IB Exam Question Bank Apr09 by ashrafp

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									                  Paper One Questions by Topic

1992. The Origins and nature of the Cold War 1945-1962
1992. Developments in Vietnam 1954-1973
1994. Causes of the Second World War to its Outbreak in Europe, Sept. 1939: The
      following questions relate to the signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact
1995. The Rise of Hitler and the Nazis in Germany, 1923 to 1936: The following
      extracts relate to Nazi Propaganda
1998. The Russian Revolutions and the New Soviet State- 1917 to 1929: These
      documents relate to War Communism and Lenin’s New Economic Policy.
1998. The Cold War 1945- 1964: These documents relate to the treatment of Eastern
      Europe and Germany, 1945 to 1947.
1999. The Russian Revolutions and the New Soviet State 1917- 1929: These
      documents relate to the Bolshevik Revolution, October 1917.
1999. The Cold War 1945- 1964: These documents relate to Cuba and the Cold War
      in the early 1960s.
2000. The Russian Revolutions and the New Soviet State 1917- 1929: These
      documents relate to political activity 1917 to 1924.
2000. Origins of the Second World War in Asia 1931-1941: The following
       documents relate to the results of the Japanese attack on China in July 1937
       after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.
2000. The Cold War 1945- 1964: These documents relate to rising tension in the
      Cold War in Europe 1946 to 1951.
2001. The Russian Revolutions and the New Soviet State 1917- 1929: These
       documents relate to the period between the two 1917 revolutions.
2001. The Cold War 1945- 1964: These documents relate to the Cold War in the
       period 1946- 1949.
2002. The Russian Revolutions and the New Soviet State 1917- 1929: These
      documents relate to the 1917 February/ March Revolution.
2002. The Cold War 1945- 1964: These documents relate to developments in the
       Cold War in the early 1950s.

M2003. The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: These sources relate to Stalin’s
       economic policy.
2003 The emergence and development of the People‟s Republic of China 1946-64:
       These sources relate to the Great Leap Forward 1958–1961.
2003. The Cold War, 1960 to 1979: These sources relate to the nature of the Cold
    War in the period 1960-1969.
N2003 The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: The following sources relate to
      Stalin’s use of terror and purges between 1934 and 1939.
2003 The emergence and development of the People‟s Republic of China 1946-64:
  The following sources relate to the collectivization programmes introduced
   in China after 1952 by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung).
2003. The Cold War, 1960 to 1979: The following sources relate to United
       States involvement in the Vietnam War in the 1960s.
 M2004 The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: These sources relate to the purges
         under Stalin.
   2004 The emergence and development of the People‟s Republic of China 1946-
          64:
      These sources relate to political unification from early toleration of
      different classes in 1949 to thought control in the early 1950s.
 2004. The Cold War, 1960 to 1979: These sources relate to developments in the Cold
        War in the early 1960s
 N2004 The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: These sources relate to Stalin.s
        foreign policy in relation to Germany.
  2004 The emergence and development of the People‟s Republic of China 1946-64:
         These sources relate to Mao Zedong.s (Mao Tse-tung) Hundred
          Flowers Campaign, 1956.
   2004 The Cold War, 1960 to 1979: These sources relate to Nixon.s foreign
          policy of détente.
 M2005 The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: These questions relate to the struggle
         for leadership after the death of Lenin.
   2005 The emergence and development of the People‟s Republic of China 1946-
          64:
         These sources relate to Mao Zedong’s (Mao Tse-tung) successful emergence
         as leader of the People’s Republic of China, 1946-49.
 2005. The Cold War, 1960 to 1979: These questions relate to developments in the
       eastern bloc in 1968, and their impact on the Cold War. The accompanying
       sources are on pages 8 to 10 in the Source Booklet.
 N2005. The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: These questions relate to Stalin’s cult
        of personality.
   2005 The emergence and development of the People‟s Republic of China 1946-64:
         These sources relate to industrial developments in the first Five Year
         Plan (1953-57)
   2005. The Cold War, 1960 to 1979: These questions relate to Soviet-Cuban
        relations between 1962 and 1968.
M2006 The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: These sources refer to industrialization
      under Stalin.
 2006 The emergence and development of the People‟s Republic of China 1946-64:
         These sources refer to Mao’s consolidation of power between 1949 and 1954.
 2006 Cold War, 1960 to 1979: These sources relate to US Cold War policies
           and the Vietnam War.
 N2006. The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: These questions relate to purges and
        terror under Stalin, and their impact on Russian society.
 N2006 The emergence and development of the People‟s Republic of China 1946-64:
        These sources refer to the period of the Civil War in China from 1946 to 1949
        between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Guomindang
        (Kuomintang).
   N2006. These questions relate to the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 and its
         effect upon the Cold War. The accompanying sources are on pages 8 to 10 in
         the Source Booklet.

M2007     These questions relate to collectivisation under Stalin.

M2007 These questions relate to mass campaigns: the Three and Five-Antis campaigns
and the Hundred Flowers campaign.

M2007 These questions relate to nuclear disarmament and the SALT I agreements in the
      1970s.

N2007 These questions relate to Stalin’s rise to power after the death of Lenin, 1924 to
1929.

N2007 These questions relate to the second Five Year Plan in China 1958–1962.

N2007 These questions relate to relations between the Soviet Union and the People’s
Republic of China in the 1960s.

M2008 These sources refer to industrialization under the Five Year Plans.

M2008 These sources relate to economic reconstruction in industry and agriculture under
Mao, 1952–1962.

M2008 These sources relate to the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962.

N2008 These sources relate to the extent of Stalin’s power in the 1930s.

N2008 These sources relate to the political consolidation of China after 1949.

N2008 These sources relate to United States Cold War policies and the Vietnam War.
                            Paper Two Questions
Topic 1- Causes, practices and effects of war- World War I

   1. Examine the part played by each of the following in the outbreak of the First
      World War: alliances, mobilization, Balkan nationalism. (N2006)
   2. How valid is the claim that in 1914 states went to war due to fear rather than for
      motives of gain? (2004)
   3. Assess critically three causes of the First World War. (2003)
   4. To what extent can it be said that the First World War was caused by the alliance
      system? (1999)
   5. “Germany must bear the ultimate responsibility for the outbreak of the First
      World War.” How far do you agree with this judgment? (1995)
   6. How valid is it to claim that Europe “stumbled into” a world war in 1914? (1992)

Topic 1- Causes, practices and effects of war- World War II
   1. Discuss briefly the immediate effects that the dropping of the atomic bomb on
       Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 had on the progress of the Second World War.
       Comment on how the existence of the “bomb” has subsequently affected the
       practices of war in terms of global conflict. (1992)

Topic 1- Causes, practices and effects of war- General

NOTE: For MAY 2007 Questions see MAY 2005 (??!!)

   1. Analyse the causes of one of the following: the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939);
      the Arab-Israeli wars (1948/9 and 1956); the Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970).
      (N2008)
   2. Define “total war” and examine to what extent either the First World War or the
      Second World War was a “total war”. (N2008)
   3. To what extent did outside intervention contribute to the outcome of two civil
      wars, each chosen from a different region? (N2008)
   4. Assess the economic and social results of two wars, each chosen from a different
      region. (N2008)
   5. With reference to two wars examine the impact of technological developments in
      air and sea power. (N2008)
   6. Compare and contrast the causes of the Korean War and the Vietnam War.
      (M2008 TZ2)
   7. Examine the role of warfare either at sea or in the air in two wars each chosen
      from a different region. (M2008 TZ2)
   8. Why, and with what results, was the First World War not confined to Europe?
      (M2008 TZ2)
   9. Analyse the results of one twentieth century treaty or peace settlement. (M2008
      TZ2)
10. For what reasons, and in what ways, did one twentieth century war affect the
    social and economic conditions of two countries fighting in it? (M2008 TZ2)
11. Compare and contrast the causes of the First World War and the Second World
    War. (M2008 TZ1)
12. To what extent did changes in military tactics and strategies determine the
    outcome of twentieth century wars? (M2208 TZ1)
13. “Even in the twentieth century the term „total war‟ could not be applied to any
    war.” To what extent do you agree with this judgment? (M2008 TZ1)
14. Analyse the results of either the Mexican Revolution or the Russian Civil War.
    (M2008 TZ1)
15. In what ways and with what results did two wars, each chosen from a different
    region, affect the role and status of women? (M2008 TZ1)
16. Examine the reasons for, and the contribution of, guerrilla warfare to the outcome
    of one twentieth-century war. (N2007)
17. “Ideological differences were the most important reasons for both the outbreak of,
    and outside intervention in, civil wars.” Assess the validity of this claim with
    reference to one of the following: the Russian Civil War; the Chinese Civil War.
    (N2007)
18. Analyse the economic and social results on the civilian population of one
    twentieth-century war. (N2007)
19. Compare and contrast the reasons for Germany‟s involvement in the First and
    Second World Wars. (N2007)
20. Define the term “limited war”. With reference to two wars, each chosen from a
    different region, explain why they remained limited. (N2007)
21. With reference to specific examples, account for the adoption of guerrilla warfare
    and assess its effectiveness. (N2006)
22. In what ways, and with what success, did post-war peacemakers attempt to deal
    with the problems which produced the conflict? Specific reference should be
    made to two peace settlements. (N2006)
23. Compare and contrast the reasons for, and impact of, foreign involvement in two
    of the following: Russian Civil War; Spanish Civil War; Korean War. (N2006)
24. With reference to two wars, each chosen from a different region, explain to what
    extent the role and status of women was affected. (N2006)
25. Compare and contrast the results of the First World War and the Second World
    War. (2006)
26. To what extent did technological developments ensure victory in twentieth
    century wars? (2006)
27. “No twentieth century war could be called a limited war.” To what extent do you
    agree with this assertion? (2006)
28. Analyze the causes of either the Spanish Civil War or the Korean War. (2006)
29. Assess the social results of two wars, each chosen from a different region. (2006)
30. Analyze the results of either the First World War or the Second World War.
    (2005)
31. Account for either the defeat of the Central Powers in the First World War or the
    Axis powers in the Second World War. (2005)
32. To what extent do you agree with the view that war accelerates social change?
    (2005)
33. Evaluate the contribution made towards the war effort by civilians on both the
    home front and the battle front in two wars, each chosen from a different region.
    (2005)
34. Compare and contrast the reasons for, and impact of, foreign involvement in two
    of the following: Russian Civil War; Spanish Civil War; Chinese Civil War.
    (2005)
35. “Peace settlements create conditions for new conflicts.” With reference to at
    least two settlements explain to what extent you agree with this statement. (2005)
36. Assess the social and economic causes of one twentieth century war. (2005)
37. Compare and contrast the use of naval warfare in two wars, each chosen from a
    different region. (2005)
38. For what reasons, and with what results, was “limited” warfare a feature of the
    second half of the twentieth century? (2005)
39. Evaluate the social and economic consequences of two twentieth century wars.
    (2004)
40. To what extent did guerilla warfare determine the outcome of the Vietnam War?
    (2004)
41. Why did foreign intervention occur so frequently in civil wars of the twentieth
    century and what impact did this intervention have on two civil wars each chosen
    from a different region? (2004)
42. Assess the role of air power in two twentieth century wars. (2004)
43. In what ways did the causes of the Second World War differ from the causes of
    the First World War? (2004)
44. Evaluate the importance of naval warfare in twentieth century wars. Specific
    examples must be given from at least two wars. (2004)
45. Analyze the results of two wars, each chosen from a different region. (2004)
46. Assess the social and economic effects of one war on two countries involved, in
    the ten years following the end of the war. (2004)
47. Compare and contrast the causes of two wars (excluding the First World War)
    each chosen from a different region. (2003)
48. Analyze the reasons for the outcome of one civil war. How did the outcome affect
    the country in which the war was fought? (2003)
49. “The most important military development of the twentieth century was the
    development of nuclear weapons.” To what extent do you agree with this
    statement? (2003)
50. Assess the economic and social impact of either the Arab-Israeli Wars, or the
    Vietnam War, on the countries involved. (2003)
51. What were the most frequent causes of twentieth-century wars? Specific
    evidence from at least three wars should be used. (2003)
52. How and why did technological developments play an important part in
    twentieth-century wars? (2003)
53. Analyse the causes and results of one of the following: Chinese Civil War (1945–
    1949); Mexican Revolution (1910–1940); Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). (2003)
54. “War causes more suffering to women than to men.” “War liberates women.”
    Using evidence from at least two wars explain which statement you consider is
    more appropriate. (2003)
55. Assess the aims of two countries entering the First World War. To what extent
    were they successful in achieving their aims? (2002)
56. In what ways, and with what results for twentieth century wars, did tactics
    change? (2002)
57. Compare and contrast the causes of the Russian Civil War and the Spanish Civil
    War. (2002)
58. Analyze the use and effects of propaganda in two wars, each chosen from a
    different region. (2002)
59. Why were the intentions of those responsible for treaties rarely fulfilled? (2002)
60. Analyze the changes in the nature of warfare during the twentieth century. (2002)
61. Examine the effects of war and the fear of war on the civilian population of two
    countries, each chosen from a different region. (2002)
62. Compare and contrast the causes of the First and Second World Wars. (2002)
63. Evaluate the successes and failures of one twentieth century treaty in addressing
    the causes if conflict, and restoring peace and normality. (2001)
64. Using specific examples explain the popularity of war themes in (a) films and (b)
    films and/or plays. (2001)
65. Analyze the reasons for the outbreak of war either in Algeria in 1954, or Korea in
    1950. (2001)
66. In what ways and for what reasons did foreign intervention play an important role
    in two civil wars, each chosen from a different region? (2001)
67. Examine critically two treaties and evaluate their success in resolving the armed
    conflicts which necessitated the treaties. (2000)
68. Assess the importance of nationalism and of selfish ambition as causes of
    twentieth century wars. Reference must be made to at least two wars. (2000)
69. In what ways have wars (a) caused suffering and hardship to women and (b)
    helped promote women‟s equality? Specific evidence must be given from at least
    two regions. (2000)
70. Assess the significance of either the Mexican Revolution (1910 to 1940) or the
    Vietnam War (1964 to 1975). (2000)
71. In what ways and for what reasons have tactics changed in twentieth century
    warfare? (1999)
72. Evaluate the role of ideological differences in two civil wars each chosen from a
    different region. (1999)
73. To what extent can it be said that the First World War was caused by the alliance
    system? (1999)
74. How valid is the claim that treaties are not necessary to end wars? Support your
    answer with evidence from at least two regions. (1999)
75. To what extent should Germany be held responsible or causing both the First and
    Second World Wars? (1998)
76. How and why has guerilla warfare been used in the twentieth century? Examples
    should be given from at least two different regions. (1998)
   77. Explain the impact of war on two of the following: women; the arts; the media.
       (1998)
   78. “Each war has its own particular causes.” Is this the case, or can evidence be
       given that given that twentieth century wars have common causes? Support your
       answer with evidence from at least two wars, each chosen from a different region.
       (1997)
   79. What were the major developments in military technology from 1914 to 1945?
       (1997)
   80. To what extent has war resolved the issues of conflict between Arabs and Israelis?
       (1997)
   81. What do you understand by “total war”? Select one twentieth century war to
       illustrate your understanding. (1997)
   82. “The First and Second World Wars were European civil wars that required
       outside intervention to settle.” How far do you agree with this quotation? (SPC)
   83. “This is not a peace. It is an armistice for twenty years.” How accurate was
       Marshall Foch‟s assessment of the Treaty of Versailles? (1995)
   84. “Wars are caused by the miscalculation of the aggressor and the failure of
       politicians to exercise crisis management.” Discuss the validity of this statement
       with reference to one twentieth century war. (1993)
   85. Assess the significance and importance of air power in any two twentieth century
       wars. (1993)
   86. “Peace settlements are ineffective unless accompanied by total military victory.”
       Does twentieth century warfare bear this out? (1993)
   87. “Wars create more problems than they solve.” Discuss this claim with reference
       to the causes and results of any two wars (each chosen from a different region)
       during the twentieth century. (1992)
   88. With reference to any civil war of the twentieth century, examine the social,
       economic and political background to the divisions in the society involved. T
       Assess the importance of nationalism and of selfish ambition as causes of
       twentieth century wars. Reference must be made to at least two wars. (2000)
       what extent were the problems which produced the war resolved in the post war
       period? (1992)
   89. To what extent has any twentieth century war changed the role of women?
       (SPEC)
   90. “The First and Second World Wars were European civil wars that required
       outside intervention to settle.” How far do you agree with this quotation? (SPEC)


Topic 2- Nationalist and Independence Movements, Decolonization and Challenges
   Facing New States
   1. Assess the methods used by one nationalist leader to achieve independence in a
       non-European colonial state. (N2006)
   2. In what ways, and for what reasons, were two newly independent non-European
       states affected by the Cold War? (N2006)
   3. Analyze the factors favoring the growth of independence movements in one non-
       European colonial state. (2006)
Topic 3- The Rise and Rule of Single Party States

NOTE: For MAY 2007 Questions see MAY 2005 (??!!)
  1. To what extent did the following aid the rise to power of either Lenin or
      Mussolini:
          a. the First World War (b) weakness of the existing regime (c) ideological
              appeal? (N2008)
  2. Analyse the methods used to eliminate opposition by two single-party rulers, each
      chosen from a different region. (N2008)
  3. Compare and contrast the treatment of either women, or religious groups, in two
      single-party states, each chosen from a different region. (N2008)
  4. Assess the global impact of one left-wing and one right-wing leader of a single-
      party state. (N2008)
  5. “Charismatic appeal rather than successful domestic policies enabled single-party
      leaders to maintain power.” With reference to one of the following, to what extent
      do you agree with this statement: Castro, Nasser, Perón? (N2008)
  6. Analyse the rise to power of either Hitler or Lenin. (M2008 TZ2)
  7. Compare and contrast the regime of one right wing and one left wing single-party
      state. (M2008 TZ2)
  8. With reference to at least two rulers, assess the importance of social and
      economic policies for rulers of single-party states. (M2008 TZ2)
  9. In what ways, and with what results, did either Castro or Mussolini use foreign
      policy to support his regime? (M2008 TZ2)
  10.         To what extent was the ruler of one single-party state successful in
      achieving his aims? (M2008 TZ2)
  11. Compare and contrast the rise to power of two rulers of single-party states, each
      chosen from a different region. (M2008 TZ1)
  12. To what extent was either Mussolini, between 1922 and 1945, or Nasser,
      between 1954 and 1970, successful in achieving his aims? (M2008 TZ1)
  13. In what ways did one ruler of a single-party state try to use education to support
      his regime? (M2008 TZ1)
  14. Analyse the successes and failures of the political career of either Lenin or
      Nyerere. (M2008 TZ1)
  15. Assess the importance of foreign policy for rulers of single-party states. (M2008
      TZ1)
  16. “A vigorous foreign policy played a vital part in the maintenance of power of
      single-party regimes.” With reference to two examples, explain to what extent
      you agree with this statement. (N 2007)
  17. To what extent was ideology an important factor in the rise to power of one of the
      following: Lenin; Mussolini; Nyerere? (N 2007)
  18. By what methods, and with what success, did single-party rulers in power
      establish totalitarian regimes? Reference should be made to two examples, each
      chosen from a different region. (N 2007)
  19. Compare and contrast the economic and social policies of one left wing and one
      right wing single-party ruler. (N 2007)
20. Analyse the conditions which led to the establishment of either Perón‟s regime in
    Argentina or Nasser‟s regime in Egypt. (N 2007)
21. “It was personality and not circumstances that brought rulers of single-party
    states to power.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? (N2006)
22. Analyse the methods used to maintain power in two single-party states, each
    chosen from a different region. (N2006)
23. Examine the economic and social policies of two of the following: Lenin;
    Mussolini; Perón. (N2006)
24. Compare and contrast the global impact of two of the following: Castro; Hitler;
    Nasser. (N2006)
25. In what ways, and for what reasons, were culture and education controlled by
    rulers of single-party states? (N2006)
26. To what extent was the rise to power of either Hitler or Mao due to personal
    appeal and ability? (2006)
27. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of two rulers of single party states,
    each chosen from a different region. (2006)
28. Assess the methods used by either Nasser or Peron to remain in power. (2006)
29. In what ways, and with what results, was propaganda used by one ruler of a
    single-party state? (2006)
30. Assess the importance of ideology for rulers of twentieth century single-party
    states. (2006)
31. Account for the ineffectiveness of internal opposition to two rulers of single-party
    states. (2005)
32. Assess the successes and failures of the domestic polices of one of the following:
    Nasser; Nyerere; Peron. (2005)
33. With reference to two examples each chosen from a different region, to what
    extent do you agree with the claim that “ideology was the most important factor
    in the rise to power of single-party leaders”? (2005)
34. How successful was either Lenin (1917-1924) or Mussolini (1922-1943) in solving
    the problems he faced? (2005)
35. Identify the aims of educational and youth policies in two single-party states, and
    evaluate the extent to which they were achieved. (2005)
36. Analyze the methods used and the conditions which helped in the rise to power of
    one ruler of a single-party state. (2005)
37. Evaluate the successes and failures of one ruler of a single-party state. (2005)
38. Assess the methods used by either Lenin or Peron to maintain his regime. (2005)
39. Compare and contrast the influence outside their own countries of Hitler and
    Mao. (2005)
40. Examine the status of women in two single-party states, each chosen from a
    different region. (2005)
41. “Fascism’s rise to power in Italy and Germany in the inter-war years largely
    resulted from the consequences of the First World War.” To what extent do you
    agree with this verdict? (2004)
42. Assess the role of economic and social policies as factors explaining the
    consolidation and maintenance of power of two of the following: Castro,
    Mussolini, Peron, Nasser. (2004)
43. For what reasons, and with what success, have single party states attempted to
    control either education or the arts? (2004)
44. To what extent was the rise to power of one left wing and one right wing single
    party ruler, the result of previous political problems? (2004)
45. Assess the role of terror and force in maintaining the ruler in power in two
    totalitarian states each chosen from a different region. (2004)
46. Analyze the methods used by one single-party state ruler in his successful bid for
    power. (2004)
47. Evaluate the importance of ideology in the policies of two of the following rulers
    of single-party states: Castro; Hitler; Lenin; Nyrere. (2004)
48. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two rulers of single-party states,
    each chosen from a different region. (2004)
49. In what ways, and to what extent, did either Nasser or Perón improve
    social and economic conditions? (2004)
50. Examine the global impact of one ruler of a single-party state. (2004)
51. Compare and contrast the rise to power of two rulers of single-party states.
    (2003)
52. Assess the methods used by either Peron or Lenin to maintain his position as
    ruler of a single-party state. (2003)
53. For what reasons, and with what results, were there so many single-party states
    in the twentieth century? (2003)
54. Examine critically the successes and failures of either Castro or Mussolini, as a
    leader of a single-party state. (2003)
55. How and why was propaganda used in two single-party states, each chosen from
    a different region? (2003)
56. “In order to achieve and retain power a leader of a single-party state needed to be
    ruthless, blind to human suffering and yet charismatic.” To what extent do you
    agree with this assertion? (2003)
57. Account for the rise to power of one of the following: Castro, Mussolini, Nasser.
    (2003)
58. Compare and contrast the economic and social policies of Mao and Stalin. (2003)
59. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the aims and policies of two or more right
    wing rulers of single party states differ? (2003)
60. Examine the role of education and/or the arts in two single party states, each
    chosen from a different region. (2003)
61. Assess the main difficulties faced by two would-be rulers of single party states in
    their bid for power. (2002)
62. Analyze the foreign policies of two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from
    a different region. (2002)
63. Explain the successes and failures of either Mao in China or Peron in Argentina.
    (2002)
64. To what extent was the USSR an orthodox Communist state under either Lenin or
    Stalin? (2002)
65. Evaluate the impact of the policies of two rulers of single-party states on the role
    and status of women. (2002)
66. Analyze conditions that led to single-party states during the twentieth century.
    (2002)
67. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Hitler and Stalin. (2002)
68. In what ways, and for what reasons, did two rulers of single-party states, each
    chosen from a different region, fail to achieve their objectives? (2002)
69. Explain and examine the methods used by one of the following rulers of single-
    party states, to obtain and keep power: Lenin; Mao, Peron. (2002)
70. Assess the treatment women and religious groups in two single-party states.
    (2002)
71. “promises of improved social and economic conditions win more support for
    would-be single-party rulers than ideological pronouncements.” How far do you
    agree with this claim? (2001)
72. Compare and contrast the organization of one Communist state with one Fascist
    state. (2001)
73. Analyze the methods by which either Castro or Stalin maintained his position as
    ruler of a single-party state. (2001)
74. Evaluate the attempts of two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a
    different region, to control and use the media. (2001)
75. In what ways, and for what reasons, did rulers of single-party states play an
    important role in world affairs between 1917 and 1945? (2000)
76. Identify the main principles of Communism and assess how far these principles
    were put into practice by one Communist ruler between 1900 and 1990. (2000)
77. Account for the rise to power and longevity of the rule of either Fidel Castro in
    Cuba or Julius Nyerere in Tanzania. (2000)
78. Assess the contributions of organizational and leadership qualities in maintaining
    in power two single-party rules, each chosen from a different region. (2000)
79. Analyze the role of women in two of the following: Maoist China; Nazi
    Germany; Peronist Argentina. (2000)
80. “Single party states use education as propaganda to obtain support rather than to
    instill [increase] knowledge.” How far do you agree with this judgment? (1999)
81. In what ways and for what reasons did China develop its own brand of
    Marxism/Communism under Mao Zedong? (1999)
82. To what extent was Spain under Franco (1939 to 1975) a Fascist state? (1999)
83. How far is it true to say that a successful foreign policy is the most important
    factor for a single party ruler to remain in power? Examples should be given
    from two countries each chosen from a different region. (1999)
84. “In the twentieth century right-wing Single Party states have often been the result
    of a conservative reaction to change whilst left-wing Single-Party states have
    achieved power as the outcome of a revolutionary process against tradition.”
    Using examples from at least two regions explain how far you agree with this
    quotation. (1999)
85. Account for the rise of either Juan Peron or Francisco Franco, and assess the
    impact upon either Argentina or Spain of your chosen ruler. (1998)
86. To what extent is it true to say that a successful economic policy is the most
    important factor for a single party ruler to remain in power? Examples should be
    given from two countries each chosen from a different region. (1998)
87. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two rulers of single party states, each
    chosen from a different region. (1998)
88. To what extent was Hitler a) responsible for, and b) driven by the ideological
    beliefs of Nazism? (1998)
89. How far would you agree that single party states have been more interested in
    controlling the minds of young people than in providing genuine education?
    (1998)
90. “Despite the appearance of order and discipline, Nazi government was poorly
    organized.” How far do you agree with this statement? (1997)
91. “Single party states in Europe did little to improve the position of women; outside
    Europe, they allowed women to play a fuller role in society.” How accurate is
    this assertion? (1997)
92. In what ways did Hitler and follow the aims and ideologies that he had set out in
    Mein Kampf? (1995)
93. How far can single party regimes be justified by the changed economic and social
    conditions that sometimes follow their establishment? Use examples from at least
    two different regions. (1995)
94. Compare and contrast the circumstances that gave rise to the regimes of Juan
    Peron and Fidel Castro in Latin America. (1995)
95. In what ways can dictatorships of the Right and Left be most clearly distinguished
    from each other? Use examples from at least two different regions. (1995)
96. How, why and with what consequences did Stalin distort the role of the
    Communist Party in the Soviet Union? (1993)
97. How successful were the following in solving China‟s economic problems (a)
    Chiang Kai-Shek, 1928 to 1949, and (b) Mao Tse-Tung, 1949 to 1976? (1993)
98. The Roman understanding of dictatorship- an efficient temporary arrangement for
    dealing with a specific crisis- is that often quoted by dictators of the twentieth
    century. Choose any non-European dictatorship, and analyze its aims and
    performance in light of their Roman definition. (1993)
99. To what extent is organization more important than ideology in the rise of single
    party states? Discuss, with reference to TWO single party states each chosen
    from a different region. (1993)
100.        The establishment of single party states has invariably been a desperate
    response to a political crisis.” Evaluate this statement with reference to ONE
    European state before the Second World War and ONE non-European state after
    the Second World War. (1992)
101.        “In most cases…the single party state declined in effect to a no-party
    state.” Consider this statement with reference to any TWO single party states in
    Africa, Asia, OR Latin America. (1992)
102.        “The glorification of the leader and the nation inevitably leads to the
    devaluation of the individual and the destruction of human rights in the single
    party state.” How far is this a fair comment? Answer with examples from TWO
    different regions. (1992)
103.        To what extent can you call the rule of General Franco in Spain a fascist
    dictatorship? (1992)
Topic 5- Cold War

NOTE: For MAY 2007 Questions see MAY 2005 (??!!)

   1. “The importance of ideology as the major cause of the Cold War has been greatly
       exaggerated.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? (N2008)
   2. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Soviet Union become involved
       with Cuba after 1959? (N2008)
   3. Explain how the Cold War affected the art and culture of one country from 1945
       to 1991. (N2008)
   4. In what ways, and with what results, did the US implement the policy of
       containment in Asia between 1950 and 1975? (N2008)
   5. Why did the Cold War end? (N2008)
   6. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Second World War allies become
       post-war enemies? (M2008 TZ2)
   7. In what ways did developments in Germany affect the Cold War between 1945
       and 1961? (M2008 TZ2)
   8. Compare and contrast the roles of China and Cuba in the Cold War. (M2008 TZ2)
   9. “Gender issues played no part in the Cold War.” To what extent do you agree
       with this statement? (M2008 TZ2)
   10. Assess the economic and social effects of the Cold War on one superpower.
   11. Analyse the origin of East-West rivalry and explain why it developed into the
       Cold War. (M2008 TZ1)
   12. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Truman Doctrine and the
       Marshall Plan affect Cold War development? (M2008 TZ1)
   13. Compare and contrast the roles of Korea and Vietnam in the Cold War. (M2008
       TZ1)
   14. Explain the meaning of two of the following and show how each affected the
       development of the Cold War: containment; brinkmanship; non-alignment;
       détente. (M2008 TZ1)
   15. When and why did the Cold War end? (M2008 TZ1)
   16. “The breakdown of East-West relations was due to the failure of both sides to
       appreciate the fears of the other.” With reference to the period 1945–53, to what
       extent do you agree with this statement? (N2007)
   17. How effective was the United States policy of containment up to 1962? (N2007)
   18. For what reasons, and with what results for East-West relations, did the
       superpowers become involved in the affairs of one of the following: Korea;
       Vietnam; the Middle East? (N2007)
   19. To what extent was the collapse of communist regimes the result of domestic
       problems rather than external pressures? (N2007)
   20. Compare and contrast the role of education and the arts in one communist and
       one non-communist state. (N2007)
   21. Analyse the responsibility of the USA and the USSR for the outbreak and
       development of the Cold War, up to 1949. (N2006)
   22. Compare and contrast the economic policies and military alliances of the USSR
       and USA after 1947. (N2006)
23. To what extent was the movement for non-alignment a development of the Cold
    War? (N2006)
24. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the Vietnam War affect superpower
    relations? (N2006)
25. Assess the importance of economic issues in ending the Cold War. (N2006)
26. “An unnatural alliance that was bound to fall apart after the defeat of the common
    enemy.” To what extent does this statement explain the origins of the Cold War?
    (2006)
27. In what ways, and with what results, did the United States‟ Cold War policy of
    containment affect Cuba after 1959? (2006)
28. Compare and contrast the roles of China and Germany in the Cold War. (2006)
29. Analyze the importance of détente in ending the Cold War. (2006)
30. Examine the part played by economic issues in the development of the Cold War.
    (2006)
31. To what extent were Soviet policies responsible for the outbreak and development
    of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949? (2005)
32. In what ways, and for what reasons, was the Middle East important in the Cold
    War? (2005)
33. Identify and explain the significance of two of the following in the development of
    the Cold War: COMECON; Marshall Plan; NATO; Warsaw Pact. (2005)
34. Compare and contrast the social and economic effects of the Cold War on two
    countries each chosen from a different region. (2005)
35. Analyze the factors which led to the ending of the Cold War. (2005)
36. Assess the part played by differing ideologies in the origin of the Cold War.
    (2005)
37. In what ways, and with what results, was Germany the key focus of the early
    stages of the Cold War? (2005)
38. Analyze the part played by Cuba in the development of the Cold War. (2005)
39. Evaluate the role of one superpower in the Cold war after 1970. (2005)
40. To what extent did economic problems in the Communist bloc bring about the
    end of the Cold War? (2005)
41. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the relationship between the wartime
    allies deteriorate between 1945 and 1949? (2004)
42. Assess the impact of the Cold War on the economic developments of two states
    each chosen from a different region. (2004)
43. Why, and with what success, did the USA adopt a policy of containment in the
    period 1947-1962? (2004)
44. In what ways, and to what extent, did relations between East and West change in
    the period 1960-1970? (2004)
45. Why was Soviet control over East European satellite states successful in the
    period 1945-1968, and why did it collapse between 1988 and 1991? (2004)
46. To what extent did events in the final year of the Second World War turn wartime
    allies into Cold War enemies? (2004)
47. Compare and contrast the policies of the USA and the USSR towards Korea
    between 1945 and 1955. (2004)
48. Assess the impact of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan on the development
    of the Cold War between 1947 and 1961. (2004)
49. In what ways, and to what extent, did the Cold War be come less confrontational
    after 1970? (2004)
50. Assess the importance of social and economic issues in causing opposition to
    communist regimes. (2004)
51. In what ways, and to what extent, did mutual distrust and suspicion cause the
    Cold War? (2003)
52. For what reasons, and with what results, was Germany a center of Cold War
    tension between 1945 and 1961? (2003)
53. Compare and contrast the part played by Korea and Cuba in the Cold War.
    (2003)
54. Analyze the nature of the Cold War and explain why, in spite of serious crises, it
    did not turn into a third world war. (2003)
55. “The Cold War played little part in changing social and economic conditions for
    either side between 1945 and 1965.” To what extent do you agree with this
    assertion? (2003)
56. How, and to what extent, did the conferences at Yalta and Potsdam (1945)
    contribute to the origin of the Cold War? (2003)
57. “Although it began in Europe the spread of the Cold War to other regions was a
    much more dangerous development.” To what extent do you agree with this
    judgment? (2003)
58. How and why did the policies of either the USA or the USSR affect superpower
    rivalry between 1950 and 1970? (2003)
59. In what ways were gender and social issues affected by the Cold War? (2003)
60. Assess the importance of détente and internal opposition to Communist rule in
    Communist countries, in ending the Cold War. (2003)
61. Account for the emergence of the two superpowers from 1945 to 1950. (2002)
62. In what ways did the Cold War affect the lives of people living in two developing
    countries? (2002)
63. Assess the effects of events in Cuba on the development of the Cold War. (2002)
64. To what extent was the Vietnam War a part of the Cold War? (2002)
65. Define “containment,” and analyze its importance in Cold War developments.
    (2002)
66. In what ways, and for what reasons, did superpower rivalry dominate
    international politics between 1945 to 1961? (2002)
67. Analyze the role of Germany in the origin and development of the Cold War?
    (2002)
68. Explain and evaluate the impact of the Cold War on developing countries. (2002)
69. “A product of the Cold War, and a reason for the prolonging of Cold War
    tension.” To what extent do you agree with this statement about the Vietnam
    War? (2002)
70. For what reason, and with what effects, did social and cultural differences affect
    the origin and development of the Cold War? (2002)
71. “The Cold War was caused by fear, not aggression.” To what extent does this
    view explain how the Cold War developed between 1945 and 1949? (2001)
72. Examine the impact of the Cold War on educational developments in two
    countries, each chosen from a different region. (2001)
73. Compare and contrast the aims and policies of the North Atlantic Treaty
    Organization and the Warsaw Pact up to 1970. (2001)
74. For what reasons, and with what results, up to 1963, did the United States adopt
    the policy of containment? (2001)
75. Excluding the superpowers, assess the role of two countries in the development of
    the Cold War after 1950. (2001)
76. Account for the emergence after the Second World War of the two superpowers
    and explain why they had become enemies by 1948. (1992)
77. Discuss the view that the tension between the superpowers led to the support of
    undemocratic regions by the United States. Give evidence from at least TWO
    countries. (1992)
78. What were the advantages of (a) neutrality and (b) non-alignment during periods
    of tension between the power blocs? Refer to at least TWO regions. (1992)
79. Assess the relative importance of the following for raising the temperature of the
    Cold War: (a) the arrival of Chinese volunteers to support the North Koreans,
    1950/51; (b) the building of the Berlin Wall, 1961; (c) the Cuban Missile Crisis,
    1962. (1992)
80. No area demonstrates more vividly than Germany the differences that emerged
    between the former wartime allies.” How far is this a valid assertion for the years
    1945 to 1962? (1993)
81. Assess the implications for the course of the Cold War of THREE of the
    following: (a) the proclamation of the Korean People‟s Democratic Republic,
    1948; (b) the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Soviet bloc, 1948; (c) the entry of
    Greece and Turkey into NATO, 1952; (d) the battle of Dien Bien Phu, 1954; (e)
    events in Hungary, 1956. (1993)
82. Explain the significance of the Sino-Soviet split with respect to relations between
    East and West. (1993)
83. “The last crusade”- how useful is it to emphasize ideology when studying the
    United States‟ policy of containment after 1945? (1993)
84. In what ways could Stalin be held responsible for the origin and development of
    the Cold War? (1995)
85. Explain the circumstances in which NATO and the Warsaw Pact were formed.
    What contribution did each make to the intensification of the Cold War? (1995)
86. Assess John F. Kennedy‟s handling of Cold War problems during his presidency.
    (1995)
87. Explain how relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were
    affected by the relations of each with China. (1995)
88. How did fear contribute to the origin and development of the Cold War? (1997)
89. In what ways was Korea a typical example of Cold War conflict? (1997)
90. Examine the role of Fidel Castro in East/West relations. (1997)
91. Define “spheres of influence” and assess their role in Cold War politics. (1997)
92. Examine the conflicting aims and policies of rival powers which caused the Cold
    War. (1998)
93. Assess the importance of two of the following in influencing the development of
    the Cold War: Marshall Aid, Warsaw Pact; arms control; détente. (1998)
94. Examine the impact of the Cold War on two countries (excluding the
    superpowers), each chosen from a different region. (1998)
95. The buildup of missiles in Cuba in 1962 was a deliberate, provocative, and
    unjustified action.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? (1998)
96. What were the main social and cultural consequences of the Cold War? (1998)
97. “Ideological differences played only a minor role in the origin and development
    of the Cold War.” How far do you agree with this statement? (1999)
98. In what ways and for what reasons did the Cold War affect the Middle East?
    (1999)
99. Analyze the importance of spheres of interest for one of the superpowers in the
    Cold War. (1999)
100.        Assess the importance in the development of the Cold War of two of the
    following: the Yalta Conference; Berlin; the Arms Race; non-alignment; South
    East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). (1999)
101.        Examine the impact of the Cold War on the social life and culture of two
    countries each chosen from a different region. (1999)
102.        “Ideological differences played little part in the origin of he Cold War.”
    How far do you agree with this judgment? (2000)
103.        To what extent was Germany the cause of East/West disagreements
    between 1943 and 1963? (2000)
104.        Define “superpower rivalry” and assess its importance in international
    politics since 1945. (2000)
105.        Analyze the role of either Cuba or Vietnam in the development of the
    Cold War. (2000)
106.        Compare and contrast the economic and social impact of the Cold War on
    two countries each chosen from a different region. (2000)
                    Paper Three Questions By Topic
Slavery

   1. What were the major similarities and differences in the master-slave relationship
       in the slave cultures of any two countries of the region. (1995)
   2. Who opposed slavery in the Americas and why? (1997)
   3. “In the nineteenth century blacks were allowed greater economic and social
       mobility in Latin America than in the United States.” How do you account for
       this difference? (1998)
   4. Analyze the reasons why slavery in the Americas was supported by different
       social and economic groups. (1999)
   5. Why was the slave rebellion on Haiti successful, while slave rebellions elsewhere
       in the Americas before 1850 failed? (2000)
   6. Analyze the major similarities and differences in the master-slave relationship in
       the slave culture of two countries of the region during the nineteenth century.
       (2001)
   7. Examine the success or failure of two slave rebellions in any country of the
       region. Support your answer with specific examples. (N 2001)
   8. „The dominant response of blacks to slavery was a complex one: a combination of
       adaptation and resistance.‟ To what extent do you agree with this view? Support
       your answer with specific examples from one country of the region. (N 2001)
   9. Analyze the conditions that produced slave insurrections either in the United
       States or Brazil. To what extent were these insurrections successful? (2002)
   10. Evaluate the main arguments for and against slavery in the Americas. (2002)
   11. “The wasteful economy of slavery was replaced by the productive economy based
       on salary.” With reference to two countries of the region, explain to what extent
       you agree with this view. (2003)
   12. Analyse the arguments and activities of the Abolition movement in the United
       States from the1830s to the 1860s (N 2003).
   13. Who opposed slavery in the Americas, and why? (2004)
   14. Assess the economic and social conditions of free African Americans in one
       country of the region during the nineteenth century. (N 2004)
   15. Analyze the main arguments of (a) those who supported slavery; (b) those who
       opposed slavery. (2005)
   16. Analyse the impact of slave revolts in the United States in the first half of the
       nineteenth century. (N 2005)
   17. For what reasons, and in what ways, did supporters of slavery in the nineteenth
       century use legal, religious, and economic arguments in its defense? (2006)
   18. For what reasons did non-slaveholders in the Americas support the institution of
       slavery? (N 2006)
   19. Evaluate the economic and social conditions of free African Americans in one
       country of the region during the nineteenth century. (M2007)
   20. “Opponents of slavery in the Americas were united in their reasons for opposing
       slavery and in their proposals for ending the practice.” Using one country in the
       region, explain to what extent you agree with this statement. (N2007)
   21. For what reasons, and with what impact, did abolitionism develop in the north of
       the United States? (M2008)
   22. To what extent, and for what reasons, were slave rebellions more numerous in
       Brazil than in the United States? (N2008)


The US Civil War

   1. “The United States Civil War was entirely an economic struggle.” To what extent
       do you agree with this assessment? (1995)
   2. To what extent was the expansion of slavery into the territories the primary cause
       of the United States Civil War? (1996)
   3. What were the political causes and results of the US Civil War? (1997)
   4. Assess the contributions made by African- American soldiers during the United
       States Civil War. (1998)
   5. Assess the successes and failures of Reconstruction in granting civil and political
       equality for former slaves in the Southern states of the United States. (1999)
   6. Compare the political, economic, and military strengths and weaknesses of the
       North and South United States at the beginning of the United States Civil War in
       1861. (2000)
   7. “The attempts in the Reconstruction period 1865 to 1877 to solve problems
       caused by the Civil War failed African-Americans.” To what extent do you agree
       with this statement? (2000)
   8. “Abraham Lincoln has been given greater credit than he deserves for the
       emancipation of slaves in the US.” How far do you agree with this statement?
       (2001)
   9. “Slavery was the most important cause of the Civil War in the United States.” To
       what extent do you agree with this judgement? (N 2001)
   10. Why did the South (United States) resort to secession in 1861? (N 2001)
   11. To what extent did economic and social differences cause the United States‟ Civil
       War? (2002)
   12. Explain the reasons why compromise was no longer possible between the North
       and South of the United States by 1861. (2002)
   13. Analyze the immediate and longer-term political effects of the United States Civil
       War in the period 1865 to 18 96. (2003)
   14. Why did the North win the Civil War in the United States? (N 2003)
   15. Why did the United States Civil War break out in 1861? (2004)
   16. To what extent, and for what reasons, did the election of Abraham Lincoln
       contribute to the onset of the Civil War in the United States? (N 2004)
   17. “Abraham Lincoln‟s leadership was the main reason why the Union won the Civil
       War.” To what extent do you agree with this claim? (2005)
   18. Why was the South unwilling to continue within the Union after the election
       of Abraham Lincoln? (N 2005)
   19. Assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of the North and South at the
       beginning of the United States Civil War in 1861. (2006)
   20. “Territorial expansion was the main cause of the US Civil War.” To what extent
       do you agree with this statement? (N 2006)
   21. Why, in spite of the advantages of the North over the South, did the Civil War in
       the United States last so long? (M2007)
   22. “By 1861 efforts to solve the conflict peacefully had been exhausted”. To what
       extent does this explain the outbreak of the Civil War in the United States?
       (N2007)
   23. Why was compromise no longer possible between the North and the South in the
       United States by 1860? (M2008)
   24. How successful were the federal government‟s Reconstruction policies between
       1865 and 1877? (N2008)


US Foreign Policy in Latin America 1898 to 1945:


1. For what reasons, and with what results, did the United States intervene in
Latin America in the period 1898 to 1932? (M 2000)

2. With reference to one state in either the Caribbean or mainland Latin
America, assess the advantages and disadvantages of foreign investment in that
state during the first half of the twentieth century. (M 2001)

3. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the US intervene in Latin America in
the period 1898 to 1932? (M 2001)

4. Evaluate the changes in the United States policy towards Latin America from 1898 to
1941. (N 2001)

5. To what extent was the United States foreign policy toward Latin America, in the
period 1890 to 1914, „principally guided by economic motives‟? Support your views with
specific examples. (N 2001)

6. How successful was the United States. foreign policy towards Latin America in
the first decade of the twentieth century? (M 2002)

7. How successful were attempts at .hemispheric cooperation between 1930 and
1945? (N 2002)

8. Assess the success or failure of two interventions by the United States in
Latin America before the First World War. (N 2002)

9. With reference to two countries in the region analyse the reasons for, and the
effects of, the Good Neighbor Policy of the United States. (M 2003)
10. “The Good Neighbor Policy enhanced both diplomatic and economic relations
between the United States and Latin America.” Assess the validity of this
statement. (N 2003)

11. Analyse the key developments of United States policy in Latin America in the
period 1898 to 1936. (M 2004)

12. What were the immediate and underlying causes of United States
involvement in the Spanish-American War? (N 2004)

13. The Roosevelt Corollary turned the Monroe Doctrine on its head. To what
extent, and for what reasons, do you agree with this statement? (N 2004)

14. The Spanish-American War of 1898 was a turning point in relations between
the United States and Latin America. To what extent do you agree with this
statement? (M 2005)

15. What was the Monroe Doctrine, and how was it used in the late nineteenth
century and early twentieth century? (N 2005)

16. Analyse the causes and impact of the Spanish-American War (1898). (N
2005)

17. “The main aim of Franklin Roosevelt‟s policy towards Latin America (1933-45) was
to improve relations between the two regions.” Assess the validity of this statement. (M
2006)

18. For what reasons, and with what effect on Cuba, did the United States enter the
Spanish-America War in 1898? (N 2006)

19. Compare and contrast the policies towards Latin America of two United States
presidents between 1900 and 1945. (M2007)

20. Analyse the effects of the Spanish-American War on both the United States and
Cuba. (N2007)

21. Define what the Monroe Doctrine was and analyse how it was applied in the late
nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Support your answer with specific
examples. (M2008)

22. Analyse the reasons for, and the effects of, the construction of the Panama Canal.
(N2008)
Latin American Politics in the First Half of the 20th Century (Populism/Nationalism,
Vargas and Peron):

1. What were the causes and characteristics of Peronism? (1995)

2. Analyse the policies of one populist leader in Latin America in the first half of
the twentieth century and assess their effectiveness. (M 2000)

3. Assess the domestic (internal) programme and policies of one populist leader
of Latin America in the period 1900 to 1955. (M 2001)

4. Assess the evolution and impact of nationalism in one country of Latin America from
the 1930s to the 1960s. (N 2001)

5. „Between 1929 and 1950 a new generation of charismatic leaders in Latin America
made broad economic and social changes in their states.‟ To what extent do you agree
with this view? Explain your answer with specific examples from one country of the
area. (N 2001)

6. In what ways, and with what results, did either Perón or Vargas pursue
populist policies? (M 2002)

7. Compare and contrast the programmes of two twentieth century Latin
American leaders. (N 2002) PLEASE NOTE: THIS QUESTION APPLIES TO
LEADERS DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY AS WELL!

8. In what ways, and to what extent, were the policies of either Vargas or Perón
successful in achieving their aims? (M 2003)

9. How and why did nationalism evolve in Latin America in the first half of the
twentieth century? Illustrate your answer with examples from one country of the
region. (N 2003)

10. Compare and contrast the ways in which Vargas and Perón maintained
themselves in power. (M 2004)

11. Explain why Populist movements emerged in Latin America in the first half of
the twentieth century. Illustrate your answer with specific examples from one
country of the region. (N 2004)

12. Analyse the aims and achievements of one populist leader in Latin America
in the first half of the twentieth century. (M 2005)

13. To what extent can one twentieth century Latin American leader be
considered a populist leader? (N 2005)
14. For what reasons, and by what means, did either Peron or Vargas obtain power? (M
2006)

15. How did either Getulio Vargas of Brazil or Juan Perón of Argentina gain and retain
the support of the urban workers? (N 2006)

16. Assess the nature and effectiveness of opposition to either Juan Domingo Perón
(1946–55) or Getulio Vargas (1930–45). (M2007)

17. Examine the methods used and the conditions which helped the rise to power of one
single party state leader in one country of Latin America in the first half of the twentieth
century. (N2007)

18. For what reasons, and what with results, did Populist movements emerge in Latin
America in the first half of the twentieth century? Support your answer with specific
examples from one country of the region. (M2008)

19. For what reasons was Getulio Vargas‟s era (1930–1945) a significant turning point in
Brazilian history? (N2008)


Latin American Foreign Policy 1945 to 1995 (Relations with the US during the
COLD WAR):

1. To what extent has either Canada or one Latin American country developed a
foreign policy independent of the United States since 1945. (M 2002)

2. Explain why the Cold War provided favourable circumstances for the
establishment of military leaders in any two countries in Latin America. (M 2003)

3. How far did the Cold War bring changes to either Latin America or Canada in
their relations with the United States? (N 2003)

4. Analyse the impact of the Cold War on either Canada or Latin America in the
period 1945 to 1960. (M 2004)

5. How did the Cold War change relations between the United States and either
Latin America or Canada between 1945-1953? (N 2004)

6. In what ways, and with what results, did the Cold War influence relations
between either Latin America or Canada with the United States in the period
1945 to 1957? (M 2005)

7. Analyse the relations between the United States and either Canada or one country in
Latin America, between 1945 and 1965. (M 2006)
8. How did the Cold War change relations between the United States and either Latin
America or Canada between 1945–53? (N 2006)

9. How did the Cold War change relations between the United States and either Latin
America or Canada between 1953–1979? (M2007)

10. Compare and contrast the United States‟ foreign policy, towards two countries of the
region, between 1959 and 1985. (N2007)

11. To what extent did either Canada or one Latin American country develop a foreign
policy independent of the United States after 1945? (M2008)

12. Assess the impact of Cold War policies on one Latin American nation between 1945
and 1965. (N2008)




Political and Economic Developments in the United States after WWII:

   1. Evaluate the domestic and foreign policies of Lyndon B. Johnson. (1996)
   2. At the time they left office, Presidents Truman and Eisenhower were both given
       low ratings in Presidential greatness polls. They are now both ranked among the
       top ten presidents. What factors account for this change? (1998)
   3. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of any two United States Presidents
       in the period 1970-1990. (1999)
   4. Assess the achievements and limitations of the domestic policies of any two
       Presidents of the United States of America in the period 1961 to 1988. (2000)
   5. Analyze the political impact of the Vietnam War upon the US between 1964 and
       1974. (2001)
   6. To what extent, and with what results, had Ronald Reagan, by the end of his
       presidency, fulfilled his campaign promises in domestic policy? (N 2001)
   7. Explain the rise of conservative politics in the United States during the 1970s and
       1980s. (N 2001)
   8. Vietnam and Watergate destroyed the reputations of various United
       States. Presidents in the1960s and 1970s. To what extent do you agree
       with this judgment? (M 2002)
   9. President Reagan.s policies brought great benefits to the United States in
       the period 1981 to1990. How far do you agree with this judgment? (M
       2002)
   10. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the President and Congress of the United
       States come into conflict between 1952 and 1980? (2002)
   11. “The outcome of the Vietnam War was determined not on the battlefield, but on
       the television screen.” How far do you agree with this judgment? (M 2003)
  12. Assess the achievements and limitations of the domestic policies of one of
      the following presidents: Lyndon B Johnson (1963–9); Jimmy Carter
      (1977–81); Ronald Reagan (1981–9). (M 2003)
  13. Analyse the political impact of the Watergate Affair in the United States. (N
      2003)
  14. “Their domestic policies brought significant improvements to the lives of
      many people in the United States.” To what extent do you agree with this
      verdict on the domestic policies of either Lyndon B Johnson (1963-68) or
      Ronald Reagan (1981-88)? (M 2004)
  15. Compare and contrast John F Kennedy and Lyndon B Johnson with
      respect to their aims and their style of leadership. (N 2004)
  16. The Watergate Scandal confirmed that in the United States the democratic
      process worked. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (N
      2004)
  17. What factors led to the rise of the New Conservatism in the United States
      during the 1980s? (N 2005)
  18. “By the late 1960s it seemed to many Americans that the forces of chaos and
      radicalism were taking control of the nation.” To what extent did the domestic
      policies of either Richard Nixon (1969-74) or Jimmy Carter (1977-81) address
      this situation? (M 2006)
  19. Examine the role of the Supreme Court of the US government in promoting
      reform in the 1950s and 1960s. (N 2006)
  20. Analyse the effects of the Vietnam War on the United States. (M2007)
  21. Evaluate the successes and failures of the domestic policies of one US president
       between 1945 and 1976. (N2007)



US Foreign Policy 1945-1995 (THE COLD WAR):

  1. Compare the policies of two United States presidents in regard to the Soviet
     Union between 1945 and 1985. Which was more successful and why? (1995)
  2. How did the foreign policies of the United States government respond to the
     perceived threat of Communist aggression during the late 1940s and early 1950s?
     (1998)
  3. Where, and with what effect, has the Truman Doctrine been applied in foreign
     policy? (1999)
  4. Why did the United States intervene in Vietnam between 1961-1971? (1999)
  5. In what ways, and to what extent, did Eisenhower‟s foreign policy demonstrate
     the limits of American power in the 1950s? (2000)
  6. With reference to their aims and actions, examine the foreign policy of one
     of the following presidents of the US: Truman; Eisenhower; Carter;
     Reagan. (2001)
  7. Why had President Nixon ended American involvement in the Vietnam War by
     1973? (N 2001)
8. Evaluate President Truman‟s decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima in
    1945.(N 2001)
9. Evaluate the aims and successes of Nixon‟s and Kissinger‟s policy of „détente‟
    with China and the Soviet Union. (N 2001)
10. In what ways was Jimmy Carter‟s foreign policy a success? (N 2001)
11. Explain why the Cuban Missile Crisis did not cause a war between the United
    States and the Soviet Union. (N 2001)
12. Compare and contrast the Cold War policies of Truman and Eisenhower. (2002)
13. Evaluate the impact of two of the following on the development of the Cold War:
    the Truman Doctrine; the Marshall Plan; the Berlin Blockade; NATO. (2002)
14. Analyze the aims and achievements of the foreign policies of Harry S Truman
    (1945- 53) and George Bush (1989-93). (2003)
15. How effective was Jimmy Carter in applying the principle of human rights
    to United States foreign policy? (N 2003)
16. Assess the successes and failures of the foreign policies of either Harry S Truman
    (1945-52) or Richard Nixon (1969-74). (2004)
17. For what reasons, and with what results, did the United States become
    involved in Vietnam? (N 2004)
18. “The Vietnam War had a disastrous effect on the presidencies of both Lyndon B.
    Johnson and Richard Nixon.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
    (2005)
19. Compare and contrast the Cold War policies of two of the following US
    presidents: Harry S Truman (1945-53); Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961);
    Ronald Reagan (1981-1989). (2005)
20. Compare and contrast the foreign policy toward Vietnam of two United
    States presidents between 1945 and 1969. (N 2005)
21. Assess the successes and failures of the foreign policies of either Eisenhower
    (1952-60) or Kennedy (1961-3). (2006)
22. In what ways, and to what extent, did the foreign policy of Ronald Reagan (1981-
    1988) affect the Cold War? (2006)
23. Compare and contrast the Vietnam War policies of Lyndon Johnson and Richard
    Nixon. (N 2006)
24. Why, and with what consequences, did the United States get involved in Korea?
    (M2007)
25. How successful was Kennedy‟s foreign policy towards the USSR between 1961
     and 1963? (N2007)
26. Analyse the successes and failures of the foreign policies of either Richard Nixon
    (1969–1974) or George H W Bush (1989–1993). (M2008)
27. Analyse the consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis for the Kennedy
     administration (1961–1963). (N2008)
28. Compare and contrast the Vietnam War policies of Harry Truman (1945–1953)
    and Lyndon Johnson (1963–1969). (N2008)
US Civil Rights Movement

   1. How did the views of Booker T Washington an W E B DuBois differ on the best
       ways to advance African-Americans in the United States? (1996)
   2. How successful have minority groups been in the use of political action in any
       two countries of the region since 1945? (1996)
   3. With what justification could it be said that Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm
       X had similar philosophies but used different methods to campaign for civil
       rights? (1998)
   4. How successful was Chief Justice Warren in challenging segregation in the
       United States in the 1950s and 1960s? (1999)
   5. Compare the significance of the events at Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957 with
       those at Birmingham, Alabama in 1963 in the campaign for civil rights by
       African-Americans. (2000)
   6. Assess the extent to which Booker T. Washington offered African-Americans
       effective leadership in the period between 1880 an 1915. (2000)
   7. Analyze the objectives and methods for advancing African-Americans in the US
       of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois. (2001)
   8. In what ways, and for what reasons, were there differences in the philosophy and
       methods of the campaigns for civil rights of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm
       X? (2001)
   9. Assess the impact of Martin Luther King on the Civil Rights movement. (N 2001)
   10. What impact did „Black Power‟ have on the civil rights movement? (N 2001)
   11. Analyze the successes and failures of the United States‟ Civil rights movement
       between 1954 and 1964. (2002)
   12. Why had the civil rights movement come to the forefront of national attention in
       the United States by 1964? (N 2002)
   13. Account for the development of the Civil Rights movement in the USA during the
       1950s. To what extent had the movement achieved its aims by the time of the
       March on Washington (August 1963)? (2003)
   14. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the African American struggle for
       civil rights in the United States change between the early and late 1960s?
       (N 2003)
   15. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the civil rights movement in the United
       States make significant progress in the period 1950 to 1964? (2004)
   16. Compare and contrast the ideas of Booker T. Washington and W E B DuBois on
       improving the position of African-Americans in the United States. (2004)
   17. What arguments and strategies did Booker T Washington and W E B
       DuBois offer for dealing with the problems faced by African Americans at
       the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries? (N
       2004)
   18. Explain why and how the Civil Rights movement became more radical as
       the 1960s progressed. (N 2004)
   19. Compare and contrast the views of Booker T Washington (1856-1915) and Martin
       Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) on the advancement of African-Americans. (2005)
    20. Evaluate the impact of Black Power on the civil rights movement in the United
         States during the second half of the 1960s. (2005)
    21. Compare and contrast the significance of Booker T Washington and W E
         B Dubois in the advancement of African-American rights. (N 2005)
    22. Explain how and why the position of African Americans improved in United
         States society between 1877 and 1945. (2006)
    23. For what reasons, and in what ways, did the Civil Rights movement in the United
         States become more radical between 1965 and 1968? (2006)
    24. In what ways, and for what reasons, was there a shift in the focus and activities of
         US civil rights organizations by the mid-1960s? (N 2006)
    25. To what extent had African Americans in the United States gained their civil and
         political rights by 1968? (M2007)
    26. Analyse the reasons for the rise of the Civil Rights movement in the United States
         after the Second World War. (N2007)
    27. With reference to two United States presidencies between 1945 and 1969, assess
the role of the US Federal Government in the achievement of African-American civil
rights. (M2008)
    28. What were the reasons for the change in the Civil Rights Movement in the United
States during the second half of the 1960s? (N2008)


Political and Economic Developments in Latin America after WWII:

A. Cuba/Chile/Nicaragua/Guatemala relevancy questions:

1. With reference to either the different regions of Canada or to any two countries
in mainland Latin America, analyse the impact of economic changes between
1960 and 1990. (M 2000)

2. Analyse the main political and economic developments in either Canada or
one country in mainland Latin America during the period 1960 to 1990. (M 2001)

3. Explain why the United States overthrew the Arbenz government in Guatemala in
1954. (N 2001)

4. To what extent has economic failure been characteristic of Latin American military
governments between the 1960s and 1980s? Explain your answer using examples of two
countries of the region. (N 2001)

5. Analyse the factors which contributed to the revolutions in one of the following
countries: Guatemala, Nicaragua, or Chile. (N 2001)

6. Analyse the reasons for the United States. intervention in Guatemala in 1954.
(M 2002)
7. Social problems were the main motivation for revolutionary changes in Latin
America after the Second World War. Discuss the validity of this statement with
reference to one country of South or Central America, or the Caribbean. (N
2002)

8. Land reform is the single most important issue in Latin America since 1945.
Evaluate this view with specific reference to one country of the region. (N 2002)

9. Analyse the reasons for the transition to democracy in one country of Latin
America in the 1980s and 1990s. (N 2003)

10. To what extent did domestic events lead to a political and social revolution
during the post-Second World War period in either Guatemala or Nicaragua? (M
2004)

11. Compare and contrast the causes of two revolutionary movements in Latin
America after 1945. (N 2004)

12. For what reasons, and by what means, did the United States intervene in
Chile in 1970-73? (N 2005)

13. Compare and contrast the causes of two revolutionary movements in Latin America
after 1945. (M 2006- NOTE: A repeat question from N 2004!)

14. With reference to at least two countries in the region, analyse the major causes of
revolutionary movements in Latin America after the Second World War. (N 2006)

15. For what reasons, and with what results, did the military intervene in one country in
Latin America between 1960 and 1980? (M2007)

16. Evaluate the political and economic impact of military rule in Chile between 1973
and 1989. (N2008)


B. Questions specific to Castro and the Cuban Revolution:

   1. Analyze the reasons for the longevity of Fidel Castro‟s rule in Cuba. (1998)
   2. Explain the reasons for the long survival of the regime of Fidel Castro. (1999)
   3. To what extent was Castro able to achieve his aims between 1959 and 1990, and
      what prevented him from achieving more? (2000)
   4. “Cuba, unlike other Latin American countries, has created a true social
      revolution.” How valid is this assessment of the impact of Castro‟s regime upon
      Cuba? (2001)
   5. Why did Cuba become a Marxist-Leninist state closely tied to the Soviet Union
      by 1961? (N 2001)
    6. „Castro‟s rule in Cuba from 1959 to 1990 was mainly successful.‟ How far do you
        agree with this claim? (N 2001)
    7. Why, and with what results, did Castro replace Batista as ruler of Cuba? (2002)
    8. Analyze the successes and failures of Castro‟s social and economic policies in the
        period 1960-1990. (2003)
    9. Analyze the short-term and longer-term consequences for Cuba between 1959 and
        1995 of Castro‟s rule. (2004)
    10. For what reasons, and with what results for the economy of Cuba, did Castro
        become ruler of Cuba? (2005)
    11. In what ways did the Cuban Revolution have a powerful impact on
        relations between the US and Latin America? (N 2005)
    12. “By 1962 Castro‟s domestic policy had successfully transformed Cuba.” To what
        extent do you agree with this statement? (N 2006)
    13. How and why did Fidel Castro rise to power in 1959? (N2007)
    14. “Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba because of the weaknesses of Batista‟s
regime.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? (M2008)


C. OAS Questions.

1. Discuss the view that the Organisation of American States (OAS) had more
successes than failures in the period 1950 to 1990. (M 2000)
2. To what extent was the Organization of American States (OAS) able to
achieve its aims in the period 1970 to 1990, and what factors hindered greater
success? (M 2001)
3. Why was the Organization of American States (OAS) founded and how
successful has it been in achieving its aims? (M 2002)
4. In what ways was the Organization of American States (OAS) successful
between 1950 and 1990? (N 2002)
5. To what extent was the Organization of American States (OAS) successful in
achieving its aims in the period 1950 to 1970? (M 2003)
6. Evaluate the role of one international organization as mediator in two conflicts
in the region in the period 1960 to 1990. HINT…OAS! (N 2005)
7. To what extent was the Organization of American States (OAS) successful as a
mediator in hemispheric conflicts between 1950 and 1990? (M 2006)

								
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