Section 15500 - Page 5
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007


      C.     The A/E should consider the various sources of air contamination that would
             contribute to poor indoor air quality conditions. These sources may occur from
             building materials and systems, originate in outside air, and/or be from building
             operating and maintenance programs and procedures that may foster growth of
             biological organisms. These sources would include, but not be limited to, the
             following:

             1.     Non-biological particles such as synthetic vitreous fibers, combustion nuclei,
                    nuisance dust, etc.
             2.     Bioaerosol particles include airborne viruses, bacteria, pollen, and fungus
                    spores.
             3.     Gases and Vapors that may be generated by industrial process, by emissions
                    from building materials, furnishings, and equipment, by occupants and their
                    activities in a space, brought in from the outdoors, or by entry from
                    surrounding soil (e.g.: radon gas). Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are
                    generated by emissions from new construction materials (furniture,
                    furnishings, wall and floor finishes, paint and adhesives).

      D.     The A/E should consider the following strategies (or combination thereof) that may
             be used to improve the indoor air quality:

             1.     Elimination and control of Sources: Many sources can be eliminated or
                    minimized by substitution of materials and control measures that include
                    careful planning; specifications; and selection, modification, and treatment of
                    products, as well as special installation procedures. Another example of
                    source control would be limiting or prohibiting vehicular traffic or
                    parking in the vicinity of building outdoor air intakes. Designated
                    smoking area in the vicinity of outside air intake is another common
                    problem.

             2.     Ventilation: Dilution ventilation is an effective way to control normal
                    constant-emission sources present in buildings. Compliance with ASHRAE
                    Standard 62 should satisfy indoor dilution ventilation requirements.

                    System operation with 100 percent outdoor air should be considered for use
                    at the completion of construction or during and at the finish of remodeling or
                    renovation activities. Operation with 100 percent outside air would continue
                    until enough time has passed to lower emitted contamination concentrations
                    to near background levels.




HVAC Systems                                                             Section 15500 - Page 6
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

             3.     Local Exhaust: Local exhaust ventilation is effective for controlling known,
                    unavoidable point emissions sources such as office machines, food service
                    equipment, and specialized work areas (printing rooms, photo labs, etc.).

             4.     Ventilation Air Cleaning: Gas Phase Air Filtration should be considered to
                    control gaseous contaminants to provide ventilation without the need of
                    additional outdoor air, or to clean poor-quality outdoor air. Particle Filtration
                    shall be used to reduce the level of airborne particles that may be harmful to
                    humans, such as airborne microorganisms and respirable particles. It is also
                    effective to lower the particular matter in the ventilation system components
                    where wet surfaces are present. Dirt accumulation on wet surfaces provides
                    a substrate that may lead to microbial growth which in turn causes the
                    ventilation system to become a source of contaminants.

      E.     ASHRAE Standard 62 – 2001 (and approved addenda) shall be used to determine
             ventilation rates.

             Where significant variations in occupancy patterns occur, the A/E shall incorporate
             a ventilation control system that sequences, as close as possible, the quantity of
             outdoor air based on actual building occupancy and under any thermal load
             conditions. The ASHRAE Standard 62-2001 "Indoor Air Quality Procedure"
             permits the use of innovative, energy conserving practices, utilizing whatever amount
             of outdoor air quantity necessary to maintain levels of indoor air contaminants below
             recommend levels. This procedure shall be used whenever credit is taken for controls
             that remove contaminants or for other design techniques that can be reliably
             demonstrated to result in indoor contaminant concentrations equal to of lower than
             those achieved using the Standard's "Ventilation Rate Procedure".

             The ASHRAE Standard 62-2001 Ventilation Rate Procedure is a prescriptive
             approach in which outdoor air intake rates are determined based on space
             type/application, occupancy level and floor area. This procedure may be utilized
             where occupancy rates are know to be constant, or in systems that would not
             otherwise result in the economic benefits of using outdoor intake controls to track
             space occupancy.

      F.     The A/E should identify and respond to air contaminants impacting outdoor air
             intakes or other infiltration sites. Outdoor air contamination from, but not limited to,
             the following sources of contamination should be considered:

             1.     Motor vehicle exhaust from garages, parking lots, roadways, loading docks
                    and emergency/standby power generators.


HVAC Systems                                                              Section 15500 - Page 7
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

             2.      Cooling Towers.
             3.      Localized exhaust and relief air systems from adjacent openings or other
                     nearby buildings.
             4.      Sewer vents.

             Where the possibility exists that flow patterns and turbulence of wind passing over
             a building can cause recirculation of exhaust gases to air intakes, an evaluation should
             be performed by the A/E to determine the effects of wind on intakes and exhausts.
              On small projects, or less critical applications, accepted ASHRAE methodology may
             be used to evaluate these effects. On larger projects or any critical application, such
             as where health and safety are of concern, physical modeling (wind tunnel exhaust
             dispensation study) should be used. The possibility of snow infiltration at intakes
             should also be evaluated.

8.0   Air-Handling Systems for Laboratory Buildings

      A.     Laboratory buildings shall be designed with "once through," 100% outdoor air
             systems that automatically compensate for filter loading. Laboratory air will not be
             recirculated. Systems shall have pressure-independent hot water terminal reheat
             devices and individual laboratory module and/or office area temperature zone control.
             The HVAC system shall be designed to maintain the proper temperature, humidity,
             differential pressure, outdoor air exchange rate, and acoustic criteria within the space.
             Laboratory building air systems shall operate continuously year round. . The HVAC
             system capacity shall be based on the largest of the two main parameters specified
             below:

             1.      The amount of fume hood exhaust required to meet actual design requirements
                     of 6 air changes per hour (ACPH) or the ACPH rate set by Environmental
                     Health and Radiation Safety Office (OEHRS) Standards for each type of
                     laboratory.
             2.      The required space cooling loads. This is primarily a function of thermal
                     transmission, solar loads, associated laboratory support equipment, and
                     lighting loads. The A/E shall address loads in specialty laboratory equipment
                     areas. A combined laboratory equipment and lighting load density of 12
                     W/FT2 shall be used as a minimum in design of laboratory areas (9 W/FT2 for
                     equipment, 3 W/FT 2 for lighting).

      B.     HVAC system design for equipment support areas, glasswash areas, sterilizer
             facilities, conference rooms, offices, etc. shall be based on actual loads and conditions.
             The A/E shall thoroughly review the program of requirements to understand the
             scope and magnitude of miscellaneous space. The duct system shall be so designed


HVAC Systems                                                               Section 15500 - Page 8
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

             to accommodate future renovations as described in project criteria, and without a
             disruption to the entire system. Consideration shall be given to plenum and duct
             sizing and the addition of isolation dampers and duct risers to accommodate future
             use of the facility.

      C.     Critical laboratory buildings shall be supplied with multiple, manifolded air-handling
             units (AHUs) such that upon failure of any major component related to an AHU, the
             remaining available HVAC air-handling equipment shall provide 100% capacity. A
             parallel system design using two or more pieces of air-handling equipment which
             operate simultaneously to meet full load conditions is the preferred choice to ensure
             overall system air-handling reliability. Each AHU and its related components shall
             be capable of being totally isolated from the remaining operational units to
             accommodate routine maintenance and emergency repairs in the advent of equipment
             failure. Critical elements will vary on a project to project basis, therefore
             equipment/system design parameters shall be documented during the programming
             stage of the project to establish conformance to this criteria.

      D.     The laboratory exhaust systems, where there is no mixture incompatibility, shall be
             arranged with multiple manifolded fans designed to maintain 100% of exhaust design
             conditions at all times. The number of fans shall be determined by the A/E to
             accommodate physical and capacity restraints. One of the fans shall be provided as
             a backup for any other single fan. Upon the loss of flow through any one fan, the
             designated backup fan shall be energized to maintain 100 percent system capacity.
             The fan designated as a backup shall be automatically alternated among all system
             exhaust fans so that all motors and equipment experience approximately the same
             running time. All equipment requiring maintenance such as exhaust fan motors,
             drives, valves, damper operations, controls, limit switches, etc., must located out of
             the air stream and be accessible without the shutdown of the exhaust system. Each
             fan shall be fully isolated from the others to accommodate routine service while the
             overall system is operational.

      E.     Where laboratory space pressure is required to be maintained, supply and exhaust air
             from laboratory equipment such as fume hoods and biosafety cabinets, and general
             central laboratory exhaust systems is preferably controlled through pressure-
             independent terminal units such as a Phoenix Control System. The A/E shall
             investigate other system control options for reliability, accuracy, and safety.

      F.     Exhaust and supply fans shall be energized and shutdown sequentially. Part of the
             exhaust shall be started first, and sequentially the supply started to maintain a
             negative pressure in the exhaust duct and prevent cross contamination. Similarly,
             during the shutdown sequence, the supply fan(s) shall go down first and sequentially


HVAC Systems                                                             Section 15500 - Page 9
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

             deenergize the exhaust fans. The procedure shall take into account the pressure rating
             of the fans, duct, windows, doors, etc. to prevent implosion of ducts, windows,
             doors, etc.

      G.     No positively pressurized segment of any laboratory exhaust system shall be
             located in any occupied zone. Offices within the mechanical rooms are classified
             as occupied zones. The design shall permit the installation of exhaust fans at the end
             of exhaust lines and as close as possible to the final point of discharge to avoid or
             minimize leakage to the space, including mechanical areas. The positive pressure
             segment of exhaust system shall be constructed per the SMACNA standard for 6.0
             in. water-gauge positive pressure. A leak test shall be performed to verify the
             SMACNA allowable leakage rate as defined in the High Pressure Duct Standard,
             Third Edition, Chapter 10. For duct leakage testing requirements for all other
             systems refer to Section 15890.

      H.     When fume hoods are connected to common exhaust systems the entire exhaust
             system shall be provided with pressure independent air volume control devices such
             as a Phoenix Control System. .

      I.     All toilet and general use exhaust shall discharge through an exhaust system that is
             separate from the lab exhaust.

      J.     In buildings housing both laboratories and other types of spaces with distinct
             occupancy zones in which the lab areas are segregated from other types of spaces,
             a separate HVAC system for the laboratory area is preferred.

      K.     The HVAC designer is required to get approval from the Office of Environmental
             Health and Safety regarding exhaust mixture compatibility to avoid cross
             contamination upon system failure or equipment damage due to an incompatible
             mixture.

      L.     Exhaust from central sterilizers, cage-wash equipment, and glasswash areas shall have
             a separate exhaust system. Wet exhaust ductwork shall be pitched for drainage back
             to hood. Ductwork from these devices shall avoid long horizontal runs. Moisture
             eliminators should be considered for use at hoods.

      M.     As a minimum, supply air for lab areas shall pass through a prefilter and filter on the
             upstream side of AHU fans and coils with efficiencies of 30% and 95% respectively,
             based on ASHRAE Standard 52.1, atmospheric dust-spot test efficiency. Special
             areas may require greater filtration on both the supply and the exhaust sides. The




HVAC Systems                                                            Section 15500 - Page 10
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

             requirements for additional exhaust filtration shall be coordinated with the Office of
             Environmental Health and Safety, where specific hazardous program functions occur.

      N.     Where specific areas require special exhaust air treatment, such as HEPA filtration,
             consideration shall be given to providing separate dedicated exhaust systems. The
             A/E should demonstrate that the cost of a separate system would be offset by the
             penalty that would be otherwise imposed by including special filtration, and the
             associated higher static pressures, on larger systems for only a small number of
             spaces.

      O.     Ventilation of environmental rooms shall be addressed on design documents. Those
             rooms that serve as occupied functioning lab spaces shall receive conditioned outdoor
             air ventilation at the rates defined by ASHRAE Standard 62- 2001. The A/E shall
             evaluate special requirements required to maintain conditions in these spaces,
             including, but not limited to, the following considerations:

                •   Requirement for humidification/dehumidification of ventilation air.
                •   Criteria for environmental room accuracy across the entire volume of the
                    space.
                •   Need for redundant equipment.

             Environmental rooms used primarily for storage functions do not require ducted
             ventilation air.

      P.     Systems that require humidification are to be of the dry-steam, manifold-jacketed
             type and be located in the AHU up-stream of the Chilled Water coil. Ductwork
             within the absorption range of the humidifier shall be fully welded stainless steel and
             pitched to drain. Steam lines serving humidifiers shall have an automatic isolation
             valve and be dripped to remove condensate prior to manifold. The isolation valve
             shall be closed during cooling mode to prevent additional heat gain in the duct system.
             A high-limit humidity controller must be provided for each humidifier.

      Q.     Each individual room shall be balanced for the actual airflow requirements (The
             highest cooling load or make-up air/ventilation airflow requirement). The central
             supply and exhaust air system shall be balanced for the total of individual airflow
             requirements in each room plus the allowable duct leak based upon the SMACNA
             duct construction manual. A diversity factor shall be applied if a variable air volume
             system is used. This concept is project specific and is to be reviewed on a case by
             case basis with The Office of the University Engineer. The central supply and
             exhaust air `system shall be sized based on the following procedures:




HVAC Systems                                                            Section 15500 - Page 11
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

             1.      List the individual room total air requirements accounting for hoods, sensible
                     heat loads, and maximum air change rates.
             2.      Add approximately 5% of the system design air quantity to the total system
                     air flow rate to account for duct leakage.
             3.      Size all AHU system components and duct mains to allow for future
                     expansion and renovations in accordance with specific criteria furnished by
                     The Office of the University Engineer.
             4.      Include in the system design not only the required airflow for present
                     conditions but also the future expansion. In the design calculation, describe
                     the modifications that would be required to achieve the future expansion
                     requirements and the reasoning behind the system sizing including the life
                     cycle cost considerations.

9.0   Air-Handling Systems for Vivarium Buildings

      A.     The air-handling system design shall comply with the requirements described in the
             Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, current edition, NIH, AAALAC
             and AALAS Standards. The animal facility’s HVAC system design shall be based on
             100% outdoor air and shall automatically compensate for pressure variations due to
             filter loading. Vivarium air will not be recirculated. The system shall be outfitted with
             pressure-independent hot water terminal reheating devices, and humidifiers and
             terminal humidity control where required. Minimally individual temperature control
             must be provided for each holding room, treatment room, procedures room, operating
             room and other support spaces. The HVAC system shall be designed to individually
             control and maintain the proper temperature, humidity, differential pressure, and
             outdoor air exchange rate at all times within the facility. The HVAC system capacity
             shall be based on the largest of the four main parameters specified below:

             1.      Minimum ventilation requirements of 15 supply outdoor air changes per hour
                     in all holding spaces without ventilated racks and support spaces. Lower air
                     change rates can be considered for other support areas such as storage areas,
                     etc.
             2.      The amount of fume hood, biosafety cabinet, and downdraft table exhaust
                     required to meet actual program requirements if there are animal research
                     laboratories and procedure rooms within the facility
             3.      The required space-cooling loads to meet environmental conditions specific
                     to the type of animal. This is primarily a function of thermal transmission,
                     solar loads, associated laboratory support equipment, and animal and lighting
                     loads.
             4.      Minimum ventilation requirements as required to support microenvironments
                     in ventilated cage racks are as follows: if microenvironments are employed for


HVAC Systems                                                             Section 15500 - Page 12
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

                    animal holding, the minimum ventilation requirement may be reduced to 10
                    supply outdoor air changes per hour.            System connections to
                    microenvironments shall be designed to maintain the manufacturer specified
                    criteria. The preferred arrangement for ventilated cage racks is ducted
                    exhaust. Exhaust connections shall accommodate positive or negative
                    ventilated racks.

      B.     A critical component to particular vivarium facility design is the ability to reverse
             pressurization on the room level as well as the microenvironment level. During the
             project programming effort, pressurization requirements shall be determined and
             system control measures shall be reviewed with The Office of the University
             Engineer.

      C.     During the programming of the vivarium spaces, the functional flexibility of animal
             holding spaces shall be determined and HVAC systems designed accordingly. Not
             only the present and future requirements for housing large and small animals and
             specialty species (such as rabbits) shall be determined but also the requirements to
             switch occupancies from one function to another shall be considered in the HVAC
             system design.

      D.     HVAC systems serving animal facilities shall be designed with manifolded parallel
             heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system arrangements with capability to
             ensure continuous operation (full airflow) during equipment failure and scheduled
             maintenance outages. Parallel operation of two or more pieces of equipment operating
             at reduced capacity to meet the full load may be considered to meet redundancy
             requirements in lieu of providing dedicated spare equipment. Each AHU and its
             related components shall be capable of being totally isolated from the remaining
             operational units to accommodate routine maintenance and emergency repairs in the
             advent of equipment failure.

      E.     The exhaust system shall be designed for and utilize a manifolded multiple fan exhaust
             arrangement. The number of fans shall be determined by the A/E to accommodate
             physical and capacity restraints. One of the fans shall be provided as a backup for
             any other single fan. Upon the loss of flow through any one fan, system shall
             maintain 100 percent system capacity. The fan designated as a backup shall be
             automatically alternated among all system exhaust fans, so that all motors and
             equipment experience approximately the same running time. As an alternative,
             parallel operation of two or more fans operating at reduced capacity to meet the full
             load may be considered to meet redundancy requirements in lieu of providing
             dedicated spare fan. Exhaust fan motors and drive must be located out of the air




HVAC Systems                                                           Section 15500 - Page 13
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

             stream. Each fan shall be fully isolated from the others to accommodate routine
             service while the overall system is operational.

      F.     In buildings housing both vivariums and other types of space with distinct occupancy
             zones in which the animal areas are segregated from other types of space, a separate
             HVAC system for the animal areas is mandated.

      G.     All toilet and general-use exhaust shall discharge through an exhaust system that is
             separate from the variorum exhaust systems.

      H.     The HVAC designer is required to get approval from the Office of Environmental
             Health and Radiation Safety (OEHRS) regarding exhaust mixture compatibility and
             filtration.

      I.     As a minimum, supply air for these areas shall pass through a prefilter and after filter
             with efficiencies of 30% and 95% respectively based on ASHRAE Standard 52.1,
             atmospheric dustspot test efficiency. Special areas may require greater filtration on
             both the supply and the exhaust sides. The requirements for additional exhaust
             filtration shall be coordinated with OEHRS, where specific hazardous program
             functions occur. The location of air handling unit filters shall be determined on a
             project by project basis. Final filtration at the air handling unit level shall be
             reviewed with the OEHRS. Exhaust systems from vivariums shall have the
             capability of being centrally HEPA filtered. Space and fan power requirements shall
             be planned for the addition of filters in the future. All exhaust air passing through
             heat recovery coils shall be filtered with a 30% efficient filter based on ASHRAE
             Standard 52.1 atmospheric dustspot test efficiency.

      J.     High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration of supply air may be required for
             animal-holding rooms housing immunosuppressedor transgenic populations or where
             populations are involved in chronic testing. Where HEPA filtration is required,
             consideration shall be given to providing separate dedicated exhaust systems. The
             A/E should demonstrate that the cost of a separate system would be offset by the
             penalty that would be otherwise imposed by including HEPA filtration, and the
             associated higher static pressures, on larger systems for only a small number of
             spaces.

      K.     Specialty areas such as operating rooms, recovery, etc. may require higher filtration
             levels. The A/E shall assess the filtration needs for each function in coordination with
             research personnel.




HVAC Systems                                                             Section 15500 - Page 14
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

       L.     In animal holding rooms, supply air must be introduced and extracted by air terminal
              devices that produce the most even control of temperature in the holding rooms and
              uniformly drawn across animal housing areas to low air exhausts located on the far
              side of the animal cages or racks. Care must be exercised to ensure that the system
              does not create drafts on the animals and that the airflow is uniform in nature.
              Terminal velocity of discharged air 24 inches from wall surfaces must be less than 50
              FPM, or in critical areas, 30 FPM at head height.

       M.     Humidity control can be critical in animal areas. Higher relative humidity in winter
              is often required for primates and certain other animals as compared with
              laboratories. Low-pressure, dry-steam, direct injection humidification shall be used
              to introduce potable plant steam supplied by the central site steam system into the
              HVAC system. The requirements for terminal humidification control vs. central
              humidification shall be examined on a project by project basis.

       N.     Provide backup emergency system (generators, chillers, etc.) in case of central system
              failures for critical applications.

10.0   Air-Handling Systems for Administration Buildings

       A.     Air-handling systems for academic, administrative, office, conference, and other
              general use facilities are similar in design. These systems are recirculating type with
              ventilation rates designed to meet ASHRAE Standard 62-2001 and approved
              addendum. Designs shall include air side dry-bulb economizers to provide free
              cooling when ambient conditions permit.

       B.     Air-handling systems for administration buildings are best kept simple and zoned
              consistent with the building use and occupancy schedules. Large conference or
              assembly areas with intermittent use shall not be connected to units that supply
              routine office space.

       C.     Air-handling systems found in these buildings may have the following features:

              1.     Night setback and morning warm-up control modes
              2.     Mixing plenums with minimum and maximum outdoor air dampers to
                     accommodate minimum ventilation and economizer operations
              3.     30% efficient prefilters and 95% efficient final-filters up-stream of the coils.
              4.     Preheat coils to support morning warm-up functions and large OA
                     requirements.
              5.     Draw-through chilled water coils
              6.     Central AHU humidifiers only


HVAC Systems                                                             Section 15500 - Page 15
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

             7.     Duct distribution to terminal control devices as necessary.
             8.     Return air systems shall be provided with building pressure controlled relief
                    devices.
             9.     Return air plenum ceilings may not be utilized. Return air ductwork shall be
                    extended from the return air duct shaft to approximately 2/3 to 3/4 of the
                    distance to the farthest extremity of the space.

       D.    Computer or data processing facilities are commonly found in administration
             buildings and require special consideration.

       E.    Administration buildings traditionally have large glass areas with a large diversity of
             load based on the exposure and occupancy. Careful consideration to the number and
             placement of terminal control devices is required. Each unique room shall have a
             separate point of temperature control.

       F.    Perimeter radiation shall be utilized paying special attention to areas with glass
             exposures, and where furniture layouts place sitting areas near or adjacent to
             perimeter walls. The perimeter radiation shall be exclusively controlled based on
             exposure by zone, (N., S., E., W.) sum load, and outside temperature.

       G.    Toilet rooms, janitor facilities, pantries, copy rooms, and other miscellaneous spaces
             generating odors or contaminants require exhaust to remove odors and contaminants
             from occupied areas. Toilet rooms and janitor closets shall not be connected to
             common exhaust systems and shall be designed to run continuously. Other exhaust
             may be connected to general exhaust systems which are controlled to operate when
             central air-handling equipment is operational.

11.0   AHUs and Components

       A.    The type and construction quality of AHUs approved for are based on several
             factors, such as size, system features, building types, site restrictions, etc. The
             Project Engineer must carefully review the project design criteria to establish the
             most cost-effective equipment that provides, throughout the system life, stable and
             continuous operation. Major unit components shall not require replacement until the
             system life is realized. The following guidelines shall be utilized in the design and
             specification of AHUs:

             1.     Air-handling systems that are generally small in capacity (less than
                    approximately 40,000 CFM), utilize return air, and are not serving critical
                    program functions may be factory packaged or modular constructed
                    components.


HVAC Systems                                                            Section 15500 - Page 16
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

             2.     Large, central station AHUs (greater than approximately 40,000 CFM) that
                    are recirculating or any size unit that uses 100% outdoor air shall be a
                    custom-designed, factory-fabricated and tested unit. All exterior mounted
                    units shall be a custom designed factory fabricated and tested unit. Factory
                    personnel must be present the entire time it take to field install (set) the unit.
                     A/E shall not limit the selection of a custom designed unit to the above CFM
                    ranges, but should also consider other parameters such as pressure class,
                    criticality, or other project conditions that may warrant the use of a custom
                    designed unit. AHU with EPDM roofing is to meet FM approval 190 MPH
                    roofing system requirements and be installed by a local roofing contractor.
                    Each unit shall be tested by the unit manufacturer prior to shipping, as
                    follows:

                    a.       Factory Test: Air volume and discharge static test shall verify that
                             the air volume is within the range of 100% to 110% of scheduled
                             nominal CFM requirements when operating at design total static
                             pressure. The test for airflow and static capability shall include
                             airflow measuring devices installed in all ducts returning to or
                             leaving the unit. These devices shall be installed in accordance with
                             the measuring device manufacturer’s recommendations. Pressures
                             external to the unit shall be simulated using a combination of ducts
                             and dampers. The tests shall prove design airflow and static
                             capability of the assembled unit.

                    b.       Factory Test: Casing leakage tests shall be run to prove that unit
                             casing leakage is less than 1% of design flow at 12.0” w.c. The
                             duct openings in the pressure section shall be sealed and this
                             section shall be tested at 12.0”w.c. The CFM of this fan shall be
                             read using and approved airflow measuring device. When the static
                             pressure developed by the test fan reaches 1.5 times the unit design
                             static pressure, the fan CFM shall be read and this CFM will be
                             considered the casing leakage. The casing leakage must be less than
                             1% of the design CFM. Factory casing leakage test for fully
                             welded units may be deleted. However, leakage test must be
                             performed at the site after joining and sealing of sections for all unit
                             construction types.

                    c.       Factory Test: The duct openings in the suction side of the unit shall
                             be sealed and this section shall be connected to a test fan capable of
                             developing a suction that is numerically equal to 1.5 times the design
                             static pressure. The CFM of this test fan shall be read using and


HVAC Systems                                                             Section 15500 - Page 17
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

                             approved airflow measuring device. When the suction developed by
                             the test fan is numerically equal to 1.5 times the unit design total
                             static pressure, the fan CFM shall be read and this CFM will be
                             considered the casing leakage. The casing leakage must be less than
                             1% of the section’s design CFM (supply/return). Leakage across the
                             septum wall located the discharge end of the fan shall be 0 CFM (no
                             leakage).

                    d.       Factory Test: Both the casing leakage test and the airflow and static
                             capability test, as defined above, shall meet the required acceptance
                             criterion without the use of any temporary caulking at any permanent
                             panel joints. Temporary test caulking shall be utilized at the unit
                             shipping splits to simulate “as installed” conditions.

                    e.       Field Pressure Test: Pressurized leak testing shall be performed in the
                             field after assembly of the unit sections by the HVAC Contractor,
                             under the direction of the unit manufacturer, by running the fans and
                             soap bubble testing all field joints and penetrations to ensure unit
                             tightness. The unit manufacturer shall correct and pay for the repair
                             of all deficiencies found during testing, except for the repair of all
                             deficiencies found during testing, except for unit section joints leaks,
                             which shall be the responsibility of the HVAC Contractor. The
                             HVAC Contractor shall provide all field labor necessary to join the
                             unit sections, including all electric and drain splits after they are
                             delivered to the site and set in place. All fieldwork shall be provided
                             under the direct supervision of a qualified engineer employed by the
                             unit manufacturer. Rigging for unit sections shall be provided by the
                             HVAC Contractor.

                    f.       Factory Test Sound
                             1)     System sound levels shall be measured in all nine (9)-octave
                                    bands (31.25 Hz through 8000 Hz) at system design
                                    operating conditions. Airborne sound levels at all openings
                                    shall be read in the test ductwork 5’-0” from the openings.
                                    Transmitted sound levels shall be read 5’-0” from the outside
                                    of the fan section.
                             2)     Sound tests shall be conducted while the unit is running at
                                    design conditions. An octave band sound pressure level
                                    reading shall be taken at outside louver, exhaust louver,
                                    supply discharge opening, return air opening, economizer
                                    opening and adjacent to each fan section outside of the unit


HVAC Systems                                                             Section 15500 - Page 18
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

                                     casing.

                    g.       Factory Test Vibration: Each individual fan shall be tested for
                             vibration in X-Y-Z directions at the manufacturer’s facility before
                             shipment to the unit manufacturer to assure that specified fan
                             balancing criteria is adhered to.

                    h.       Test Procedures
                             1)     A complete test procedure shall be submitted to the Architect
                                    for approval detailing the methods, equipment, and techniques
                                    to be employed for each specific test. Equipment will not be
                                    considered approved until written approval of testing
                                    procedures is attained.
                             2)     As hereinbefore specified, the preceding airflow/static, sound
                                    and vibration tests shall be required for two AHUs specified
                                    in this Section and shall be witnessed by designated
                                    representatives of the Engineer and Owner (total [3] people).
                                     All unit sections shall be leak tested at the field after
                                    installation. The unit manufacturer shall notify the engineer
                                    and the University of Pennsylvania Department of Physical
                                    Plant Project Engineer for their approval.              The unit
                                    manufacturer shall pay for all air and ground transportation,
                                    lodging, and meals for the designated witnesses to attend the
                                    testing. If multiple trips are required, they shall all be paid for
                                    by the unit manufacturer.
                             3)     Any deficiencies in unit performance must be corrected by the
                                    unit manufacturer in the manufacturing plant prior to
                                    shipping.

             3.     Large, central station AHUs designed for installation in existing buildings
                    where access is restricted or designed for new buildings where the
                    construction phasing does not permit the installation of large factory
                    fabricated sections shall be custom-designed, field erected and tested units.
             4.     Electrical Interface/Work

                    a.       The unit manufacturer shall furnish and install a complete factory
                             wired electrical system for each unit, so as to allow single-source
                             responsibility and to ensure proper selection and installation of all
                             electrical components.

                    b.       The unit manufacturer shall provide prewired and switched non-


HVAC Systems                                                              Section 15500 - Page 19
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

                             corroding vaportight fluorescent lights in each compartment with an
                             access door and in the service corridors as follow:
                             1)     Lights shall be equal to Appleton 4’ –0’ FRS Series,
                                    suitable for use in wet and dam locations.
                             2)     Lighting, internal wiring, switching mounted in bell boxes,
                                    and all other electrical wiring associated with the lighting
                                    shall be provided by the unit manufacturer, at the Factory.
                             3)     Lights shall have 120-volt cold weather (-20 F) ballasts and
                                    shall comply with UL 1570 and shall carry the UL label.
                             4)     Unit manufacturer shall provide (2) 120 volt, single-phase
                                    electric connections for the lights and receptacles, via
                                    junction boxes with circuit breakers for connection in the
                                    field by Electrical Contractor (20 amperes power supply).

      B.     The Design Development report submitted by the A/E shall define the type and
             quality of air-handling equipment proposed for use during design. The report shall
             provide justification for equipment selection by the A/E.

      C.     Factory packaged or modular constructed AHUs, when approved for use, shall
             conform to the following criteria:

             1.     Units shall be of a modular design and have double-wall casing for all
                    component sections.
             2.     The unit’s coil capacity must be able to handle up to 100% outdoor air when
                    required without moisture carryover.
             3.     All unit components must have large access doors to permit inspection,
                    routine service, and cleaning. To minimize leakage, the quantity of access
                    doors should be limited to those locations most likely to require access for
                    routine maintenance. Generally these locations would be for access to fans,
                    coils, temperature sensing devices, and filters. Clearly identified removable
                    panels should be provided at other locations (e.g., at coils for coil cleaning
                    purposes, at damper locations, etc.). Provide access doors approximately 20
                    inches wide by full height of casing or maximum of 60 inches. Swing doors
                    against the air pressure.
             4.     Unit casings shall be pressure rated for the total system design operating
                    pressure plus 25%.
             5.     Fan sections, where possible, shall employ airfoil fans with a minimum
                    ACMA Construction Class of II.
             6.     Fan sections shall be isolated from the remaining unit and the connecting duct
                    system to control vibration.
             7.     Solid fan shafts only will be considered.


HVAC Systems                                                           Section 15500 - Page 20
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

             8.     External fan motors are preferred, and in all cases bearing lubrication lines
                    shall be piped exterior to the casing wall.
             9.     Fan volume may be led control using variable frequency fan drives.
             10.    Units may be either draw-through or blow-through arrangements.
             11.    Coil drain pans shall be stainless steel and have a positive slope-to-drain
                    connection. Drain connections to be off the bottom of the coil rather then the
                    side.
             12.    Provide thermal breaks in units downstream of cooling coils.
             13.    Factory filter/mixing boxes may only be utilized for low-outdoor-air units and
                    where filtration is limited to 30% prefilters.
             14.    Built-up filter/mixing sections utilizing high-quality low-leakage dampers and
                    filter frames installed within insulated metal casings are required for all other
                    units.
             15.    Each unit shall have adequate space to house, service, and maintain all
                    ancillary equipment, controls, valves, instruments, etc.
             16.    Refer to Section 15790 "Air Coils" for coil design parameters such as
                    maximum face velocities, fins per inch, etc.
             17.    For recirculation systems, consider eliminating the preheat coil where reheat
                    coils can pick up the load and there is no building warm-up or outside air
                    purge required.
             18.    Specify that variable temperature glycol systems are preferred for preheating
                    to control to ± 1 degree F. A separate in-line-pump shall be utilized to
                    maintain a constant flow through the preheat coil. Control to be preformed
                    via a mixing valve based on mixed air temperature if multiple systems are
                    connected.

      D.     Custom-designed, factory-fabricated AHUs shall be based on A/E Contract
             documents and built to specific dimensions indicated thereon. The Project Engineer
             shall lay out, in sufficient detail, the desired arrangement of each complete unit
             showing all required components, access doors, casing openings, service clearances,
             and overall dimensions. Layouts shall include sections to define the overall height and
             vertical location of duct connections, dampers, louvers, etc. The factory-fabricated
             unit shall be capacity and pressure tested as a completed unit at the factory before
             shipment. Custom-designed units and related air-handling system components shall
             conform to the following criteria:

             1.     Units shall be custom engineered and preassembled at the factory on a
                    structural steel base. The units shall be shipped as one piece if possible or in
                    as few sections as possible. The number of field-casing joints shall be reduced
                    at all reasonable cost.



HVAC Systems                                                            Section 15500 - Page 21
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

             2.     Casings shall be factory fabricated and double walled with structural,
                    acoustical, and thermal performance certified by testing data. Casings
                    generally have a solid exterior shell construction, minimum No. 14 gauge
                    galvanized steel and an interior shell of No. 20 gauge galvanized steel [or
                    aluminum]. A solid interior shell shall be provided upstream of prefilters and
                    downstream of final filters and cooling coils. Remaining sections can have
                    perforated interior shell.
             3.     Casing access doors are required for both sides of heating/cooling coils, fans,
                    filters, dampers, sound attenuators, heat recovery devices, humidifiers, and
                    any other component requiring routine service. Access doors where possible
                    shall be man sized (24 inches x 72 inches), have vision panels, and seal with
                    the air pressure.
             4.     All exterior units are to be custom designed with a heated service corridor as
                    part of the unit. All controls and ancillary devices are to be accessible.
             5.     Each AHU component sections shall be supplied with suitable vapor-tight
                    lighting to permit maintenance functions. Lights are typically controlled from
                    a pilot switch located adjacent to the access door. Provide a duplex GFCI
                    electrical outlet inside each motor section. Outlet shall be controlled from the
                    outside by a separate switch. All wiring shall be provided by the unit
                    manufacturer.
             6.     Unit louvers shall be ACMA rated and selected for low-pressure drop with
                    less than 0.14 ounces/FT2 penetration at 750 FPM free-area velocity.
                    Areaways for louvers shall have a minimum of two drainage points sized for
                    full capacity. Areaway floors shall be sloped minimum 8% to drain.
             7.     Dampers shall be low leakage, and opposed or parallel blade as required to
                    accommodate mixing of air stream. Opposed blade dampers are preferred and
                    required for mixing applications. Particular attention shall be given to achieve
                    good mixing of outdoor and return air to minimize stratification and freezing
                    of water coils. Air blenders shall be considered for use when airflow
                    arrangements do not support the effective mixing of different air streams.
             8.     Air filters may consist of bag or cartridge-type elements; roll filters are not
                    acceptable. Filter design face velocity shall not exceed 500 FPM nor shall
                    manufacturers’ standard nominal ratings be exceeded. The preferred filter face
                    section dimensions are 24 inches x 24 inches. Outdoor air and return air as
                    applicable shall pass through prefilters. Large filter banks shall have
                    intermediate supports to prevent bank deflection at maximum design pressure
                    differentials.
             9.     Minimum 30% efficient filters shall be installed upstream of any heat
                    recovery device.
             10.    Preheat coils must be steam with an integral face and bypass damper or
                    glycol. All coils shall have copper tubes with aluminum fins and galvanized


HVAC Systems                                                            Section 15500 - Page 22
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

                    casing. Steam coils shall be drainable with vertical tubes and vacuum
                    breakers. Glycol coils are generally preferred for added freeze protection.
                    Coil vent and drain piping shall extend to outside the unit casing to vent and
                    drain valves.
             11.    Cooling coil velocity shall not exceed 450 FPM at maximum future and
                    present design conditions. For new buildings coil shall be sized for a nominal
                    face velocity not to exceed 400 FPM so that future growth can occur. Coils
                    shall have copper tubes with aluminum fins and stainless steel casing.
                    Intermediate stainless steel drain pans shall be provided for each coil bank
                    more than one coil high. The cooling coil section shall have a stainless steel
                    drain pan and a positive slope-to-drain connection. Coil connections, vent
                    and drain piping shall extend to outside the unit casing. Since this piping
                    is not typically fully insulated they shall be all red brass construction
                    to prevent rusting and associated leaks / failures common to steel
                    piping.
             12.    AHU fans may be vane-axial, centrifugal (single or double width), or plenum
                    fans as justified by life cycle costing. Fans shall have a minimum ACMA
                    Construction Class of II. Fans shall be totally isolated from the unit using
                    inertia base and spring isolation. Refer to Section 15050 for vibration
                    isolation criteria. Fan volume control may be achieved using VFDs or
                    approved in-flight pitch adjustment on axial fans and variable frequency
                    drives on centrifugal and plenum fans. Discharge dampers are not suitable for
                    volume control. Fans may be arranged in either the blow-through or draw-
                    through position. Redundant or parallel fans shall be installed in separate
                    compartments and be capable of complete isolation.
             13.    Where possible, sound attenuators shall be integrated as a part of the AHU.
                    The large cross-sectional area of most units results in low attenuator velocity
                    and a corresponding pressure drop while maximizing attenuator performance.
                    The silencer rating shall be determined in a duct-to-reverberant room test
                    facility which provides airflow in both directions through the test silencer in
                    accordance with ASTM Specification E477.
             14.    Custom units must be designed to be totally isolated from other adjacent units
                    so that routine maintenance can occur with the unit off and other units
                    operational. Ultra-low leakage, industrial-quality isolation dampers shall be
                    installed at the discharge of manifold units.
             15.    Each AHU section shall be provided with drainage facilities that permit the
                    washdown of units and contain leaks resulting from coil failures.
             16.    Provide factory installed and sealed wiring sleeves for all control and power
                    wiring that penetrate the unit casing. All power wiring shall be factory
                    installed to a single point for power source connection on the exterior of the
                    unit.


HVAC Systems                                                           Section 15500 - Page 23
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

             17.    For AHUs serving contaminated systems, all piping and appurtenances shall
                    be outside of the air stream.
             18.    Casings shall be constructed in a water and air-tight manner. The
                    manufacturer's standard cabinet construction shall result in an ASHRAE/
                    ANSI Standard 111-88 leakage class of less than 9 for demount units as
                    measured in accordance with ACMA Standard Z10-85. The fully assembled
                    unit shall have a maximum air leakage rate of 0.5 percent of the supply air
                    volume.
             19.    Custom-designed, field-erected AHUs shall be similar in many respects to
                    those which are factory fabricated. These units basically arrive at the job site
                    as individual components that must be assembled on concrete pads or curbs
                    to form the unit. Casing construction quality and erection procedures are
                    extremely important on these units. Poor quality casings result in excessive
                    AHU leakage and poor system performance. Contractor-shop-fabricated
                    casings are prohibited. The A/E shall individually review the design
                    parameters for each field erected unit with the Office of The University
                    Engineer.
             20.    When heat recovery equipment is used, the heating and cooling coils shall be
                    designed to function at full load with and without energy recovery. All coil
                    schedules shall show both entering air conditions. Units with heat recovery
                    systems shall be designed such that devices could be out of commission
                    without any interruption to AHU system operation.

      E.     Humidifiers for central station AHUs shall be of the dry-steam, manifold-jacketed
             type and be located in the AHU up-stream of the Chilled Water coil. Ductwork
             within the absorption range of the humidifier shall be fully welded stainless steel and
             pitched to drain. Steam lines serving humidifiers shall have an automatic isolation
             valve and be dripped to remove condensate prior to manifold. The isolation valve
             shall be closed during cooling mode to prevent additional heat gain in the duct system.
             A high-limit humidity controller must be provided for each humidifier.

      F.     The installation of heating and cooling coils in AHUs often creates long-term
             maintenance problems. Coils installed in either factory-packaged or custom-designed
             units, if not properly engineered, will not be serviced and will eventually fail to
             perform. The A/E shall ascertain that all components are serviceable.

      G.     The following issues shall be specifically addressed for all coil installations:

             1.     Individual coils must be fully accessible on both the upstream and
                    downstream sides to permit inspection and cleaning.




HVAC Systems                                                             Section 15500 - Page 24
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

             2.     The cooling-coil face velocity must be limited to 450 FPM across the entire
                    face area to prevent carryover at maximum future and present design
                    conditions. Air distribution plates should be considered for use upstream of
                    coils, but plates must not induce a high pressure drop.
             3.     Moisture eliminators may be considered where carryover presents a problem;
                    however, eliminators must not impede service access to the coil surface for
                    cleaning.
             4.     Multiple coils are often required to provide the total capacity of individual
                    units. The maximum coil depth shall be 8 rows with no more then two
                    coils in series. Coils shall be a maximum of 10 feet long by 3 to 3 1/2 feet
                    high and be capable of replacement without major rigging. Individual coils
                    within a coil bank must be removable without disturbing pipe headers or
                    other coils.
             5.     Multiple coils shall be valved separately so that, if any individual coil fails,
                    it can be isolated and drained while the remaining coils stay in operation.
                    Return header for multiple-stackedcoils shall be piped reverse return to assist
                    a balanced water flow at all load conditions.
             6.     All coils shall have integral vent and drainage ports. Steam coils shall be
                    nonfreeze vertical tube where installation is possible and provided with steam
                    vacuum breakers, not check valves located outside of the air stream.
             7.     Even and consistent airflow across the entire coil surface is extremely
                    important. Upstream mixing and the use of air blenders shall be carefully
                    considered.
             8.     Coil bank supply and return mains or steam and condensate mains shall have
                    manual isolation valves so that the entire unit can be drained.
             9.     Control and balancing valves shall be installed on the return line for water
                    coils. Balancing valves shall be specifically designed for balancing and have
                    integral memory stops. Combination balancing, shutoff, and flow meter
                    devices are not acceptable.
             10.    One-third and two-thirds steam control valve arrangements with a manual
                    bypass valve should be considered for large steam coils to improve control
                    and operating efficiency. Steam mains shall be dripped prior to control
                    valves. Steam control valves used on integral face and bypass coils shall be
                    controlled to the full open position when the inlet air temperature is 32
                    degrees or less, and to modulate in response to the setpoint temperature when
                    the inlet air is above 32 degrees.
             11.    Float traps shall be used on steam coils. Trap bypass lines shall not be used;
                    dual traps may be considered.
             12.    Steam coils must be piped for complete gravity drainage and fitted with
                    vacuum breakers. Vacuum breakers shall be located external to the air-handling
                    casing. Condensate shall not be lifted downstream of modulating valves for


HVAC Systems                                                            Section 15500 - Page 25
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

                     steam coils. Condensate lines shall not be designed to discharge under
                     pressure. There shall be a hydraulic head between the coil and steam trap of
                     18 inches minimum. Steam coils are not to be used as preheats. If this is the
                     only choice then the coil shall be of the face-and-by-pass type.
             13.     Factory-packaged units shall have offset coil pipe headers to allow individual
                     coils to slide out of unit casings.
             14.     Glycol preheat coils shall be designed for parallel flow-circuiting. Glycol flow
                     shall be maintained through the unit by a run around loop with mixing valve
                     pump system.
             15.     100% OA units design parameters are as follows: 0F EAT winter and
                     78F WB – 96F DB Summer.

      H.     The A/E shall give careful consideration to the location of the supply air fan with
             respect to coil banks. Excessive air velocity stratification across the face of a coil may
             affect the capacity, pressure drop, and water carryover characteristics. Thus, the
             location of the fan with respect to the coil bank is very important. Generally, if the
             air velocity across the coil does not vary by more than +/- 10% of nominal,
             essentially full capacity will be achieved and water carryover will not be a problem.
              However, if the air velocity stratification is greater than this, capacity reduction,
             carryover, and freeze-up problems could occur. When space limitations dictate that
             the fans be placed in close proximity to the heating or cooling coils, the following
             criteria should be used to determine the minimum distance between fan and coil for
             field built-up systems:

             1.      Draw-through System: For single-width fans, the distance between the fan
                     intake and coil should be a minimum of one wheel diameter. For double-
                     width fans, the distance between the fan intake and coil should be a minimum
                     of 1/2 wheel diameter.
             2.      Blow-through System: Most problems occur in this type of system. To
                     minimize space requirements, it is desirable to place the coil as close to the
                     fan as possible without causing excessive air velocity stratification across the
                     face of the coil. The minimum distance for satisfactory operation is a function
                     of the dimensional relationship of fan to coil, the fan outlet velocity, coil face
                     velocity, and coil pressure drop. Where extreme limited physical space
                     conditions exist, the use of a carefully designed baffle plate between the fan
                     discharge and the coil may be considered. The Contract documents should
                     specifically address the placement of the fan with respect to the coil.

      I.     Fans shall be individually selected for their specific application. Many different fan
             types and arrangements exist in the marketplace from a large variety of
             manufacturers. The Project Engineer has the responsibility to select the fan and


HVAC Systems                                                              Section 15500 - Page 26
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

             specify its requirements to meet the functional needs of the system while providing
             stable, efficient, and quiet operation. Fan selections shall be based on the lowest
             reasonable speed while optimizing efficiency. Fan selections shall consider longevity
             of components, especially bearing life at maximum design conditions.

      J.     Inlet vanes maybe considered for use to vary air volume. The A/ E shall evaluate the
             effects of low-frequency radiated noise on the system. During periods of normal
             building occupancy, most systems typically operate in the range of 50%-80% design
             capacity. Therefore, the fan that has been selected on the basis of 100% design
             capacity will be functioning most often at a throttled or reduced capacity. As air
             volume is reduced, this results in an increase in fan-generated noise.

      K.     All fans must be fully accessible for service and routine maintenance. Fan motors and
             drives shall not be located within hazardous or contaminated exhaust air streams. Fan
             bearings where possible shall be serviceable outside of hazardous or contaminated
             exhaust air streams. Inline fans with motors or drive exposed to exhaust air streams
             are not permitted.

      L.     Fan systems designed for parallel or manifold operation shall be protected against
             backward rotation of fan wheels. Antirotation devices, motor brakes, or other
             approved methods shall be considered for use on these systems. Solid fan shafts shall
             be furnished whenever possible as an option.

      M.     Specify fans having a certified sound and air rating based on tests performed in
             accordance with ACMA Bulletins 210, 211A, and 300. See AMCA Standard 99,
             Standard Handbook, for definitions of fan terminology. If specific sound data for the
             selected fan is not available, certified testing for fan sound data shall be required. The
             arrangement, size, class, and capacity of all fans shall be scheduled on the contract
             drawings for permanent records.

      N.     All fans shall be statically and dynamically balanced by the manufacturer and shall
             be provided with vibration isolation. Fans shall not transmit vibration to the duct
             system or building structure. All fans 25.0 hp and larger shall also be dynamically
             balanced in the field by the manufacturer after the installation is complete.

      O.     Diffuser cones and inlet bells are not permitted in rating a fan unless they are an
             integral part of the fan design.

      P.     Inlets and outlets of fans not duct connected, including fans in plenum chamber or
             open to the weather, shall have heavy OSHA-approved guard screens to protect




HVAC Systems                                                              Section 15500 - Page 27
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

             personnel. Guard screens shall not impair fan performance and, when bolted to
             equipment, will permit their removal for fan service and cleaning.

      Q.     Complete fan lubrication facilities shall be provided, such as oil reservoirs, sight
             glasses, grease and relief fittings, fill and drain plugs, pipe connections, etc. The
             facility shall be placed in a readily and safely accessible location so that after
             installation they will perform the required function without requiring the dismantling
             of any parts or stopping equipment. For fans located within contaminated air
             streams, lubrication facilities shall be piped to the exterior casing wall. For supply
             and return air systems, lubrication facilities are not required to be piped to the
             equipment exterior.

      R.     All parts of fans shall be protected against corrosion prior to operation of the fan.
             Exhaust fans shall be specifically addressed, as the air stream may contain excessive
             moisture, fumes, corrosive vapors, or contaminated or hazardous particles. Special
             consideration shall be given to those fans handling explosive vapors or radioactive
             material.

      S.     Certified performance data including acoustical data shall be submitted for each fan
             at maximum design conditions. Data shall include published sound power levels based
             on actual tests on the fan sizes being furnished and conducted in accordance with
             current AMCA standards. Such data are to define sound power levels (PWL) (10 -12
             W for each of the eight frequency bands). The acoustical design of the fan system
             must conform to the space noise criteria. Fan curves shall be submitted which will
             depict static pressure, total pressure, brake horsepower, and mechanical efficiency
             plotted against air volume. Fan curves shall include estimate losses for field
             installation conditions, system effect, and actual installed drive components. All
             included losses shall be defined on the fan curves. Data may also be submitted in
             tabular form, but tables are not a substitute for actual performance curves.

      T.     Direct drive fans are preferred to reduce maintenance costs and improve reliability.
             Where factory-designed and assembled belt drives are proposed to be furnished,
             OSHA-approved mesh-type guards shall be provided for all belt drives, and the
             drives shall comply with the following:

             1.     Each drive shall be selected according to the rating and recommendations of
                    the manufacturer for the service with which used, giving proper allowance for
                    sheave diameter, center distance, and arc of contact less than 180 degrees. The
                    motor driving shall have a centrifugal fan, with forward curved blades, and
                    with a nameplate rating of not less than 5% above the total of actual fan brake
                    horsepower and drive loss at specified capacity.


HVAC Systems                                                           Section 15500 - Page 28
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

                    C: Does this work with next motor size strategy?
             2.     Belts shall be constructed of endless reinforced cords of long staple cotton,
                    nylon, rayon, or other suitable textile fibers imbedded in rubber. The belt shall
                    have the correct cross section to fit the sheave grooves properly. Belts shall
                    be matched carefully for each drive. Extended-horsepower belts are not
                    acceptable.
             3.     Motor sheaves shall be adjustable pitch type for fans under 25 hp, selected
                    so that the required fan rotational speed will be obtained with the motor
                    sheave set approximately in midposition and have the specified pitch
                    diameter in that position. Fixed-pitch "initial" sheaves shall be installed on
                    fans 25 hp and larger. All multiplex belt drive assemblies regardless of
                    horsepower shall be fixed-pitch type. When correct “final” sheave size has
                    been determined by Testing and Balancing Agency, furnish and install a
                    permanent fixed-pitch sheave for motor to replace variable-pitch and “initial”
                    motor sheaves. Turn over variable-pitch and “initial” motor sheaves to the
                    University.
             4.     Fan motors shall have the capacity needed to operate the equipment at the
                    specified midposition operating condition. Where nonoverloading motors are
                    specified, the motor capacity rating at the most closed position of the motor
                    sheave shall be selected. In no case shall motors be a smaller size than that
                    required to operate without overload. Refer to Section 15170 for detailed
                    motor requirements.
             5.     Fan sheaves shall not be smaller in diameter than 30% of the fan wheel
                    diameter.
             6.     Sheaves shall be constructed of cast iron or steel, bored to fit properly on the
                    shafts, and secured with keyways of proper size (no set screws). Keyways
                    may be omitted for sheaves having _ inch or smaller bores, where set screws
                    may be used.

       U.    Fans shall be furnished complete as a package with motors, drives, curbs, bases, and
             inlet and outlet fittings. Detached vibration isolation devices may be provided
             separately.

12.0   Duct Design and Components:

       A.    The duct system design shall consider space availability, space air diffusion, noise
             levels, duct leakage, duct heat gains and losses, balancing methods, fire and smoke
             control, initial investment cost, and system operating cost. Deficiencies in duct
             design result in systems that operate incorrectly or are expensive to own and operate.
              Poor air distribution can cause discomfort; lack of sound attenuation may permit
             objectionable noise levels; poorly designed sections of ductwork can result in an


HVAC Systems                                                            Section 15500 - Page 29
University of Pennsylvania                                                            Design Guide
                                                                             Final – March 15, 2007

             unbalanced system; faulty duct construction or lack of duct sealing produces
             inadequate airflow rates at the terminals; and insufficient duct insulation leads to
             excessive heat gain or loss and contributes to condensation problems.

      B.     The duct system design shall be based on ASHRAE and SMACNA standards. Duct
             construction shall be suitable for the operating parameters of the system and be
             tested to prove compliance with project specifications.

      C.     Fans in the field typically show a lower performance capacity than manufacturers'
             ratings. The most common causes of deficient performance of the fan/system
             combination are improper outlet connections, nonuniform inlet flow, and swirl at the
             fan inlet. These conditions alter the aerodynamic characteristics of the fan so that its
             full flow potential is not realized. The Project Engineer must consider potential field
             conditions and performance penalties in the final selection of fans.

      D.     Normally, a fan is tested with open inlets and a section of straight duct attached to
             the outlet. This setup results in uniform flow into the fan and efficient static pressure
             recovery on the fan outlet. If good inlet and outlet conditions are not provided in the
             actual installation, the performance of the fan suffers. To select and apply the fan
             properly, these effects must be considered, and the pressure requirements of the fan,
             as calculated by standard duct design procedures, must be increased.

      E.     To achieve rated fan performance, air must enter the fan uniformly over the inlet area
             in an axial direction without prerotation. Adequate space must be provided by the
             engineer so that fan layouts can accommodate ideal inlet conditions. Poor fan layouts
             result in increased operating cost and deficient performance.

      F.     Since duct systems can convey smoke, hot gases, and fire from one area to another
             and can accelerate fire within the system, fire protection is an essential part of air-
             conditioning and ventilation system design. Compliance with NFPA Standard 90A
             for fire safety requirements for ducts, connectors, and appurtenances; plenums and
             corridors; air outlets, air inlets, and fresh air intakes; air filters; fans; electric wiring
             and equipment; air cooling and heating equipment; building construction, including
             protection of penetrations; and controls, including smoke control, is mandatory.

      G.     Leakage in all unsealed ducts varies considerably with the fabricating machinery used,
             the methods for assembly, and installation workmanship. For sealed ducts, a wide
             variety of sealing methods and products exists. Project specifications and ductwork
             plans shall define the duct construction method and class, sealing materials, and
             acceptable leakage rates for each application. Duct pressure tests shall confirm
             construction quality and actual leakage rates.


HVAC Systems                                                                Section 15500 - Page 30
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007


      H.     Duct system design and air device selection and layout must consider the architectural
             aspects of the building. Ductwork must fit within the allocated space and not require
             the lowering of ceilings. Duct design must allow for easy adjustment and maintenance
             of required components. Air device locations must be coordinated with architectural
             reflected ceiling plan, bulkheads, lighting coves, and other special features. Air
             distribution systems are an integral part of the building and must be designed to meet
             the stated design criteria efficiently without generating noise, creating drafts, or
             causing thermal imbalances or poor IAQ.

      I.     Except as noted in Section 6.0, supply, return, and exhaust air shall be ducted for all
             spaces, i.e., not taken through ceiling plenums, shafts, mechanical equipment rooms,
             corridors, or furred spaces. Generally, the circulation of air directly between areas is
             not permitted, except into toilet rooms, locker rooms, and janitor's closets.
             Circulation may also occur between adjacent corridors into negative pressure area or
             out of positive pressure areas. Makeup air for kitchens or other food preparation
             areas may come from adjacent dining areas since these areas are usually negative with
             respect to adjacent areas.

      J.     Conditioned air shall be supplied to corridors to maintain design temperatures and as
             required to make up exhaust through negatively pressurized rooms opening directly
             to the corridor. The quantity of conditioned air to the corridors shall be sufficient to
             maintain an overall positive building pressure.

      K.     The supply air distribution system must be designed to minimize turbulence and to
             avoid impacting the performance of primary containment equipment such as chemical
             fume hoods and biological safety cabinets. Therefore, perforated ceiling panels
             located away from the containment devices are recommended to provide even and
             low terminal velocity performance instead of grilles, registers, and ceiling diffusers.
             If ceiling diffusers are used, the device should be placed away from the front of the
             hood, the quadrant of the device which blows at the hood face should be blocked, and
             the throw velocity of device should be designed for no more than half to two-thirds
             of the hood face velocity.

      L.     Air distribution devices shall be selected for each specific application. Many different
             types and styles of air devices are available on the marketplace to meet the various
             performance criteria. Discharge velocity, diffusion pattern, throw, terminal velocity,
             volume control, noise generation, and appearance are factors to be considered in
             device selection.




HVAC Systems                                                             Section 15500 - Page 31
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

      M.     Air devices shall be selected to provide a uniform, quiet, and low-velocitydistribution
             covering the majority of the occupied area. Air devices shall not dump the air, create
             drafts, or generate turbulence within rooms.

      N.     Certain areas may require laminar flow diffusers to keep contaminants controlled
             below work areas until they are exhausted.

      O.     The terminal velocity of discharged air 24 inches from wall surfaces desirably should
             be less than 50 FPM. Where applications become more critical, such as for
             laboratories, vivariums, and treatment/procedure rooms, the terminal velocity should
             not exceed 30 FPM at 6 feet above floor height.

      P.     The University Office of Environmental Health and Radiation Safety requires review
             and approval of the type of laboratory hoods and hood face velocities used for each
             application, including the design of the supply air distribution and associated terminal
             velocities at hood entrances. They also will require a specific review of personnel
             protection issues related to transfer processes involving potentially hazardous
             materials, such as solvents. Usage based controls shall be utilized when applicable
             to conserve energy by reducing face velocities when hood is unoccupied.

      Q.     The minimum duct size for low pressure supply and exhaust branches is 8" x 4" (or
             equivalent 6" diameter). Refer to Table 10 for maximum velocity requirements.

      R.     Table 10 summarizes the acceptable velocities for HVAC components and duct
             systems. Louvers require special treatment since the blade shapes, angles, and
             spacing cause significant variations in louver-free area, pressure drop, and water
             penetration. Louver selections shall always be based on data obtained in accordance
             with AMCA standards.




                                       Table No. 10.
                         Maximum Design Velocities for HVAC Systems
                 Element                               Face Velocity
                                                       Ft./Minute
                 DUCTWORK
                 Medium Pressure Mech. Rooms/Shafts                2,000
                 Occupied Areas                                    1,750




HVAC Systems                                                             Section 15500 - Page 32
University of Pennsylvania                                                           Design Guide
                                                                            Final – March 15, 2007

                                            Table No. 10.
                            Maximum Design Velocities for HVAC Systems
                 Element                                  Face Velocity
                                                          Ft./Minute
                 Low-pressure Mech. Rooms/Shafts          1,500
                 Occupied Areas                           1,200
                 Terminal Outlets                         500
                 Outdoor/Relief Air                       1,500
                 COOLING/DEHUMIDIFYING COILS                        400new 450 old systems
                 HEATING COILS
                 Steam/Hot Water Unit                               450-750
                 FILTERS
                 Viscous Impingement                                200-500
                 Dry Type, Extended-Surface
                 Flat (Low Efficiency)                              500
                 Pleated Media                                      500
                 HEPA Filters                                       250
                 LOUVERS
                 Intake (free area)                                 750
                 Exhaust (velocity across net free area)            1,000


      S.     Ductwork may be either single- or double-wall construction as required to satisfy the
             acoustical requirements specified in these guidelines. Double-wall construction shall
             consist of a perforated liner surface with an approved film-covering acoustical
             material. Terminal unit sound attenuators having a similar construction to double-
             wall ductwork may be utilized for room noise attenuation. The use of internal sound
             lining is prohibited.

      T.     Ductwork may consist of either round, flat-oval, or rectangular shapes as needed to
             suit the building. Duct fittings, joint methods, supports, and construction details shall
             meet the requirements of Element Face Velocity SMACNA. All fittings shall have
             documented flow loss coefficients by either SMACNA or ASHRAE. Irregular or
             makeshift fittings are not acceptable. Factory-fabricated fittings by independent
             manufacturers may be utilized provided they have catalogued performance criteria.

      U.     Flexible ductwork may be utilized for supply, return and exhaust air applications to
             connect air distribution devices to low-pressure duct mains. Flexible duct runs shall



HVAC Systems                                                              Section 15500 - Page 33
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

             be limited to 6 feet. Flexible duct shall not be used to connect the inlets or outlets of
             airflow supply or exhaust terminal boxes to duct mains.

      V.     The duct construction method, material of construction, and pressure classification
             shall be specified by the project engineer for each unique system installed on the
             project. Table 11 shows the minimum requirements for generalized applications.
             Refer to Section 15890 duct system minimum specifications.



                                    Table No. 11
                          Minimum Duct Construction Standards
                                     SMACNA             Materials          Field      Notes
                                      Pressure              of           Pressure
            Application
                                    Classification     Construction      Testing
     Low-pressure Supply           2 inches POS      Galvanized Steel       No
     Ductwork
     Medium-pressure Supply        6 inches POS      Galvanized             Yes
     Ductwork Upstream of                            Steel
     Terminal Units
     Low-pressure Supply           2 inches POS      Galvanized             No
     Ductwork Downstream of                          Steel
     Terminal Units
     Low-Pressure Outdoor,         2 inches POS      Galvanized             No
     Relief, Return Air                              Steel
     Ductwork
     Medium-pressure Return        3 inches NEG      Galvanized             Yes
     Ductwork Downstream of                          Steel
     Terminal Units
     Low-Pressure General          2 inches NEG      Galvanized             No
     Exhaust Ductwork                                Steel
     Low-pressure Wet Process      2 inches NEG      Aluminum or            No          See
     Exhaust Ductwork                                Stainless Steel                  Para. X
                                                     Welded
     Low-pressure Potentially      2 inches NEG      Epoxy-Coated           No          See
     Hazardous Exhaust                               Galvanized                        Para.
     Ductwork Upstream of                            Steel or                          BB.



HVAC Systems                                                              Section 15500 - Page 34
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007


                                    Table No. 11
                          Minimum Duct Construction Standards
                                    SMACNA             Materials          Field      Notes
                                     Pressure              of           Pressure
            Application
                                   Classification     Construction      Testing
     Terminal Unit                                   Stainless


     Medium-pressure               CLASS             Epoxy-Coated          Yes         See
     Potentially Hazardous         I/INDUST.         Galvanized Steel                 Para.
     Exhaust Ductwork                                or Stainless                     BB.
                                   6 inches NEG
     Downstream of Terminal
     Units
     Special Hazard Exhaust        3 inches NEG      Stainless Steel       Yes
     Ductwork


      W.     Those duct systems requiring field leak testing shall be tested at 100% of the duct
             construction rating. Leak testing shall follow general procedures (Chapter 3) and use
             apparatus (Chapter 5) as outlined in the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test
             Manual, Latest Edition. The A/E shall specify the allowable leakage in terms of
             percent of total rated cfm capacity for each duct system based on leakage allowances
             accounted for in airflow rate and fan selection calculations. The A/E shall specify
             that the allowable leakage rates for each duct section tested shall be determined by the
             use of Appendix C in the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual.

      X.     Wet exhaust ducts or those duct systems that tend to carry moisture shall be pitched
             toward the source of moisture generation. Drainage facilities shall be provided in
             these systems.

      Y.     The term "hazardous exhaust" generally applies to common exhaust systems serving
             laboratories, fume hoods, vivariums, biosafety cabinets, etc. that by their relatively
             light hazard rating may be exhausted by a common exhaust system.

      Z.     The term "special hazard" generally applies to all other exhaust systems serving BL3,
             BL4, radioactive hoods, etc. that by their critical nature or extreme hazard must be
             exhaust individually and normally requires special filtration.

      AA.    Wet-exhaust ductwork shall be of either aluminum or Type 304 stainless steel
             construction to prevent corrosion. Hazardous exhaust or special exhaust ductwork


HVAC Systems                                                             Section 15500 - Page 35
University of Pennsylvania                                                           Design Guide
                                                                            Final – March 15, 2007

              shall be at least Type 304 welded stainless steel or better as required to handle
              exhaust products.

       BB.    For non diluted exhaust systems (branches from fume hoods), duct to be Epoxy-
              Coated Galvanized or stainless steel. Manifolded exhaust systems can be galvanized
              where sufficient dilution has occurred.

13.0   Separation of Intakes and Exhaust

       A.     Outdoor air intake and exhaust discharges shall be located to avoid health hazards,
              nuisance odors, reduction in capacity of air-conditioning equipment, and corrosion
              of equipment caused by reentry of exhaust air from any source.

       B.     Outdoor air intakes are classified as any louver, duct, gooseneck, ventilator, or pipe
              that is commonly used to take in outdoor air for the purpose of ventilation, heat
              removal, exhaust makeup, combustion air, air compressor makeup, or comfort
              conditioning. Exhaust discharge includes that from exhaust fans, vehicle exhaust,
              cooling towers, boiler or incinerator stacks, emergency generators, vacuum pumps,
              steam or other hot vents, plumbing vents, condensing units, kitchen hoods, relief
              from AHUs, and mechanical/electrical room ventilators.

       C.     Separating air intake and exhaust air outlets by at least 25 feet as recommended by
              codes is a minimum requirement under normal conditions. Other factors such as wind
              direction, wind velocity, stack effect, system sizes, and height of building must be
              evaluated, and location of intakes and outlets shall be adjusted as required. The
              ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook is a source for analyzing these factors.

       D.     An exhaust dispersion analysis performed by a qualified consultant is recommended
              on Laboratory Buildings to analyze and make recommendations. Under normal
              operating conditions, exhaust air impinging on outside air intakes of the facility or its
              neighbors must be sufficiently diluted to meet the air quality requirement that
              contaminants in intake air should be less than 1 percent of current occupational
              exposure limits (OELs). Furthermore, regardless of the internal dilution, the
              minimum external dilution (from top of stack to intake) shall be 20:1 for any building
              exhaust. Dilution criteria, or target concentrations shall be established to evaluate the
              results of the dispersion modeling. The criteria will differ with the type of source
              and their emission levels, can be either health or odor related. The following Table
              lists dilution criteria for common source types.




HVAC Systems                                                               Section 15500 - Page 36
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007




                                                Table No. 12
                                              Dilution Criteria
                   Source Type               Criteria Type                Dilution Criteria
              Variorum                   Odor                     100:1
              Kitchen                    Odor                     600:1
              Laboratory Fume Hood       Health/Odor              3000:1 for a 1,000 cfm exhaust
              Diesel Generators          Health/Odor              230:1 for health
                                                                  4,000:1 for odor
              Parking Garage             Health                   4:1

      E.     The bottom of all outdoor intakes shall be located as high as practical but not less
             than 6 feet above ground level, or if installed through the roof, 3 feet above the roof
             level.

      F.     Outside air intake shall be at least 40 feet away from hot exhaust discharging
             horizontally or deflected down, plumbing vents, animal room exhaust, generator
             exhausts, loading docks, automobile entrances, driveways, passenger drop-offs,
             cooling towers, and incinerator and boiler stacks.

      G.     Fan discharge nozzles are preferred over stacks to create an acceptable discharge
             plume. Where stacks are used, the A/E shall use data, formulas, and other design
             information as published by ASHRAE, ANSI, and other sources in designing the
             exhaust stack height and velocity characteristics to overcome the building cavity
             boundary and avoid reentrainment of exhaust. Stacks shall be shown as part of the
             architectural design and the design rationale described in the early design submittal.
             In general exhaust stacks shall:

             1.     Be in a vertical direction at a minimum of 10 feet above the adjacent roofline
                    and so located with respect to opening and air intakes to avoid reentry of
                    contaminants into any building
             2.     Have a discharge velocity of at least 3000 FPM.
             3.     Be designed so that aesthetic considerations concerning external appearance
                    are not allowed to overcome the above requirements and the safe discharge of
                    exhaust.




HVAC Systems                                                            Section 15500 - Page 37
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

             4.     Be designed so that, where possible, multiple-manifold exhaust fans have
                    separate exhaust stacks to avoid a positive pressure condition on the
                    dischargeable side of an inoperable fan.
             5.     Show economic justification for their use in lieu of discharge air entrainment
                    nozzles.


                                    END OF SECTION




HVAC Systems                                                           Section 15500 - Page 38
University of Pennsylvania                                                           Design Guide
                                                                            Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15510 – “UNDERGROUND PIPING”

 1.0    This section pertains to all underground chilled water, steam and steam condensate,
        domestic water, natural gas, and sewer piping systems installed throughout the
        University Campus.

       Reference Sections:
       Section 15050 for Basic Materials and Methods.
       Section 15400 for Piping Systems.
       Section 15515 for Hydronic Specialties
       Section 15525 for Steam and Condensate Specialties.

2.0    Chilled Water Piping:

       A.     Underground piping systems shall be constructed of concrete lined, ductile iron pipe
              using Elastomer gasketed bell and spigot joints rated for a 350 PSI working pressure.
              The minimum thickness of the cement lining shall be as follows:

              1.      Up to 12” – 1/16”.
              2.      14” to 24” – 3/32”.
              3.      Above 24” – 1/8”.

              The ductile pipe dimensions and tolerances shall conform to ANSI/AWWA
              C151/A21.51 Class 56 standards. The piping will be factory coated with an
              asphaltic coating. The contractor must be directed not to field apply any coating to
              the pipe. All underground piping must be cathodically protected. Pipe bedding shall
              be equal to Type 1 through 5 per ANSI/AWWA Standards. A holiday detector shall
              be used during the installation to determine if any faults exist in the asphaltic coating.

       B.     Joints shall be fully restrained mechanical type equal to U.S. Pipe and Foundry T.R.
              Flex type.

       C.     Transition from ductile iron (TR-Flex) to building piping (steel) shall be made by a
              spun ductile iron flange (by US-pipe) to steel flange connection. Connection shall
              comply with ANSI / AWWA C115 / A21.15 “Class 250#. The use of mechanical
              fittings is prohibited. Consider piping restraining systems as required. Ductile iron
              connections shall not project more than 3’ into building. Site work contractor shall
              be responsible for all DI piping systems. Building mechanical contractor is
              responsible for making the DI to steel connection. Pressure test laterals to determine
              supply and return before making final connections.




Underground Piping                                                          Section 15510 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

      D.     Laterals from mains through the building foundation shall be run strait with NO
             offsets.

      E.     Protection of the valves and valve boxes during construction is paramount. Avoid
             heavy loads directly on piping systems!

      F.     Provide isolation valves outside buildings (not in the street – just inside the curb
             line preferred) as near to the connection to utility main and inside buildings before
             any branch connections or devices.

3.0   Steam Piping:

      A.     Cellular glass insulated steel carrier pipe (steam-schedule40, condensate-schedule80)
             inside insulated outer steel conduit and jacketed with extruded high-density
             polyethylene (HDPE). System needs to be drainable, dryable and testable. Outer
             casing field joints shall be wrapped with a shrink sleeve seal.

      B.     The design shall specify and indicate all thrust blocks, anchors, moment guides,
             oversized elbows and expansion loops necessary for a complete system. Include all
             end seals, gland seals and pipe supports. A holiday detector shall be used during the
             installation to determine if any faults exist in the conduit coating.

             Manufacturers and models: Multi-Therm 500 with HDPE Jacket (By Permapipe-
             Ricwil), Duo-Therm 505 (By Thermacor), or Insul-800 (by Rovanco). “No
             exceptions”

      C.     Threaded joints are permitted up to a 2" nominal pipe size. Above 2 inches, all joints
             must be flanged or welded.

      D.     Thermal PAK flexible ball and slip joints.
             Ball joint shall be of integral design. Series P-2 Ductile iron seats with injectable
             packing cylinder while under full line pressure. Packing cylinder shall be a Type B
             (400H) packing cylinder. Type B contains an integral stainless steel safety valve to
             supplement the discharge tip design and provide a positive shut off when the plunger
             is used. Note: Specify removable and resilient insulation blanket.

             Manufactures: Advance Thermal Systems, Inc. or Barco (600 Series / Style III)

4.0   Domestic Water:        Refer to Section 15400 for Piping and Materials.

5.0   Natural Gas:           Refer to Section 15400 for Piping and Materials.


Underground Piping                                                       Section 15510 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007


6.0   Sewer:                  Refer to Section 15400 for Piping and Materials.

7.0   Site Utility Valving Requirements:

      Provide isolation valves outside buildings (not in the street) as near to the connection to
      utility main and inside buildings before any branch connections or devices.

8.0   General Information:

      A.       Typically, the University owns and maintains the Campus steam distribution piping
               after service from the local provider (Trigen Philadelphia).

      B.       All underground utility work within the right-of-way must follow the GPIS
               permitting system process. The A/E is responsible for entering the appropriate
               information in the system in a timely fashion to concur with the project schedule
               requirements.

      C.       All restoration by permit tee to be accordance with the Streets Department Standard
               Construction Item publication.

      D.       Laboratory waste within buildings shall be a separate system through the building
               wall. The laboratory waste systems shall be piped to a common sampling manhole
               before connected to the site sanitary system.

      E.       A/E shall coordinate the termination of services with the Utility Companies and
               project the costs of extending services to any new buildings or projects.

      F.       Critical Utilities: On a project by project basis, the A/E and the University shall
               determine which utilities are critical to support the project during a utility failure.
               Consideration shall be given to multiple sources or utility connections to critical
               functions (such as chilled water for Vivarium facilities).


                                       END OF SECTION




Underground Piping                                                          Section 15510 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15515 - "HYDRONIC SPECIALTIES"

1.0   This section pertains to Hydronic specialties to be applied to chilled water, condenser
      water, glycol and hot water heating systems.

      Reference Sections:
      Section 15050 for Basic Materials and Methods.
      Section 15400 for Piping Systems.

2.0   Refer to the typical piping diagrams contained in the Appendices for arrangements of
      specialties serving various equipment.

3.0   Each closed loop hot water heating system in each building shall have a dual redundant
      full flow filter installed in series with the primary pumps but parallel to each other. The
      filter shall be manufactured by Filter Specialties, Inc. (FSI) and be designed for a
      maximum clean pressure drop of 3.0 PSI when using a 50 micron filter bag. All filters
      above 4" shall be supplied with hydraulic lifting mechanism and raised landing for better
      leverage. The interior of the filter housing shall be epoxy coated.

4.0   Strainers - Cast steel "Y" type with removable, cleanable stainless steel screens having
      1/16" perforations through 4" and 1/8" perforations above 4". Each strainer blowdown
      connection shall be piped with a ball valve and hose connection. Strainers shall be rated
      for a 300 PSI working pressure.

5.0   Isolation Valves, Unions and Flanges - Refer to Section 15050.

6.0   Check valves shall be of the silent type, center guided spring loaded type with screwed
      ends through 2" and wafer type above 2". All trim shall be 316 stainless steel with a
      carbon steel or bronze body to match piping materials. Manufacture: DFT, Inc or equal

7.0   Balancing valves - Refer to Section 15050.

8.0   Backflow preventers - Double check back pressure type with integral drain. Equal to
      Watts Regulation Co. Series 909 or City of Philadelphia approved equals. Relief shall be
      piped to a suitable drainage facility as indicated in Section 15400.

9.0   Pressure relief valves shall be constructed of the following materials:

      A.     Bronze body

      B.     Trim - stainless steel


Hydronic Specialties                                                     Section 15515 – Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007


       C.     Springs - stainless steel

       All relief valves shall conform to ASME standards and be National Board certified. Relief
       valve discharge shall be piped to a suitable drainage facility as indicated in Section 15400.
       Manufacture: Sarco or equal.

10.0   Expansion Tanks - Diaphragm or bladder (butyl rubber) type steel tanks complete with
       charging valve, drain valve, ASME stamp, lifting rings and system connection.
       Connection between tank and system shall be provided with a locking type ball valve.
       Provide vertical floor-mounted tanks wherever possible, mounted on concrete equipment
       pad.

11.0   Air separators shall be of the centrifugal type with blowdown connections complete with
       piped ball valve and hose adapter. Air separators shall be furnished without the strainers.
       Manufacture: Spirotherm or equal.

12.0   Thermometers and Gauges - Provide and install all thermometers and gauges in such a
       manner as to be easily read from normal observation positions. Provide adjustable angle
       stem industrial-type thermometers with brass case, red reading column, clear double
       strength glass , 304 stainless steel stem, 9 inch scale, white face and black numerals.
       Thermometers containing mercury are not permitted. Case shall be adjustable so the scale
       is readable from the floor. Thermometer ranges shall be as follows:

       A.     Condenser water –30oF to 130 oF

       B.     Chilled water – 0oF to 100 oF

       C.     Heating water – 30oF to 240 oF

       Thermometers shall be certified and have a guaranteed accuracy of plus or minus 1 percent
       of full scale, except for thermometers located in the chilled water supply and return piping
       at the chillers which shall have an accuracy of plus or minus 0.15 degrees F. The accuracy
       of all pressure gauges shall be 1% of scale range. Select range in such manner that the
       operating pressure is at the mid-point of the scale. Minimum size of dial shall be 4 1/2"
       diameter. Refer to the typical piping diagrams in the Appendices for locations of gauges and
       thermometers. Provide ball valves on all gauges. Manufacture: Trerice (BX Type),
       Philadelphia Instruments, Weiss (Navy Class).

13.0   Thermometer Mounting - Provide thermometers with matching stainless steel separable
       socket thermometer wells. Where thermometers are installed in piping with insulation 2


Hydronic Specialties                                                      Section 15515 – Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

       inches thick or greater, provide thermometer wells with extension necks. Omit extension
       necks where thermometers are used on bare pipe or pipe with insulation less than 2
       inches. Where thermometer wells are installed in piping 2-1/2 inches and smaller, increase
       the pipe size by at least one pipe diameter to avoid restricting the flow in the pipe.

14.0   Air Vents - High capacity, float activated, non-modulating 150 PSIG, cast iron body,
       stainless steel trim designed to prevent air from entering the system when pressure falls
       below atmospheric pressure or manual type consisting of a capped ball valve.

15.0   Incoming services to buildings or projects, as determined by the University, such as
       chilled water, steam, domestic water and natural gas, shall be sub-metered and reported to
       the University Operations Control Center (OCC).


                                      END OF SECTION




Hydronic Specialties                                                     Section 15515 – Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15525 - "STEAM AND CONDENSATE SPECIALTIES"

1.0   Steam Traps:

      A.     All high pressure (above 100 PSI or higher) steam traps shall be minimum 3/4"
             inverted bucket traps. Construction shall be steel, with stainless steel internal parts,
             rated for a 300 PSI operating pressure. This trap requirement is also applicable to
             all underground steam piping and all steam pressure reducing stations. Spirax Sarco
             model B or Series 200 or equal.

      B.     Traps for “constant pressure” steam services below 100 PSI, and inside a building,
             shall be thermodynamic traps with swivel connectors, Shall be supplied with a
             threaded or socket weld pipeline connector which, once installed, remains
             permanently inline. Trap shall be attached to the connector by two bolts to enable
             simple and rapid installation and replacement. The connector is designed to allow
             installation on pipe work that is vertical, horizontal, or any angle in between. When
             specified, the connector shall be available with an integral “Y” pattern strainer and
             optional blow-down valve. The blow-down valve shall be wrench operated to keep
             operator clear of the blow-down stream. The traps should be capable of working
             with up to 80% back pressure and have an operating pressure range of 3.5 to 450
             psig. Trap to be provided with optional insulating cover to reduce excessive heat loss
             resulting from low ambient temperatures, wind, rain, etc. when specified. Spirax
             Sarco models UTD52L, UTD52H, UTD30L, UTD30H or equal.

      C.     Traps for “variable pressure” process steam services below 100 PSI, and inside a
             building, shall be float and thermostatic traps. These traps shall be Ductile iron and
             cover pressures to 200 psig operating pressures. Traps shall be repairable without
             disturbing the connecting piping. All internals including float, main valve head and
             seat, and thermostatic air vent shall be stainless steel. Air vent shall be of a precision
             welded twin diaphragm design which is completely encased in a protective capsule,
             and is self-adjusting over its entire operating range. Air vent capsule shall be a
             stainless steel balance pressure thermostatic air vent capable of withstanding 45 F
             (25_C) of superheat steam and resisting water hammer without sustaining damage.
              Internals of the trap shall be completely serviceable without disturbing the piping.
             Spriax Sarco Models FT1, FT, FTB or FT14

      D.     Steam main drip traps shall be sized with a 2 times safety factor at
             full differential pressure. In most cases, they will be 3/4" size with
             low capacity orifice or smaller unless otherwise shown on the
             drawings and they shall be located every 200 feet or less. Traps for



Steam and Condensate Specialties                                           Section 15525 – Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

             equipment drainage are sized with safety factors that reflect the
             HVAC industry. A summary of these typical recommendations are
             as follows:


      E.     HVAC INDUSTRY :
             1.  Non-modulating control systems have traps selected with a 2
                 times factor at full pressure differential.
             2.  Modulating control systems with less than 30 psig inlet
                 pressure have traps selected for full load at 1/2 psi pressure
                 differential, provide 18 to 24" drip leg for condensate to drain
                 freely to gravity return at 0 psi. (With drip legs less than 18",
                 consult a Spirax Sarco representative.)
             3.  Modulating control systems with greater than 30 psig inlet
                 pressure have traps selected with a 3 times factor at full
                 pressure differential for all preheat coils, and a 2 times factor
                 for others.
             4.  Modulating control systems have removal module packages
                 selected for full operating range (0 to 100% capacity) with
                 elevated condensate returns and/or return pressures greater
                 than 0 psi.

2.0   Do not install traps in area which may be subjected to freezing temperatures under normal
      conditions.

3.0   Pressure reducing valves shall be of the pilot operation type. Consideration shall be given
      to the operating range (Lbs./Hr. flow) of the system and the use of parallel valves to prevent
      erosion of the valve and seat. Valve body shall be cast steel with ANSI flanges. Provide
      valves with stainless steel seat rings, trim and stem. Valves shall be Spence Model E or Sarco
      Model P. Refer to Section 15200 for insulation requirements at PRVs.

4.0   Safety valves shall be constructed of the following materials and shall be sized to pass the
      maximum capacity that the associated PRV can pass:

      A.     Carbon steel body

      B.     Trim - stainless steel




Steam and Condensate Specialties                                         Section 15525 – Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

       C.     Springs - stainless steel


5.0    Strainers - same as that listed in Section 15515 "Hydronic Specialties" except that screens
       shall have 1/32" openings through 4" size and 3/64" openings above 4" size.
       Flash Tanks - ASME rated horizontal tanks size to assure dryness of the steam released and
       to avoid carry-over of water by the steam.

6.0    Waste Heat Recovery – Steam is provided to University projects by a local supplier (Trigen
       Philadelphia). Steam condensate is not returned to the provider. Steam condensate shall be
       piped from each use point to a central collection point before being discharged to a drain.
       Uses for the waste heat (including flash tank steam) shall be considered on a project by
       project basis. The A/E should attempt to be innovative and aware of potential applications
       for waste heat recovery (such as domestic water preheating) that may be associated with the
       building or project.

7.0    Condensate Coolers - All steam condensate systems shall be fitted with an inline condensate
       cooler properly sized to ascertain a maximum discharge temperature of 140oF at peak
       condensate flow. Cooler shall be provided with self-actuating temperature regulating valve,
       check valve,vent line to exterior, isolation valve, relief valve, strainer, leaving condensate
       thermometer, and wall or floor support, as required. Colton Industries, Armstrong, ITT or
       equal. Coordinate routing of drainage piping to properly sized and contained floor drain as
       indicated in Section 15400.

8.0    Thermometers and Pressure Gauges – same as that listed in Section 15515 "Hydronic
       Specialties, with the following differences:
          • The range for thermometers in steam service shall be 50 to 400 degrees F.
          • Provide pressure snubbers and ball valves on all gauges.

9.0    Electric Steam Condensate Pumps and Receiver Sets – Provide packaged electrically-powered
       automatic duplex steam condensate return pumps and receiver sets in one factory-assembled
       package, pre-piped, pre-wired and factory tested. The receiver shall be a floor-mounted,
       rated for 250F, horizontal, atmospheric close grained cast iron tank provided with insulation
       clips. Receiver shall include inlet, vent to exterior, drain and level gauge glass connections.
        The pumps shall be horizontal, centrifugal pumps. The pumps shall be of low NPSH design
       to meet the receiver height and saturated condensate condition. SPIRAX SARCO MODEL
       VCS, VES.

10.0   Safety Relief Valves - Steam safety relief valves shall be set to open at 85 percent of the
       maximum working pressure of the equipment or vessel being protected. Valves shall be sized
       to relieve at a rate equal to the maximum boiler output, or the maximum possible flowrate


Steam and Condensate Specialties                                           Section 15525 – Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                           Design Guide
                                                                            Final – March 15, 2007

       from fully-open pressure-reducing valve or control valve upstream. Valves shall be bonnet
       type with enclosed spring and open operating lever. Valves shall be ASME code stamped.
        Valve body shall be carbon steel, cast iron or bronze, with internals of brass or stainless
       steel. Valves shall be threaded for pipe smaller than 1 inch in size and flanged for pipe 1 inch
       and larger. Terminate piping from each safety valve discharge to the outside. At the base of
       each discharge stack, provide safety relief valve discharge (drip pan) elbow with drain piping
       arranged to discharge over the nearest floor drain in the room.

11.0   Noise Attenuation at steam stations- Shall be accomplished through proper design selection,
       then through acoustic blankets, plates, diffusers or suppressors as scheduled. Where
       indicated, noise attenuation equipment shall be attached directly to the downstream
       connection of the pressure reducing valve to reduce noise output by approximately 15 to 30
       dBA when measured by a sound level meter meeting ANSI standards. Noise diffuser shall
       be manufactured of rolled and welded steel components that have been welded in accordance
       with ASME Section IX weld procedures. Pressure drop through the diffuser shall not exceed
       1% of line pressure upstream of the pressure reducing valve. Spriax Sarco Model D or equal.

12.0   Steam Powered Condensate Pumps - The pump shall be pressure powered type ( Ductile
       Iron) or (Steel) pump operated by steam, which does not require any electrical energy and
       is sized to meet the actual maximum capacity of the system being drained. Body
       construction of ductile iron A395 or steel as required, with lift type check (Bronze) or
       Stainless Steel Disc Check valves for pumping liquids of specific gravity of 0.65 and above.
        The pump shall contain a float operated snap-acting mechanism with no external seals or
       packing and stainless steel trim, and hardened stainless steel mechanism bearing components.
        Pump to be provided with inlet and outlet check valves attached at factory for ease of field
       installation. When required, shall be equipped with a cycle counter to monitor the volume
       of liquids being pumped, sight glass to monitor operation and insulation cover. SPIRAX
       SARCO MODEL PPC OR PPF or equal.

13.0   Moisture Separators - Shall be of the high efficiency internal baffle type having a pressure
       drop that does not exceed an equivalent length of pipe. The body shall be provided with a
       screwed bottom drain to provide for the installation of a trap to discharge any accumulated
       liquid. Flow shall be diverted by an internal baffling arrangement and connections shall be
       on the same horizontal plane.

       Iron Separators. Body shall be iron.

       Ductile Iron Separators.
       Construction of Separator shall allow inspection/removalof the internal baffle plate if desired.
       Body to be made of ductile iron with screwed connections. Design shall be rated to 232 psig




Steam and Condensate Specialties                                            Section 15525 – Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

       at 248_F and 160 psig at 572_F with no maintenance required for separator. SPIRAX
       SARCO MODEL S1.

       Cast Iron Separators.
       Construction of Separator shall have a fixed baffle arrangement with connection for balancing
       line in air system or air venting in steam systems. Body to be made of cast iron with
       screwed or flanged connections. Design shall be rated to 232 psig at 248_F and 188 psig at
       428_F with no maintenance required for separator. SPIRAX SARCO MODEL S2
       (SCREWED CONNECTIONS) or SPIRAX SARCO MODEL S3 (FLANGED
       CONNECTIONS.)

       Steel Separators.
       Cast Steel Separators. Construction of Separator shall have an internal baffle with a tapping
       at top of body for connection of a balancing line for air systems or air venting in steam
       systems. Body to be of cast steel construction with body designed to ANSI Class 300 and
       connection options of: Socket Welded, Threaded, or Flanged. Efficiency shall be better than
       99% in the removal of moisture particles, greater than and equal to 10 microns in size, up to
       rated maximum allowable capacity. Design shall be rated to 285 psig at 100*F and 95 psig
       at 750*F for ANSI 150 flanged units, 740 psig at 100*F and 505 psig at 750*F for all other
       connections.SPIRAX SARCO MODEL S5.


14.0   Vacuum breakers shall be used on all modulating or on/off steam run heat exchangers and
       coils. Vacuum breakers shall be installed in the steam supply side between the control valve
       and exchanger equipment. Bodies shall be brass or stainless steel with stainless steel
       internals. SPIRAX SARCO MODEL VB14 OR VB21.

15.0   Incoming steam services to buildings or projects, as determined by the University, shall be
       sub-metered and reported to the University Operations Control Center (OCC). Steam used
       for temporary heating during construction shall be metered.


                                      END OF SECTION




Steam and Condensate Specialties                                          Section 15525 – Page 5
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15535 - "REFRIGERATION PIPING AND SPECIALTIES"

1.0   Reference Sections
      Section 15400 for piping materials, joints, and fittings.
      Section 15015 for Basic Materials and Methods (including pipe supports).

2.0   All refrigeration system piping arrangements, pitching and sizing shall be as recommended
      by the manufacturer and indicated on the drawings.

3.0   All refrigeration systems shall be tested, evacuated and charged by the installing
      contractor. The contractor shall verify, in writing, that the system has been tested and is
      leak free and properly charged as determined by the specified test. Refer to Section
      15990 "Testing, Balancing and Adjusting" for specific test requirements.

4.0   All systems shall be designed with the following:

      A.     Service valves.

      B.     Liquid line sight and moisture indicators at the condenser or receiver and at the
             entrance to the expansion valve.

      C.     Filter dryers with a replaceable core, and with a valved bypass to permit changing
             and/or bypassing of the filter without system shutdown.

      D.     Relief Valves - Automatic, forged brass body, reseating characteristics, stem guide,
             factory sealed, ASME constructed and certified. Series 520 as manufactured by
             Henry Valve Company or equivalent by Sporlan or Ranco.

5.0   Special Installation Notes:

      A.     Condensers or condensing units provided for local environmental rooms, or similar
             applications, shall be located on the floor served and at a serviceable location near
             or on the floor. Do not locate these units above ceilings. Provide sufficient
             cooling to remove heat of rejection from this equipment. Consideration should be
             given to use water cooled units utilizing condenser water or chilled water return
             where applicable.

                                      END OF SECTION




Refrigeration Piping and Specialties                                     Section 15535 – Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15540 - "HVAC PUMPS"

1.0   Reference Sections
      Section 15050 for general requirements, alignment procedures and vibration isolation
      requirements for pumps.
      Section 15990 for Testing, Balancing and Adjusting.

2.0   All pumps shall be base-mounted, bronze fitted, flexible coupled and rated for 175 psi.
      Pumps shall be constructed with the following components:

      A.     Bronze shaft sleeve.

      B.     Alloy steel shaft.

      C.     Cast iron casting and companion flanges.

      D.     Regreaseable lubricated ball-bearings rate for an average life of L-10 200,000 hours.

      E.     Extended grease fittings and bottom relief plugs. Grease fittings shall extend to the
             exterior of the insulation boxes on chilled water pumps.

3.0   Motors supplied with pumps shall meet Section 15170, be manufactured in the U.S.A.,
      and selected so that the motor cannot become overloaded at any point on the pump curve.

4.0   Provide all split case pumps with self-aligning, cartridge type, split ring seals, or in end
      suction pumps, ethylene propylene, silicon carbide, tungsten carbide seals.

5.0   Use horizontal pumps in all locations. Vertical pumps are prohibited.

6.0   Split case double inlet pumps are preferred to end suction and must be used on all system
      having a flow rate in excess of 500 GPM.

7.0   Maximum speed of all pumps shall be 1750 RPM.

8.0   Mount pumps on minimum 4 inch high concrete equipment pads. Provide inertia bases
      on pumps over 5 horsepower mounted above grade. Pumps shall be re-aligned after
      installation.


                                      END OF SECTION




HVAC Pumps                                                                 Section 15540 – Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15545 - "WATER TREATMENT"

1.0   The specifications shall require the Mechanical Contractor to engage (as a subcontractor)
      the services of the University’s current Water Treatment Service Provider for all water
      systems associated with heat transfer equipment.

      The Water Treatment Service Provider shall follow the University’s currently acceptable
      water treatment practices to flush, clean, test, treat, service and report on each water
      system.

2.0   The following equipment shall be included for each recirculating closed water system:

      A.     One (1) bypass filter feeder

      B.     One (1) coupon rack capable of accepting at least four coupons

3.0   Each cooling tower system shall include the following:

      A.     One (1) makeup water meter with interface to the Operations Control Center
             (OCC).

      B.     One ( 1) blowdown control valve.

      C.      Provide auto-control equipment to accomplish the following:

             1.      Add two (2) biocides (one oxidizing and one non-oxidizing) based on time.
             2.      Add one (1) corrosion inhibitor based on system makeup – with the
                     capability to add chemical based on time and on system blowdown.
             3.      Control a blowdown valve based on system conductivity.

4.0   Project specification shall require a project close-out sheet (furnished by the University)
      to be completed by the Mechanical Sub-Contractor.


                                     END OF SECTION




Water Treatment                                                          Section 15545 – Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15550 – “PROGRAMMING CONSIDERATIONS”

1.0   During the schematic phase of the project, the A/E shall determine in conjunction with the
      user group, heat load densities, electrical load densities, services required (including
      service quality and pressure), type and quantity of exhaust devices and quantities of
      program equipment (such as refrigerators, freezers, centrifuges, autoclaves, ware washers,
      flow cabinets, etc.) so that mechanical and electrical systems can be designed to support
      specific or modular equipment requirements.

2.0   The A/E shall carefully ascertain equipment requirements so that heat rejection, electrical
      usage, and other utility consumption data are defined for system design. Spatial requirements
      for equipment must be closely reviewed, and layouts shall allow for access to all piping,
      wiring, and ductwork connections. Mechanical systems shall be designed and detailed so that
      they do not induce harm to or impede the operating efficiency of program equipment.
      Pressure regulators, safety relief valves, gravity drainage facilities, temperature controls, and
      backflow protection devices shall be provided as required to protect equipment.

3.0   When planning new facilities or renovations to existing, the A/E shall consider HVAC and
      piped service capacity on a modular basis to allow for future flexibility. The amount of
      flexibility required is to be considered on a project by project basis. Examples include
      considering laboratory planning on a modular basis, allowing a preset quantity of fume hoods
      per module as a basis of the HVAC system sizing. This allows future flexibility to add fume
      hoods beyond the present program. Similar considerations should be given for HVAC space
      cooling load capacity and piped service locations..

4.0   On a project by project basis, the A/E shall review with the University Office of
      Environmental Health and Radiation Safety (OEHRS) the proposed types of containment
      devices such as fume hoods, biosafety cabinets, local exhaust points, etc. Review shall
      consist of sash arrangement; face velocities and personnel protection design criteria. A/E
      shall define all personnel exposure points (such as solvent transfer points) and review the
      design of associated protection devices with the OEHRS.

5.0   A/E shall define the minimum required change rates for the space served considering space
      dilution and outdoor air ventilation requirements. For vivarium spaces, coordinate accepted
      air change guidelines with the use of ventilated cage racks. Consider lowering room air change
      rates if ventilated cage racks are used. It is preferred that all ventilated cage racks exhaust
      directly into the building exhaust system.

6.0   A/E shall determine the space pressurization requirements for the proposed spaces and the
      accepted methods to maintain pressurization during all system modes of operation.




Programming Considerations                                                 Section 15550 – Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

7.0    A/E shall determine the critical loads and requirements from the space program and propose
       the appropriate level of system redundancy that maintains the critical loads during a system
       or utility failure. As part of this analysis, the A/E shall determine systems to be supplied
       by stand-by/emergency power to support critical loads.

8.0    A/E shall determine (in conjunction with the user) the remote monitoring requirements of the
       project at the Operations Control Center (OCC). For example, lab equipment, environmental
       rooms, etc.

9.0    A/E shall determine (in conjunction with the user) the quality of piped services required to
       support the program. A/E shall apply appropriate piping materials and arrangement to
       maintain the quality of the services required.

10.0   A/E shall identify any waste treatment requirements for the specific program requirements.


                                      END OF SECTION




Programming Considerations                                               Section 15550 – Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15600 - "REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS"

1.0   This Section pertains to:

      A.     Local building chillers to maintain cooling capacity during a site chilled water plant
             shutdown, process chillers or chillers that supplement the site chilled water capacity
             at the building.

      B.     Central Utility Plant Chillers.

2.0   The use of refrigerant R-134A is preferred. The use of refrigerant R-22 is limited to local
      air-cooled or water-cooled chiller systems up to 300 tons. As the production of R-22 is
      expected to be phased out, review all applications of R-22 with the Office of the
      University Engineer. The use of equipment utilizing low-pressure refrigerants is
      prohibited due to the additional maintenance associated with those machines.

3.0   The design of all refrigeration equipment must include an analysis addressing the noise
      impact upon surrounding areas and the aesthetic impact if located on the exterior of the
      building. Refer to Section 15500 for noise criteria that applies to mechanical equipment
      rooms. On a project by project basis, exterior installations of air cooled equipment shall
      be evaluated against local site noise level goals and criteria. Refer to Part I, General
      Section XI.

4.0   Spaces which require cooling during chiller plant shut-down periods, and use individual
      units for such, must be designed to interface and utilize the central chilled water source as
      a primary source of cooling. An automatic changeover system shall be designed to
      energize the local system during central plant shut-downs via the site monitoring and
      control system. This requirement shall be followed independent of central chilled water
      availability unless prior approval for deviation from this standard has been granted by the
      University Representative.

5.0   Prior to the selection of compressor unit, i.e., reciprocating, centrifugal, screw or scroll,
      the Engineer of Record must submit an analysis of the various compressor types,
      conclusions and recommendations to the University's Representative for approval. The
      analysis shall address operating efficiency; costs associated with noise control
      implementations, minimizing maintenance costs associated with the training of staff and
      stocking of parts, maintenance, service, availability from manufacturer, refrigerant type,
      part load performance, electrical characteristics, and estimated installation cost.

6.0   All chillers above 300 tons shall be of the centrifugal or screw type.




Refrigeration Systems                                                     Section 15600 – Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

7.0    Compressors may be of the high-speed open drive or hermetic type.

8.0    The Minimum Efficiency Requirements for water chiller packages, when rated at ARI
       550/590 standard conditions of 44°F leaving chilled water at 2.4 gpm/ton, 85°F entering
       condenser water at 3.0 gpm/ton shall be as indicated in the following table:

                   Equipment Type                          Size Category            COP        IPLV
       Air Cooled, with condenser                         All Capacities            2.80       3.05
       Water Cooled Reciprocating                         All Capacities            4.20       5.05
                                                            < 150 tons              4.45       5.20
       Water Cooled (Rotary Screw or Scroll)         ≥150 tons and <300 tons        4.90       5.60
                                                             ≥300 tons              5.50       6.15
                                                     ≥150 tons and <300 tons        5.55       5.90
       Water Cooled Centrifugal
                                                             ≥300 tons              6.10       6.40


       Reference ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001.
       COP = Coefficient of Performance.
       IPLV = Integrated Part Load Value.

9.0    Drawings shall indicate routing of refrigerant relief piping. Relief piping shall be sized per
       ASHRAE Standard 15. Each chiller location (single chiller installation or multiple chillers
       in one location) shall be designed with a refrigerant recovery system.

10.0   Consideration should be given to the use of speed controls on chillers to improve part
       load performance or enhance the life of the equipment.

11.0   The A/E will analyze various water-cooled chiller selections based upon energy efficiency
       and cost, and consider single pass units to reduce condenser and chilled water pumping
       system costs (operating and first cost). Units should be analyzed based upon 100%
       cooling tower(s) operation to minimize tower supply water temperatures.

12.0   All water cooled chillers must be capable of operation with 55ºF entering condenser water
       temperature, at full and all part load conditions, without the use of flow control or by-
       pass flow. Marine boxes shall be specified on water cooled condensers.

13.0   PLC based controls shall be furnished for chillers with a capacity of 500 tons or greater.
       The controls shall include a communication interface to communicate directly with the


Refrigeration Systems                                                      Section 15600 – Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

       Operations and Control Center (OCC).

14.0   Chillers up to 500 tons capacity shall be furnished with 480 volt motors. Chillers greater
       than 500 tons capacity shall be furnished with 4,160 volt motors.

15.0   Chiller Warranty:

       A.     Specify written warranty period of two (2) years (one year standard plus one year
              additional). The warrantee shall provide unconditional service for parts, labor,
              refrigerant and materials to assure that each chiller will perform to the requirements
              of this specification.

       B.     The warranty period shall commence following University’s acceptance of the chiller
              field performance test and at the completion of the commissioning efforts.

       C.     Specify at no cost to the University, all refrigerant and lubrication oil lost from each
              system will be replaced during the warranty period.

16.0   Specify chillers with factory-applied anti-sweat insulation of the flexible, closed-cell
       elastomer type, 3/4 inch thick, attached with vaporproof cement to the cooler shell, flow
       chamber, tubesheets, suction connection and as necessary to the auxiliary tubing, and all
       other surfaces subject to sweating. The insulation of the water boxes will be furnished
       and field installed by the Mechanical Contractor in accordance with the requirements of
       Section 15200.

17.0   All refrigeration system specifications must be specified to include manufacturer’s start-up
       and servicing. The factory start-up shall include the check-out of all controls, safety
       components and performance characteristics. The University Representative shall actively
       observe the testing and start-up of the systems. The manufacturer is to submit the start-up
       report to the Office of the University Engineer.

18.0   When drafting the specifications, the A/E shall consider the requirement for factory and/or
       field testing of chillers with respect to the application.

       A.     Components of factory testing to be considered are:

              1.      Factory Leak Test.
              2.      Insulation Resistance Test.
              3.      Chiller Performance Test.
              4.      Chiller Functional Test.




Refrigeration Systems                                                      Section 15600 – Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                            Design Guide
                                                                             Final – March 15, 2007

       B.      Components of field testing and commissioning to be considered are:

               1.      Capacity Testing.
               2.      Interface to the Site Monitoring and Control System.
               3.      Sequence of Operation.
               4.      Instrumentation including Safety Controls.
       C.      If the chillers fail the Field Performance Test, the chiller manufacturer will have ten
               (10) working days to correct any deficiencies and retest the chillers. Should the
               chillers still be unable to pass the field performance test after this period of time, the
               chiller manufacturer shall remove the chiller or chillers and replace them with chillers
               that do meet the specified performance in all aspects. Such replacement shall be at
               no cost to the Owner or Mechanical Contractor, and all costs of labor, material,
               freight, rigging, repiping, reconnecting and retesting plus any structural changes for
               access shall be borne by the chiller manufacturer.

19.0   All refrigerant compressors and chilled water tube bundles must be installed within a
       mechanical room. Packaged air cooled chillers are not acceptable unless a glycol based
       system is utilized. All glycol applications must be approved by the University's
       Representative.

20.0   Small individual packaged split systems are inevitable but must be kept to an absolute
       minimum. Prior approval for the use of such must be obtained from the University's
       Representative.

21.0   All air-cooled condensers must contain condenser fan modulation and staging controls based
       on compressor discharge pressure as a means of capacity control for low ambient operation.
        Condenser fan dampers are prohibited.

22.0   All critical process equipment cooling, including computer systems, should be designed with
       a separate cooling source independent of the central utility system.

23.0   All communication room cooling and other backup or process cooling systems shall be
       provided with an independent source of cooling operating on standby power.

24.0   For local winter cooling applications a waterside economizer system is preferred, where
       possible, to avoid the addition of chilled water generation or direct expansion equipment.

25.0   The University is responsible to maintain an inventory of refrigerants. As part of the project
       specifications, the A/E shall require the installing contractor to provide data to the University
       on the type and quantity of refrigerant utilized for each piece of equipment on the project.
        The University will provide project closeout data required.


Refrigeration Systems                                                        Section 15600 – Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                             Design Guide
                                              Final – March 15, 2007




                             END OF SECTION




Refrigeration Systems                         Section 15600 – Page 5
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15671 - "AIR COOLED SPLIT AND PACKAGED SYSTEMS"

1.0   The use of split-systems and packaged air cooled direct expansion units is permitted only
      under the following conditions:

      A.     Central chilled water is not available and the space cooling load and layout prohibits
             the use of an air or water cooled chiller system.

      B.     Prior review and approval by the University's Representative.

2.0   Any local system designed to provide cooling during a site chilled water shut down must
      be designed to interface with the central chilled water system. The central chilled water
      system shall be used to provide cooling whenever the central plant is operational. A
      automatic changeover system shall be designed to energize the local system during central
      plant shut-downs via the site monitoring and control system. This requirement shall be
      followed independent of central chilled water availability unless prior approval for
      deviation from this standard has been granted by the University Representative.

3.0   The design and location of condensing units must consider the effects of noise, aesthetics,
      and service access. Some buildings on campus are listed in the Historical Register and
      must conform to the requirements of such. On a project by project basis, exterior
      installations of air cooled equipment shall be evaluated against local site noise level goals
      and criteria. Refer to Part I, General Section XI. The A/E shall submit an acoustic report
      to University representative identifying any noise impacts.

4.0   All equipment installed on rooftops, must be accessible through a stairway or roof scuttle
      which directly accesses the roof where the unit is to be located. The A/E shall plan full
      maintenance access for all units. The A/E shall demonstrate access availability for
      equipment installation and removal.

5.0   Rooftop equipment shall be designed with vibration isolation type curbs to reduce noise
      and vibration transmission to the structure and occupied spaces.

6.0   All duct, conduit and piping penetrations through the roof shall be installed using
      prefabricated pipe and duct curbs. The designer is responsible for determining the type
      of roofing material used, state of the existing roof warranty, and ascertain that the existing
      warranty remains in effect after all modifications have been completed.

7.0   Systems requiring low-ambient operation shall use condenser fan speed controls. Damper
      systems are prohibited.




Air Cooled Split and Packaged Systems                                     Section 15671 – Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

8.0    All split-system units in excess of 2,000 CFM must be designed for economizer
       operation and have relief air provisions during economizer operations.

9.0    All package rooftop systems shall be equipped with economizers and relief provisions.
       Units in excess of 5 tons capacity shall use return air fans.

10.0   The University is responsible to maintain an inventory of refrigerants. As part of the
       project specifications, the A/E shall require the installing contractor to provide data to the
       University on the type and quantity of refrigerant utilized for each piece of equipment on
       the project. The University will provide project closeout data required.


                                       END OF SECTION




Air Cooled Split and Packaged Systems                                      Section 15671 – Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15712 - "COOLING TOWERS"

1.0   All cooling towers shall have the following characteristics:

      A.     Modular cell, induced draft type with vertical discharge and counterflow
             arrangements.

      B.     Gear driven, direct drive fans. Belt drives are discouraged due to maintenance costs.
             Provide a close coupled oil sight glass visible from the exterior of the tower.

      C.     Propeller type fans which are individually adjustable and replaceable.

      D.     Towers shall be of non-combustible construction with non-combustible or limited
             combustible fill material; otherwise the A/E shall evaluate the requirement for
             sprinkler protection. Towers that are Factory Mutual approved do not require
             sprinkler protection.

      E.     Fill, louvers and drift eliminators shall be constructed of 15 Mil PVC capable of
             service up to 125oF and supported by hot-dipped galvanized structural tubing. Drift
             losses shall not exceed 0.005% of the design GPM. Fill shall be elevated above the
             cooling tower basin to permit cleaning.

      F.     Basins (hot and cold), framework, casing, fan deck and fan cylinder shall be
             constructed of one of the following options:

             1.      Concrete.
             2.      Fiberglass reinforced polyester, stainless steel and PVC.
             3.      Protruded fiberglass reinforced plastic (preferred choice).

      G.     Design conditions shall be 78oF entering wet bulb, 95oF entering water temperature,
             and a nominal 10oF water temperature drop. The A/E should investigate alternative
             entering and leaving conditions to determine the most economical choice.

      H.     Specify at a minimum a steel ladder, ladder extension, cell partitions, fan cylinder
             extensions and hot water basin covers. Hot water basin covers shall be hinged to
             facilitate access. All ladders shall have safety cages.

      I.     The cooling towers shall be located so that the hot water basin is the highest point
             in the condenser water system. The difference in elevation between the condenser
             water pump impeller and the cold water basin shall be such that the net positive




Cooling Towers                                                           Section 15712 – Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                           Design Guide
                                                                            Final – March 15, 2007

             suction head entering the pump (available) will be greater than the pump
             requirements when using a fluid vapor pressure of 14.7 psia.

      J.     Calculations shall not use a fluid vapor pressure corresponding to the maximum fluid
             temperature (i.e. 95-100oF).

      K.     Cooling towers shall be located in areas that are fully accessible.

      L.     Tower efficiency shall not be reduced by cosmetic screening. For towers with
             screening, and where screening is installed closer than cataloged minimum clearances,
             the A/E shall submit the manufacturer's analysis for the tower rating at the specific
             conditions to the Office of the University Engineer.

      M.     The location of the tower shall take into consideration the affects of tower noise and
             plume upon adjacent occupied spaces and parking areas. The location shall also give
             consideration of the building's wake and prevailing wind, etc.

      N.     The design and location of cooling towers must consider the effects of noise,
             aesthetics, and service access. Some buildings on campus are listed in the Historical
             Register and must conform to the requirements of such. On a project by project
             basis, exterior installations of cooling towers shall be evaluated against local site noise
             level goals and criteria. Refer to Part I, General Section XI. The A/E shall submit an
             acoustic report to University representative identifying any noise impacts.

      O.     For field fabricated towers constructed on concrete basins, provide a slide gate and
             screen between the basin and the pump sump. The screen shall be constructed of _"
             x 12 gage stainless steel mesh panel as furnished by USC Screen, Inc., (Sketch 833 or
             equal).

      P.     Winter Protection – Basin freeze protection shall be provided when towers are
             intended for winter use.

             1.      For factory fabricated package units, provide each cell with a basin electrical
                     heating package. The package shall include a control relay, control
                     transformer, low water cut-off electrode or float switch, thermostat with
                     capillary and bulb mount, magnetic contactors, and necessary immersion
                     heaters to maintain the basin water at 40 degrees F when the outside
                     temperature is 0 degrees F with 15 mph winds. All outdoor equipment shall
                     be in a NEMA 4X enclosure. The package immersion heaters shall utilize
                     480-volt electrical power, and shall be designed for intermittent service and
                     be UL approved.


Cooling Towers                                                              Section 15712 – Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

             2      For field fabricated units consider alternate methods of basin heating such as
                    the use of an electric hot water boiler system or a compressed air bubbling
                    system.

      Q.     Winter Operation – When towers are intended for winter use, or where close
             temperature control is required, a means of capacity control should be utilized to
             minimize energy consumption. Consideration should be given to the use of 2 speed
             motors or variable speed drives, or a combination of both on multiple tower
             installations.

      R.     The A/E shall consider field performance testing for cooling tower installations.
             Review specific applications with the Office of the University Engineer.

      S.     Specify that the tower, less motor, shall be warranted for five (5) years. The
             warranty period shall commence following the University’s acceptance of the
             tower(s) field performance test(s) and when commissioning efforts are complete.


                                    END OF SECTION




Cooling Towers                                                         Section 15712 – Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007


SECTION 15751 - "GLYCOL SYSTEMS"

1.0   Inhibited ethylene glycol shall be used in all glycol applications. Glycol shall be DOW SR-1
      on equivalent Union Carbide products.

2.0   The fluid shall have minimum reserve alkalinity of 11 milliliters and shall be capable of fluid
      bulk temperatures up to 250oF.

3.0   The glycol percentage in solutions for HVAC applications is application dependent. For
      heating applications the glycol systems shall contain 40% glycol by volume or have a
      freezing point at or below -12oF whichever is the most stringent. For other applications
      where only burst protection is required, lower percentages of glycol may be used. Provide
      pre-diluted solutions of industrial inhibited glycol from the fluid manufacturer for initial
      piping system fill.

4.0   Do not mix transfer fluids from multiple manufacturers.

5.0   Make-Up System - Specify a packaged chemical feed system, including diaphragm pump,
      tank, valves and strainers, piping, safety relief, starter and wiring. Provide a valved indirect
      water fill at the make-up tank. Avoid the use of automatic water make-up to prevent
      undetected dilution of the ethylene glycol and possible contamination of the water system.
       The tank shall be equipped with a level indicator and a contact(s) for an adjustable low-level
      alarm to be monitored by the Building Automation System (BAS) and the site monitoring
      and control system.


                                      END OF SECTION




Glycol Systems                                                             Section 15751 – Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15755 - "HEAT EXCHANGERS"

1.0   All heat exchangers shall be constructed in accordance with the ASME Pressure Vessel Code,
      bear the ASME "U" Stamp and be registered with the National Board of Boiler and Pressure
      Vessel Inspectors.

2.0   All heat exchangers shall be rated for minimum 150 psig operating pressure at 300oF or
      greater if system pressures dictate. (Note: Campus chilled water heat exchangers require a
      test pressure to 300 psig.)

3.0   U-tube heat exchangers shall be used in all steam to hot water applications. Chilled water
      isolating and condenser water free cooling shall be designed around the use of plate and frame
      heat exchangers.

4.0   U-tube heat exchangers shall be constructed as follows:

      A.     Shell - steel.

      B.     Tubes - 3/4" OD copper with a maximum tube velocity of 7.5 feet per second.

      C.     Heads - cast iron.

      D.     Tube sheets - brass or stainless steel (if >200°F, use brass only).

      E.     Tube supports - brass or stainless steel (if >200°F, use brass only).

      F.     Minimum scale factor - 0.002 sq. ft.hr-ºF/BTU.

      G.     Maximum water side pressure drop - 12 feet of water.

      H.     Provide brass or stainless steel baffle plates on discharge of steam heat exchangers.

      I.     Stainless steel tubes should be considered for process or corrosive applications.
             Specific construction shall match process requirements.

5.0   Plate and frame exchangers shall be constructed as follows:

      A.     Plates - type 316 stainless steel.

      B.     Frames - carbon steel with baked epoxy enamel paint.



Heat Exchangers                                                          Section 15755 – Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                           Design Guide
                                                                            Final – March 15, 2007

      C.     Heat transfer coefficient - greater than 1000 btu/ft2-hr-oF.

      D.     HTRI tested, certified and rated.

6.0   All systems shall be designed to assure adequate service and maintenance clearances for tube
      pulling and frame dismantling. Piping connections shall be designed and detailed on contract
      drawings to permit pulling of the tube-bundle without dissembling any piping except flanged
      elbows into the unit.

7.0   Typically two steam control valves shall be provided and sized so that the load is split l/3
      and 2/3 between the valves. Provide constant flow variable temperature control for perimeter
      radiation systems, and variable flow constant temperature control for all reheat systems.

8.0   Provide N+1 fully redundant steam systems for 100% outdoor air systems and on critical
      applications such as reheat for laboratories. The level of redundancy for all other
      applications should be established during the schematic design stage of the project.




                                     END OF SECTION




Heat Exchangers                                                             Section 15755 – Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15785 - "SELF CONTAINED AIR CONDITIONING UNITS"

1.0   Data centers, computer rooms, telephone and communication rooms shall be equipped with
      units designed and manufactured for the specific application. Where required by the
      program, the units shall be installed on raised floors and be capable of maintaining space
      temperature and humidity specified by the users. The units shall be specified with the
      following components:

      A.     1 1/2 lb. fiberglass insulation minimum one (1) inch thick.

      B.     1750 RPM motors.

      C.     Fan bearings designed for a minimum average life of L-10 100,000 hours.

      D.     Serviceable filter sections which can be accessed without shutting off the unit.

      E.     Microprocessor based electronic control system.

      F.     Humidifiers - Use of plant steam for humidification is preferred where available. The
             steam humidifier shall be the steam separator type with an internal drying chamber
             and steam jacketed stainless steel distribution manifold. Complete system shall
             include a pre-piped solenoid control valve, inverted bucket steam trap, and cleanable
             Y-strainer. All mechanical control components shall be located in a separate
             compartment, isolated from the air stream. Where plant steam is not available or the
             unit size prevents steam humidification, the use of infra-red self-cleaning humidifiers
             with stainless steel evaporator pan or steam generating humidifiers may be
             considered.

      G.     Reheat – Use hot water for reheat when available. Where hot water is not available,
             specify electric.

             1.     Hot Water Reheat - the hot water reheat coil shall have copper tubes and
                    aluminum fins. The control system shall be factory pre-piped with a 2-
                    way modulating control valve and cleanable Y-strainer.
             2.     Electric Reheat - the electric reheat coils shall be low watt density, 304/304
                    stainless steel fin tubular construction, protected by thermal safety
                    switches, with SCR control.

      H.     Specify automatic start-up after power failure shutdown.




Self-Contained Air Conditioning Units                                      Section 15785 – Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

      I.     Condensate drainage – Gravity condensate drainage systems are preferred.
             Consideration shall be given to locating floor drains under raised floor units. When
             this is not feasible, units shall be provided with a condensate pump.

      J.     Provide a local alarm system to monitor the system operating characteristics. A
             single Form C dry contact for common remote alarm to the OCC shall be considered
             on a case by case basis.

      K.     Cooling Source – The use of central plant chilled water is preferred. The design of
             the cooling coil should consider the higher wintertime water temperatures associated
             with the central plant chilled water system (refer to Section 15500). The use of a DX
             refrigeration system with remote air cooled condenser or glycol based fluid coolers
             may be required as a back up during a chilled water plant shutdown to maintain
             conditions. On large projects, the use local chillers as a source of cooling and/or back
             up should be considered, on a case by case basis.

      L.     The A/E shall consider the use of self-contained ceiling-hung spot cooler air
             conditioning units for relatively small areas. Units may be specified as follows:

             1.      Supplied from central plant chilled water,
             2.      Use direct expansion with central condenser water or chilled water return
             3.      Served by remote glycol dry cooler
             4.      Be air-cooled and totally self contained, depending on the application and
                     available sources.

             Units shall be similar to "Mini-Mate" by Liebert Corporation, or equal.

2.0   Redundancy – During the schematic design, the requirement for redundancy shall be evaluated
      based on the critical nature of the application and the project budget. When redundancy is
      required, design the air conditioning systems in multiple units such that space temperature
      and humidity levels can be maintained in the event of the loss of one (1) of the available
      units.

3.0   Refer to Sections 15600 "Refrigeration Systems" for refrigerant requirements and Section
      15671 for “Air Cooled Split and Packaged Systems” or air cooled condenser requirements.


                                     END OF SECTION




Self-Contained Air Conditioning Units                                     Section 15785 – Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15790 - "AIR COILS"

1.0   This section applies to all DX, chilled water, hot water and glycol coils. Spray coil type
      dehumidifiers are prohibited. Refer to the Typical Piping Diagrams in the Appendices.

2.0   The design characteristics of coils shall be as follows:

      A.     Maximum face velocity (FPM; feet per minute face velocity):

             1.      Duct mounted and air handling unit cooling coils:
                     a.    400 FPM for new units (to allow for future growth)
                     b.    450 FPM for existing units. (Depth of cooling coils shall not
                           exceed 8 rows.)

             2.      Duct mounted heating coils: 750 FPM (never greater than duct
                     velocity).
             3.      Copper finned coils – 350 FPM

      B.     Maximum tube velocity (glycol, hot & chilled water): 8 FPS

      C.     Minimum tube velocity (glycol, hot & chilled water): 3 FPS

      D.     Maximum water side pressure drop: 20 Ft. of water

      E.     Maximum air side pressure drop:

             1.      Central Units:
                     a.    Heating coils (water): 0.25 to 0.50"
                     b.    Heating coils (glycol): 0.60"
                     c.    100 % O.A. Cooling coils: 1.00" (wet)
                     d.    Recirculating System Cooling coils: 0.60" (wet)

             2.      Duct Mounted:
                     a.    Heating coils: 0.15 to 0.20"

3.0   DX coils rated above five (5) tons shall use a thermostatic expansion valve in lieu of
      capillary tubes. Below five (5) tons either method is acceptable.

4.0   Preheat coils, if used, shall be of the glycol type in all applications and are mandatory in
      all applications resulting in a mixed air temperature below 50ºF. Refer to the glycol coil
      piping Standard detail for piping arrangements and Sections 15970 and 15980 for control


Air Coils                                                                Section 15790 – Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

      information. Coils shall be minimum 2 rows, fully circuited, with supply and return
      headers.

5.0   Preheat coils, if used with steam (not preferred), shall be the integral face and bypass
      (IFB) type with dampers arranged so as to completely enclose and isolate the heating coil
      passes when no temperature rise is required. Each coil shall be capable of maintaining a
      constant discharge air temperature regardless of variations in entering air temperatures
      with full (uncontrolled) flow. Provide linkage and pneumatic damper motors with
      positioners. Casing shall be No. 14 gauge steel, galvanized and painted, with rigid
      framework. Steam preheats for 100% Outdoor Air units are prohibited.

6.0   All coils shall be installed in a counter flow arrangement. All coils shall be ARI Standard
      410 certified, factory tested with air at 250 PSIG and rated for a 150 PSIG operating
      pressure up to 300oF.

7.0   Coils shall be constructed of the following materials:

      A.     Primary Surface - Tubes - minimum 5/8" OD (1/2" OD for refrigerant coils) by
             0.035 inch wall thickness seamless copper with die formed return bends silver
             soldered to the tubes. Tubes shall be expanded to form a mechanical bond with the
             secondary surface fins. Depth of cooling coils shall not exceed 8 rows.

      B.     Secondary Surface - Fins - Die-formed aluminum fins designed to minimize carryover.
              Copper fins in environments corrosive to aluminum fins. Fin density shall not
             exceed 10 fins/inch maximum.

      C.     Headers - Seamless copper tubing silver soldered to tubes. Connections shall be
             of red brass with male pipe threads, silver soldered to the headers. Each header
             shall contain a 1/4" FPT vent and a 1/4" FP drain tapping. Connection to headers
             shall be arranged for counterflow operation supply connections on the bottom and
             return connections at the top. Provided all water and glycol coils with two (2)
             headers ("Contractor's Coil").

      D.     Casing - Structural strength of casing material shall be suitable for stacking of coils
             with end tube sheets to support tubes. All coils with finned lengths 60" or greater
             shall be provided with intermediate tube supports. Casing channels shall be free
             draining without depressions which may collect water or contaminants. Material
             used for casing, tube sheets and tube supports shall be galvanized steel for heating
             coils and stainless steel for cooling coils. Provide stainless steel drain pans where
             applicable.




Air Coils                                                                Section 15790 – Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

       E.     DX coils shall be factory dehydrated and sealed prior to shipment.

       F.     Refer to Section 15855 “Air Handling Units”.

8.0    The use of special coil materials mandated by a particular application which may cause
       corrosion shall be reviewed and approved by the University's Representative.

9.0    The use of constant volume duct mounted reheat coils are permitted only in special
       applications requiring tight humidity and temperature control. All applications requiring
       reheat coils in constant volume systems must be reviewed and approved by the
       University's Representative.

10.0   Coil capacity schedules shall be included in the drawings and list the following:

       A.     Number of rows and fin spacing.

       B.     Entering and leaving air conditions (DB & WB in cooling applications).

       C.     Air side pressure drop.

       D.     Entering and leaving water temperatures.

       E.     Water pressure drops.

       F.     Airflow in CFM and face velocity.

       G.     Flow rate in GPM.

       H.     Water velocity in tubes in FPS.

11.0   Design water temperature rise shall meet the following minimums:

       A.     Chilled water - 15oF (Summer 45F-60F)

       B.     Glycol preheat - 30oF

       C.     Hot water reheats - 20°F maximum. (160F-180F)

12.0   Coil vent and drain piping shall extend to outside the unit casing to vent and drain
       valves. Since this piping is not typically insulated, it shall be all brass
       construction to prevent rusting and associated leaks and failures common to steel


Air Coils                                                                 Section 15790 – Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                             Design Guide
                                              Final – March 15, 2007

      piping


                             END OF SECTION




Air Coils                                     Section 15790 – Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15813 - "HUMIDIFIERS"

1.0   Humidifiers shall be of the jacketed dry steam or self contained steam types. Pan, wetted
      drum, and power wetted element humidifiers are prohibited. Infrared pan type
      humidifiers are allowed in self-contained Computer Room units only, refer to Section
      15785.

2.0   All humidifiers shall use a steam dispersion manifold. The preferred locations for
      humidifiers are in the air handling unit up-stream of the cooling coil. Review applications
      with the University Representative. All controls, valves, and traps, etc. must be located
      outside of the air stream.

3.0   The Campus central steam system may be used as a humidification source and can be
      directly dispersed into the air stream. (Preferred Method).

4.0   All steam humidifiers shall operate with low pressure steam (less than 12 PSI). All
      control valves shall be rated for 150% of the operating pressure, otherwise, pressure
      reducing valves shall be provided.

5.0   All free standing space humidifiers shall be of the self contained type.

6.0   Jacketed dry steam shall contain the following components:

      A.      Incoming steam service automatic isolation valve.

      B.      Steam jacketed dispersion tube(s).

      C.      Steam separator.

      D.      Separating baffles.

      E.      Steam trap(s).

      F.      Control valve (60:1 rangeability for 100% outdoor systems).

      G.      Drying chamber.

7.0   Self-contained humidifiers shall be of the electrode steam generator type and contain the
      following:

      A.      Disposable cylinders.


Humidifiers                                                              Section 15813 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007


       B.     Microprocessor controls.

       C.     Automatic cylinder fill and drain controls to maintain water conductivity and
              minimize energy waste. Built-in timers for repetitive drain cycles are prohibited.

       D.     Cylinder monitor to discern end of cylinder life.

       E.     16 gauge steel cabinet with hinged and lockable access door.

       F.     Fill cup to prevent back siphonage.

8.0    Designer shall review the control of all humidifiers to ascertain that system response can meet
       or exceed expected load variations and maintain desired humidity levels. The suggested
       control options are as follows:

       A.     For HVAC systems with central humidification, setpoint conditions shall be
              maintained from a signal from a relative humidity transmitter located in the discharge
              air duct controlling the humidifier steam control valve. Supply air relative humidity
              control shall be reset by one (or more) space sensors located in the space(s) served.
               The steam control valve shall close when the high limit is reached in the duct.

       B.     For individual space humidification applications, a normally closed steam control
              valve shall be used to control the humidifier output via a space humidity sensor wired
              in series with a high limit controller.

       C.     Return air humidity sensors shall not be used to control space humidity levels.

9.0    Minimum winter season humidity levels must be maintained at a minimum 25% relative
       humidity. Special spaces such as vivariums and data centers may require higher humidity
       levels. Confirm humidification requirements and humidity levels with the project program
       requirements. In no case shall the level be in excess of that which the existing structure can
       maintain without resulting in the formation of condensation. In new buildings, the
       Engineer must work with the Architect to design building walls and glazing
       components which will permit winter period humidity levels that meet present indoor
       air quality requirements. The Engineer shall submit calculations showing the anticipated
       wall and window temperature gradients based upon a 0°F and 93°F ambient temperatures.
        Special consideration shall be given to structural steel exposed to space conditions.

10.0   The locations of humidifiers shall generally be restricted to Mechanical Rooms. Where
       individual humidifiers are duct mounted, the duct construction must be watertight stainless


Humidifiers                                                                Section 15813 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                       Design Guide
                                                                        Final – March 15, 2007

      steel for 150 percent of the humidifier’s absorption distance. The duct section shall have a
      drain connection piped to the nearest floor drain.

                                     END OF SECTION




Humidifiers                                                             Section 15813 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15855 – "AIR HANDLING UNITS"

1.0   Refer to Section 15790 for design standards relating to coils integral with air handling units.
       Size all air handling unit (AHU) system components and duct mains to allow for future
      expansion and renovations in accordance with specific criteria furnished by the Office of the
      University Engineer. Acceptable manufacturers are: York, McQuay, Trane.

2.0   All units should be floor mounted within Mechanical Rooms. Ceiling mounted and rooftop
      units are strongly discouraged. Any necessary deviation from this standard dictated by site
      conditions, shall be reviewed and pre-approved by the Office of the University Engineer.

3.0   Each air handling unit shall be provided with a filter section(s) capable of housing the filters
      specified in Section 15885 and a mixing box designed to prevent stratification. If mixing of
      air cannot be assured due to unit configuration, the use of an air blender section should be
      considered. All dampers and actuators shall be fully accessible for lubrication.

4.0   Units shall have the following construction features:

      A.     Reinforced galvanized steel panels.

      B.     Removable access panels shall be provided where required to facilitate removal of
             components (e.g. coils, fans, motors). Access doors shall be provided where required
             for maintenance. All access doors, as well as any access panels in excess of 40 Lbs.,
             shall be hinged, gasketed and provided with non-locking lever type handles. Access
             doors shall be approximately 20 inches wide by full height of casing or maximum of
             60 inches. Swing doors against the air pressure.

      C.     Filter section access doors shall be piano hinged.

      D.     All sections shall be double wall construction and insulated with a minimum of 1"
             1-1/2 lb. Insulation (foam filled preferred). The use of single wall construction is
             prohibited.

      E.     Drain pans shall be double wall and constructed of welded stainless steel with 1" 3/4
             lb. insulation sandwiched between the pans. Drain pans shall be sloped to drain
             connections per ASHRAE Standard 62-2001 (and its approved addenda).
             Intermediate drain pans shall be used for stacked coils.

      F.     Coil sections shall be provided with tracks, extended the full length of the unit to
             provide for the removal of the coil or an individual coil in a bank of coils.




Air Handling Units                                                         Section 15855 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                           Design Guide
                                                                            Final – March 15, 2007

       G.     Fans shall be double width, double inlet (DWDI) centrifugal type fans. The Engineer
              shall select the most efficient fan available (i.e. airfoil, forward curved, backward
              inclined).

       H.     Fan sections, where possible, shall employ airfoil fans with a minimum ACMA
              Construction Class of II. Use Class III fan construction if the fan characteristic curve
              extends to within 10% of the fans Class III selection zone.

       I.     Fan bearings are to be self-aligning, pillow block, regreaseable ball bearings rated for
              an average life of L-10 200,000 Hrs. All units shall be provided with extended
              copper lubrication lines to allow lubrication from the exterior of the unit.

       J.     Fan shafts and fans shall be rated for continuous operation and shall be statically and
              dynamically balanced in all plains. Fan drives shall be selected for a 1.5 service
              factor.

5.0    All units in excess of 2,000 CFM must be provided with a return air fan (for return air
       systems). The return air fan can be a single width single inlet centrifugal fan set, integral or
       independent cabinet fan, or in-line centrifugal type fan and must be mounted to permit
       servicing without the use of a ladder. Units which are not floor mounted and are mounted
       in excess of 6'-0" above the floor must be provided with stable catwalks constructed of
       structural grade steel and steel grating. Access ladders shall be integral with the catwalk.

6.0    Fans serving variable air volume systems shall be provided with a variable frequency drive
       (VFD). (Refer to Section 15170 for VFD motor requirements and 16483 for VFD
       requirements). Inlet vanes, discharge dampers, are not permitted.

7.0    All damper motors and actuators shall be located outside of the unit casing and be
       fully assessable for removal and repair.

8.0    The Engineer will ascertain that adequate service space exists for the removal of coils, fans,
       fan shafts etc. without disturbing surrounding equipment. Piping drops to AHU coils shall
       be arranged to facilitate coil removal without removing large sections of pipe.

9.0    Field erected air handling units must meet the above requirements and shall be constructed
       in accordance with SMACNA standards. Integral unit fans or independent fan sets may be
       used.

10.0   The Engineer will review the noise and vibration levels of the units and provide isolation
       equipment as required to meet acceptable levels. Sound attenuators shall be provided
       where fan noise will be transmitted to interior spaces or exterior areas in excess of


Air Handling Units                                                          Section 15855 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                              Design Guide
                                                                               Final – March 15, 2007

       the levels permitted in Section 15500 for interior spaces. On a project by project basis,
       exterior installations of fans shall be evaluated against local site noise level goals and criteria.
        Refer to Part I, General Section XI.

11.0   Safety control components such as firestats, smoke detectors and/or smoke dampers shall
       be provided per code requirements.

12.0   Central station units shall be designed to function as a smoke removal system in all buildings
       required by code to contain such.

13.0   Multiple fans provided in AHUs and exhaust fans for redundancy purposes shall be provided
       in separate compartments with inlet out outlet manual isolation dampers to facilitate
       maintenance without taking the unit out of service.

14.0   The design of fan inlet and outlet conditions should consider the impact of system effects on
       the fan performance. Where possible, follow the recommendations shown in SMACNA
       Duct Design Manual for fan inlet and outlet arrangements.


                                         END OF SECTION




Air Handling Units                                                             Section 15855 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                            Design Guide
                                                                             Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15860 - "CENTRIFUGAL FANS"

1.0    It is preferred that all fans shall be installed to permit servicing of the fan bearings, motor
       and drive package without the use of a ladder.

2.0    Units which are not floor mounted and are installed 6'-0" above the floor or higher must
       be provided with stable catwalks constructed of structural grade steel and steel grating.
       Access ladders shall be integral with the catwalks.

3.0    Centrifugal fans may be of the forward curved, backward inclined or airfoil types. The
       Engineer shall select the most efficient type for the operating range of the system.
       Tubular in-line centrifugal fans may be considered for return air applications.

4.0    Fans serving variable air volume systems shall be controlled using variable frequency
       drives (Refer to Section 15170 for VFD motor requirements and 16483 for variable
       frequency drive requirements). Inlet vanes, discharge dampers, etc. are not recommended.
        For large manifolded systems, analyze fan operation and staging to verify that the
       required exhaust discharge velocity is maintained under all operating conditions.

5.0    Units shall be provided with safety control components such as firestats, smoke
       detectors and or smoke dampers shall be provided per code.

6.0    All fans shall be AMCA certified. Provide fans rated for the particular class of operation
       based upon outlet velocity and static pressure in accordance with AMCA standards.

7.0    Fans installed in exhaust systems handling corrosive vapors shall be coated or constructed
       of materials compatible with the intended environment and specific application. Fans
       shall have all motors, drives and bearings located out of the air stream. All fans for
       laboratory fume hood service must be reviewed with Office of the University Engineer
       and the Office of Environmental Health and Radiation Safety (OEHRS). OEHRS shall
       review all manifolded laboratory exhaust systems.

8.0    Units shall be provided with hinged access/inspection doors located in the fan housing.
       Doors shall be secured on three (3) sides

9.0    All units shall be provided with belt guards, however direct drive fans are preferred to
       reduce maintenance costs. Belt guards to be two (2) piece design for ease of belt
       replacement and provided with holes to measure fan speed.

10.0   Units installed outdoors shall be provided with weather resistant construction.




Centrifugal Fans                                                             Section 15860 -Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                              Design Guide
                                                                               Final – March 15, 2007

11.0   Shafts and bearings shall be designed for an average life of L-10 200,000 Hrs. per ABMA
       L90.

12.0   Provide exterior units with scroll drains. Drains on units serving corrosive or toxic systems
       shall be installed with a valve.

13.0   Units serving flammable vapor systems or other potentially hazardous systems shall be of
       spark resistant construction.

14.0   Units serving corrosive, toxic or other potentially hazardous systems shall be installed with
       discharge nozzles which create an effective stack height which exceeds the distance to the
       upper edge of the buildings near wake, above surrounding screens, parapet walls, etc.
       Discharge ductwork must be self-supporting or structurally supported. Guide wires are
       prohibited. For each project, review stack height, location and velocity with respect
       to adjacent building wind wake numerical or wind tunnel analysis. Discharge
       velocities shall conform to ANSI/AIHA Standard Z9.5.

15.0   The Engineer will review the noise and vibration levels of the units and provide isolation
       equipment as required to meet acceptable levels. Sound attenuators shall be provided
       where fan noise will be transmitted to interior spaces or exterior areas in excess of
       the levels permitted in Section 15500 for interior spaces. On a project by project basis,
       exterior installations of fans shall be evaluated against local site noise level goals and criteria.
        Refer to Part I, General Section XI.

16.0   Specify that all fans must be properly identified. Fans serving fume hoods must be identified
       by the room in which the fume hood is located. Each fan shall be labeled with the following:

       A.      Fan Number issued by the Facilities Services.

       B.      System and area served (or fume hood and room number).

       C.      Location and circuit No. of electrical supply (Elec. Rm. A, MCC circuit No. 20).

17.0   Each unit shall be provided with a disconnect switch and general service electrical receptacle
       rated for 120 V, 15 AMPS.


                                         END OF SECTION




Centrifugal Fans                                                                Section 15860 -Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                             Design Guide
                                                                              Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15865 – "AXIAL FANS"

1.0   For dedicated fume hood applications, the use of packaged, vertical discharge, roof-mounted
      induced dilution fans shall be considered to maintain a constant exhaust discharge velocity
      and to increase dilution of the exhaust. Axial fans shall be modular bisected inline duct fans
      equipped with discharge nozzles to project effluent beyond the building’s near wake.
      Approved Manufacturers: Tri-Stack by Strobic Air Corporation.

2.0   Fans shall be provided with disconnect switches, companion flanges, sound attenuators and
      spark resistant motors as required to suit application.

3.0   All fans shall be direct drive. Belt drives are prohibited.

4.0   Variable flow systems serving fume hood applications shall maintain a constant discharge
      velocity via a by-pass damper located in the fan inlet to maintain fan mass flow rates and
      discharge stack effects.

5.0   Axial fans used in return variable flow applications shall be controlled using variable
      frequency drives (Refer to Section 15170 for VFD motor requirements and Section 16483 for
      variable frequency drive requirements). Inlet vanes, discharge dampers, etc. are not
      recommended.

6.0   The Engineer will review the noise and vibration levels of the units and provide isolation
      equipment as required to meet acceptable levels. Sound attenuators shall be provided
      where fan noise will be transmitted to interior spaces or exterior areas in excess of
      the levels permitted in Section 15500 for interior spaces. On a project by project basis,
      exterior installations of fans shall be evaluated against local site noise level goals and criteria.
       Refer to Part I, General Section XI.


                                        END OF SECTION




Axial Fans                                                                    Section 15865 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15885 - "AIR CLEANING"

1.0   Water and oil wash systems are prohibited.

2.0   Carbon type filters are permitted for special applications requiring the removal of gases only
      after review and approval by the Office of the University Engineer.

3.0   The minimum filter arrangement for supply air handling units for any application (laboratory,
      office, etc.) shall be specified as 30% efficient pre-filter and 95% efficient final filter as
      tested in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 52.1. The maximum filter face velocity shall
      not exceed 500 feet per minute (FPM).

4.0   For each project application, review the following items with the Office of Environmental
      Health and Radiation Safety (OEHRS):

      A.       Filter arrangement (draw through vs. blow through, etc).

      B.       Higher efficiency applications requirements (HEPA, etc.).

      C.       Applications that require terminal filtration, vivarium holding room exhaust grilles,
               BL-3 labs, etc.

5.0   Any deviation from the above standard filters must be submitted to the University's
      Representative for review and approval.

6.0   For fan sizing purposes, the manufacturer's recommended maximum "dirty" static pressure
      drop shall be used.

7.0   Refer to HVAC Section 15500 for other specific system filtration requirements.


                                       END OF SECTION




Air Cleaning                                                               Section 15885 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15890 - "DUCTWORK"

1.0   Acoustical duct lining in any part of the duct system is prohibited. All ductwork
      requiring insulation shall be externally insulated (Refer to the Sheet Metal Ductwork
      Insulation Schedule in Section 15200 for insulation types and thickness). Double walled
      ducts consisting of an outer wall of galvanized sheet metal, an inner wall of perforated
      galvanized sheet metal with insulation sandwiched between the layers is permitted.

2.0   All ductwork shall be designed, constructed, supported and sealed in accordance with
      SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards and pressure classifications. When the
      ductwork pressure classification of these standards is exceeded, construct ductwork in
      accordance with SMACNA Round and Rectangular Industrial Duct Construction Standards.
       The following preferences or modifications to the Standards shall be specified:

      A.     Radius elbows with a construction radius of 1.5 the duct width are preferred to square
             elbows.

      B.     All square elbows must be constructed with single thickness turning vanes, Runner
             Type 2 as shown in Figures 2-3 and 2-4 of SMACNA Duct Construction Standards
             - Metal and Flexible. Where a rectangular duct changes in size at a square-throat
             elbow fitting, use single thickness turning vanes with trailing edge extensions aligned
             with the sides of the duct.

      C.     Air extractors and splitter dampers are not permitted.

      D.     Transitions and offsets shall follow Figure 2-7 of SMACNA HVAC Duct
             Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible, except that sides of transitions shall
             slope a maximum of 15 degrees.

      E.     Minimum duct gauge shall be 22 for ducts up through 43", 20 gauge up through 60"
             and 18 gauge above 60".

      F.     Transverse/Longitudinal Joints:

             1.     Transverse joints for all supply, return, make-up air and outside air ducts
                    serving an application that requires ductwork to be inspected and cleaned
                    periodically shall be gasketed flanged Vanstone joints with minimum 1.5 inch
                    flanges fastened 6 inches on center or “Ductmate” transverse sheet metal duct
                    connection system with manufacturer-furnished gasketing system. Gasket
                    shall be "440 Gasket Tape" by Ductmate Industries, Inc. or approved equal.




Ductwork                                                                 Section 15890 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

             2.      Duct transverse and longitudinal joints (except for the above requirements)
                     shall be selected and used consistent with the static pressure class, applicable
                     sealing requirements, materials involved, duct support intervals and other
                     provisions for proper assembly of ductwork outlined in the SMACNA
                     HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible. Transverse joints
                     T-15 through T-24, shown in Figure 1-4 are acceptable construction. Type
                     L-2 (button punch snap lock) or Type L-3 (grooved seam) longitudinal
                     seams, shown in Figure 1-5, are not acceptable

      G.     Seal all ductwork seams, joints, fastener penetrations and fitting connections with
             sealants in accordance with SMACNA Seal Classification as required by SMACNA
             Duct Pressure Classification. Specify that all ductwork, regardless of pressure
             classification, shall have a minimum Seal Class B. Where ducts are not continuously
             welded, provide liquid, mastic, and embedded fabric tape type sealants or
             combination, and gaskets as required to meet the specified duct leakage allowance.
              Sealant composite fire and smoke rating, when tested in accordance with ASTM E
             84, NFPA 255 or UL 723, shall not exceed Flame Spread of 25 and Smoke Developed
             of 50.

      H.     The aspect ratio (ratio of width to height) of rectangular ducts should be minimized
             to reduce pressure losses and initial costs. Duct aspect ratios should not exceed 4:1.

3.0   Industrial Duct Construction:

      A.     Prior approval must be attained from the Office of the University Engineer for the
             use of systems requiring industrial duct construction.

      B.     Follow SMACNA Round and Rectangular Industrial Duct Construction Standards.

      C.     Specify sealing requirements in terms of percent leakage appropriate for the
             application.

      D.     To minimize fan energy, consideration must be given to the lowest practical velocity
             and pressure criteria which will provide adequate service.

4.0   All duct systems must be designed to meet the sound level requirements listed in Section
      15500. The specification shall state that the Contractor is responsible for all duct generated
      noises which will result in noise levels greater than those stated in Section 15500, and for all
      discrete frequency noises generated by the ductwork, such as oil canning, banging, clicking,
      hissing or rattling. All such deficiencies shall be corrected by the Contractor as directed by
      the Architect or Engineer.


Ductwork                                                                   Section 15890 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007


5.0    Contract drawings must have adequate notation which correlates each duct and diffuser with
       the central air handling unit from which it is served. The notation must be completed in such
       a manner as to clearly identify each system and its components without tracing systems
       between drawings.

6.0    The contract drawings (plans or diagrams) shall indicate the changes in pressure classification
       of duct systems by the use of pressure flags per the convention indicated in Figure 1-1 of the
       SMACNA Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible.

7.0    Shop drawings of all sheetmetal ductwork and related equipment must be furnished in a
       minimum scale of 3/8 inch to the foot.

8.0    All materials for all duct systems shall be specified as follows:

       A.     General Ductwork - Galvanized sheet steel meeting ASTM A 653 and ASTM A 924
              with G90 coating designation.

       B.     Stainless Steel - Specify type as dictated by the application. Specify finish for
              exposed ductwork.

       C.     Aluminum Duct - ASTM B-209, Alloy Number 3003, H-14. Specify finish for
              exposed ductwork.

9.0    All rectangular panels above 10 inches in width must be cross broken on all four sides.

11.0   All ductwork and accessories must be supported from the structure only using trapeze, strap
       or angle iron hangers conforming to SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal
       and Flexible.

       A.     Provide supplemental structural steel to span joists where required. Deflection of
              supplemental structural steel shall be limited to length/180 of the span.

       B.     Do not support ductwork from furring, hung ceilings, metal floor deck, metal roof
              deck or from another duct or pipe.

       C.     Do not hang lighting fixtures or piping from ductwork.

       D.     Do not use perforated band iron for duct support.

       E.     Support ductwork at each change in direction.


Ductwork                                                                   Section 15890 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007


       F.     Where vertical ducts penetrate floor openings, and require support, provide two
              horizontal galvanized steel angle supports attached to the long side of the duct and
              anchored to the floor with expansion bolts. Extend angles 3 inches beyond edge of
              opening. Provide the following angle sizes:

               Duct Size (inches)                 Angle Size (inches)
               Thru 36                            1 1/4 by 1 1 /4 by 1/8
               37 thru 59                         2 by 2 by 3/16
               60 and larger                      3 by 3 by 3/8

       G.     Where ducts penetrate mechanical room floors, provide 4 inch high concrete curbs
              similar to piping penetrations. (Refer to Section 15400).

       H.     Where duct connects to or terminates at masonry openings or at floors where concrete
              curbs are not used, provide a continuous 1 1/2 inch by 1 1/2 inch by 3/16 inch
              galvanized steel angle support around the ductwork. Bolt and seal the supports to the
              building construction using expansion bolts and caulking compound. Seal shall be
              watertight at floor or wall and duct such that a spill will not pass down through the
              opening.

       I.     All exterior duct work shall be double walled construction. Exterior ductwork shall
              be round or slopped (rectangular) to avoid standing water on top. Service stairs up
              and over the ductwork may be required to maintain access to the roof.

       J.     For insulated ductwork, install hangers on the outside of the insulation. To maintain
              the insulation value, inset a piece of 1-inch thick, 6 pcf fiberglass board with a
              foil/scrim/kraft (FSK) jacket at these supports.

11.0   Plenum chambers shall be constructed of minimum 18 gauge metal with 1/2" x 1/2" x 3/16"
       galvanized angles up to 10' in height Above 10' angles of 2" x 2" x 1/4" must be used. Angles
       must be installed on all vertical and longitudinal seams and on a maximum center of 4'.

12.0   Low pressure round ductwork shall be specified as follows:

       A.     Lock-type spiral seam or lock-type longitudinal seam duct construction.

       B.     Round galvanized gauge selection shall be in accordance with Table 3-2 of the
              SMACNA Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible, except that the
              following minimum gauges are required:


Ductwork                                                                   Section 15890 - Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

              1.      Longitudinal lock - 22 gauge
              2.      Spiral lock - 24 gauge

       C.     Fittings shall have a construction radius of 1-1/2" times the diameter.

       D.     All branch connections from duct headers shall be made using tee (90 degrees), lateral
              (45 degrees), tee cross, lateral cross or "Y" branch fittings of the conical type. All
              fittings fabricated as separate fittings shall have continuous welds along all seams and
              joints.

       E.     All seams shall be sealed.

13.0   Flexible Ductwork:

       A.     Flexible ducting constructed of wire frames and fiberglass or plastic film are
              prohibited.

       B.     Ducts shall be aluminum with spiral fabricated triple lock construction. Pressure
              drop shall not exceed 0.23 inches of water for 100 feet of duct for 300 CFM in an 8"
              duct.

       C.     Duct shall conform to NFPA 90A and shall be UL listed, Specification 181, Class 1,
              including insulation.

       D.     Insulation where required, shall be on the exterior of the duct.

       E.     Maximum length shall be 6 feet or less. The remainder of the branch ductwork
              shall be sheet metal. Provide flexible duct runs as short and straight as possible

14.0   Ducts penetrating through masonry walls, floors and roofs shall be clearly detailed on the
       drawings. The details shall, as a minimum, indicate curbs, flashing, counterflashing, fire
       dampers, sealing and weatherproofing.

15.0   Horizontal exterior rectangular ducts shall be fabricated with all seams at the bottom and
       installed with a top surface slope of 1/4" per foot, side to side. Supports shall be detailed
       on the drawings.

16.0   Specify special duct sealing and weatherproofing requirements for all exterior duct
       applications.




Ductwork                                                                   Section 15890 - Page 5
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

17.0   Dishwasher, sterilizer, autoclave, cagewasher, etc. exhaust hoods and ductwork shall be
       constructed of welded aluminum or stainless steel. Ductwork shall be sloped and provided
       with drain connections at low points. Kitchen exhaust ductwork shall be provided with
       adequate access doors to facilitate cleaning.

18.0   Kitchen exhaust hoods and exposed range hood exhaust duct shall be constructed of No. 18
       gauge welded stainless steel. Concealed range hood exhaust ductwork shall be constructed
       and supported by of minimum No. 12 gauge black iron, or No. 18 gauge stainless steel. All
       joints shall be welded liquid tight. As an alternative, premanufactured grease duct may be
       used when installed strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Slope
       ductwork to hood or to the base of vertical risers and provide an accessible collection
       point for grease and residue at base of vertical risers. Provide approved access panels
       for cleaning at minimum 20-foot centers on horizontal duct and on each floor on vertical
       risers where personnel entry is not possible from the top of the riser. The construction and
       installation of all kitchen range hoods and grease duct shall comply with applicable codes.

19.0   Shower exhaust systems shall be constructed of aluminum and sloped to drain provisions.
        After the shower exhaust is mixed with a volume of general exhaust air equal to 200% of the
       shower exhaust rate, standard galvanized construction may be used.

20.0 Laboratory exhaust duct material must be reviewed and approved by the Office of the
     University Engineer and the Office of Environmental Health and Radiation Safety (OEHRS).
      All laboratory exhaust ductwork that is undiluted (fume hood branch ductwork, dedicated
     fume hood exhaust, etc.) shall be stainless steel. Acceptable duct materials for other
     applications are as follows:

       A.     Galvanized

       B.     Stainless Steel

       C.     PVC-coated (pre-baked) steel, or epoxy-phenolic-coated (air dried) steel. Coatings
              for exhaust duct shall be evaluated on a case by case basis.

       D.     Plastic ducts such as Dynel reinforced polyester. When using plastic ductwork, all
              fire code and sprinkler code requirements must be addressed.

21.0   Duct systems shall be field leak tested at 100% of the duct construction rating. Leak testing
       shall follow general procedures (Chapter 3) and use apparatus (Chapter 5) as outlined in the
       SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual, Latest Edition. The A/E shall specify
       the allowable leakage in terms of percent of total rated airflow capacity for each duct system
       based on leakage allowances accounted for in airflow rate and fan selection calculations. The


Ductwork                                                                   Section 15890 - Page 6
University of Pennsylvania                                                      Design Guide
                                                                       Final – March 15, 2007

      A/E shall specify that the allowable leakage rates for each duct section tested shall be
      determined by the use of Appendix C in the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test
      Manual. Ductwork to be leak tested after all branch connections are installed. All leak
      testing shall be witnessed by a representative from the Office of the University Engineer.

                                    END OF SECTION




Ductwork                                                               Section 15890 - Page 7
University of Pennsylvania                                                          Design Guide
                                                                           Final – March 15, 2007

SECTION 15910 - "DUCTWORK ACCESSORIES"

1.0   Each branch duct to individual diffusers and registers shall have a balancing damper, located
      as far away from the air terminal as possible. Dampers in diffusers and registers shall be
      used for fine tuning the airflow only. Dampers supported by cantilevered shafts are
      prohibited. All shafts shall extend through the duct and be supported at both ends.

2.0   Specify flexible connections not less than 3" wide at the inlet and outlet of all rotating
      equipment and at all building expansion joints. The connector fabric shall be fire retardant
      and asbestos free. The A/E shall include special requirements for flexible connections where
      air stream contaminants, temperature or pressure may necessitate the use of heavy duty or
      corrosive resistant materials.

3.0   Access doors must be installed both upstream and downstream of all duct mounted
      equipment including but not limited to:

      A.     Coils

      B.     Fire and smoke dampers

      C.     Automatic dampers

      D.     Filters

      E.     Controls

      F.     Humidifiers

      All doors shall be hinged and be constructed of a minimum 22 gauge materials or as required
      by duct construction. The doors shall be installed with stiffening frames constructed from
      angle supports and provided with continuous hinges. Minimum door size shall be 16"x 16".

4.0   Sound attenuators shall be installed on all systems as required to meet the specified noise
      criteria levels in Part I, General Section XI "Noise and Vibration Control" and Part II, Section
      15500 "HVAC Systems”. Use of sound attenuators shall be based on an analysis by a
      qualified acoustics consultant.

5.0   Fire dampers shall be of the out-of-air stream design (i.e., Type B: Hi-hat profile, 90 percent
      free area, average 0.053 inch w.g. loss at 2000 fpm). All fire dampers shall be rated as
      dynamic type. All system designs will conform with the following:




Ductwork Accessories                                                       Section 15910 - Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                        Design Guide
                                                                         Final – March 15, 2007

      A.     The locations of all fire dampers must be indicated on the drawings as required to
             meet applicable codes.

      B.     Both NFPA and SMACNA design standards must be referenced as a standard for the
             installation of the dampers.

      C.     Each fire damper shall be field tested to ascertain proper operation.

      D.     The supplier of the fire dampers must provide two (2) additional fusible links for
             each fire damper installed.

6.0   Registers and diffusers shall be of the hinged type (where applicable) and shall be designed
      as follows:

      A.     Air outlets shall be selected to result in a maximum occupied space velocity of 35 feet
             per minute at normally occupied locations and 3 feet below the ceiling.

      B.     Throws based upon a terminal velocity of 50 FPM, shall not exceed 1/2 the distance
             between adjacent diffusers or 67% of the distance between the outlet and the wall.

      C.     In addition to balancing dampers furnished at branch take-offs from mains, all units
             shall be provided with opposed blade dampers.

      D.     Aluminum units shall be installed in wet areas or areas with high moisture content.

      E.     Non-dumping type supply outlets shall be specified for use in VAV systems.
             Analyze the outlet’s performance at minimum airflow conditions.

      F.     All supply and return units shall have a maximum neck velocity of 500 FPM.

      G.     “Lay-in” type units are preferred.

      H.     The design of the outlet locations should consider accessibility requirements for the
             use of airflow balancing hoods (consider clearance space from furniture below and the
             location of walls and demountable partitions, etc.).

7.0   Intake and exhaust louvers shall be designed within the following parameters:

      A.     Intake:

             1.        Maximum free area velocity: 750 FPM


Ductwork Accessories                                                     Section 15910 - Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                         Design Guide
                                                                          Final – March 15, 2007

              2.      Maximum water penetration: Less than 0.14 ounces/sq.ft.            15 Minute
                      duration.
              3.      Maximum pressure drop: Less than 0.15 in. w.g.
              4.      Minimum free area: 45% of face area
              5.      Bird screen

       B.     Exhaust:

              1.      Maximum free area velocity: 1000 FPM
              2.      Minimum free area: 45% of face area
              3.      Maximum pressure drop: 0.25 in. w.g.
              4.      Bird screen.

       C.     All unused portions of supply air and exhaust louvers shall be blanked off with an
              insulated No. 18 gauge galvanized steel sheet metal sandwich panel.

       D.     The A/E shall analyze the selection and location of louvers account for snow
              infiltration and contaminants (refer to the indoor air quality discussion in Section
              15500).

8.0    Duct coils shall be supported independently of the connected ductwork.

9.0    Modulating dampers shall be sized for linear airflow control within the angle of rotation with
       minimum pressure drop. The units shall be constructed of minimum 16 gauge galvanized
       steel frames and blades having a maximum width of 6". Each blade shall be constructed with
       edge seals and shall be sealed to minimum 1/2" steel angles. End bearings shall be of the self
       lubricating type. Maximum damper leakage shall be 2% when closed across a 4" static
       pressure differential.

10.0   Airflow measuring stations shall be provided for VAV systems on the discharge of air
       handling units, inlets of return, outdoor air and exhaust systems and other locations as
       required for system control requirements. (Refer to Section 15980).


                                       END OF SECTION




Ductwork Accessories                                                       Section 15910 - Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                 Design Guide
                                                                         March 15, 2007


SECTION 15970 - "AUTOMATIC CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEMS"

1.0   All systems in excess of 7-1/2 tons (packaged and split type included) shall be
      controlled via an electronic control system interfacing with the existing campus Energy
      Management System (EMS) central control. The electronic controllers shall be
      provided by one of the following automation equipment/system suppliers: Allen
      Bradley, Johnson Controls Inc., Moore APACS, Siemens Building Technology, and
      Automatrix.

2.0   In general, each project shall require that the Mechanical Contractor or subcontractor
      shall engage an authorized Controls Subcontractor to furnish, install, wire, guarantee
      and service the entire electronic control system. The controls subcontractor shall also
      be required to coordinate the selection installation and wiring of all components
      required for integration into the existing Campus Operation Control Center (OCC)
      Building Automation Control (BAC) system.

3.0   Pneumatic devices shall be limited to the following components:

      A.     E.P. and P.E. switches
      B.     Damper and valve actuators
      C.     Pilot positioning devices
      D.     Current-to-Pneumatic transducers (I/P)

      Electronic motors may be substituted and used as valve and damper actuators provided
      they meet the torque requirements for closing/opening the device against the system
      pressure and the response of such is adequate to maintain desired conditions of process
      variable.

4.0   All new pneumatic systems shall include duplex compressors each, adequately sized
      to handle 80% of the anticipated peak load, compressor alternating controls to assure
      equal run time, a pneumatic tank sized to provide minimum storage capacity of 2 hours
      in the event of power loss and a mechanical filter dryer system capable of reducing the
      dew point temperature of the air to +20 oF at a pressure of 25 PSIG. An investigation
      of the existing buildings air system shall be completed and assessed prior to the
      addition of new components. No pneumatic tubing will be installed exposed to the
      elements or where it could be subject to freezing. Connection to existing control air
      source air should be approved by a University representative and designing engineer.
       Their systems will include duplex reducing stations.

5.0   All pneumatic tubing shall be run in Type "L" (high pressure) hard copper with
      soldered joints (95-5 solder). Compression type connections are permitted at
      connections to equipment only. Minimum tubing size shall be 1/4"0.025" wall


Flow Measuring Devices                 15980                                       Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                    Design Guide
                                                                            March 15, 2007

      thickness. Tubing shall be run in open conduits with a minimum of 20% available for
      spares. Tubing shall be identified at panel drops and end devices. Copper tubing
      connections to end devices will utilize barb connections to plastic tubing.

6.0   All control valves (chilled, condenser, hot water and steam) shall be of the throttling
      plug (water) or V-port (chilled water choke valve) repacking type. Valves 2" and
      smaller shall have threaded brass bodies. Valves shall have unions installed before and
      after for service. Valves above 2" shall be flanged and have cast iron bodies. All valves
      shall be provided with stainless steel stems and trims, seats, plugs, etc. Plug types as
      follows:

      A.     Steam - Linear characteristic – 1/3-2/3.
      B.     Modulating chilled water service - Equal percentage plug.
      C.     Modulating hot water service- linear characteristic.
      D.     Two position - Flat seat/quick opening.

7.0   Each project shall provide control panels in the quantities and locations necessary to
      properly access and house all control equipment. Panels shall be provided with hinged
      covers and key operated locks. Top conduit access to any panels is prohibited. Panel
      should be located in a dry location and accessible from the floor level. All control panel
      locations shall be pre-approved by a representative of Facilities Operations. All
      control panels shall be located on the project coordination drawings. Refer to Section
      15010. The A/E shall indicate all control panel power requirements on the contract
      drawings.

8.0   Prior to the design of the integration into the central control and monitoring system the
      A/E shall arrange a meeting with the University Engineer to discuss and resolve the
      following:

      A.     Minimum required control points list and the points monitored and/or
             controlled by central EMS at the Operations Control Center (OCC).

      B.     Available capacity of existing DDC panels and nodes for connection to EMS-
             SCADA.

      C.     Required system diagrams, flow and control diagrams and ATC/P&ID diagrams
             are required. Review of submittals must be conducted via a meeting with the
             University Engineer prior to approval.

      D.     Process & Instrumentation Drawings.




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                     15990                            Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                 Design Guide
                                                                         March 15, 2007

      E.     How the respective system dynamic informationis reported back to the existing
             campus Operations Control Center (OCC). For new installations only, a
             network connection into the building subnet along with IP address, hostname,
             net mask address and default route address. These are required to get the
             system data from the new location to OCC.

9.0   The drawings and specifications shall, as a minimum, include the following
      requirements:

      A.     General system description, system architecture, including sequence of
             operations, point listing, description and type, engineering units, calibration,
             etc.

      B.     Shop drawing submittal requirements, including the following:

      C.     Drawings:

             1.     Contractor shall provide as a minimum, individual drawing for each
                    system.

             2.     Drawings shall show all system hardware, distributed Processing Unit,
                    (DPU’s), field devices, electrical work as well as all ATC work with
                    each drawing containing the following information:
                    a.     Wiring type and method of installation.
                    b.     Control tubing information.
                    c.     Point numbers and termination numbering for each DPU.
                    d.     Detailed Bill of Material with appropriate reference to section
                           where product data is presented.
                    e.     Sequence of operation. Including P&ID (Control) diagrams.
                    f.     Hardwired, Calculated and Logical Point database listing,
                           software addresses following nomenclature in appendix, wiring
                           numbering, control/alarm, set points, and termination locations.

      D.     Hardware:

             1.     The Contractor shall furnish complete documentation pertaining to
                    hardware and all other equipment supplied. (including power
                    requirements per control panel).

             2.     Contractor shall document all point connections at the Data Gathering
                    Panels. Include all pertinent wiring, field device, hardware, termination


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                   15990                           Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                               Design Guide
                                                                       March 15, 2007

                    modules and software data. Locations of DDC panels are to be
                    coordinated with the University Controls Engineer.

             3.     Contractor shall document all I/O point cards (modules) and
                    communication cards installed in Data Gathering Panels. Include all
                    pertinent data, including firmware/software versions, switch settings,
                    and calibration data.

      E.     Software:

             1.     Provide the following information pertaining to DPU software:
                       • All programs pertinent to project and backup format with
                           software used to create backup.
                       • Operating system software on CD or other magnetic media.
                       • All software, hardware and licenses required to operate,
                           maintain and modify the system controls.

      F.     Data Base:

             1.     Contractor shall submit point data input forms and samples of all
                    operator terminal formatted input screens with descriptions of each
                    input.
             2.     See the end of this section for examples.

      G.     Graphics:

             1.     List of color graphics screens being provided.
             2.     System graphics and controls graphics with the location and areas
                    served.
             3.     Proposed format of each color graphic screen being provided including
                    point data displayed dynamically.
             4.     Graphics must be approved by Operations prior to installation.

      H.     Provide the following information pertaining to Distributed Processing Units
             (DPU) software:

             General:
             a.     List all software packages provided with each DPU.
             b.     Indicate the DPU software that will execute at the DPU independent of
                    the Central Control Unit (CCU), the transmission link to the Central
                    Control Unit (CCU) or other DPUs.


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                 15990                          Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                                                 Design Guide
                                                                         March 15, 2007


             Direct Digital Control (DDC) Software:
             a.     List of all control loops being provided.

             List of the Process Control Language instruction set including a definition each
             instruction.

             b.     Listings of Direct Digital Control routines that the Contractor will use
                    to implement the sequence of operations specified.
                    An English explanation of the meaning is located on each line of the
                    DDC code. This explanation shall be detailed and include definitions
                    of each variable and instruction contained in the line code.
                            A list of the software points to be used to implement each set
                    point and control PID tuning parameters, and any other software
                    points used.
                            A list of all variables and their meaning.
                            A flow chart and step diagram, for each DDC routine that will
                    allow comparison with the Sequence of Operation being modeled. Each
                    block of the flow chart should represent no more than one line of DDC
                    code. It shall be possible for a person not familiar with the Process
                    Control Language to use the flow charts to verify that the DDC code
                    will perform the sequences as specified.
                            A list of the DDC routines provided in each DPU and their
                    storage requirement.
                            A flow chart showing the interaction of DDC routines in each
                    DPU including variables being transferred from routine to routine.

      I.     Description of Points:

             1.     Provide table(s) listing all points with item number as shown and the
                    following:
                    a.     Respective DPU card/slot for each DPU and/or data gathering.
                    b.     Provide for all software points the following:

             2.     Point name.
             3.     Point function (should include calculated points and also logical
                    (virtual) points available through a digital interface (not hardwired).
             4.     Alarm limits.
             5.     Engineering Units
             6.     Device range in engineering units
             7.     Field Devices:


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                   15990                           Page 5
University of Pennsylvania                                                  Design Guide
                                                                          March 15, 2007

                    a.        Specification data sheets including accuracy, calibration, and
                              servicing information and quantities for all field devices.
                    b.        Tabulated information showing point number, field device, and
                              data sheets reference for all points.
                    c.        Drawings of all local control panels (LCPs) including panel face
                              layouts.

             8.     Electrical Work:
                           Submit data sheet on each type of wire to be used and it's
                           specific job application (e.g. Signal Wiring, Communication,
                           Data Communication, etc.).
             9.     Controls:
                    a.     Product data sheets including catalog information listing
                           calibration and servicing for all equipment and devices.

10.0   Electrical Work Requirements:

       A.    General:

             1.     Wiring of all field devices and electrical devices to Local Control Panels
                    (LCP) and Distributed Processing Units (DPU).
             2.     All communication wiring from existing EMS/SCADA to new DPUs.
             3.     All wiring of LCPs including but not limited to EP’s, I/P's, VPTs,
                    DPTs, pilot lights, relays, transformers and other miscellaneous devices
                    as shown and specified.
             4.     All power wiring (120 VAC) of field devices as required.
             5.     All miscellaneous control wiring.
             6.     All field devices, indoor and outdoor, except Room Temperature
                    Transmitters shall have conduit connections made to them from
                    junction boxes, with a minimum of 18 inches of flexible metallic conduit
                    ("Greenfield") (liquid tight for devices outdoors or otherwise exposed
                    to moisture) with sufficient slack to allow for removal and/or servicing.

       B.    Signal Wiring:

             1.     Signal wiring to all analog field devices, including but not limited to
                    temperature transmitters (TT) (other than resistance temperature
                    detectors (RTD)), humidity transmitters (HT), current to pneumatic
                    (I/P) transducers, shall be twisted, 100% shielded pair, minimum 18
                    gauge wire with PVC cover Belden #8760. Wires are to be separate




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                    15990                           Page 6
University of Pennsylvania                                                    Design Guide
                                                                            March 15, 2007

                    from any other wiring above 30 volts and shall be run in conduit with
                    no splices, terminal strips/blocks.
             2.     Signal wiring to RTDs shall be as listed above, except shall be three (3)
                    conductors Belden #8770.
             3.     Signal wiring to digital field devices (for circuits of 30 VAC or less) shall
                    be as specified herein below for Low Voltage Control Wiring. No
                    splices, terminal strips/blocks.
             4.     Signal wiring shield shall be grounded at DPU end only.

      C.     Communication Wiring:

             1.     Communication wiring shall be minimum three individually 100%
                    shielded pairs (i.e. six conductors), minimum 18 gauge cable with overall
                    PVC cover Belden #9773 or approved equivalent product of other
                    manufacturers, run in conduit with no splices, separate from all wiring
                    over 30 volts. Shield shall be terminated as recommended by DPU
                    manufacturer. Contractor shall notify Owner/Engineer in writing within
                    60 days after award of contract if this is in conflict with shield
                    termination recommended by the CCU or DPU manufacturer. The
                    contractor may use fiber Optic cable or other type of wiring after
                    review and approval by OCC or the University Engineer.
             2.     In addition to the requirements specified above, all communication
                    wiring cables shall include a 100% redundancy shielded pair (two
                    conductors) as unused spare conductors. Where the number of
                    conductors and specific cable specified above for each type of
                    communication wiring will not meet this requirement for spare
                    conductors, Contractor shall provide prior to installation approved
                    equivalent product of Belden or other manufacturer with the necessary
                    number of conductors and which meets the requirements specified
                    above.

      D.     All wiring shall be provided in conduit. Rigid metal or intermediate metal
             conduit (IMC) in exterior locations, and mechanical room. Electrical metallic
             tubing (EMT – compression type) for all other interior installations) All
             devices and equipment shall be mounted in minimum NEMA 1 enclosures and
             NEMA 4 for mechanical rooms.




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                    15990                             Page 7
University of Pennsylvania                                                     Design Guide
                                                                             March 15, 2007

       E.     Low Voltage Control Wiring (30 VAC or Less):

              1.        Low voltage control wiring shall be minimum 16 gauge, twisted pair,
                        100% shielded with PVC over Belden #9316 or approved equivalent
                        product of other manufacturers run in conduit with no splices, separate
                        from any wiring above 30 volts.

11.0   Field Devices:

       A.     Temperature Transmitters (TT):

              1.        All temperature transmitters shall be resistance temperature detectors
                        (RTD 4-20 MA) with 2-wire circuitry. However, wall mounted
                        thermostats can be thermistor type or RTD. Wall mounted thermostats
                        shall be sealed and insulated to prevent false readings. RTDs shall be
                        platinum type (100 ohm at 32º F) or nickel-iron type (1,000 ohm at 70º
                        F) as manufactured by Minco, and calibrated for the operating range of
                        the measured variable.
              2.        Duct mounted insertion type RTDs (“RTD Duct Probe”) shall be rigid
                        area averaging type, and shall include the sensing probe, holder, utility
                        box and gasket to prevent air leakage and vibration noise. Minimum
                        insertion depth shall be 80% of duct.
              3.        Bendable area averaging type RTDs (“RTD Duct Avg.”) shall include
                        the averaging sensor, utility box and gasket to prevent air leakage and
                        vibration noise, and shall be used, as a minimum, in all mixed air and
                        preheat air temperature applications. The mounting of the averaging
                        RTDs shall be sufficient to cover the free area top to bottom. Each
                        pass shall not exceed 12 in. from the previous pass. Minco model #
                        S102339PE shall be used in applications less than 36 inches.
              4.        Fluid immersion-type RTDs (“RTD Pipe Well”) shall be used for all
                        hot, glycol, chilled, condenser water sensing points or any other fluid
                        and shall include RTD probe, thermo wells, and temperature
                        transmitters if required. Connection head probe and connection head
                        shall be removable without breaking fluid seal or removing any
                        equipment or piping. Fluid immersion RTDs shall be installed on the
                        top of the pipe in horizontal runs and at a positive slope on vertical
                        runs to prevent condensation from flowing to connection head. Small
                        bore pipe should have thermo-wells installed at the elbows. All thermo
                        wells shall be bottom third filled with heat conductive grease as
                        manufactured by Dow Chemical. Thermo well shall be constructed of




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                      15990                           Page 8
University of Pennsylvania                                                Design Guide
                                                                        March 15, 2007

                    stainless steel and shall penetrate pipe to a minimum of 2/3 the pipe
                    diameter.
             5.     End-to-end (i.e. measured temperature at field devices versus displayed
                    valued in engineering units at DPU operator terminals and as displayed
                    at CCU operator terminals) minimum accuracy of all TT's shall be +1.0
                    degree F over 100 degree F span, +0.5 degree F over any selected 20
                    degree F span and +0.25 degree F over any selected 10 degree F span.
             6.     Temperature transmitters sensing elements shall be provided in stainless
                    steel case, epoxy sealed for moisture resistance (Minco model TT211,
                    no exceptions).
             7.     All ATC devices should be installed to be accessible from the outside
                    of the equipment, (AHU, etc.) served. Accessibility of all devices
                    should be verified during the shop drawing review.
             8.     Temperature transmitters shall have the following ranges:
                    a.      AHU (air only)                 0 to 100 Deg. F.
                    b.      Chilled Water                  30 to 80 Deg. F.
                    c.      Condenser Water                30 to 100 Deg. F.
                    d.      Hot Water Systems              32 to 250 Deg. F.

      B.     Transducers:

             1.     Current-to-Pressure Transducers (I/P) - ("Cur/Press Tran"):
             2.     Current-to-pressure transducers Bellofram Type 1000, control air, or
                    equal. All equals are to be pre-approved by Facilities Operations.
             3.     Current-to-pressure transducers shall have the following performance
                    and application criteria:
                    a.     Supply Pressure                18 to 100 psig
                    b.     Output Pressure                3 to 15 psig
                    c.     Input Signal                   4 to 20 milli-amp
                    d.     Independent Linearity          + 1% F.S.
                    e.     Terminal Based Linearity       + 1% F.S.
                    f.     Ambient Temperature            -20 Deg. F. to 140 Deg. F.
                    g.     Hysteresis & Repeatability 1/4% F.S.
                    h.     Maximum Air Consumption 0.100 scfm
                    i.     Maximum Output Capacity 4.00 scfm

      C.     Humidity Transmitters (HT):

                    Units shall be suitable for duct or wall (room) mounting.
                  Unit shall be 2-wire transmitter with humidity sensor and shall operate on
                    power requirements of 24V DC nominally unregulated. Unit shall


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                  15990                           Page 9
University of Pennsylvania                                               Design Guide
                                                                       March 15, 2007

                    produce linear continuous output of 4 to 20 MA for percent relative
                    humidity (% RH). Sensors shall have the following performance and
                    application criteria:
                    a.     Input Range: 0 to 100% RH
                    b.     Output Range: 4-20 MA
                    c.     Accuracy (% RH): + 2% between 0 - 95% RH at 25 Deg. C.
                    d.     Sensor Operating Range: -58 Deg. F. to 185 Deg. F; (Maximum
                           operating temperature for wall mounted unit: 150 Deg. F).
                    e.     Minimum zero and span adjustments of + 15% of full scale.
                    f.     Vaisala model or equal. All equals are to be pre-approved by
                           University of Pennsylvania controls engineer.

      D.     Differential Pressure Switches:

             1.     Differential pressure switches (for 2 psi) and below shall be diaphragm
                    operated with minimum 3-1/2" diaphragm to actuate single pole double
                    throw (SPDT) or double pole double throw (DPDT) as shown and
                    required. DPS shall be UL listed with minimum 3% repetitive accuracy.
                     DPS shall have set point screw adjustment with stainless steel
                    calibration spring. DPS shall be Dwyer Series 1910 (SPDT Type) or
                    1627 (DPDT Type) or approved equivalent product of other
                    manufacturer.
             2.     DPT for use on high-pressure application (above 2 psig) and water
                    systems shall be UL listed and shall be as manufactured by Barksdale
                    or Asco with appropriate range for the application. Provide DPT with
                    snubbers and isolation valves on both input lines (high and low) and
                    with equalizing valve. DPS used on steam application shall be provided
                    with pigtail siphon.
             3.     DPS shall be single or dual setting units as shown.

      E.     Electrical Interface Devices:

             1.     Control Relays:
                    a.    All control relays shall be UL listed with contacts rated for the
                          application and mounted in minimum NEMA I enclosure.
                    b.    Control relays for use on electrical systems of 120 Volts or less
                          shall be Pottor Brumfield Model KRPA or approved equivalent
                          product of other manufacturer.
                    c.    Relays used for across the line control (start/stop) of 120V
                          motors, 1/4 HP and 1/3 HP shall be rated to break a minimum




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                 15990                         Page 10
University of Pennsylvania                                                   Design Guide
                                                                           March 15, 2007

                              10 amp inductive load. Relays shall be Honeywell Model
                              R4222D or approved equivalent product other manufacturers.
                      d.      Control relays for use on electrical systems greater than 120
                              volts shall be rated for 600 volts and shall be Allen Bradley
                              Bulletin 70, Type N or approved equivalent product of other
                              manufacturers.
                      e.      Tri-modal relays located at LCPs used for stop/start control
                              shall have low voltage coils (30 VAC or less) and shall be
                              provided with transient and surge suppression devices. These
                              devices shall be Metal Oxide Varistors (MOV) or silicon
                              avalanche diode (e.g. transform) with appropriate power
                              dissipation and clamping voltage ratings.

              2.      Control Transformers:
                      a.    Furnish and install control transformers as required.

12.0   Refer to the Appendices herein for typical point identification diagrams.

13.0   The project specifications shall define the provision for all drivers, gateways, and
       systems graphics necessary for complete system monitoring and operation.

       This section should identify the minimum system interface and interoperability
       expected between specific equipment controls and the DDC for each type of project,
       as well as the minimum number of graphic displays for each type of system.

       In general, there is at least one system graphic for each major system (i.e. AHU, Hot
       water system, chilled water system) and at least one control graphic and one trend
       graphic for each system.

14.0   Existing University Campus Operations Control Center (OCC) – SCADA System:

       The Building Automation Control (BAC) system provides monitoring and control of
       all buildings on the University campus and includes chiller plants and power sub-
       stations. The system is comprised of several different types of control hardware and
       field devices.
       The control room operators interact with all control hardware through a single software
       package called QNX. This operator interface package communicates with all of the
       different control hardware and present information from each in a unified form to the
       operators. The operators manipulate controlled variables for any hardware from
       Process Vision.




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                     15990                         Page 11
University of Pennsylvania                                               Design Guide
                                                                       March 15, 2007

      The following table shows the current control hardware and communication protocol
      in use at the University.

        Device                                                Protocol

        Allen Bradley PLC5 / KT Card                          DH+
        Allen Bradley PLC5E                                   Ethernet (DH485)
        Allen Bradley LOGIX                                   DH+
        Carrier / RS-232                                      Proprietary
        GE 90 70 PCIM                                         Proprietary
        Siemens Building Technologies / RS-232                Open System Protocol
                                                              (OSP)/Bacnet

        Moore APACS                                           MBUS
        Johnson Controls Inc. (NCM350)/NAE1                   N1 Ethernet/Bacnet
        American Automatrix                                   Proprietary (PUP)
        Andover Controls                                      Bacnet



      A.     Comdale Technologies Inc developed process Vision. The information being
             requested in this document can be used by independent contractors or system
             integrators in conjunction with Dick Engineering (416-391-2322 Contact for
             Dick Engineering is David Noel). The subcontractor contractor must
             include the services of Dick Engineering within their bids to complete
             the systems integration to the University’s systems.

      B.     The BAC system at the University of Pennsylvania is a microcomputer-based
             system that interfaces with different types of control hardware distributed
             throughout the campus. Microcomputers located at various sites on campus
             act as database servers for sub-groups of control hardware devices. These
             database Operator Workstations are networked, and they allow data to be
             accessed from anywhere on the OCC for use in the monitoring and control of
             HVAC, Chiller Plant, and other equipment. The computer network uses the
             existing campus network cables. The various sub-networks are connected to
             the backbone. Different networking protocols can co-exist on the sub-
             networks, however only TCP/IP is allowed on PENN Network. The
             University of Pennsylvania Information and Computing Services (ISC) group
             strictly enforces this by configuring routers on PENN Network to pass only
             TCP/IP packets.

      C.     The HMI interacts with control hardware in the field through the QNX

Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                 15990                       Page 12
University of Pennsylvania                                                 Design Guide
                                                                         March 15, 2007

             computer running as the database server and hardware specific Communication
             Interface or Device Driver. The Communication Interface reads data from the
             control hardware and writes it into the database. The Communication Interface
             also writes data from the database to the control hardware.

      D.     If a new communication driver is required, Dick Engineering should be
             contacted. Generally, the Contractor must provide the following for Dick
             Engineering to develop and install a communication driver for any new control
             hardware:

             1.     Complete communication protocol documentation that has a detailed
                    technical description of how the protocol works, the format for
                    messages, etc.
             2.     Access to technical personnel (by telephone or otherwise) who are
                    knowledgeable about the protocol and be able to answer questions
                    posed.
             3.     Access to test hardware or facilities for testing the Communication
                    Interface.
             4.     Provision of technical personnel on-site at the University of
                    Pennsylvania during the installation and verification of the
                    Communication Interface.
             5.     Configuration of the control hardware to facilitate computer
                    configuration.
             6.     Provision of any special interface card or software that is required.
             7.     Provision of the communication cable between the computer and the
                    control hardware. The Contractor must ensure that a communication
                    cable from the control hardware to the computer location exists, and
                    that it is properly terminated. For example, serial cables may be
                    terminated at the computer end with DB-9 or DB-25 female
                    connectors. The location of the control hardware must be such that the
                    cable length does not inhibit computer communication.
             8.     Completed data sheets with all of the variables configured on the control
                    hardware.




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                  15990                          Page 13
University of Pennsylvania                                                  Design Guide
                                                                          March 15, 2007

             9.      The communication protocol should provide direct access to the control
                     hardware as oppose to an intermediate device such as another computer
                     supplied by the Contractor.

       E.    It is the responsibilityof the system integrator to configure system graphics and
             control graphics for the new systems. Alarms to be configured into the system
             are defined in the sequence of operation as well as in the “Operations Center
             Building Alarm Standards for SCADA System Interface. Historical trending of
             all key analog data is to be provided.

15.0   Sequences of Operation – “General Operation”

       A.    Sequence of Operation for AHU with Return Air

             Normal Conditions

             Fan off outside; smoke/fan isolation and relief dampers closed; return dampers
             open. Reheat and chilled water valve closed (unless preheat or mixed air temp
             is below 45 deg. F. then chilled water valve would open). Humidity valve closed
             & Preheat valve modulating to maintain preheat set point (adj.)-(100%).

             1.      The fan will be started by the DDC (or by manual intervention through
                     SCADA system). When supply fan is started return fan will start.
                     Upon start command, minimum outdoor air Damper will open and if
                     there is no minimum outdoor air damper, then the economizer damper
                     will modulate to maintain minimum outside flow. The return and relief
                     fan dampers will take corresponding position.

             2.      The fan shall maintain a discharge temperature of 55 deg (adj.). On a
                     rise of discharge temperature above set point, the economizer damper
                     shall modulate open, and then the chilled water valve will modulate
                     open. When discharge air temp falls below set point then the reverse
                     will occur. If outside wet bulb is greater then return wet bulb then
                     dampers should go to minimum position and modulate chilled water
                     valve to maintain discharge set point.

             3.      A static pressure sensor in mixed air plenum shall modulate open return
                     air damper to maintain set point (adj.).

             4.      Outside air damper will also be modulated by a mixed air controller low
                     limit. When mixed air temperature goes lower than mixed air set point


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                   15990                          Page 14
University of Pennsylvania                                                  Design Guide
                                                                          March 15, 2007

                    (Adj.), the supply air controller will be overridden and the outside
                    damper will be modulated close and return damper open to maintain
                    mixed air temp.

             5.     Supply fan will start at minimum speed (if the system is variable
                    volume). Supply fan will maintain a static pressure set point. (Adj.).
                    Via a static pressure probe located 2/3 down duct. (designer to select
                    best sensor location per duct configuration to avoid measurement errors
                    due to turbulence)

             6.     Return fan will be started at minimum speed and ramped up to maintain
                    a CFM that is calculated by measuring supply fan CFM – a fixed
                    CFM.

             7.     Humidity control using the return humidity sensor will modulate
                    Humidity valve to maintain a return humidity set point (adj.) and use
                    discharge humidity as a high limit controller.

             8.     Smoke detectors, via hard wired safeties, will stop the supply and
                    return fans, close all dampers except the return damper, which will go
                    open.

             9.     Engineer should add shutdown sequence and describe other safeties.
                    Additional safety devices, including a hard wired freeze stat, may be
                    required to maintain and shut down the AHU to protect system from
                    a catastrophic failure.

      B.     Sequence of Operation for Single Zone Classroom

             1.     Supply-Fan Control: Scheduled occupancy program starts fan to run
                    continuously during occupied periods. Depending on the season,
                    Warm-Up or Cool-down modes may precede normal operation
                    where the system operates on 100% re-circulation mode until it
                    reaches the pre-set temperature limit and then attains minimum
                    outdoor air and spill damper positions.

                    a.       A differential pressure switch across each fan will be used to
                             determine the fan running status. If the fans fail to start, an
                             alarm will be issued to the BAS.
                    b.       A low static pressure switch at the inlet of each fan and a high
                             static pressure switch at the discharge of each fan are


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                   15990                          Page 15
University of Pennsylvania                                                  Design Guide
                                                                          March 15, 2007

                             hardwired to shut down both fans if a static set point is
                             exceeded. If a static pressure switch trips, a signal will be
                             issued to the BAS indicating which fan has exceeded the static
                             pressure limit.
                    c.       When the supply fan is started, the return fan will start and
                             continue to run until the supply fan is stopped. Upon
                             receipt of a signal from the FAP, it will be possible to run the
                             return fan alone with all dampers in the system closed except
                             for the spill air damper, which will be open. The interlock
                             with the FAP will be wired by others to a digital input on the
                             Siemens MEC. The control of the fans and dampers in smoke
                             mode will be through software command and will not be
                             hardwired.

             2.     Freeze Protection: A duct mounted low limit detector mounted on
                    the face of the cooling coil will trip on low temperature and signal an
                    alarm to the BAS. The low limit detector is hard wired to shut down
                    the supply and return fans, open the return air damper and cooling
                    coil valve and close the outdoor air and spill dampers on a trip.
             3.     High Temperature Protection: A duct mounted return air temperature
                    sensor will send an alarm to the BAS if the return air temperature
                    rises above 95 degrees F.
             4.     Smoke Detection: Smoke detectors located in the supply and return
                    air ducts signal an alarm, stop the supply and return air fans through
                    hard wired interlock, close outside air and relief dampers, and open
                    return damper when products of combustion are detected.
             5.     Preheat Coil Control: The glycol/hot water main circulator keeps
                    running at all outdoor air temperatures below 45 degrees F (adj.) to
                    maintain flow. When the outdoor air temperature falls below 45
                    degrees F (adj.), the local preheat coil circulator pump starts and the
                    preheat coil valve is modulated to maintain the preheat coil discharge
                    set point as measured by the preheat temperature transmitter. The
                    pump shall shut off at 50 degrees F outside air.
             6.     Mixed-Air Control: When the outdoor air enthalpy is lower than the
                    return air enthalpy, the unit will operate in economizer mode as
                    follows: the return, relief and outdoor air dampers will modulate to
                    control the discharge air temperature set point (adjustable) as
                    detected by the discharge air temperature sensor. There will also be
                    a mixed air temperature controller to modulate dampers to maintain
                    minimum mixed air temperature set point. When the unit is not in
                    economizer mode the mixing dampers will modulate to the minimum


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                   15990                          Page 16
University of Pennsylvania                                                 Design Guide
                                                                         March 15, 2007

                    outdoor air position required to maintain return air CO2 levels as
                    measured at VOC-1 at set point. Dampers will modulate to maintain
                    discharge air temperature with mixed air temperature controller being
                    a low limit controller.
             7.     Filters: A differential pressure switch DPS-1 installed across the
                    filter will signal an alarm to the BAS when the filter differential
                    pressure exceeds set point.
             8.     Hydronic Cooling Unit: During occupied periods, when the fan is
                    running the normally, open chilled water valve will be modulated to
                    maintain cooling coil discharge air temperature as measured at set
                    point. When in economizer mode, outside damper will open first,
                    then the chilled water valve will be modulated to maintain discharge
                    air temperature set point.

                    a.       During shutdown periods, when the fan is off, the cooling coil
                             valve will be closed.
                    b.       During occupied periods, CO2 control shall be considered.

             9.     Hot Water Reheat Coil Control:

                    a.       During occupied periods, when the fan is running, the reheat
                             coil will be modulated to maintain discharge air temperature at
                             set point as measured at TTE-4. The space temperature
                             sensor will be used to reset the discharge air temperature set
                             point.
                    b.       When the unit is cooling and the return air relative humidity
                             rise above set point, the cooling coil valve will modulate open
                             and the reheat coil valve will modulate to maintain space
                             temperature at set point.
                    c.       During unoccupied periods, when space temperature falls
                             below set point, start fan and modulate reheat coil valve to
                             maintain set point.

      C.     Sequence of Operation for 100 percent Outside AHU

      Normal condition

             1.     Fan off – dampers return to normal positions. Chilled water valve
                    closed (unless preheat temp below 45 then chilled water valve open).
                    Humidity valve closed. Preheat valve will modulate to maintain a
                    preheat set point. (Adj.). Glycol system will maintain a Glycol Water


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                   15990                         Page 17
University of Pennsylvania                                               Design Guide
                                                                       March 15, 2007

                    supply temp via a schedule to ensure at startup the unit will not trip
                    freeze stat.

             2.     The Fan will be started by the DDC (or by manual intervention through
                    SCADA system). Upon a start command the outside air damper will
                    open first. After proof of outside damper open, supply fan and
                    associated exhaust fan will start. AHU will maintain constant discharge
                    air temp of 55 degree (adj.) by using preheat and chilled water valve.
                     If discharge temp is above set point then preheat valve modulated
                    closed and modulate chilled water valve open. If discharge below set
                    point then modulate chilled water valve closed and then modulate
                    preheat valve open. Preheat valve will also be modulated to maintain a
                    minimum Preheat set point (adj.)

             3.     Exhaust fan-off - position isolation and smoke dampers closed. Upon
                    rotation of fan the dampers will open.

             4.     Supply fan will start at minimum speed (if the system is variable
                    volume). Supply fan will ramp up and down to maintain a static
                    pressure to a set point. (Adj.).

             5.     Exhaust fan on startup will ramp up to maintain a static pressure set
                    point (Adj.) (if the system is variable volume).

             6.     Humidity control using the humidity sensor will modulate Humidity
                    valve to maintain a space humidity set point (note: no return RH in a
                    100% OA system. Recommend to control discharge RH set point and
                    reset discharge RH from space RH sensor) (adj.) and use discharge
                    humidity as a high limit cut off (separate high-limit set point on the
                    same sensor).

             7.     Smoke detectors will stop the supply and reduce the exhaust fan
                    operation to maintaining building safety.

      D.     Sequence of Operation for Radiation System

             1.     Radiation pumps shall start when outside air temp below 55 Degrees
                    (adj.). Upon proof of flow the steam valve or mixing valve will
                    modulate open to maintain a water temp determined by a Schedule as
                    follows; at 60 degree outdoor air temperature, heating water




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                 15990                         Page 18
University of Pennsylvania                                                Design Guide
                                                                        March 15, 2007

                    temperature = 100 degrees (adj.) and at 0 degree outdoor air
                    temperature, heating water temperature = 180 degrees (adj.)

             2.     When outside air temp is above 60 degree (adj.) the pump shall be
                    stopped and steam valve closed.

             3.     Differential pressure transmitter will control variable frequency drive
                    to maintain a pressure set point (adj.).

      E.     Sequence of Operation for Reheat System

             1.     Reheat pump shall run continuously. When reheat supply temp is
                    below set point and there is proof of flow then the steam valve shall
                    modulate open to maintain a 180 degree (adj.) set point.

             2.     Differential pressure transmitter will control variable frequency drive
                    to maintain a pressure set point (adj.).

      F.     Sequence of Operation for Chilled Water System

             1.     Return chilled water - The choke valve will modulate closed when the
                    differential temperature between the primary supply and secondary
                    return water temp is less than set point (adj.).
             2.     The CHW choke valve will modulate open when the differential
                    temperature between primary supply temp and secondary return temp
                    is greater then set point (adj.)

             3.     The CHW choke valve will be modulated open to maintain a maximum
                    return water temperature, overriding the other controls to maintain a
                    chilled water differential of 10 degrees F (adj.).

             4.     CHW choke valve will modulate close when the building (_P) is over 18
                    PSIG (adj.).

      G.     Sequence of Operation for Chilled Water Pump

             Chilled water pump will be started and stopped via operator command. Pump
             will start at minimum speed and via a differential pressure sensor vary pump
             speed to maintain a secondary CHW differential pressure set point (adj.).




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                  15990                         Page 19
University of Pennsylvania                                                  Design Guide
                                                                          March 15, 2007

       H.    Sequence of Operation for VAV Systems

             On a fall in space temperature, space temperature sensor operating through
             DDC controller will modulate closed the air volume damper to minimum
             position then modulate open the reheat valve. Maintaining a temperature space
             set point.

             On a rise in space temp the reverse of the above should occur.

16.0   PROJECT CLOSEOUT REQUIREMENTS

       A.    Before control and monitoring systems are closed out a point-to-point
             verification, from the field devices to OCC must take place. The system
             controls should be tested at each unit level, AHU, VAV box, Hydraulic system,
             etc. Components failed and replaced during the warranty period must repeat
             point to point check out.
       B.    There will be a verification test of blackout startup of the system. Also
             operation under abnormal conditions, as emergency power, etc.
       C.    The contractor shall submit three binders and electronic copies for each project
             including the following:
             1.      P&ID diagram for each system.
             2.      Point listing, by system, with variable acronym, software address, point
                     type, and engineering units.
             3.      Logic step diagram system.
             4.      Wiring diagrams by system including termination nomenclature, location
                     and wiring identification.
             5.      Calibration sheet (minimum 3-point calibration) for each device
                     identified in the design as requiring calibration certificate, indicating
                     calibration date and model number. Include equipment calibration
                     certifications for calibration standards.
             6.      Final tune-up list of parameters for each PID loops, including a time
                     graph showing response to a disturbance of a 15%.
             7.      All software, hardware and licenses necessary to operate, maintain,
                     update modify the system. Including a final version of the software
                     operating the building.
       D.    Confirmation in writing by the controls contractor that:
             1.      All construction Requests for Information (RFIs) are resolved.
             2.      All shop drawings, as built and submittals are completed.
             3.      All required training is completed.
             4.      All Testing, Adjusting and Balancing and commissioning activities are
                     completed-Refer to Selections 15010 and 15990.


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                   15990                          Page 20
University of Pennsylvania                            Design Guide
                                                    March 15, 2007




                                   END OF SECTION




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing         15990            Page 21
University of Pennsylvania                                                   Design Guide
                                                                           March 15, 2007


SECTION 15980 - "FLOW MEASURING DEVICES"

1.0   Airflow Measuring Stations:

      A.     Design airflow measuring stations in all VAV systems to control fan speed via
             DDC system and variable frequency drives.

      B.     Each air handling/return air fan shall be designed with three (3) measuring
             stations; one (1) each in the supply, return and outdoor air ductwork.

      C.     Stations shall measure supply duct pressure and volume of supply, return and
             outdoor air.

      D.     The stations shall interface with the DDC system, which will index the supply
             and return air fans as required.

      E.     The metering devices shall be located to read flows from a minimum of 15% to
             110% of design airflow with an accuracy of +/-5% or better. The manufacturer
             shall be consulted regarding device locations and anticipated air velocity profiles
             at the inlets to the stations. The measuring devices should use hermetically
             sealed “bead-in glass” thermistors technology as manufactured by EBTRON
             Model GTA116-P.

2.0   Metering Devices, Fluids and Steam:

      A.     Metering devices shall be vortex flow meters type as manufactured by
             YOKOGAWA Model DYN Remote Type Detector or Veris, Accelabar 316SS.
             Flows should be compensated for temperature and pressure and computed by
             a microprocessor in engineering units, it should indicated at a least a total flow,
             instantaneous and peak demand. The microprocessor should be a SUPERtrol
             II multifunction flow computer as manufactured by Kessler-Ellis Products.

      B.     The metering device shall meet the following specifications:

             1.      Process - Liquid, gas, steam
             2.      Accuracy - +/- 1% of Reading
             3.      Repeatability - +/- .25% of Reading
             4.      Max Operating Pressure - 3,000 PSIG
             5.      Power Supply - 12-36 VDC, 110 VAC, 220 VAC
             6.      Output Signal - 5 Volt Pulse Per Unit Volume Analog 4/20 Ma Two
                     Wire
             7.      Operating Temperature - -400 to +650 Deg. F.


Flow Measuring Devices                 15980                                         Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                            Design Guide
                                                                    March 15, 2007

             8.     Local Display - Eight Digit LCD Totalization Six Digit LCD Rate
                    Indicator
             9.     Electronic Housing - FM & CSA Approved for Hazardous Locations
                    Class I, Groups B,C,D Class II, Groups E,F,G Class III, NEMA 4 3/4
                    NPT Conduit Connection.
             10.    Electronics and Housing can be remote from Meter - 1000 Feet
             11.    Same Unit can measure Gas, Steam, and Liquid.
             12.    Flow and Temperature can be measured in two separate 4/20 Ma
                    Loops.
             13.    Flow Meter shall be equipped with Local Rate and Totalization
                    Simultaneously.

                                       END OF SECTION




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing               15990                         Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                   Design Guide
                                                                           March 15, 2007


SECTION 15990 – “TESTING, ADJUSTING AND BALANCING”

1.0   Refer to Section 15010 for system commissioning requirements. The A/E shall specify
      that the Mechanical (HVAC, and Plumbing) Contractors, Controls Contractor and
      Balancing Contractor shall review the Commissioning Plan, support all commissioning
      efforts and value for same as part of their construction costs..

2.0   The A/E shall specify a complete and comprehensive total-system initial and final
      balance process that includes testing, adjusting, and balancing of environmental, piping,
      controls, and other systems to produce the design objectives. Initial and final air and
      water balance of mechanical systems shall be provided and be the responsibility of the
      mechanical contractor per the standards and process outlined below. The initial balance
      process serves as the quality control function to insure systems are performing to the
      specified design intent before the final system balancing. A separate final balance
      process shall be provided. The University reserves the option, at any point in the
      construction process, to hire an independent Testing and Balancing Organization to
      review the mechanical contractor’s (and the associated testing and balancing agency's)
      performance, balancing results and general adherence to the project specifications and
      schedule. The Mechanical Contractor will incur penalties if the balancing efforts are
      found to be deficient. Coordinate with the Office of the University Engineer for
      penalties to be specified. Any changes to any system will require rebalancing of
      affected areas, possibly entire system.

3.0   The Testing and Balancing process shall be specified to meet the Associated Air
      Balance Council (AABC) or National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB)
      Standards latest editions. All balance work provided must be performed by a Testing
      and Balancing Contractor who is an approved member of AABC and/or NEBB. The
      Testing and Balancing Contractor shall provide all required pre-construction plan
      checks and reviews; shall test, adjust, and balance the air and water system for the
      project; and shall submit completed reports, analysis, and verification data showing
      system performance that satisfies contract requirements. Project specifications shall
      require that only certified engineers and technicians be allowed to test and balance
      systems in buildings requiring American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory
      Animal Care (AAALAC) certification.

4.0   Balancing of Phased Projects

      A.     Projects often constructed and occupied in multiple phases. The Testing and
             Balancing process specified shall address the requirements of interim balancing
             to support partial occupancy of buildings. The health and safety of occupants
             and the environmental conditions must be suitable for continuous operation at
             all phases during construction.


Flow Measuring Devices                 15980                                        Page 1
University of Pennsylvania                                                 Design Guide
                                                                         March 15, 2007


      B.     Mechanical systems may require complete or zone balancing at the end of each
             phase. Once fully occupied, entire systems may require re-verification to
             ensure that later phases have not created deficiencies in early ones. Multiple
             drive assemblies may be required for fans. Follow-up Testing and Balancing
             work may also be required during premium time to avoid disruption in research
             functions.

      C.     The completion of Testing and Balancing services seldom occurs smoothly
             because of construction problems and occupancy functions. The A/E’s task is
             to define a generalized Testing and Balancing procedure that fully supports the
             phasing and clearly ties down the full scope of work at bid time. All cost
             associated with Testing and Balancing services through the completion of
             building occupancy should be included at bid time.

5.0   The following paragraphs describe the responsibilities of the Mechanical Contractor(s)
      for the initial operation of the mechanical systems. The A/E shall assure that the
      contract documents accurately reflect the following:

      A.     Operate the systems as required for the completion of all testing, balancing and
             adjusting work as directed by the TAB Contractor.

      B.     Make any changes in pulleys, belts and dampers and/or provide any additional
             dampers to air systems or provide additional balancing devices to air and water
             systems as directed by the TAB Contractor at any stage of construction.
             Provide documentation to the University of Pennsylvania for records purposes.

      C.     Operate the installed systems demonstrating functionality of the systems
             specified at his own expense and for a sufficient length of time to demonstrate
             the sequence of operation and to definitely determine whether the system as a
             whole is performing in accordance with the drawings and specifications.
             Heating and cooling equipment shall be operated during the appropriate seasons
             for the associated equipment.

      D.     Perform additional work as described further herein and cooperate completely
             with the TAB Contractor, furnishing all other labor, materials and equipment
             necessary to assure proper completion of all testing, balancing and adjusting
             work.

      E.     Provide cleaning and flushing of all piped systems. Clean strainers. Provide
             final strainer baskets.


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                   15990                           Page 2
University of Pennsylvania                                                     Design Guide
                                                                             March 15, 2007


      F.     Replace HVAC system filters until building construction is complete and
             building is turned over to the University of Pennsylvania.

      G.     Vibrations balance all rotating equipment. Provide final balance documents.

      H.     Evacuate air from all water systems.

      I.     Support commissioning efforts outlined in the Commissioning Plan.


6.0   The following paragraphs describe the responsibilities of the Testing and Balancing
      Organization for the initial and final balance of the mechanical systems. The A/E shall
      assure the Contract Documents accurately reflect the following:

      A.     The Mechanical Contractor shall engage, a Qualified Testing and Balancing
             Organization whose primary work is the initial and final Testing, Adjusting and
             Balancing (TAB) of HVAC and piping systems following procedures
             prescribed by a recognized agency such as the Associated Air Balance Council
             (AABC) or the National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB).

      B.     Personnel performing the Testing, Adjusting and Balancing work will be full
             time employees of the TAB Contractor and shall be thoroughly trained and
             experienced in the Testing, Balancing and Adjusting of heating, ventilating and
             air conditioning systems. TAB personnel will include at least one (1) qualified
             testing and balancing Engineer/Supervisorfor directing and supervising the work
             who has satisfactorily passed the requirements prescribed by a recognized
             agency such as the AABC or NEBB, and whose qualifications are satisfactory
             to the Engineer and Architect.

      C.     The scope of work of the TAB Contractor shall include but not be limited to
             the following:

             1.      Ascertaining that all Automatic Control and Monitoring work is
                     completed and operating properly in accordance with the Sequence of
                     Operation specification.
             2.      Initial and final testing, balancing and adjusting of all portions of all air
                     supply, return and exhaust systems.
             3.      Initial and final testing, balancing and adjusting of all portions of all
                     piping systems.




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                     15990                             Page 3
University of Pennsylvania                                                  Design Guide
                                                                          March 15, 2007

             4.     A full report by the TAB Contractor to the Design Engineer on each
                    phase of this work as outlined below.
             5.     Support Commissioning efforts as outlined in the Commissioning Plan.

      D.     The specification shall reflect the following general procedures by TAB
             Contractor:

             1.     Report to and review the work required in conjunction with the
                    Commissioning Plan (as described in Section 15010) with the Design
                    Engineer before beginning field balance work.
             2.     Cooperate with the Design Engineer and the Mechanical Contractor(s)
                    to effect smooth coordination of balancing work with the job schedule.
             3.     Be responsible for getting the various systems into proper operation,
                    including the Automatic Control and Monitoring Systems. The
                    Mechanical Contractor(s) and all of his sub-contractors, particularly the
                    Automatic Control Sub-Contractor, shall cooperate fully as required.
             4.     Ascertaining specifically that the calibration, adjustment and settings of
                    the Automatic Control and Monitoring Systems are correct for the
                    proper operation of the systems. Verify sequence of operation.
             5.     The TAB Contractor shall submit data on the results of all testing,
                    adjusting and balancing and shall participate in Operating Tests as
                    described elsewhere herein.

      E.     Specifications shall require the following specific procedures by TAB
             Contractor:

             1.     Submittals to the A/E and University:
                    a.    Written step-by-step procedures to be used for the testing and
                          balancing of each system at least sixty (60) days, before starting
                          balancing work. Step-by-step procedures shall include specific
                          reference to components and sequence of testing, adjusting, and
                          back checking. Include a complete set of all blank test forms
                          that will be utilized for all testing and balancing reports. Also
                          include estimated start and completion dates for testing and
                          balancing each air and water system.
                    b.    List of instruments to be used for each test. Include instrument
                          calibration certificates and dates.
                    c.    Ductwork, piping and instrumentationand control shop drawing
                          review report including sign-off of shop drawing acceptance and
                          marked up drawings indicating deficiencies needed to be
                          rectified prior to the start of balancing work. The sign-off of


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                   15990                            Page 4
University of Pennsylvania                                                   Design Guide
                                                                           March 15, 2007

                             shop drawing review represents that the TAB Contractor has
                             reviewed the shop drawings and either agrees to the
                             completeness of the layouts for balancing purposes or is
                             submitting marked up drawings indicating deficiencies needed to
                             be rectified prior to the start of balancing work.
                    d.       Duct leakage review reports which include sign-off of
                             acceptance, and comments to the sheet metal contractor(s) duct
                             leakage reports as well as the one (1) witnessed test required for
                             each sheet metal contractor.
                    e.       Field inspection reports including marked up drawings indicating
                             deficiencies needed to be rectified prior to the start of balancing
                             work for each applicable system.
                    f.       Prior to the start of the final balancing of each system, submit
                             a report that certifies that initial balancing is complete and the
                             previous deficient work identified in the field inspection report
                             has been rectified and that each system is ready for final
                             balancing.
                    g.       One (1) set of marked up sheet metal shop drawings which
                             indicate locations of all traverse duct readings, average velocity
                             at each location, average airflow (cfm) at each location and index
                             key to reference the actual traverse duct reading test sheets.
                    h.       Bound final testing and balancing reports in agreed quantity
                             which incorporates all final testing and balancing reports
                             including standard AABC or NEBB data sheets, and specialties
                             such as laboratory fume hood system testing and balancing, and
                             verification of direction of airflow if required.

             2.     Execution:
                    a.     Perform the work, using methods and test forms published by
                           AABC National Standards for Total System Balance, or using
                           equivalent NEBB or Test, Adjusting and Balancing Bureau
                           (TABB) methods and forms.
                    b.     Attend project coordination meetings.
                    c.     Do not start final testing and balancing until each system has
                           been certified by the Mechanical Contractor(s) to be complete
                           and initially balanced.
                    d.     Perform the final testing and balancing of air handling systems
                           with finished ceilings and partitions in place, and doors closed.
                    e.     The Owner’s Representative and/or Construction Manager may
                           witness initial and/or final testing and balancing of all systems.
                            The Testing and Balancing Agency shall notify the Owner’s


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                    15990                            Page 5
University of Pennsylvania                                                   Design Guide
                                                                           March 15, 2007

                             Representative and Construction Manager five (5) working
                             days prior to each system being tested or balanced.
                    f.       Repair or replacement of finished products damaged by
                             personnel employed by the TAB Contractor as a result of
                             testing, balancing and inspection work shall be the
                             responsibility of the TAB Contractor. Repair or replace
                             finished products damaged in providing access to areas or in
                             providing support for testing and balancing work.
                    g.       Perform complete balancing services for standby equipment (if
                             applicable). Verify and report that design air and/or water
                             flows are achieved when operation is switched to standby
                             equipment.
                    h.       Provide written certification of the accuracy of all instruments
                             used by the Testing and Balancing Agency. Show date and
                             method of calibration. All instruments shall have been
                             calibrated within six (6) months prior to the estimated
                             commencement date of testing and balancing work.
                    i.       Verify the accuracy of all permanently-installedflow-measuring
                             primary elements and their read-out instruments, thermometers,
                             sensors, and pressure gauges furnished by the mechanical
                             installer.
                    j.       Review sheet metal, piping, and instrumentation and control
                             Shop Drawings to ensure that the proper balancing devices
                             (dampers, balancing valves, control dampers, control valves,
                             etc.) will be installed into the systems prior to the start of any
                             balancing work. As required, mark up each Shop Drawing to
                             indicate the type and location of balancing device that is
                             required to be installed, so that the systems may be properly
                             balanced. In addition, make note on the Shop Drawings of any
                             deficiencies that need to be rectified prior to the start of
                             balancing work.
                    k.       Witness one (1) duct leakage test performed by each sheet metal
                             contractor. Coordinate exact duct leakage tests to be witnessed
                             with the Owner’s Representative and Construction Manager
                             prior to witnessing any tests.
                    l.       The TAB Contractor shall perform field inspections prior to the
                             installation of the ceiling grids to confirm that the balancing and
                             instrumentation and control devices are installed and
                             operational.      The A/E shall specify the frequency of
                             inspections.




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                    15990                            Page 6
University of Pennsylvania                                                     Design Guide
                                                                             March 15, 2007

                    m.       Initiate initial testing and balancing after mechanical contractor’s
                             certification of system performance (before controls, ceilings,
                             walls, etc. are completed). Confirm that source devices are
                             operating within 10% of their scheduled values.
                    n.       Final balancing shall achieve design air, steam and hydraulic flow
                             rates, within a tolerance of plus or minus 5 percent, at terminal
                             points (air outlets, inlets, transfer air quantities, coil flow rates,
                             etc.). Flow rates at fans and pumps shall be no less than that
                             shown on the Drawings, specified or scheduled. Where the
                             supply and return air fans of air handling units are of variable air
                             volume (VAV) operation type, adjust both fans for similar
                             control ranges. Transfer airflow direction shall be in accordance
                             with the drawings in all modes of operation.
                    o.       All pressure independent ductwork systems (Variable Air
                             Volume Systems) must be balanced at an optimum system
                             static pressure (the minimum required working static pressure).
                              The last air terminal box of each branch duct for each system
                             must be balanced at a minimum of 90 percent of its full open
                             damper position at its scheduled maximum airflow rate. Within
                             the final testing and balancing reports, record the percent opens
                             damper position for each end of branch air terminal box.
                    p.       Balance air system in all modes of operation, described in the
                             sequences of operation specification, including as applicable:
                             unoccupied, occupied non-production, occupied in-production,
                             warm-up, economizer and emergency modes.
                    q.       Where variable or initial fixed sheaves have been provided,
                             determine the correct fan rpm, and advise the Mechanical
                             Contractor(s) of the correct fan rpm and the required fixed-
                             sheave diameter. Final fixed sheaves shall be sized such that,
                             upon final balancing, the balancing devices at the fan and in the
                             highest pressure drop duct run are open. This means do not
                             “choke” excess fan capacity to achieve final system balance;
                             instead, decrease the fan speed (rpm) as required. Check and
                             verify fan speed (rpm) following installation of fixed sheaves.
                    r.       All fan systems with filters shall be balanced to the design cfm
                             with simulated “dirty” filter condition.
                    s.       Verify that all controls and final control elements, such as
                             valves, dampers, and air terminal boxes, operate as they are
                             intended and in the sequence specified. Report all device
                             failures in reports submitted.




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                     15990                              Page 7
University of Pennsylvania                                                  Design Guide
                                                                          March 15, 2007

                    t.       Permanently-installed flow-measuring elements may be used to
                             accomplish balancing after accuracy has been verified with
                             certified calibration instruments. Provide document stating
                             equipment used to verify flow. Record and report readouts of
                             theses instruments for all flows, even if not required for testing
                             and balancing results.
                    u.       Only direct-flow measurement may be used. Do not use
                             indirect calculations, such as a heat balance or pressure drop,
                             unless specifically approved by the Owner’s Representative
                             and Design Professional.
                    v.       Provide required openings for duct traverses. Seal test holes in
                             ducts with snap-in plugs. Tape is not permitted. Repair
                             insulation where damaged. Mark insulation or exterior of duct
                             where readings were taken.
                    w.       Perform specific specified balancing procedures for air terminal
                             boxes, humidifiers, laboratory fume hoods, bio-safety cabinets,
                             etc.
                    x.       Conduct a contaminant containment test on each fume hood
                             after the fume hood face velocities have been balanced. Fume
                             hood face velocity and contaminant performance shall be tested
                             in accordance with the ASHRAE Standard 110-1995. Refer to
                             Section 15010 for additional requirements.
                    y.       Relative differential pressures between spaces in the laboratories
                             and holding rooms and support rooms are critical. Transfer air
                             quantities and directions of flow between rooms are indicated
                             on the Contract Documents for all spaces where relative space
                             pressure differentials are required. As the systems are balanced,
                             determine actual transfer air quantities from supply, return, and
                             exhaust air readings, and include with balancing reports. Adjust
                             supply/exhaust air quantities so that each space achieves the
                             proper relative pressure in the occupied, unoccupied, and other
                             modes of operation. The rate of transfer air into or out of
                             spaces shall be constant between maximum and minimum
                             airflow set points for control of room relative pressure. Provide
                             calibration data on Magnehelic gauges used in these locations.
                              Gauges should have calibration stickers attached to them with
                             calibration date not to exceed one year.
                    z.       Record test data where applicable on the following test forms
                             defined in Chapter 26 of AABC National Standards for Total
                             System Balance (or equivalent NEBB forms).
                             1)      Air Moving Equipment Test Sheet: Form No. 82030.


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                    15990                           Page 8
University of Pennsylvania                                                 Design Guide
                                                                         March 15, 2007

                             2)     Exhaust Fan Data Sheet: Form No. 82031.
                             3)     Fan and Motor Pulley: Form No. 82034.
                             4)     Duct Traverse Readings: Form No. 82035.
                             5)     Duct Traverse Zone Totals: Form No. 82036.
                             6)     Air Distribution Test Sheet: Form No. 82040.
                             7)     Terminal Units: Form No. 82041.
                             8)     Electric Duct Heater: Form No. 82050.
                             9)     Pump Data Sheet: Form No. 82060.
                             10)    Cooling Tower: Form No. 82070.
                             11)    Chillers: Form No. 82080
                             12)    Primary Heat Exchanger: Form No. 82090.
                             13)    Cooling Coil Data: Form No. 82100.
                             14)    Heating Coil Data: Form No. 82101.
                             15)    Sound Level Report: Form No. 82300.
                             16)    Octave Band Chart: Form No. 82301.

                    aa.      In addition to data required on AABC or NEBB forms, the
                             following additional information is required for all scheduled
                             equipment:

                             1)     Motors: Type, amps per phase, frame number,
                                    model number, serial number, motor horsepower, and
                                    calculated driven equipment brake horsepower and
                                    efficiency at final conditions.
                             2)     Fans: Blade design type such as air foil (AF),
                                    backwardly inclined (BI), forward curved (FC), single
                                    inlet single width (SISW) or double inlet width (DIDW),
                                    class and number of blades.

                             3)     Pumps:
                                    i. Design Data: Impeller size, motor hp, rpm, net
                                        positive suction head (NPSH) required at design
                                        flow, and total dynamic head (TDH) at zero flow.
                                    ii. Test Data: Suction and discharge pressures at full
                                        flow (not throttled to obtain rated flow), and zero
                                        flow.

                             4)     Hydraulic Systems: Flow rate in each significant
                                    branch, and position of each balancing valve. Flow rate
                                    to each piece of equipment including each cell of cooling
                                    tower.


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                   15990                           Page 9
University of Pennsylvania                                                   Design Guide
                                                                           March 15, 2007


                    bb.      Fan and Pump Systems: For systems controlled by static
                             pressure, assure by test and recording that devices, including
                             high-limit safety controls are calibrated to perform in
                             accordance with Contract Documents, and the system provides
                             design static pressure at most demanding location. Furnish and
                             coordinate static pressure set point of controls, as applicable,
                             with the installation of Automatic Control Systems.
                    cc.      HEPA Filter Testing: Perform particulate challenge field
                             testing and certification of all HEPA filters installed under this
                             project to demonstrate that filter installation meets specified
                             efficiency. Exhaust HEPA filters shall be tested in accordance
                             with Mil-Std 282, Federal Standard 209E and filter/filter
                             housing manufacturer’s written recommendations following
                             testing and balancing certification, and just prior to Owner’s
                             acceptance. Supply HEPA filters shall be tested in accordance
                             with IES-RP-CC001.3, Federal Standard 209E and filter/filter
                             housing manufacturer’s written recommendations following
                             testing and balancing certification and just prior to Owner’s
                             acceptance.
                    dd.      In locations specified, conduct sound tests in accordance with
                             procedures published by AABC or NEBB, except as modified
                             by the following:

                             1)     At each designated location, measure sound pressure
                                    level at each octave band mid-frequency between 63 and
                                    8000 Hz.
                             2)     Based on these sound pressure level measurements,
                                    calculate and report “RC” rating and sound level (DBA)
                                    for each designated location. Plot center frequencies for
                                    each octave band on RC curve charts.

                    ee.      Automatic Control and Monitoring Systems:

                             1)     Check the correct installation and proper operation of
                                    complete Automatic Control Systems in accordance
                                    with the approved Shop Drawings and specified design
                                    criteria.

                             2)     Verify calibration, adjustments and settings of all
                                    controls and proper operation of all valves and dampers.


Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                    15990                          Page 10
University of Pennsylvania                                               Design Guide
                                                                       March 15, 2007


                             3)    Supervise all adjustment procedures and corrective
                                   actions taken by Automatic Control Contractor and
                                   identify all changes affecting the Testing and Balancing
                                   scope of work.


                                        END OF SECTION




Testing, Adjusting and Balancing                 15990                          Page 11

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:92
posted:9/4/2011
language:English
pages:209