chapter21_muslim_empires

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					The Muslim Empires
             Chapter 21

EQs: What are the key differences and
 similarities between these empires?
      How did each rise and fall?
Chapter Introduction
   It’s mainly about 3
    major Muslim
    empires…

   The Ottoman Empire

   The Safavid Empire

   The Mughal Empire
The Ottomans: From Nomads to
Empire
   The Turkic Ottoman peoples
    entered Anatolia under the
    leadership of Osman Bey and his
    ghazi (Muslim purifiers) after the
    Mongols had successfully
    defeated the Seljuks in the 13thC.
   After a brief period of turmoil,
    the Ottomans under Mehmed II
    (The Conqueror) captured
    Constantinople in 1453, ending
    the Byzantine Empire
   Over the next 2 centuries the
    Ottomans expanded their empire,
    building a navy that dominated
    the Eastern Mediterranean and
    claiming territory throughout
    North Africa, SE Europe and much
    of the Middle East (minus Persia)
    and successfully (for a time)
    controlled Indian Ocean trade
   Though unsuccessful in further
    campaigns to take portions of
    Western European kingdoms, the
    Ottomans remained the greatest
    threat to Europe thru the 18th
    century
Ottoman Society
   There was a distinct social hierarchy laid out in 4 classes:
       “men of the pen” – lawyers, judges, smart people
       “men of the sword” - warriors
       “men of negotiation” – merchants, tax collectors, traders and
        store owners
       “men of husbandry” – farmers/herders
   Then there were the non-Muslims, who were organized into
    millets
       In these religious communities, usually divided quarters or
        ghettos in a town/city, the people had their own leaders and
        were responsible for their own education and certain legal
        matters
   Like earlier Muslim societies, the Ottomans “taxed” the
    non-Muslim peoples they absorbed into their empire as a
    source of revenue
Ottoman Warfare
   The “men of the sword” actually played
    the dominant role in Ottoman society, as
    sultans based their empire on constant
    warfare and expansion…warriors
    represented an aristocracy that
    conquered lands, enslaved people (w/the
    Sultan’s blessing) and began a Feudal
    system of control
   The warrior class was at constant odds
    with the “men of the pen”, lawyers and
    religious leaders whose power grew at
    court
   Militaries were large made up of
    Janissaries, conscripted soldiers from
    NON Muslim societies that were
    conquered…young boys were taken from
    these communities as a “tax” and forced
    into servitude as soldiers for a designated
    period of time…it was not EXACTLY
    slavery, as many Janissaries found their
    ways into higher positions in the Ottoman
    bureaucracy over time
   Finally, the Ottoman army’s might was
    based on one thing, ARTILLERY…a vast
    knowledge of gun and cannon making
    gave the Ottoman armies their strength
The Sultans and their Court
   Ottoman sultans were literally
    no different than Abbasid
    caliphs…they played with
    factions in their court, they
    spent money lavishly, they had
    huge harems…some sultans
    led their own armies into battle
   A vizier (wazir) also handled
    day-to-day administration of
    the bureaucracy, literally
    having more power than the
    sultan himself
   BIGGEST SIMILARITY to
    previous Muslim ruling
    societies: the problem of
    succession
Ottoman Culture
   Constantinople became Istanbul,
    the central capital of the
    empire…previously constructed
    Byzantine cathedrals were
    converted into mosques
   Some sultans (Suleiman) added
    more grand structures to the
    skyline
   Istanbul maintain itself as the hub
    of east/west trade over
    land…places called coffeehouses
    developed were a developing
    merchant and artisans class
    gathered to interact
   The government regulated all
    aspects of trade and manufacture
   A transition from Persian/Arabic to
    Turkish occurred in literary
    exploits…Turks artistically became
    well renowned for their poetry and
    rug making
Ottoman Decline
   The Ottoman Empire became known as the “sick man of
    Europe” by the 18th and 19th centuries
   EXPANSION and CONQUEST took their toll on the
    Ottomans…add to this increased problems of succession and
    corruption in the bureaucracy and amongst regional
    governors who sought to control their territory
    independently
   Expansion efforts empowered neighboring rivals, like
    Russia, Austria-Hungary and the Safavid Empire to begin
    slowly picking away at Ottoman territory
   Smaller European states that improved naval power reduced
    their control of the Mediterranean (Battle of Lepanto in
    1571) and Indian Ocean trade (Portuguese mariners)
   Still, the Ottomans were able to hang on until WWI (thanks
    mainly to the decline of the Safavids, their greatest rivals
    and periods of invigoration by competing European nations)
    The Safavid Empire
   Unlike the Sunni Ottomans, the
    Safavids were Shiites…which was
    the basis of the rivalry with their
    neighbors
   The Safavids rose in the early
    1300s under the leadership of Sail
    (Safi) al-Din, who sought to purify
    Islam and spread Islam amongst
    the Turkic peoples with his
    followers, the Red Heads!
   After years of struggle, Ismail (a
    sufi) was proclaimed shah
    (emperor) and conquered all of
    Persia and most of Iraq only to be
    stopped by the Ottomans at the
    Battle of Chaldiran (a battle which
    demonstrated the powers of
    artillery and firearms)…this
    defeat weakened Ismail’s position
    and also determined that Shi’ism
    would be confined to mainly
    Persia and parts of Iraq
Safavid Politics, State and Religion
   After a brief period of succession issues, a dynasty was
    formally established by Tahmasp I (a shi’a Safavid)…Turkish
    warriors were brought under control and assigned
    villages/peasants to control (quasi-feudal)…some of these
    warriors continued to be a constant threat to the shah’s
    power
   Persians were recruited into the bureaucracy to balance the
    Turkish warrior presence…and like the Ottomans, youths
    were enslaved for military and bureaucratic service…Persian
    became the predominant language…shahs also became
    hedonistic (like Ottomans and Abbasids)
   Eventually, the religious right (imams and mullahs)
    controlled education efforts, spreading the Shia
    ideology…many found their way into the bureaucracy…when
    the shahs became weak, the religious leadership took
    control of the empire
    Safavid Politics, State and Religion
   The Safavids reached their
    peak under the rule of Shah
    Abbas the Great
      Abbas hated the Ottomans,
       so he allied himself
       w/Europeans to improve
       his armies and defend his
       borders
      Abbas reduced taxes, even
       did not tax non-Muslims
      Built a magnificent capital
       at Isfahan and turned it
       into the center of Persia
       arts, trade and culture…he
       even liked to roam around
       his city in disguise to spy
       on his people
      Was tolerant of Non-
       Muslims (Armenians), even
       built them their own homes
       on the edge of his new
       capital mainly cause they
       ran his economy/trade
Safavid Decline
   Abbas the Great killed many of his sons as he
    was convinced they were plotting against
    him…his weak grandson, Abbas II took the
    throne
   Neighboring Ottomans and Mughals picked at
    Safavid territory…eventually, Afghani tribes
    captured Isfahan
   Afghani leader Nafid Khan Ahshar made himself
    shah, but no dynasty emerged from his rule…the
    empire would continually be plagued by raiding
    nomads and neighboring empires, eventually
    finding leadership under the Qajar Dynasty in
    1725
The Mughals of India
   Turks under the brilliant military
    leadership of Babur the Great (a
    Muslim Mongol/Turk) his armies
    invaded Muslim controlled India in
    the early 1500s from
    Afghanistan…he established the
    first vestiges of the Mughal
    dynasty…later, he was a great
    partier (a drunkard by some
    accounts) and a terrible leader
    (administrator)…when he died in
    1530 putting the empire in peril
   His son, Humayan, lost territory in
    India immediately and was forced
    to exile in Persia…but he gained it
    back by 1556…unfortunately, he
    too died tragically, falling down the
    stairs in his library!
The Leadership of Akbar the Great
   At 13, Akbar was forced upon the throne
    and immediately faced threats from
    Mughal enemies…he defeated them
    easily!
   Akbar was not a a drunkard like his
    grandfather nor clumsy like his
    father…he became a wise and strong
    administrator…he reconciled with the
    Hindus in the kingdom, preaching
    tolerance…he encouraged intermarriage
    between Hindus and Muslims…abolished
    the jizya…promoted Hindus into high
    ranking positions in
    government…created a new religion,
    Din-i-Ilahi, a combination of Islam and
    Hinduism
   Akbar also instituted several key
    reforms for Indian society, most notable
    of those were driven to improve the
    status of women…he prohibited sati,
    encouraged a widow to remarry, and
    setup special market days for women
    secluded by purdah
   Unfortunately, when Akbar died in
    1605, most of his reforms and his
    religion, died with him
Other Rulers/European Contacts
   Very little territory was added by Akbar’s
    successors, however, the Mughal Empire
    reached its highest peak under Janaghir
    and Shah Jahan
   Both continued Akbar’s tolerance
    policies…both left a lot of daily
    administration to subordinate, preferring
    to patronize the arts, to drink and to
    party…Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal
    (it’s a tomb folks! For two people)
   Both of their wives were able to amass
    great power and influence over Indian
    society during their rule, improving the
    status of women at court, while severely
    declining ordinary women (sati return,
    forced child marriages increased, widow
    remarriage disappeared) causing the
    births of female children to become a
    burden on ordinary people
   Shah Jahan’s successor, Aurangzeb,
    promoted the trade of Indian textiles,
    leading to the eventual insertion of
    European influences in India, something
    that had been resisted for centuries
Mughal Decline
   Aurangzeb continued to ignore internal state issues…the
    same old story occurs as the bureaucracy becomes corrupt
    and peasants and urban workers revolt/protest their living
    conditions
   He focused too much time on trying to conquer ALL of India
    and to purify Islam of all Hindu influences…this warfare
    drained the treasury, weakened the bureaucracy and
    military…he was forced to renew the jizya to the dismay of
    the people…Marattas and Sikhs rebelled even becoming
    anti-Islamic
   The constant state of civil dissention in India opened the
    door for the British and French to come into to India, use
    their military might to calm tensions, but also establish a
    colonial/imperial presence on the subcontinent that would
    last into the 20th century
This Week…
 Wednesday: Leader Analysis –
 Suleiman the Magnificent

                 Societal
 Thursday/Friday:
 Comparisons Activity

 Notes   Due Friday, NO TEST, YAY!
  Information  on this chapter will be
   on the Unit 3 Exam
Societal Comparisons
    Muslims Empires

      Chapter 21
Group Activity
   You will be assigned 2 empires to compare in a small group.
    You have today to complete the overhead chart provided.
    You will present your chart tomorrow to the class (about 7
    minutes per group)
   Groups:
       Group   1   –   Ottomans vs. Safavids
       Group   2   –   Ottomans vs. Mughals
       Group   3   –   Safavids vs. Mughals
       Group   4   –   Ottomans vs. Safavids
       Group   5   –   Ottomans vs. Mughals
       Group   6   –   Safavids vs. Mughals

				
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posted:9/4/2011
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