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RFID Tom Adam Nick and Chris


									Tom, Adam, Nick, and Chris
               RFID Agenda
   What is RFID
   History
   Cost and Future Implementation
   Current Users: Walmart, Department of Defense
   Current Uses
   Potential Future Uses
   RFID Controversy – Advocates and Opponents
   Spychips – Suspicious Uses
   Big Brother on Steroids
   Implications – Why do we care?
                What is RFID
   Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an
    automatic identification method, relying on
    storing and remotely retrieving data using
    devices called RFID tags or transponders. An
    RFID tag is a small object that can be attached
    to or incorporated into a product, animal, or
    person. RFID tags contain silicon chips and
    antennas to enable them to receive and respond
    to radio-frequency queries from an RFID

                              Source: RFID Journal Online
        2 Basic Types of RFID
   There are two basic types of RFID, one is
    a passive system where the transponder
    wakes up and reflects back a signal or
    there is an active system which actually
    broadcasts a signal.

   Passive tags require no internal power
    source, whereas active tags require a
    power source.

                           Source: RFID Journal Online

   The most primitive form of RFID was
    actually discovered by the Germans. They
    found that if their planes rolled in a certain
    way as they returned to base it would
    change the radio signal that was reflected

                              Source: RFID Journal Online

   The first patent was by Mario W. Cardullo
    on January 23, 1973. That same year,
    Charles Walton, a California entrepreneur,
    received a patent for a passive
    transponder used to unlock a door without
    a key.

                           Source: RFID Journal Online
       Early Examples of RFID

   Military – trucks opening gates (1980s)

   Cows – Trying to remember which cows
    got hormone shots (1980s)

                            Source: RFID Journal Online
                Early Problem
   Expensive
   This all changed in 1999, when the Uniform
    Code Council, EAN International, Procter &
    Gamble and Gillette put up funding to establish
    the Auto-ID Center.
   These MIT professors essentially changed the
    way people thought about RFID in the supply
    chain. What they really did is turned RFID into a
    networking technology by linking objects to the
    Internet through the tag.

                                Source: RFID Journal Online
               Early Problems
   For businesses, this was an important and
    revolutionary change. Now a manufacturer could
    automatically let a business partner know when
    a shipment was leaving the dock at a
    manufacturing facility or warehouse, and a
    retailer could automatically let the manufacturer
    know when the goods arrived.
   Since 1999 the Auto-ID Center gained the
    support of more than 100 large end-user
    companies, plus the U.S. Department of
    Defense and many key RFID vendors.

                               Source: RFID Journal Online
 Cost and future implementation
   As of right now it costs $.30 for each RFID tag.
   In the next couple years the cost of RFID should
    come down to $.03.
   According to a study of 500 companies 4/5 of
    the companies plan to implement RFID in the
    near future, and 69% are planning to implement
    it this year.,39020348,39210275,00.htm
      As of 2005 six distribution centers, and 250 stores have
       implemented RFID.
      By late 2006 they plan to have twelve distribution centers, and 600
       stores want to implement RFID.
      Only major problem was that in some cases RFID tags were only
       being read 66% of the time.
      An advantage was that there was 16% reduction in out-of-stocks.
      A study of twelve stores using RFID and twelve stores not using
       RFID showed that the stores using RFID were 63 percent more
       effective in replenishing out-of-stocks than the control stores.
       US Department of Defense
    The Department of Defense stated that everything they bought had
     to be RFID tagged by 2005.
    The US government has over forty-five million items that will have to
     be RFID tagged.
    There are 23,642 suppliers that would have to switch to RFID
    This would help commanders on the battle field to know what
     supplies are at their forward depots.
    The only problem with this is that the suppliers will have to make
     huge investments to implement RFID tagging into their product line.,10801,85869,00.html
    Intel is working with academic and industry leaders to develop
     powerful, integrated RFID-EPC solutions using hardware and
     software based on robust, open standards and distributed
     computing architectures.
     Intel considers RFID technology very important because it makes it
     easier to scan hundreds of items from a few hundred feet away,
     instead of having to scan everything within line of sight.

                                     Intel Mote prototype chip,10801,85869,00.html
                  Texas Instruments
     Revenues from RFID division were over $215 million in 2005.
     When they were selling off part of the company connected to RFID
      they decided not to sell off the RFID division because it is has high
      growth potential.
     They believe that is has a high growth potential and it will continue
      to grow in 2006.
                        Current Uses
     Credit cards use it for fast pay.
     Track gourmet food in restaurants to prevent from
     Used in Iraq to search supplies and keep tabs on
     Used in military aircraft to verify that they are theirs and
      not the enemies.
     In Italy a washer was made so that it can read RFID
      tagged garments and launder them accordingly.,9171,1101030922-485764,00.html
              Potential Future Uses
     Family fridge keeps track of contents and notifies you
      when you are low, to get rid of an outdate product and
      even if you need to cut back on cholesterol consumption
     RFID tags will be no bigger than a piece of glitter
     Think of RFID as the me-generations version of a bar
     Auto restock shelves of the most popular items in a store
      to increase sales, reduce inventory needed in the back
      room, and reduce labor
     DHL worldwide express plans to go global with RFID
      tracking of approximately 160million packages per year,
      which could scan the items at a rate of 300 per second
      vs. 1 every couple seconds with a bar code,9171,1101030922-485764,00.html
        Examples from movies
   A good example is the fridge in Sixth Day
    where it tells Arnold Schwarzenegger to
    order more milk.

   Demolition man uses RFID tags in their
    hands to track people, to pay for products
    and services, and charge people with
           RFID Controversy
 Walmart, US Government,
  Intel, TI
 City Watchers

 Air Transport Association
 American Civil Liberties Union
 Jonathan Westhaus
 RFID Strengths and Weaknesses
 Ability to pinpoint a RFID chip anywhere on the
  globe in real time
 Easy access to secure areas, cars, houses,
  computers, bank accounts….anything electronic

 Security threats
 Difficult to remove
 Hard to modify
     Spychips – Suspicious Uses
   Registered Traveler Program – by the end of this
    year, US passports will contain computer chips.
   City Watchers – government contractor of
    surveillance projects – accessing secure areas
   Keyless Entry – a couple recently had matching
    chips implanted so they could access each
    others cars, computers, and apartments.
            Big Brother on Steroids
Government Plans – Department of Homeland Security
 Recently released request for information outlines goals of a new RFID
 This new chip should be able to:
  “identify the exact location of the read such as a specific pedestrian or
  vehicle lane in which the token is read.
   - The solution presented must sense the remote data capture technology
   carried by a pedestrian traveller at distances up to 25 ft.
   - The solution presented must sense all tokens carried by travelers seated in
   a single automobile, truck, or bus at a distance up to 25 ft. while moving at
   speeds up to 55 mph.
   - For bus traffic, the solution must sense up to 55 tokens.
   - For a successful read, the traveller should not have to hold or present the
   token in any special way to enable the reading of the token's information.
   The goal is for the reader to sense a token carried on a traveler's person or
   anywhere in a vehicle.”

Implications – Why do we care?
 This could get out of hand.
 RFID has many valid uses but its
  capabilities can easily overstep personal
  and legal boundaries.
• RFID Journal Online

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