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					                                           August 19, 2009




      APPENDIX: Workforce
      Development System Gap
      Analysis, and Asset Mapping
      for BRAC Impacted Areas in
      the MARC Region




                           Mid-Atlantic Regional Collaboration
      Prepared             (MARC)
            for
                           Northern Virginia Community College




Richmond, Virginia                                      Cleveland, Ohio

1309 East Cary Street                                1025 East Huron Road
Richmond, Virginia 23219                             Cleveland, Ohio 44115
804.649.1107 (phone)                                 216.357.4730 (phone)
804.644.2828 (fax)                                       216.357.4730 (fax)




                                                www.chmuraecon.com
                                                                        Table of Contents



Appendix 1: Student Surveys ....................................................................................................................................... 4

   A1.1 Summary........................................................................................................................................................... 4
   A1.2 High School Questionnaire ............................................................................................................................... 4
   A1.3 Post-Secondary School Questionnaire ............................................................................................................. 8

Appendix 2: Business Survey Report ......................................................................................................................... 12

   A2.1 Methodology ................................................................................................................................................... 12
   A2.2 Demographics ................................................................................................................................................. 13
   A2.3 Occupation Demand and Labor Issues .......................................................................................................... 16
   A2.4 Questionnaire .................................................................................................................................................. 27

Appendix 3: Military Interview Report ......................................................................................................................... 31

   Assessment of the Impact of 2005 BRAC Decisions .............................................................................................. 31

      District of Columbia.............................................................................................................................................. 32
      Maryland .............................................................................................................................................................. 33
      Northern Virginia .................................................................................................................................................. 35

   Regional Conclusions .............................................................................................................................................. 36

      Military Survey Instruments ................................................................................................................................. 37

Appendix 4: Industry Interview Report ........................................................................................................................ 43

Appendix 5: Interviews with Educational Institution Officials ...................................................................................... 45

   A5.1. Community College Workforce Programs Official ......................................................................................... 45
   A5.2. Technical School Official ............................................................................................................................... 46
   A5.3. Chief Executive of a Community College ...................................................................................................... 46
   A5.4. Community College Dean .............................................................................................................................. 47
   A5.5. Chief Executive of a Community College ...................................................................................................... 48
   A5.6. Chief Executive of a Community College ...................................................................................................... 48

Appendix 6: Definitions ............................................................................................................................................... 50

   A6.1: Industry Sector Definition ............................................................................................................................... 50
   A6.2: Critical Occupation Definition ......................................................................................................................... 50
   A6.3: Green Jobs Industries Definition .................................................................................................................... 54
   A6.4: BRAC and Similar Industry Definition ............................................................................................................ 58
   A6.5: Industry Cluster Definitions ........................................................................................................................... 60
   A6.6. Military Exits ................................................................................................................................................... 65
   A6.7: Gap Reductions in Critical Occupations ....................................................................................................... 73

      A6.7.1: Alternative Occupations for Two Critical Occupations ........................................................................... 75

Appendix 7: MARC Region Overall Data .................................................................................................................... 77


          2
A7.1: Industry .......................................................................................................................................................... 77
A7.2: Occupations ................................................................................................................................................... 80
A7.3. Occupation Impact for MARC Region............................................................................................................ 86
A7.4. Final Occupation Gap .................................................................................................................................... 90
A7.5. Education ....................................................................................................................................................... 97




       3
Appendix 1: Student Surveys1
A1.1 Summary

To obtain primary data on the talent in the regional educational pipeline, the project plan for this study included
surveys of students at high schools, community colleges, and technical or trade schools. Due to a short project
timeframe and a project start time in late May, near the end of the academic year, these surveys could not be
completed. Extensive calls were placed to high schools as well as post-secondary schools in the MARC Region. In
many cases, it was difficult if not impossible for cooperation to be obtained during the project timeframe. Some
schools stated willingness to cooperate, but not until the next academic year. Despite these obstacles, two
schools—one high school and one post-secondary school—agreed to participate within the required timeframe.
Materials for the surveys were sent to these schools, but completed materials were not received back. To
compensate for the lack of primary data in this area, more extensive secondary data related to the subject matter
was pulled and used instead.

The questionnaires developed for these surveys are included here for reference and possible future use.


A1.2 High School Questionnaire

Please assist us by taking this short survey on your career interests and plans. You do not need to identify yourself
and you can be absolutely sure that all of the information you provide is strictly confidential. Your answers will be
combined with those of many others and used only for statistical analysis.

This survey is being conducted by Chmura Economics & Analytics on behalf of the Mid-Atlantic Regional
Collaborative (MARC). We genuinely appreciate your valuable assistance. Your honest answers are very
necessary so that MARC can best serve your community. Thank you again for your help.

Choose only one response for each question.

1. I am a:
□ Senior
□ Junior

2. I attend:
□ ______________________ High School

3. How decided are you about your career choice?
□ Not at all decided
□ Slightly decided



1
 The student surveys could not be completed because the project timeline overlapped with the end of the school year and the
non-traditional mix of students attending summer sessions at the community colleges.




        4
□ Somewhat decided
□ Probably decided
□ Definitely decided
□ Not sure how to answer

4. Within which group are you most likely
   to pursue a career?
□ Agriculture, Food & Natural Resources
    (including environmental science)
□ Architecture & Construction
□ Arts, A/V Technology & Communications
□ Business, Management &
   Administration
□ Education & Training
□ Finance
□ Government & Public Administration
□ Health care (Health Science)
□ Hospitality & Tourism
□ Human Services
□ Information Technology
□ Law, Public Safety, Corrections &
   Security
□ Manufacturing
□ Marketing, Sales & Service
□ Science, Technology, Engineering &
   Mathematics
□ Transportation, Distribution & Logistics
□ Don‘t know


5. How likely are you to pursue a career in
   the following occupations after finishing
   high school?

a) Nursing

 □ Not at all likely (0% chance)
 □ There is a slight chance
 □ Somewhat likely (~50/50)
 □ Probably
 □ Definitely (100% chance)
 □ Not sure

b) Electrical Engineering

 □ Not at all likely (0% chance)
 □ There is a slight chance
 □ Somewhat likely (~50/50)
 □ Probably
 □ Definitely (100% chance)
 □ Not sure

c) Geospatial Technology (a set of fields
   including global positioning systems,
   information about geography, and
   systems for remote sensing of the
   earth‘s features and phenomena)

 □ Not at all likely (0% chance)

        5
  □ There is a slight chance
  □ Somewhat likely (~50/50)
  □ Probably
  □ Definitely (100% chance)
  □ Not sure

d) Government Security/Intelligence

  □ Not at all likely (0% chance)
  □ There is a slight chance
  □ Somewhat likely (~50/50)
  □ Probably
  □ Definitely (100% chance)
  □ Not sure

e) Computer Science

  □ Not at all likely (0% chance)
  □ There is a slight chance
  □ Somewhat likely (~50/50)
  □ Probably
  □ Definitely (100% chance)
  □ Not sure

f) Construction
   □ Not at all likely (0% chance)
   □ There is a slight chance
   □ Somewhat likely (~50/50)
   □ Probably
   □ Definitely (100% chance)
   □ Not sure

6. What specific occupation are you most likely to pursue after finishing school:

□ ____________________________

□ Don‘t know/other

7. After high school, where will you most
   likely continue your education?

□ 4-yr college
□ 2-yr college
□ Vocational or Trade School
□ I‘m entering the military
□ I don‘t plan on any further education or
   the military
□ Don‘t know/other

8. If you are attending school after high school, where is the likely location of the school you are attending?
□ The District of Columbia
□ Northern Virginia
□ The Greater Washington-Baltimore
   areas of Maryland
□ Other _______________________
□ I‘m not attending school after high
   school
□ Not sure




        6
9. If you have been accepted, what is the
   name of the school you are attending
   after high school?

□ School Name: _____________________
□ I haven‘t been accepted to a school yet
□ I‘m not attending school after high
   school
□ Don‘t know/other

10. After you finish your education, how
  likely is it you will live and work in one
  of these three regions: (1) District of
  Columbia, (2) Northern Virginia, (3) the
  Greater Washington-Baltimore areas of
  Maryland?
□ Not at all likely (0% chance)
□ There is a slight chance
□ Somewhat likely (~50/50)
□ Probably
□ Definitely (100% chance)
□ Not sure

11. Do you have a parent who is in the military?
□ Yes
□ No
□ Don‘t know/other

12. Do you have a parent who works in the federal government (but not in the military)?

□ Yes
□ No
□ Don‘t know/other

13. What has been the average grade you
  received in high school?

□A
□B
□C
□ D or lower
□ Don‘t know/other

Finally, please answer these questions about yourself:

14. Gender:

□ Female
□ Male

15. Home zip code: _____________

Thank you for your assistance!


        7
A1.3 Post-Secondary School Questionnaire

Please assist us by taking this short survey on your career interests and plans. You do not need to identify yourself
and you can be absolutely sure that all of the information you provide is strictly confidential. Your answers will be
combined with those of many others and used only for statistical analysis.

This survey is being conducted by Chmura Economics & Analytics on behalf of the Mid-Atlantic Regional
Collaborative (MARC). We genuinely appreciate your valuable assistance. Your honest answers are very
necessary so that MARC can best serve your community. Thank you again for your help.

Choose only one response for each question.

1. Name of the school you are currently attending:

□ _______________________________

□ (Check if applicable) I am attending the above school as a visiting student for the summer,
I am a regular student at: _______________________________

2. Which of the following best describes
   your education goal?

  □ Certificate
  □ 2-yr degree
  □ 4-yr degree
  □ A degree taking more than 4 years
  □ These classes are required by my
      current job
  □ I want just enough education to get a
      job
  □ Other: ________________________
  □ Undecided

3. What is your plan after finishing at the
   school you are currently attending?

□ Further education at a school inside
  the Greater Washington-Baltimore
  region
□ Further education at a school outside
  the Greater Washington-Baltimore
  region
□ Work
□ Other: __________________________
□ Undecided

4. At your current school, what is your
   degree/program track?

□ _______________________________

        8
□ Undecided
□ None

5. For when you are done with school,
   what specific occupation is your goal?

□ ____________________________

□ Don‘t know/other

6. For this occupation, what are the job
   prospects in the region where you hope
   to find a job?

□ Good
□ Average
□ Poor
□ Other
□ I don‘t know
□ Not applicable

7. How decided are you about your career
   choice?

□ Not at all decided
□ Slightly decided
□ Somewhat decided
□ Probably decided
□ Definitely decided
□ Not sure how to answer

8. Which of the following career tracks, if
   any, are you interested in?

□ Nursing
□ Electrical Engineering
□ Computer Science
□ Geospatial Technology
□ Government Security/Intelligence
               2
□ Construction
□ None of the above

9. After you finish your education, how




2
 This survey instrument was developed before the critical occupation analysis was complete, and so the human resources
occupation group was not included.




        9
  likely is it that you will live and work in one of these three regions: (1) District of
  Columbia, (2) Northern Virginia, (3) the
  Greater Washington-Baltimore areas of
  Maryland?

□ Not at all likely (0% chance)
□ There is a slight chance
□ Somewhat likely (~50/50)
□ Probably
□ Definitely (100% chance)
□ Not sure

10. At this stage in your career, how
  willing would you be to take a job
  anywhere in the Greater Washington-
  Baltimore area (stretching from
  Northern Virginia to Baltimore) as
  opposed to the area within 30 minutes
  of where you now live?

□ Not at all willing
□ Slightly willing
□ Somewhat willing
□ Probably willing
□ Definitely willing
□ Not sure

11. How important is it that you work in an
  environmentally friendly industry?

□ Not at all important
□ Somewhat important
□ Very important
□ Don‘t know/other

12. Do you have a parent who is in the
  military?

□ Yes
□ No
□ Don‘t know/other

13. Do you have a parent that works in the
  federal government (but not in the
  military)?

□ Yes
□ No
□ Don‘t know/other

14. Are you now serving or have you ever


        10
  served in the U.S. military?

□ Yes
□ No □ Other

Finally, please answer these questions about yourself:

15. Gender:
□ Female
□ Male

16. Age: ___________

17. Number of completed years of school
  after high school: _________________

18. Hours currently worked per week:
□ Zero
□ 1-19
□ 20-39
□ 40+

19. Home zip code: __________________

Thank you for your assistance!




        11
Appendix 2: Business Survey Report
A2.1 Methodology

For a survey of businesses in the MARC Region, two populations were targeted: defense contractors and general
government contractors. Potential participants were sent an e-mail invitation to complete the survey online within a
1½- to 2-week timeframe. Participants were given the option to opt-out through a reply e-mail. Those who did not
complete the survey initially or opt-out were sent a reminder e-mail the day before the deadline.

For a sample of defense contractors, contact names were selected from Washington-area members of the National
Defense Industrial Association (NDIA). While some member companies had more than one contact with e-mail
information, only one contact per company was selected for the sample. This sample comprises 304 individuals. Of
these, ten e-mails bounced-back, indicative of non-functional e-mail addresses, and seven opted out.

For a sample of government contractors, the online database of the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA)
was mined for contractors in the MARC region. While the NDIA survey was conducted in early June, GSA
contractors were surveyed in late June. To avoid duplication, the GSA list was scanned for duplicates against
completed responses from the NDIA survey. A GSA sample of 1,972 contractors was obtained, of which 192 e-
mails went undelivered and 18 opted out.

Overall, 2,276 e-mails were sent with 202 not delivered and 25 individuals opting out. The Web site containing the
online survey was visited by 210 individuals, though some did not complete any questions and others completed
only a few. For purposes of this analysis, only responses completed at least through question 6 were considered
‖complete‖ responses. By this criterion, 83 responses were complete, which, out of 2,074 delivered e-mails,
represent a 4.0% response rate.

The general maximum sampling error associated with a sample of 83 respondents is ± 9.1% with 90% confidence.
However, in addition to sampling error, non-sampling errors can affect results. Non-sampling errors can include
non-response errors and coverage errors. Coverage errors concern the match between the respondent sample and
the population upon which the results are projected. In this case, however, results are taken as indicative only of
government contractors and not projected upon a wider population. Non-response errors arise when the
respondent group differs materially from the non-respondent group. An examination of partial completes,
respondents who began the survey but did not finish, can provide a hint of the nature of non-respondents—this will
be discussed below in the presentation of results.

In so much that the sample is representative of the population, results presented herein that are comparative of
subgroups and are statistically significant with 95% or higher confidence are marked with an asterisk.




       12
A2.2 Demographics


                                  Responses by Organization


                                            NDIA
                                            29%




                                                              GSA
                                                              71%


                           n=83


Respondents from the National Defense Industry Association accounted for 29% of the sample and respondents
from the General Services Administration database accounted for the remaining 71% of the sample.



                                           Responses by Industry
                              Professional and Business Services
                              (excluding those components also
                              listed here)                                  47%
                              Computer Systems Design and
                              Related Services                              16%
                              Advanced Manufacturing                         6%
                              Architectural, Engineering, and
                              Related Services                               6%
                              Other                                         11%
                              No Response                                   14%
                              Total                                        100%
                                                                             n=83




Industry designations shown here are based on the respondents‘ survey answers. The respondent sample was
dominated by professional and business services firms, a sector that includes computer systems design and
related services as well as architectural, engineering, and related services. Altogether, the professional and
business services sector accounted for 69% of the sample and 80% of the known sample (that is, excluding the
respondents whose industry is unknown). Computer systems design and related services accounted for 16% of the
sample and architectural, engineering, and related services composed 6% of the overall sample. Five respondents



       13
(6%) classified themselves as advanced manufacturers while two others (listed under ―other‖ in the above table)
classified themselves as light manufacturing.

        NDIA respondents accounted for 4 of the 5 manufacturing responses and 3 of the 5 architectural,
        engineering, and related services responses.
        Respondents from the GSA database accounted for all of the computer systems design and related
        services sector within the sample.



                                       Responses by Number of Employees
                               1-10                                           23%
                               11-50                                          36%
                               51-500                                         18%
                               501+                                             5%
                               Unknown                                        18%
                               Total                                         100%
                                                                               n=83




Firms with 11 to 50 employees accounted for 36% of responses and firms with 1 to 10 employees made up 23% of
the sample. Larger firms also were represented, with 5% of respondents having more than 500 employees and
18% having 51 to 500 employees. The number of employees was not disclosed for 18% of the sample. The 68
firms that reported their number of employees accounted for a total workforce of 17,028. These same firms
averaged a mean 250 employees and a median 22.5 employees.

        Respondents from the NDIA and GSA database had a similar makeup by size. Among the NDIA
        respondents, mean average size was 274 employees with a median of 26. Among the GSA database
        respondents, mean average size was 242 employees with a median of 20.




       14
                       Military Installations Worked with During the
                                        Past Five Years
                                            Fort Belvoir

                                              Quantico

          Aberdeen Proving Ground (including Edgewood)

                                            Fort Meade

                              Naval District Washington

                                           Fort Detrick

                      Walter Reed Army Medical Center

                 National Naval Medical Center Bethesda

                                  Bolling Air Force Base

                                Andrews Air Force Base

                                     None of the Above

                             Don't Know/Not Applicable


          n=70                                             0%   5%   10%   15%   20%   25%   30%   35%   40%   45%


Of the regional military installations, respondents indicated that Fort Belvoir and Quantico—bases engaged in
expansions due to BRAC in Northern Virginia—involved the most contractors. During the past five years, 43% of
the respondents worked with Fort Belvoir and 36% worked with Quantico. Engaging the next-largest number of
contractors was Aberdeen Proving Ground (including Edgewood), which worked with 20% of the respondents
                                                                                                 3
during the same time frame. One-third of the respondents (33%) did not work with any of the ten installations in
the above table in the past five years.

           Of these ten, the bases working with the least number of contractors in the sample were National Naval
           Medical Center Bethesda, Bolling Air Force Base, and Andrews Air Force Base, which each worked with
           10% of the respondents during the past five years.
           Of the 43 respondents indicating they worked with at least one of these military installations, ten worked
           with just one base, thirteen worked with two bases, nine worked with three bases, and the remaining
           eleven worked with four to eight bases.



3
    The Potomac Annex was not included in the survey instrument.




          15
        Not surprising, firms from the NDIA worked with more bases* on average (3.4) in the past five years than
        firms from the GSA database (1.3).
        The average firm worked with 1.9 installations in the past five years. Firms with 1 to 10 employees worked
        with an average 1.5 installations while larger firms worked with an average of more than two.
        By industry, firms in the sample more likely to work with the military bases (worked with an average 3.0
        installations in the past five years) were found in ―other‖ fields: architectural, engineering, and related
        services (2.8 bases on average); and advanced manufacturing (2.2 on average). The computer systems
        design and related services firms worked with the least number of bases on average, 0.7, in the past five
        years.


A2.3 Occupation Demand and Labor Issues


                                    "How Do You Expect Your Firm's
                                 Employment Will Change in the Next Five
                                               Years?"


                                                         Don't
                                                         Know
                                                          13%
                                                                 Stay the Same
                                                                      24%
                                                                                 Decrease
                                                                                   3%

                                                   Increase
                                                     60%

                        n=70


                                                                    4
Of the seventy respondents who also disclosed their firm size, 60% expected their company to add employees
during the next five years, while 24% thought they would stay the same and 3% expected a decrease. Overall,
these firms had 17,095 employees and expected to add 3,384 employees within five years for a 3.7% annual
increase. (Note that the survey was conducted in June 2009, amidst a recession, which may have impacted growth
expectations.)

        Only one of the five manufacturing firms expected to expand employment—the other four expected to stay
        the same.



4
 Only responses from people who recorded their firm‘s total number of employees are analyzed in this question to calculate
more accurately the expected overall percentage change in employment.




        16
        The NDIA and GSA groups had similar response patterns to this question.
        Twenty-four partial responses were completed in which 50% expected an employment increase. From a
        statistical point of view, this is not significantly different from the data in this question from completed
        responses. Since non-respondents are likely to have more in common with partial respondents than full
        respondents, this implies that the non-respondent error in this question, at least, would be small if any.



                           Firms with Job Openings (June 2009)
                                                   Don't Know
                                                      2%




                                                                    Yes
                                                                    46%
                                              No
                                             52%




                    n=83



A little less than half of the respondent firms (46%) had job openings at the time of the survey in June 2009.

        As would be expected, larger firms were more likely* to have job openings than smaller firms. Seventy-nine
        percent of firms with 51 or more employees stated they had job openings compared with 26% of firms with
        1 to 10 employees.
        Seventeen of twenty-three partial completes stated they had job openings, a significantly* higher
        percentage than among the completed responses reported above and shown in the chart. Since non-
        respondents may be more similar to partial respondents than complete respondents, this suggests that the
        percentage of job openings reported here among completed respondents may be understated and, in
        general, subsequent rates of turnover among completed responses may also be understated due to non-
        response error.

Thirty-four respondents who had openings provided further details on those openings by occupation as shown in
the following table.

Among the occupations groups listed in the survey, government security/intelligence had by far the largest number
of openings: 216 listings from seven respondents. Also listed were 68 openings for computer software engineers
(with need among twelve respondents) and 44 openings for all other computer specialists (listed by five
respondents). The average length of vacancy gives an indication of the supply of an occupation. Occupations with
an abundant supply (compared to demand) generally have lower average vacancy lengths than those short in
supply. Among the occupation groups listed in the survey, average vacancies were less than four months for
electrical engineering, computer software engineer, and network and computer systems administrator. Average
vacancies of five or more months—indicating potentially sharper supply shortages—were recorded in government
security/intelligence, all other computer specialists, and all other occupations using geospatial technology.

       17
                                 Firms Hiring Employees in May 2009
                                                           Don't Know
                                                              2%




                                                  Yes
                                                  44%
                                                                               No
                                                                              54%




                          n=70



A little less than half (44%) of firms in the survey stated that they hired employees in May 2009. These respondents
                                                                                                     5
also provided the number of employees they hired in May, which translated into a 1.1% hires rate. This rate,
however, is likely understated as it compares with an overall 3.3% hires rate in the nation and a hires rate of 3.9%
in the national professional and business services sector.



                                        Top Occupations with New Hires, May 2009
                                 Government Security/Intelligence                              49
                                 Supply Specialists                                            20
                                 Computer Software Engineer                                    14
                                 All Other Computer Specialists                                10
                                 Federal Staffing/HR                                            9
                                 HR Consultants                                                 9
                                 Contracts & Acquisition                                        6
                                 Specialist (Logistics)                                         5
                                 Delivery Driver                                                4
                                 Subject Matter Experts                                         4
                                 Tech Data Specialists                                          4
                                 Naval Architects                                               3
                                 Network & Computer Systems Administrator                       3
                                 Recruiters                                                     3



5
    The hires rate is the number of hires during the month as a percent of total employment.




          18
Respondents that hired in May were asked to list the occupations hired. By those tallies, the most hires were in
government security/intelligence, with 49 hires by three firms. Among respondent firms, 14 computer software
engineers were hired by five firms and 10 all-other computer specialists were hired by five firms. Twenty supply
specialists were hired by one firm. HR occupations were listed in several ways with 19 overall hires: nine ―federal
staffing/HR,‖ nine ―HR consultants,‖ and one ―human resources management.‖



                                               Applicant-to-Hires Ratio
                            Occupation                                            Ratio n
                            All Other Computer Specialists                         3.0  2
                            Electrical Engineering                                10.0 1
                            Human Resources (total)                                3.1  2
                            Network & Computer Systems Administrator               3.5  2
                            All Occupations Reported                               9.8 34

The applicant-to-hires ratio can vary widely according to the skill level required for the job opening, the size of the
labor market, and the current economic conditions. A relative high applicant-to-hires ratio can indicate a tight labor
market with many individuals competing for a job opening. A relative low ratio, on the other hand, may indicate an
undersupply of a certain occupation or skill set. Overall, a 9.8 applicant-to-hires ratio was reported in the region,
inflated due to three cases where a total of 700 applicants applied for seven jobs—each a relatively low-skilled
position. By comparison, the labor market was tighter for all other computer specialists, human resources, and
network and computer systems administrator occupations, with applicant to hires ratios of 3.0 to 3.5.

Hiring from outside a region also may point to regional labor shortages, though other factors may also be involved.
In one reported hiring incident of electrical engineering, twenty applicants applied for two open positions, for a 10.0
ratio. Nevertheless, both of the hires in this case resided outside the region during recruitment.



                                    Separation Rate, May 2009
                    4.5%
                    4.0%
                    3.5%             4.0%                                             3.9%
                    3.0%                                     3.3%
                    2.5%
                    2.0%
                    1.5%
                    1.0%
                    0.5%
                    0.0%
                             Survey Sample (n=47)    Nation: Total Private   Nation: Professional and
                                                           Industry             Business Services




       19
                                                      6
Survey respondents indicated a separation rate comparable to that in the nation. Separations are employees
separated from the payroll because of events such as quits, layoffs, and retirements. Respondents reported a 4.0%
separation rate, not much higher than the 3.3% rate in the nation among private industry firms and close to the
3.9% rate in the nation among professional and business services firms.



                                       Percentage of Firms Expecting to
                                       Change Physical Location or Shift
                                       Employee Locations due to BRAC
                                          Don't
                                       Know/Other
                                          15%                       Yes
                                                                    13%




                                                                  No
                                                                 72%
                            n=83



At least one of every eight firms surveyed (13%) is expecting location shifts as a result of BRAC 2005, either
changing the physical location of the firm or shifting employees to different locations. This percentage was similar
among NDIA members and GSA database respondents.

           Of the eleven firms expecting location changes, two (18%) anticipated additional labor turnover because of
           the changes while five (45%) expected no change and four (36%) did not know. Of the two expecting
           increased turnover, one estimated 1% turnover from the change while the other expected turnover of
           between 10% and 15%, with professional staff occupations being affected the most.
           The firms in the group ―professional and business services not including computer systems design and
           related services and architectural, engineering, and related services‖ were less likely* to be expecting a
           location move due to BRAC, with only 3% of these firms expecting a move. In contrast, four of thirteen
           (31%) of computer systems design and related services firms anticipated a shift and three of eight (38%)
           firms in the ―other‖ category expected a move.




6
    The separation rate is the number of separations during the month as a percent of total employment.




          20
                                     Top Critical Occupation Groups That Will
                                     Likely be Hired (New + Replacements) in
                                                 the Next Five Years
                                    Security/Intelligence               1,225
                                    IT/Computer                           229
                                    Engineering                           186
                                    Administration/Management             102
                                    Finance/Accounting                     45
                                    Customer Service                       34
                                    Logistics                              32

Survey respondents were asked which occupations were most critical for their firm that they would likely need to
hire during the next five years in the region, including new hires and replacement hires (from turnover and
retirements). The top occupation group identified by respondents was security/intelligence, with a need for 1,225
hires, though one thousand of these hires were reported by one large firm. Six firms, overall, expressed a critical
need for an occupation in this category.

        Other top needs were recorded for IT/computer (229), engineering (186), and administration/management
        (102).
        The IT/computer occupation group was the most popular critical need, cited by 23 respondents. The next
        most popular was in administration/management, engineering, and finance/accounting.

The detailed and complete list of critical occupations obtained in the survey follows:

                                                                         # of Hires in
                                                                          the next 5
                                 Critical Occupations                       Years
                                 Security Officers                               1,000
                                 Contracts & Acquisitions                          300
                                 Federal Staffing                                  300
                                 Intelligence                                      110
                                 Engineers                                          84
                                 Admin Asst                                         77
                                 Software Engineer                                  77
                                 Intel/CI Analysts                                  65
                                 Analysts                                           60
                                 Project manager                                    32
                                 Aerospace Engineer                                 30
                                 Test Engineers                                     30
                                 IT                                                 27
                                 Security Professionals                             25
                                 Security Specialist                                25
                                 Tech Data Specialists                              25
                                 Technicians                                        25
                                 Call Center Operators                              20
                                 Computer System Engineer                           20
                                 Sales                                              19
                                 Business Analyst                                   17
                                 Accountant                                         16
                                 Program Manager                                    16
                                 Contract Specialist                                15
                                 FMS Analysts                                       15
                                 Logisticians                                       15


       21
                                             # of Hires in
                                              the next 5
     Critical Occupations                       Years
     System Engineers                                   15
     Web Programmers                                    15
     Customer Service                                   14
     Admin                                              13
     Assembly                                           12
     Database Administrator                             12
     HR                                                 12
     Marketing/Sales                                    12
     Network Engineer                                   12
     Account Executives                                 10
     Conference Planners                                10
     Field Technicians                                  10
     Java / J2EE                                        10
     Logistic Specialist                                10
     Ontologist                                         10
     Social Scientist                                   10
     Software Developer                                 10
     Trainers                                           10
     Administrative                                      8
     Modeler                                             8
     Technical Analyst                                   8
     Business Developers                                 7
     IT Consultant                                       7
     Programmers                                         7
     QA Engineer                                         7
     Research Analyst                                    7
     Account Manager                                     6
     Contracts Admin                                     5
     Economists                                          5
     Environ. Engineer                                   5
     Environmental Scientist                             5
     Federal Retirement Benefits Counselor               5
     IT Security                                         5
     IT Software Eng                                     5
     Lobbyist                                            5
     Marketing Manager                                   5
     Microsoft SharePoint                                5
     Mold Inspector                                      5
     Naval Architects                                    5
     Oracle Database Administrators                      5
     Process Improvement Specialists                     5
     Project Management Specialists                      5
     Recruiters                                          5
     Telecom Engineer                                    5
     CAD Technicians                                     4
     Factory Help                                        4
     BI Developers                                       3
     Cable and Wire Techs                                3
     Computer Techs                                      3
     Finance                                             3
     Logistics                                           3
     Logistics Technicians                               3
     Managers                                            3
     Manufacturing                                       3
     Marketing Specialists                               3
     Mfg Engineer                                        3
     Researcher                                          3

22
                                                                     # of Hires in
                                                                      the next 5
                                Critical Occupations                    Years
                                Technical Writers                                3
                                Transportation Engineer                          3
                                VoIP Telephony Experts                           3
                                Application Developers                           2
                                Career Counselor                                 2
                                Certified Financial Planner                      2
                                Computer Programmer                              2
                                Computer Specialist                              2
                                Designer                                         2
                                Estate Planning Attorney                         2
                                Health Professional                              2
                                Machine engineers                                2
                                Managed Service                                  2
                                Management                                       2
                                Mechanical Engineer                              2
                                NEPA Analyst                                     2
                                Office                                           2
                                Operations                                       2
                                Research Assistant                               2
                                Sales/Account Manager                            2
                                Scientist                                        2
                                Subcontract Administrator                        2
                                System Administrator                             2
                                Wetland Scientist                                2
                                A/P Administrator                                1
                                Construction Managers                            1
                                Flash Designer                                   1
                                Graphics Designers                               1
                                GSA Contract Admin                               1
                                IT Manager                                       1
                                Logistics Manager                                1
                                Marketing Assistant                              1
                                Marketing/Director                               1
                                Network Administrator                            1
                                Programmer/Analyst                               1
                                Receptionist                                     1
                                Social Media Expert                              1
                                VP Quality                                       1
                                Writer                                           1

Thirty-seven respondents (45% of the total) indicated one or more occupations for which they would like to see
regional schools expand and improve training. Computer skills were frequently mentioned, with engineering and
other technical skills also common. The complete list follows:




       23
                        Occupations for Which Schools Should Expand and Improve Training        N
                  IT                                                                                5
                  Contracting                                                                       2
                  Engineering                                                                       2
                  IT Security                                                                       2
                  Mathematics                                                                       2
                  Program Management                                                                2
                  SharePoint                                                                        2
                  Software Engineer                                                                 2
                  Account Executives                                                                1
                  Acquisition Mgmt                                                                  1
                  Acquisition Professionals                                                         1
                  Analytics                                                                         1
                  Biotechnicians                                                                    1
                  Business Administration                                                           1
                  Cognos                                                                            1
                  Computational Linguist                                                            1
                  Computer Engineering                                                              1
                  Computer Science                                                                  1
                  Computer Skills                                                                   1
                  Contracts Management                                                              1
                  Customer Service                                                                  1
                  Document Management                                                               1
                  Electronics technicians                                                           1
                  English                                                                           1
                  Environmental Engineering                                                         1
                  Financial Economists                                                              1
                  Government Relations                                                              1
                  Grant Professionals                                                               1
                  Hospitality                                                                       1
                  Hydrology                                                                         1
                  Improve General Education                                                         1
                  Indoor Environment                                                                1
                  Java J2EE                                                                         1
                  Lean Manufacturing                                                                1
                  Logistician Professionals                                                         1
                  Logistics Management                                                              1
                  Machining                                                                         1
                  Marketing and Sales                                                               1
                  Mechanical                                                                        1
                  Modeling and Simulation                                                           1
                  Naval Architects                                                                  1
                  Network Administrator                                                             1
                  Nuclear Physics                                                                   1
                  Ontologist                                                                        1
                  Oracle                                                                            1
                  Programming                                                                       1
                  Service Technicians                                                               1
                  Software Development                                                              1
                  Strategic Planning                                                                1
                  Systems Architect                                                                 1
                  Systems Engineer                                                                  1
                  Technology Research                                                               1
                  Test Engineering                                                                  1
                  VoIP Telephony                                                                    1
                  Web Programmer                                                                    1
                  Writers                                                                           1


Survey respondents were asked about the top labor-related issues facing their firm. Respondents frequently
referred to employee costs, particularly the costs of benefits and health care in particular. Another top issue was the
inability to find and keep qualified employees. Complete comments follow:



       24
 Absence of local skilled and semi-skilled machine operators
 Attendance
 Availability of qualified individuals
 Availability of US citizens to work in software engineering
 Can't find people to fill jobs
 Commute time, lack of qualified candidates
 Compensation
 Competing with larger companies on benefits
 Competition from government; government labor rates inconsistent with requirements
 Contracting
 Cost
 Cost of Benefits
 Cost of Benefits
 Cost of health care
 Drugs, work ethic
 Economic downturn forcing reductions in force; lack of quality applicants for field service
 technician jobs.
 Economy scare--employees don't want to change jobs
 Finding engineering and science graduates for non-laboratory positions
 Finding enough part-time federal retirement benefits counselors willing to travel
 Finding individuals with the skill set, mind-set and personality to be successful in our industry
 Finding qualified applicants
 Finding qualified candidates at economic rates
 Flexibility of resources
 Government funding to keep jobs secure
 Government long-term contracts awarded to small businesses
 Health care, commuting
 Health care costs
 Hiring stable, reliable employees
 Increasing employee health care costs
 Insurance
 Keeping employees in the 2-5 year range; they tend to leave for larger firms
 Keeping people working and getting hours
 Labor cost
 Labor costs
 Lack of top talent
 Locating and retaining quality staff
 Poor writing abilities
 Qualified, experienced talent
 Recruiting & retention--very competitive market for high quality professionals
 Recruiting and retaining
 Retention
 Retention
 Security clearance requirements
 Shortage of qualified engineers
 Trained personnel
 Transportation
 Transportation/commute times
 Turnover, cost of living, commuting time/distance
 U.S. citizens needed



25
Finally, respondents were asked to identify the top technology trends affecting their firm. The answers included
many computer-related trends such as the Internet, electronic communication, and other developments. The
complete, verbatim list of replies follows:

         Biotechnology
         Cloud computing
         Cloud computing, service-oriented architecture, cyber security
         CMMI affordable for small business
         Computer skills
         Continuously changing software
         Costs for maintenance and support
         Current database does not meet the needs of the business. We are in the process of replacing it.
         Cyber
         Cyber security and disaster recovery
         Defense technology focus only (our firm is not cleared)--big budget only in that area
         Electronic communication
         Electro-optic
         Energy
         Everything online
         Evolution in programming languages
         Finding experienced applicants
         Increasing reliance on Internet/e-mail/BlackBerrys
         Indoor environment
         Information sharing
         Internet usage
         IT advancement
         Marine engineering
         Modeling and simulation
         More advanced sophisticated metal machining
         Need for rapid and inexpensive diagnostic tests
         None, this is one of our major strengths
         Nuclear and radiological detection/sensor technology moving slowly than desired
         Outsourcing
         Precision munitions and reduced requirements by the services
         SaaS
         Security industry convergence of physical security and IT security
         Security issues
         Semantic Web
         SharePoint
         Social media
         Social networking
         Taxes on equipment and tools
         Teleworking
         Too much e-mail
         Turnover of IT and costs
         Web sales and Merchant card integration security
         Web-enabling




       26
A2.4 Questionnaire

All questions should be answered for the Greater Washington-Baltimore region only. If your firm has more than one branch,
please answer all questions according to your responsibilities: for your branch or for the entire firm within the region.

     1.   How do you expect your firm’s employment will change over the next five years:

               Stay the same
               Decrease…..By about how many employees? ______
               Increase…..By about how many employees? _______
               Don’t know
                                                                      7
     2.   As of today, does your firm have any job openings?

               Yes
               No [go to #4]
               Don’t know [go to #4]

     3.   Please provide the following information about these vacancies:
          (Use the provided occupation titles; supply your own occupation titles as needed.)

          Occupation Group                                      # of            Average length of
          /Job title                                           vacancies        vacancy

          Electrical Engineering                               _______           ______

          Computer Software Engineer                           _______           ______

          Network & Computer Systems                           _______           ______
          Administrator

          Computer Specialists using                           _______           ______
          Geospatial Technology




7
  Job Openings are defined per the Bureau of Labor Services definition:
           Job Openings are all positions that are open (not filled) on the last business day of the month. A job is "open" only if it meets all three
           of the following conditions:
                 1. A specific position exists and there is work available for that position. The position can be full-time or part-time, and it can be
                       permanent, short-term, or seasonal, and
                 2. The job could start within 30 days, whether or not the establishment finds a suitable candidate during that time, and
                 3. There is active recruiting for workers from outside the establishment location that has the opening.
What is "active recruiting?" Active recruiting means the establishment is taking steps to fill a position. It may include advertising in
newspapers, on television, or on radio; posting Internet notices; posting "help wanted" signs; networking with colleagues or making "word of
mouth" announcements; accepting applications; interviewing candidates; contacting employment agencies; or soliciting employees at job fairs,
state or local employment offices, or similar sources.
DOES NOT INCLUDE:
                    Positions open only to internal transfers, promotions or demotions, or recall from layoffs
                    Openings for positions with start dates more than 30 days in the future
                    Positions for which employees have been hired, but the employees have not yet reported for work
                    Positions to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or
                     consultants. A separate form is used to collect information from temporary help/employee leasing firms for these
                     employees.




          27
          All Other Computer Specialists                    _______          ______


          All Other Occupations Using                       _______          ______
          Geospatial Technology

          Government Security/Intelligence                  _______          ______

          Construction                                      _______          ______

          ______                                            _______          ______

          ______                                            _______          ______

          ______                                            _______          ______

          ______                                            _______          ______

          ______                                            _______          ______

          ______                                            _______          ______

          ______                                            _______          ______

                                                              8
     4.   In May 2009, did your firm hire any employees?

               Yes...How many? _______
               No [go to #6]
               Don’t know [go to #6]

     5.   Please provide the following information about new hires in May:

          Occupation                    # of hires in    # of these                       # of applicants
          /Job title                     this occupation hires who resided                for these positions
                                                         outside the region




8
  New Hires are defined per the Bureau of Labor Services definition:
         New Hires are all additions to the payroll during the month.
INCLUDES:
               Newly hired and rehired employees
               Permanent, short-term, and seasonal employees
               Full-time and part-time employees
               On-call or intermittent employees who returned to work after having been formally separated
               Workers who were hired and separated during the month
               Transfers from other locations
               Employees who were recalled to a job at the sampled establishment after a formal layoff lasting more than seven days
DOES NOT INCLUDE:
               Transfers or promotions within the sampled establishment
               Employees returning from strikes
               Employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants working at the
                    sampled establishment. A separate form is used to collect information from temporary help and employee leasing firms for
                    these employees.




          28
                                                         during recruitment



         Same list as #5              _________           __________                  ________

                                                                                9
    6.   In May 2009, how many employee separations did your firm have?
             Number of separations: __________
             Don’t know/not applicable

    7.   Due to BRAC changes occurring by 2011, do you expect your firm to change its physical location or shift employees to
         different locations?

              Yes
              No [go to #9]
              Don’t know [go to #9]

    8.   Do you expect additional labor turnover due to the location changes?

              Yes … What percentage of your workforce do you anticipate will be turned over and which occupations will be most
              affected? __________________________________________________________________________________
              No
              Don’t know

    9.   List the occupations most critical for your firm that you will likely need to hire over the next five years in the region?

         Occupation/Job Title                   # of hires (new hires + replacement hires)

         _____________________                  _________
         _____________________                  _________
         _____________________                  _________
         _____________________                  _________
         _____________________                  _________



9
  Separations are defined per the Bureau of Labor Services definition:
          Separations are all employees separated from the payroll during the calendar month.
INCLUDES:
                Quits: Employees who left voluntarily.
                Layoffs & Discharges: Involuntary separations initiated by the employer, including:
                          Layoffs with no intent to rehire
                          Discharges because positions were eliminated
                          Discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or plant closings
                          Firings or other discharges for cause
                          Terminations of seasonal employees (whether or not they are expected to return next season)
                          Layoffs (suspensions from pay status) lasting or expected to last more than seven days.
                Other Separations: retirements; transfers to other locations; deaths; or separations due to employee disability
DOES NOT INCLUDE:
                Transfers within your establishment
                Employees on strike
                Employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants working at your
                    establishment.




         29
         _____________________               _________
         _____________________               _________

    10. For which occupations would you most like to see regional schools expand their training?

                          ________________
                          ________________
                          ________________
                          ________________
                          ________________
                          ________________
                          ________________
                          ________________

    11. What are the top labor-related issues affecting your firm?

              ____________________________________________________________________

    12. What are the top technology trends affecting your firm?

              ____________________________________________________________________

    13. To what industry group does your firm belong? (Please check only one—which most applies.)

                          Advanced Manufacturing
                          Construction
                          Wholesale
                          Computer Systems Design
                          & Related Services
                          Architectural, Engineering,
                          & Related Services
                          Professional & Business
                          Services not listed above
                          Other: ________________

    14. Which of the following installations has your firm worked with over the last five years?

             Aberdeen Proving Ground (including Edgewood)
             Andrews Air Force Base
             Bolling Air Force base
             Fort Belvoir
             Fort Detrick
             Fort George G. Meade
             National Naval Medical Center Bethesda
             Naval District Washington
             Quantico
             Walter Reed Army Medical Center
             None of the above
             Don’t know/not applicable

    15. Please estimate the current number of employees in your firm: ________


Thank you for your cooperation in completing this survey. If necessary, you may return to any question to edit or complete your
answers.




        30
Appendix 3: Military Interview Report
Assessment of the Impact of 2005 BRAC Decisions

As a result of the 2005 BRAC decisions, the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan region faces more individual changes
in employment than any other region of the country, based on research for this study. As a state, Maryland is the
beneficiary of its largest increase in employment since World War II, with changes totaling more than 20,000
employees. Northern Virginia benefits from BRAC in a similar fashion. Although Northern Virginia received the
largest single increase in military presence in the country (Fort Belvoir), losses in other parts of the Northern
Virginia region would seemingly indicate that the area ends up with a net gain of 21,958 employees. However, as
discussed further in the summary of Virginia changes, the statistics belie the actual impact.

This appendix refers to the District of Columbia, Northern Virginia, and Maryland based on political jurisdictions,
whereas the main body of the report refers to those regions based on the MARC labor shed. Moreover, this
appendix includes all BRAC-affected bases in the three jurisdictions, whereas the main body refers to only the
eleven bases targeted for this study. The list of those eleven bases is shown in Section 3.2 and Appendix 6.

Much of the indicated losses in Northern Virginia are due to movement of significant numbers of employees from
leased space into owned space while still retaining a majority of those jobs in the region. Washington, D.C., military
installations will see a reduction of approximately 6,500 employees, primarily because of the closure and relocation
of Walter Reed Army Medical Center. As published in the BRAC Report, the aggregate region of Maryland,
Virginia, and D.C. will see a net loss of more than 5,500 employees, but the net changes are not indicative of the
tremendous individual changes occurring in the region.

For purposes of this review, the noted employment changes in this report, unless otherwise noted in italics, use the
United States Department of Defense 2005 BRAC Report; Appendices B (BRAC 2005 Closure and Realignment
                              10                                                                      11
Impacts by Economic Area), and C (BRAC 2005 Closure and Realignment Impacts by State). Additionally, the
indirect employment changes published in the final BRAC Report are not used. The indirect numbers are not
utilized for two reasons. First, they are estimated secondary multiplier employment numbers, and second, they are
not within the control of the principals responsible for implementing BRAC.

As professionals working in the BRAC implementation field know, finding stable and agreed upon numbers for the
actual direct employment levels at the installation level remain elusive because the defense industry is a dynamic
entity in which a number of related changes are occurring at the same time. And while BRAC professionals will
                                                                                         12
also be aware that the official BRAC numbers contain some misleading information, for consistency the official
report numbers nevertheless will be used. Individual military installations were surveyed and data were received
during the course of this review; those numbers were used to confirm the orders of magnitude of the official BRAC
Report changes.



10
   http://www.defenselink.mil/brac/pdf/pt1_10_app_bo.pdf
11
   http://www.defenselink.mil/brac/pdf/pt1_11_app_co.pdf
12
   For example, the BRAC Report for Fort Belvoir includes no published numbers for the National Geospatial Agency because
those numbers are classified, but consultants‘ estimates are that those changes will be +6,500 jobs.




       31
       BRAC-Related Employment Changes in MARC Region
                                     13
 District of Columbia  Jurisdictions                -3,462
 Maryland                                           20,285
 Northern Virginia                                  21,958

District of Columbia

The nation‘s capital does not have any increases in personnel, either military or civilian, that will offset the large
departure from bases from the area. Although some will be leaving from Naval District Washington, the
realignment at Walter Reed Army Medical Center represents the largest departure in the District of Columbia.

                         District of Columbia
                                                           Military    Civilian   Contractor      Direct
                Leased Space                               (103)      11          0              (92)
                                                                                                          14
                Bolling Air Force Base                                                           (-634)
                                                                                                          15
                Naval District Washington                                                        (-608)
                Potomac Annex                              (4)        (5)         (3)            (12)
                                                                                                           16
                Walter Reed Army Medical Center                                                  (2,208)

Walter Reed Army Medical Center

The realignment of Walter Reed Army Medical Center will result in the displacement of 2,600 military personnel and
2,400 civilians. With the departure of 600 mission contractors, employment changes in the District of Columbia are
expected to net a decrease of nearly 5,600 employees as a result of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center closure
alone. However, a portion of these jobs are being relocated 7.7 miles away to the National Naval Medical Center
Bethesda in Maryland and therefore will not largely impact the MARC Region. The remaining medical-related jobs
are being relocated to a new medical facility at Fort Belvoir in Northern Virginia.

Bolling Air Force Base

Bolling Air Force Base represents the next largest decrease in Washington, D.C., with close to 350 military and
civilian personnel leaving the area. In addition, 60 contractors are expected to leave Bolling as part of the BRAC
changes.

Naval District Washington

Naval District Washington will also be facing realignment, dispersing 80 military personnel and 300 civilians,
coupled with an increase of 40 contractors. The net loss is slightly less than 400 employees.




13
   Changes in this table are based on surveys of base commanders and MARC Region officials.
14
   Source: Virginia National Defense Industry Authority.
15
   Source: Virginia National Defense Industry Authority.
16
   Source: Virginia National Defense Industry Authority.




       32
District of Columbia Summary

In as much as there are no increases in military, civilian or contractor personnel as a result of the 2005 BRAC
recommendations, the primary strategy, unlike in Maryland and Virginia, is not based upon filling new positions, but
rather finding jobs for displaced workers. As such, the District of Columbia is placing its primary emphasis on
transportation alternatives since the bulk of the losses are to the new medical facility at Fort Belvoir and National
Naval Medical Center Bethesda. A secondary strategy is to find new employment opportunities for employees who
do not wish to commute. In addition, it is worth noting that while the District of Columbia will see a significant
personnel loss from Walter Reed, the city‘s redevelopment of the Saint Elizabeths campus as the new home of the
Department of Homeland Security represents a significant employment opportunity. Between now and 2016, more
than 14,000 personnel will be relocated to the new federal headquarters development that will be constructed in the
southeast quadrant of Washington. The city is working with the federal government, the private sector and
universities to leverage investment in workforce development and entrepreneurial ventures that support the new
DHS headquarters. With proper training, workers displaced by the 2005 BRAC implementation could find
employment opportunities in the district, avoiding the need to leave the city to find work.

Maryland

As is noted in this report, ending the practice of leasing office space in Virginia offset the additional jobs related to
BRAC changes. In contrast, Maryland suffers the loss of only 175 employees from leased office space and has
substantial gains related to obtaining personnel from leased spaces from other locations as well as related to other
BRAC changes. For example, Maryland benefits from 4,300 jobs at the Defense Systems Agency moving out of
leased space in Arlington, Virginia, to be housed at Fort George G. Meade. Overall in the Baltimore/D.C. area,
Maryland gains more than 20,000 jobs, primarily from big increases at Fort George G. Meade, Aberdeen Proving
Ground, and National Naval Medical Center Bethesda. As such, changes at those three bases are highlighted in
the reminder of this summary.

                                    Maryland MARC Region
                                                Military Civilian          Contractor     Direct
 Leased Space                                   (19)     (156)             0              (175)
                                                                                                 17
 Aberdeen Proving Ground                                                                  4,700
                                                                                           18
 Andrews Air Force Base                             191         300        (91)           0
                                                                                                19
 Fort Detrick                                       76          43         (15)           1,385
                                                                                                  20
 Fort George G. Meade                               682         2,915      1,764          11,800
                                                                                                21
 National Naval Medical Center Bethesda                                                   2,400
 Army Research Laboratory Adelphi                   0           (43)       0              (43)
 Martin State Airport Air Guard Station             (17)        (106)      0              (123)
 Naval Air Facility Washington                      (9)         (9)        0              (18)
 Naval Station Annapolis                            0           (13)       0              (13)
 Naval Surface Warfare Center Indian Head           0           (95)       0              (95)



17
   Based on survey results.
18
   Based on survey results.
19
   Source: MARC.
20
   Source: MARC.
21
   Source: MARC




        33
Fort George G. Meade

Fort George G. Meade, 30 miles northeast of Washington, D.C., will see the largest increase in military presence in
Maryland. The BRAC Commission recommended the relocation of only two employees from Fort George G.
Meade, while nearly 700 will be transferred to the base. In addition to the military employees, nearly 3,000 civilian
employees and nearly 2,000 mission contractors will be relocated to the area, a net increase of nearly 5,400
employees to Fort George G. Meade alone. The largest increases in employment at Fort George G. Meade are
associated with:

        Defense Information Security Agency relocation from leased space in Arlington, Virginia
        Collocation of the Defense/Military Adjudication Activities
        Defense Media Activity consolidation

By far the biggest impact is the arrival of the Defense Information Security Agency. To promote the retention of
these highly skilled technical employees, a Web-based travel time calculator emphasized the closeness of Fort
George G. Meade to the existing jobs in Arlington. Therefore, Fort George G. Meade‘s major emphasis has not
been on recruiting new employees but rather the relocation of the highly valued employees already at the Defense
Information Systems Agency.

Aberdeen Proving Ground

Another large increase comes to the Aberdeen Proving Ground, which is 72 miles from central Washington, D.C.
Despite a net loss of 3,400 military personnel mainly from the relocation of the Army Defense Ordinance Center,
this base is the beneficiary of an increase in 5,400 civilian employees for a net increase of 2,000 direct jobs (the
Aberdeen Proving Ground BRAC coordinator reports a net increase of 4,700 jobs).

The major components of the changes in employment are associated with relocations of:

        Army Research Lab
        Army Communications-Electronics Command
        Army Test and Evaluation Command and Army Evaluation Center
        Chemical and Biological Defense Research Activities

Relocations from Aberdeen Proving Ground

        Army Defense Ordinance Center, and the U.S. Army Environmental Center




       34
Northern Virginia

                                Northern Virginia MARC Region
                                                 Military    Civilian   Contractor     Direct
 Leased Space                                     (6,199)    (15,754)         (972)   (22,925)
                                                                                                22
 Fort Belvoir                                                                         19,300
 Marine Corps Headquarters                            401        184             81        666
                                                                                                23
 Marine Base Quantico                                                                   2,658
 Arlington Service Center                             211      (110)          (383)       (282)
 Center for Naval Research                           (25)      (313)              0       (338)
 Defense, Finance, and Accounting Service
 Arlington                                             (7)     (401)              0       (408)

Fort Belvoir

Fort Belvoir, 19 miles south of central Washington, D.C. in eastern Fairfax County, is the largest recipient of
displaced workers in the MARC region. Direct employee changes result in a net gain of more than 4,000 military
employees, nearly 6,000 civilian employees and more than 2,000 mission contractors. In addition, estimates
include more than 6,500 National Geospatial Agency employees are reported to be involved in relocation to Fort
Belvoir, although the exact number remains classified. These changes will result in net gains in employment of
about 19,300, as reported by the Fort Belvoir BRAC coordinator and will have a great impact on eastern Fairfax
County.

The bulk of the increases in personnel coming to Fort Belvoir are the result of three major shifts recommended by
the 2005 BRAC process:

           The relocation of medical care function from Walter Reed Army Medical Center,
           The consolidation of a number of operations associated with the National Geospatial Agency
           The consolidation of Army and Department of Defense organizations in leased space in the National
           Capital Region.

Fort Belvoir has a significant task ahead of it in finding qualified employees to fill a number of new openings as well
as vacant positions. The BRAC coordinator at Fort Belvoir has indicated that the most critical positions for the
installation‘s future are:

           Engineers/Engineer Technicians
           Program Analysts
           Human Resource Managers
           Medical Professionals
           Financial Management/ Budget Personnel


22
     Based on survey results.
23
     Based on survey results.




          35
In addition, Fort Belvoir officials believe that the critical positions they will have the most difficulty filling are medical
professionals (doctors, nurses, physical therapists and other medical specialties), human resource personnel and
financial management personnel.

To assist in obtaining an adequate workforce, Fort Belvoir officials would like to see regional schools make
expanding their training in the medical field a priority.

Marine Base Quantico:

Many of the additional 800 military positions at Marine Corps base are relocating from within the National Capital
Region. With Quantico just 32 miles southwest of central Washington D.C., these positions are anticipated to be
filled by relocation rather than new employment. In addition 1,200 contractor employees are affected by the
changes and are from similar locations. While total direct employment at Quantico will rise a net 3,000, the vast
majority of the military, civilians and mission contractors will be relocated from areas around the National Capital
Region to Prince William County (the Quantico BRAC coordinator reports the number to be 2,700).

Notwithstanding the significant number of expected relocations rather than new hires, the BRAC coordinator at
Quantico has indicated that the most critical occupations are:

        Network Administrators
        Contracting Personnel
        Project Managers
        Law Enforcement Personnel
        Administrators
        Comptrollers
        Human Resource Managers
        Intelligence Analysts

In addition, Quantico Marine Base officials believe the positions hardest to fill will be projects network administrator
and comptroller positions. Quantico officials have indicated that expanded training by regional schools in network
operations, financial management and human resources would be helpful. .


Regional Conclusions

Interaction with the people responsible for implementing the BRAC changes in the region leaves one confident that
the changes are being handled well. There is a sense of command of the situation. That said, the region is not
without its challenges. As is discussed under the best practices section of this report, the challenges require
creative and innovative thought. Nevertheless, there is a good understanding of the mission ahead, the potential
barriers and the results desired.

Because the nature of a significant portion of the jobs associated with the BRAC changes is highly specialized and
technical, the survey results are not particularly surprising. The highest concern is for jobs that require a
concentration in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Clearly, because of the relocations of
medical personnel those specialties also will need specific attention. What was surprising from the survey results
was the indication of need for human resource and financial management personnel as well.



        36
While not addressed in the survey, the literature review conducted during this study indicated two other potential
barriers to successful implementation of the BRAC recommendations: licensing requirements and security
clearances.

Given the nature of so many of the specialized jobs being relocated across geopolitical borders and in close
proximity, even minor differences between professional licensing requirements in Maryland, Virginia and the District
of Columbia could become a barrier to acceptance of a position. As such, a potential strategy to avoid this potential
problem would be for the governors of Maryland and Virginia and the mayor of Washington to establish a task force
of business and professional licensing agencies to simplify the cross-border acceptance of professional and
regulatory licensing. This strategy not only would benefits the implementation of the BRAC changes, but would
also benefit the region as a whole generally.

While less of a problem for military personnel, the delays in obtaining timely security clearances for civilian and
contractor employees was also noted anecdotally as a potential problem. Delays are costly to civilian employers
and serve as barriers to timely hiring of key personnel. While it is not within the purview of the state or local
governments to remedy this situation, attention should be called to the potential problems that slow security
clearances pose to the successful implementation of the BRAC changes.

As a final note, the survey also revealed that all key BRAC implementation personnel are concerned not just with
filling the key positions that they are assigned to recruit, but displayed a great deal of compassion for those workers
that will be left behind for whatever reason. Survey response after survey response noted the need for employment
assistance for those individuals who will not be able to relocate.

Military Survey Instruments

    1. MARC BRAC Military Installation Survey

All questions should be answered for your installation only.

Military Installation: __Andrews AFB________________

Contact Information: __Cliff Colley

    1.   How do you expect your installation’s employment will change over the next five years:

              Decrease…..By about how many employees? ______
              Increase…..By about how many employees? _______
                  X Stay the same

    2.   As of today, does your installation have a significant number of non routine job openings? No


    3.   List the occupations most critical for your installation that you will likely need to hire over the next five years in the
         region?

         Occupation/Job Title                 # of hires (new hires + replacement hires)



         37
         _Comptrollers_________              _________
         _Human Resources_____               _________
         _Intelligence Analyst____           _________
         _Network Administrators             _________



    4.   What do you believe are the three most critical occupations that you will have difficulty hiring?


    5.   For which occupations would you most like to see regional schools expand their training?
                        Network Operations
                        Financial Management
                        Human Resource
                        Management

    6.   As you have done your planning for the workforce changes resulting for the 2005 BRAC, have you encountered any
         “best practices” being used by others that you intend to utilize? Would a list of such “best practices” be helpful to
         you? A list would be helpful.

    7.   How can regional workforce agencies best assist you in the coming years? The best assistance the regional
         workforce agencies can provide is to assist our employees that are unable to stay with the agency find other
         employment.

    8.   Any other items that the regional workforce agencies need to know in order to assist you?

    9.   If you have a summary write up of the BRAC related changes to your installation, please attach it to the return email
         when you return this survey.

    10. If follow-up information is needed, how do you prefer to be contacted? Via email

    2. MARC BRAC Military Installation Survey

All questions should be answered for your installation only.

Military Installation: _APG_______________________

Contact Information: Bill Baxter, How do you expect your installation’s employment will change over the next five years?



              Decrease…..By about how many employees? ______
                 X Increase…..By about how many employees? _4700
              Stay the same

    1.   As of today, does your installation have a significant number of non routine job openings?

        Attached you will see our projected hiring from June 09- FY 15. We are in the process of implementing BRAC. By the
    end of the CY appx. 1000 BRAC related positions filled   on APG.



         38
2.   List the occupations most critical for your installation that you will likely need to hire over the next five years in the
     region?

     Occupation/Job Title                                    # of hires (new hires + replacement hires)

     Engineer and Scientist      1766___
     Contract Specialist         700____
     Logisticians                1325____
     Administrative/ Business Professional 1325____
     IT Specialist              400____

3.   What do you believe are the three most critical occupations that you will have difficulty hiring?

     Engineer &Scientist
     Contract/Procurement Specialist
     Logisticians

4.   For which occupations would you most like to see regional schools expand their training?
                    Contracting_______
                    Electrical/ Electronic
                    Engineering
                    Mechanical Engineering
                    STEM___________
                    Operation
                    Research________

5.   As you have done your planning for the workforce changes resulting for the 2005 BRAC, have you encountered any
     “best practices” being used by others that you intend to utilize? Would a list of such “best practices” be helpful to
     you?

     Federal Gov’t Only Job Fairs
     Recruitment Assistance from the Partnership of Public Policy

In addition, any other Best Practices would be appreciated.

6.   How can regional workforce agencies best assist you in the coming years?
     Continue to receive the support that the Susquehanna Workforce provides to us. They have been instrumental to
     the success of our two BRAC Job Fairs.

    As we continue to strive to be the employer of choice in the region, we see the need for partnership on workforce
attraction in the APG region. We need to implement SWN Workforce Attraction programs and the commitment of
regional leaders to ensure the programs work.

7.   Any other items that the regional workforce agencies need to know in order to assist you?

   As we move forward, we must understand there is more to workforce recruitment than just job development and
opportunities. We must look at other issues like transportation and find ways to support the needed up grades because
APG will not be able to attract the workforce it needs unless critical improvements are made to our transportation


     39
    system. People will not want to work at APG if the commute from (Interstate) 95 to the gate is the same amount of time
    it takes to get to Baltimore.

    8.   If you have a summary write up of the BRAC related changes to you installation, please attach it to the return email
         when you return this survey.

    9.   If follow-up information is needed, how do you prefer to be contacted?


    3. MARC BRAC Military Installation Survey

All questions should be answered for your installation only.

Military Installation: _MCB Quantico

Contact Information: John Rosewarne,

How do you expect your installation’s employment will change over the next five years:
Decrease…..By about how many employees? ______

                  X Increase…..By about how many employees? _2658_BRAC employees in 2011____
              Stay the same
                  Note: Many of these additional positions are relocating from within the national Capital
              region. Therefore, many of the positions will be filled upon relocation to MCB Quantico.

    1.   As of today, does your installation have a significant number of non routine job openings? No.


    2.   List the occupations most critical for your installation that you will likely need to hire over the next five years in the
         region?

         Occupation/Job Title                 # of hires (new hires + replacement hires)

         Network Administrators             ____ __
         Contracting___________             ___     __
         Project Management___              __ _ ___
         Law Enforcement______              _36 ____
         Administration_________            __     ___
         Comptrollers___________            _________
         Human Resources_______             _________
         Intelligence Analyst______         _________
         Note: Law enforcement is the only field where we can accurately project the future personnel requirement.

    3.   What do you believe are the three most critical occupations that you will have difficulty hiring?
         Network Administrators
         Comptrollers


         40
    4.   For which occupations would you most like to see regional schools expand their training? Area schools already offer
         education and training in all the occupations required at MCB Quantico. This area is also able to attract graduates
         from schools around the country. Most of the positions relocating to MCB Quantico are not entry level positions.
         They require a combination of education and experience. The below are occupations requiring training and
         education that is needed, but generally already available.
                          _Network
                          Operations_______
                          Financial
                          Management_____
                          Human Resources
                          Management____

    5.   As you have done your planning for the workforce changes resulting for the 2005 BRAC, have you encountered any
         “best practices” being used by others that you intend to utilize? Would a list of such “best practices” be helpful to
         you?
         Fort George G. Meade and Fort Belvoir. We actively seek information on “best practices” between Installations
         involved in BRAC growth. However, we are also keenly aware that the real “best practices” are those that are
         tailored to each Installation’s specific circumstances and needs.

    6.   How can regional workforce agencies best assist you in the coming years? The best assistance the regional
         workforce agencies can provide is to assist employees that will not relocate with their Agencies with finding other
         employment.

    7.   Any other items that the regional workforce agencies need to know in order to assist you?
         Most of the employees relocating to MCB Quantico already reside in this region. At least half the employees will
         remain in their current homes and simply commute to another work location. About 25% are expected to relocate
         with their position. The remaining 25% are projected to not relocate but remain in their current homes in the
         greater National Capital Region. It is this group that will require reemployment assistance.

    8.   If you have a summary write up of the BRAC related changes to you installation, please attach it to the return email
         when you return this survey.
         If follow-up information is needed, how do you prefer to be contacted?
         John Rosewarne. Contact information provided at top of survey.

    4. MARC BRAC Military Installation Survey

All questions should be answered for your installation only.

Military Installation: __Fort Belvoir, Virginia______________________

Contact Information: __COL Mark Moffatt______________________

    1.   How do you expect your installation’s employment will change over the next five years:

              Decrease…..By about how many employees? ______
                 X Increase…..By about how many employees? ___19,300____
              Stay the same




         41
2.   As of today, does your installation have a significant number of non routine job openings? Yes, there are a number
     of open positions or vacancies.


3.   List the occupations most critical for your installation that you will likely need to hire over the next five years in the
     region?

     Occupation/Job Title                 # of hires (new hires + replacement hires)

     _Engineers/Engineer Technicians 50___
     _Program Analysts_____          50___
     _Personnel / Administration      100__
     _Medical Professionals__        300-500
     _Budget/ Financial Management 50-75

4.   What do you believe are the three most critical occupations that you will have difficulty hiring?

     - Medical Professionals (Doctors, Nurses, Specialists in the Medical Community, Physical Therapists)
     -   Personnel and Financial Personnel to manage the large increase in population


5.   For which occupations would you most like to see regional schools expand their training?
                 X Medical Professionals



6.   As you have done your planning for the workforce changes resulting for the 2005 BRAC, have you encountered any
     “best practices” being used by others that you intend to utilize? Would a list of such “best practices” be helpful to
     you?

     There have been a number of best practices noted, but most of them are in the construction industry.

     I would like to see a list of “best practices” other locations have noted.

7.   How can regional workforce agencies best assist you in the coming years?

     Be available to provide accurate, timely information on regional workforce specialties that are available in the
     National Capital Region.

8.   Any other items that the regional workforce agencies need to know in order to assist you?

     No.

9.   If you have a summary write up of the BRAC related changes to you installation, please attach it to the return email
     when you return this survey.


10. If follow-up information is needed, how do you prefer to be contacted?




     42
Appendix 4: Industry Interview Report
1. Sr. Manager, USAF Systems , Boeing Integrated Defense Systems

Boeing does not have any employees located at the eleven affected bases/facilities directly impacted by the BRAC
changes. The manager suggested local communities could assist in meeting the challenges caused by BRAC
initiatives by providing affordable housing, improving transportation alternatives and encouraging the construction
of commercial buildings. Boeing is a large aerospace company manufacturing military aircraft, weapons systems
and civilian passenger aircraft.

He said emerging military technologies and product trends in the next decade will include alternative fuels, directed
energy (lasers), cyber security and Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) and a focus on highly integrated computer
software systems. During the same time, Warren believes the Air Force will have fewer people doing less labor-
intensive work; using less oil and fewer separate products and services that don‘t work together.

2. Naval Systems, Weapons, Unmanned Systems, Boeing Integrated Defense Systems

Boeing does not have any employees located at the eleven affected bases/facilities affected by the BRAC changes.
The person interviewed noted that Boeing senior staff employees periodically promote Boeing products and
services and stay connected with their customers in Quantico. He thought the highest priority for local communities
affected by BRAC initiatives was improving transportation and reducing traffic congestion. Boeing is a large
aerospace company manufacturing military aircraft, weapons systems and civilian passenger aircraft.

He said emerging military technologies and product trends in the next decade will include unmanned systems,
improved digital communications, data links and additional radio spectrum to expand the volume of
communications. Richard also believes the Navy will have fewer employees in the next decade.

3. USMC/USN Liaison, Meggitt-USA

Meggitt does not have any employees located at the eleven affected bases/facilities and is not affected directly by
the BRAC changes. Meggitt has one representative who works out of his home and routinely deals with contacts
and customers in Quantico. Meggitt is an aerospace company focused on customized engineering and
manufacturing about 40 percent of its business is with the military.

The person interviewed mentioned that Alexandria has started to receive about 6,000 Army employees (on the
north side of 395 near the intersection of Seminary Road). There are concerns about the need for more roads and
schools. Alexandria‗s 13 middle and high schools were crowded even before the expected expansion and
relocations at Fort Belvoir. The interviewee sees the military technologies and product trends evolving in the
improvement in electronics, power generation systems with a focus on portable power, biofuels, electric powered
ships, lighter vehicles with electric rather than hydraulic brakes, and small unmanned aerial vehicles. The
interviewee expects that the military will invest less on oil-based of fuels, the big expensive programs, such as the
U.S. Army Future Combat Systems program and the U.S. Air Force F-22 and F-35 fighter aircraft.

4. Program Manager, Space & Intelligence Systems, Boeing Integrated Defense Systems




       43
Boeing does not have any employees located at the eleven affected bases/facilities and is not directly affected by
the BRAC changes. This part of Boeing is engaged in defense and intelligence and works closely with the National
Geospatial Intelligence Agency, which will be relocating from their Bethesda, Maryland, headquarters to Fort
Belvior in Virginia within two years. Boeing‘s Space & Intelligence organization will have systems analysts, imagery
analysts and financial analysts once the NGA relocations in Fort Belvoir begin in 2011-2012.

The program manager sees local communities building roads and supporting and encouraging other infrastructure
improvements, such as child care, schools, etc. Over the next decade, Don believes the military will be increasing
information sharing and collaborative planning and decision making, cyber security and surveillance. At the same
time, the military will be scaling back large-scale integrated programs and conventional platforms, such as big
vehicles.

5. Executive, BriarTek, Inc.

BriarTek is a small technology company located in Alexandria, Virginia, that has an exclusive contact with the Navy
to manufacture and install man-overboard systems for the fleet. BriarTek does not presently have any employees
located at the eleven bases/facilities and is not directly affected by the BRAC changes. However, BriarTek plans to
locate one employee at Fort Belvoir‘s night vision laboratory next year. BriarTek designs and manufacturers safety
systems and conducts research, engineering and software development.

The executive stated that local communities need to do more to provide affordable housing and good schools to
attract technically talented young job seekers. He is excited about military challenges in the next decade. He sees
the development of new power generation systems to support long deployments for small-group sustainability. He
understands the military need for smaller batteries with longer life. He sees the development of new small batteries
embedded in the heel of combat boots and recharged automatically by compression. In the next 10 years, the
military will operate with less uniformed and civil personnel and have fewer tanks, ships and heavy equipment.

6. Consultant, Aviation Management Associates (AMA), Inc.

AMA is a small consulting company and does not have any employees at the eleven affected bases/facilities and is
not directly affected by the BRAC changes. AMA provides aviation consulting and technical services for the Federal
Aviation Administration and the Defense of Department. The consultant lives in Frederick, Maryland. Randy said he
thinks local communities need to support and build roads, schools, parks and recreation activities, restaurants, etc.
He believes thinks emerging military technologies in the next 10 years will include the growth of unmanned aerial
vehicles, deployment of anti-missile defense, and development of a cyber security system. The next decade will
see the military consolidate weapon systems.




       44
Appendix 5: Interviews with Educational Institution
Officials
To get the input of post-secondary education practitioners in the MARC Region, the Chmura team contacted more
than two dozen community colleges and technical schools in Maryland, the District of Columbia, and Northern
Virginia. Interviews with key administrators at each institution were requested. Many officials were not available,
but interviews were conducted with representatives of six institutions (about 23% of those contacted): five
community colleges and one technical school.

Each official was asked, at a minimum,

        To confirm whether National Center on Education Statistics (NCES) 2006-2007data (most recent available)
        for the rate of degree completion in key occupation areas was reflective of current enrollment at their
        institutions
        To provide correct data if NCES statistics were not properly representative of current patterns of enrollment
        To what extent other workforce development programs at their institutions may not be reflected in the
        NCES data (e.g., participation in non-credit programs)
        To provide current enrollment for these other programs
        To describe plans their institutions have for expanding workforce development programs
        To describe barriers they feel may block, or slow the pace of, these expansion efforts
        To describe the impact of the BRAC initiatives on their institutions
        To describe trends in education and in programs being considered as their institutions plan curricula for the
        future

All the officials interviewed were cooperative and informative. All had thought about the impact of the BRAC
initiatives on their institutions, and were willing to describe their institutions‘ responses. Names of individuals and
names of institutions are withheld to respect a pledge of anonymity made to these people.

The key points in each interview are summarized below.


A5.1. Community College Workforce Programs Official

This official said that degree completion statistics are not truly representative of enrollment in technical fields at his
college. He speculated that 40% of the students are in technical fields but many do not remain at the college until
degree completion. Students are lost to the workforce as soon as they can find attractive jobs. Many will return to
the college later for additional skills or credentials, but they often have no incentive to complete a degree.

Degree statistics also do not capture contract training at employer sites, which represents about one-third of his
college‘s non-credit activity, or about 8,700 students annually. This would encompass a range of technical fields,
automotive technology, information technology, engineering project management, etc.

Many students at the college identify their degree goals as ―undecided.‖ Declared major means little or nothing to
them–they want career skills, and they may get those skills from a set of courses far short of degree requirements.




       45
Of his non-credit students, about 8% are in health-related fields, 9.4% are in information technology, and 17% in
technical training (including construction, automotive and manufacturing). An additional 30% are enrolled in
English as a Second Language (ESL) and basic job preparation skills.

He anticipates the impact of BRAC in his area as relatively ―soft.‖ Many workers will be commuting to facilities in
other areas; Department of Defense facilities in his area will not be gaining workers. Thus, he does not anticipate
any significant influx of students. He sees one opportunity emerging from BRAC: educational benefits for families
of enlisted personnel. His college is trying to retrieve data on military family members in the enrollment process.

Regarding trends and emerging programs, he anticipates that President Obama‘s initiative toward computerizing
medical records could lead to more programs for training medical information technicians. He believes the
president‘s focus on green technologies could result in programs to provide additional credentialing for workers in a
variety of fields, such as science, technology, building construction and certification. These won‘t generally be new
career fields but more of a ―skills plus‖ program.


A5.2. Technical School Official

This official said that the program completion statistics from NCES are representative of his school‘s enrollment in
programs related to the key occupation areas. While some students do leave before finishing their programs, many
return at a later date, so overall the NCES data seem valid.

His school opened a new program for HVAC technicians and had a strong response. About 200 students are
enrolled. A program in low-voltage electrical systems technology opened in the summer 2009, and new programs
training welders and training electricians are planned for next year.

He does not see any barriers to his program expansion plans. His school focuses narrowly on high-demand
occupations, and like many institutions sees an increase in career program enrollment when the economy is weak.
In a weak economy many workers want to upgrade their skills. The one exception is in allied health programs. He
does not envision growth in that area at his school because of its location in an industrial area.

For his school, BRAC impact is not expected to be great. He sees BRAC-related jobs as more high-tech and
higher degree oriented, and also related to Education as a Second Language (ESL) and general education
programs, none of which his school offers. His school has a narrower focus. Research for this report suggests
that construction and health-related fields will be in much higher demand because of BRAC changes, and his
school could benefit from that demand. He did not disagree with this suggestion.


A5.3. Chief Executive of a Community College

This college awards about 39% of its degrees in some of the critical occupations identified, or about 80 degrees
annually. Enrollment in career programs oriented toward degrees in critical occupation fields is about 600 students,
or 26% of overall enrollment. However, its non-degree enrollment in those occupations is much greater. For
example, more than 1,400 students are enrolled in allied health programs, seeking professional credentials short of
a degree.

The college anticipates expanding programs in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, and is
planning an engineering and math building that will serve five times as many students as are now enrolled in those

       46
programs. The engineering programs will be offered in partnership with four-year institutions elsewhere. The
college also is developing credentialing programs for incumbent government workers who are proficient in their
areas of responsibility but lack formal recognition of their knowledge and skill.

Potential barriers to program expansion include possible deterioration in the quality of STEM programs at area high
schools with which its program is linked, and possible opposition to partnerships with four-year institutions because
of political pressures in the higher education sector.


A5.4. Community College Dean

This college awards about 22% of its degrees in critical occupation fields, or about 120 degrees annually. The vast
majority of those are in nursing fields with small numbers in computer, engineering, or police science. Like other
community colleges, large numbers of students are enrolled in career fields but do not necessarily stay to complete
a degree.

This official described another phenomenon that also masks the career interest of his college‘s students. Many
students planning to transfer to a four-year college are general studies majors. They work on completing core
requirements, transfer to the four-year institution, declare their major there, and proceed to take the required
courses in their major field with many or most of their core requirements behind them. Thus, we cannot infer career
interest just from data on community college degrees awarded.

Almost twice as many non-credit students are enrolled at this college as are enrolled in credit programs. A
―substantial number‖ are in information systems, homeland security, and construction trades programs but he did
not have data on enrollment by program.

He expects an increase in engineering programs, partly in response to BRAC, but also from an increased
awareness of STEM programs generally. He said the career-program needs emerging from BRAC seem to vary by
the command being relocated. He cited an example of one command that needs business administration
certification for its workers who already have degrees in other fields, such as in liberal arts disciplines. He also
sees a gap in the availability of logistics programs and anticipates his college developing such programs for military
and contractor personnel.

His college is in discussions for a partnership with a four-year institution about locating a new building on the
community college campus. In this ―partnership‖ building students would be able to complete their associates
degree through the community college, transfer to the partner four-year institution, and then complete a bachelor‘s
degree, all in the same building. The two institutions would be co-located in one building on the community college
campus.

Possible barriers to program expansion include lack of funding for needed faculty positions, and complications in
getting accurate data from Department of Defense officials on the details of positions transferring to facilities in the
area his college serves.

This official foresees an increase in workforce development through expanded certificate programs for those with a
degree in a field other than that in which they are employed. These would be compact programs, relatively quick to
complete. They would be offered in a flexible format, using either traditional face-to-face instruction, online, on
weekends, or in a hybrid format.


       47
A5.5. Chief Executive of a Community College

This college awards about 10% of its degrees in nursing and other health-related fields (about 100 degrees
annually), and an additional 13% (about 125 degrees) in information technology, engineering, and criminal
justice/fire science. These data are representative of current enrollment in those fields at this executive‘s college.
The official does however anticipate a dramatic increase in enrollment in nursing and other health programs. He
also expects a large increase in mechanical engineering enrollment. His college is developing a partnership with a
four-year institution and with contractors at a local military base who need engineers. Students will start at the
community college, move on to the four-year institution, gain practical skills and experience along the way through
co-op employment with the contractors, and move to a regular job on base upon completion of their degree.

About 20% more students are in non-degree and other workforce development programs at this college than in
credit programs. Several offerings in this area recently have been reorganized. Especially promising is a program
offering students basic skills in a number of career fields including construction and health care, among others.
Programs typically run 10 to 16 weeks and are very much ―hands-on‖ in format. Upon completion the student can
seek employment in his or her chosen field. Students can return to the college at a later point for the additional
skills and perhaps certification required to advance in that field.

This official identified lack of space and facilities as the primary barrier to his college‘s expansion plans. It has been
difficult to find sufficient space for rapidly growing programs. He has had success in getting program start-up
funding from private or public entities, and availability of such funding has at times determined which new initiatives
go forward. Also helpful have been several congressional earmarks specifically for career programs.

The college has been the beneficiary of enrollment gains in the past as a result of BRAC initiatives. It has learned
to work closely with military and contractor officials in a genuine partnership. One such effort led to the
development of a program in procurement and other business skills that the college had not anticipated.


A5.6. Chief Executive of a Community College

This college awards about 20% of its degrees in nursing and other health care fields (about 170 degrees annually),
with an additional 9% (about 75 degrees) in criminal justice/police science/emergency medical technician
programs, and 9% in engineering programs. Fewer than 5% of degrees (about 40) are awarded in computer-
related fields. Enrollment in computer-related programs has fallen slightly but is building once again, and is
expected to be strong as the country‘s interest in data security grows.

In addition to strong enrollment in degree programs in critical occupations, the college has nearly 12,000 students
in workforce development and certificate programs. Health-related programs, including certified nursing assistant,
dental assistant, pharmacy assistant, and optometry assistant programs, among others, are doing especially well.
These programs draw traditional and non-traditional students seeking to acquire workplace skills in a relatively
short time.

This executive also said the college expects to open a new building for health studies that will allow enrollment in
nursing degree programs to double, and accommodate increases in other health-related fields as well, such as
physician‘s assistant, respiratory therapist, medical technician, and hospital recordkeeping. The person interviewed
sees the need for workers in such fields as very strong, based on what the college is hearing from hospitals and
other health care providers.

       48
This college is opening programs in building weatherization, solar hot-water systems, green building certification,
and other ―greener‖ jobs. The executive believes the recent economic stimulus programs will create strong
demand for such workers.

She listed funding constraints in the current economic environment as a possible barrier to program expansion
plans. She also listed space constraints, that is, lack of facilities on campus. However, her college is working to
overcome both barriers through partnerships. In one partnership, the college uses a building outfitted by a large
real estate management firm to train its maintenance technicians. The college pays only building operating costs
and has use of the facility for its classes after 5 p.m. each weekday as well as all weekend. In another partnership,
the college has arranged to use a union‘s training facility, at no cost, as a site for some of its workforce programs.

The college communicates with military officials on bases near campus or those of its educational partners to
understand the higher level skill requirements of workers on those bases. Some courses are offered on base and
others nearby. The college tries to facilitate such workers‘ transfer, with no losses, of course credits they have
earned elsewhere, and to aid the progression of those students to four-year institutions.

The executive said that educational institutions ―need to be much more nimble and responsive‖ to needs not only in
their immediate areas but regionally. She plans to heavily involve the business community as well as other external
stakeholders in the development of the college‘s next strategic plan.




       49
Appendix 6: Definitions
A6.1: Industry Sector Definition

                                      Industry Sector Definition
                   2-Digit NAICS Code                    Industry Sector
                   11                    Other
                   21                    Other
                   22                    Trade, Transportation, and Utility
                   23                    Construction
                   31                    Manufacturing
                   32                    Manufacturing
                   33                    Manufacturing
                   42                    Trade, Transportation, and Utility
                   44                    Trade, Transportation, and Utility
                   45                    Trade, Transportation, and Utility
                   48                    Trade, Transportation, and Utility
                   49                    Trade, Transportation, and Utility
                   51                    Professional and Business Service
                   52                    Financial Activities
                   53                    Financial Activities
                   54                    Professional and Business Service
                   55                    Professional and Business Service
                   56                    Professional and Business Service
                   61                    Education and Health
                   62                    Education and Health
                   71                    Leisure
                   72                    Leisure
                   81                    Other
                   92                    Government
                   99                    Other
                   Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics

A6.2: Critical Occupation Definition

                                         Definition of MARC Critical Occupations
c                   Occ-Code   Occupation Title                                    Career Pathway
Computer Science    15-1041    Computer Support Specialists                        Information Support Services
Computer Science    15-1099    Computer Specialists, All Other                     Information Support Services
Computer Science    15-1061    Database Administrators                             Network Systems Pathway
Computer Science    15-1071    Network and Computer Systems Administrators         Network Systems Pathway
Computer Science    15-1081    Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts    Network Systems Pathway
                                                                                   Programming and Software
Computer Science    11-3021    Computer and Information Systems Managers           Development Pathway
                                                                                   Programming and Software
Computer Science    15-1021    Computer Programmers                                Development Pathway
                                                                                   Programming and Software
Computer Science    15-1031    Computer Software Engineers, Applications           Development Pathway
                                                                                   Programming and Software
Computer Science    15-1032    Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software       Development Pathway


      50
MARC Critical Occupation   Occ-Code   Occupation Title                                               Career Pathway
                                                                                                     Programming and Software
Computer Science           15-1051    Computer Systems Analysts                                      Development Pathway
Computer Science           15-1011    Computer and Information Scientists, Research                  Science and Mathematics Pathway
Construction               11-9021    Construction Managers                                          Construction Pathway
Construction               13-1051    Cost Estimators                                                Construction Pathway
                                      First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Construction Trades and
Construction               47-1011    Extraction Workers                                             Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2021    Brickmasons and Blockmasons                                    Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2022    Stonemasons                                                    Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2031    Carpenters                                                     Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2041    Carpet Installers                                              Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2042    Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles              Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2043    Floor Sanders and Finishers                                    Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2044    Tile and Marble Setters                                        Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2051    Cement Masons and Concrete Finishers                           Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2053    Terrazzo Workers and Finishers                                 Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2061    Construction Laborers                                          Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2071    Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators             Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2072    Pile-Driver Operators                                          Construction Pathway
                                      Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment
Construction               47-2073    Operators                                                      Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2081    Drywall and Ceiling Tile Installers                            Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2082    Tapers                                                         Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2111    Electricians                                                   Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2121    Glaziers                                                       Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2131    Insulation Workers, Floor, Ceiling, and Wall                   Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2132    Insulation Workers, Mechanical                                 Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2141    Painters, Construction and Maintenance                         Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2142    Paperhangers                                                   Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2151    Pipelayers                                                     Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2152    Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters                        Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2161    Plasterers and Stucco Masons                                   Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2171    Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers                             Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2181    Roofers                                                        Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2211    Sheet Metal Workers                                            Construction Pathway
Construction               47-2221    Structural Iron and Steel Workers                              Construction Pathway
                                      Helpers--Brickmasons, Blockmasons, Stonemasons, and Tile
Construction               47-3011    and Marble Setters                                             Construction Pathway
Construction               47-3012    Helpers--Carpenters                                            Construction Pathway
Construction               47-3013    Helpers--Electricians                                          Construction Pathway
                                      Helpers--Painters, Paperhangers, Plasterers, and Stucco
Construction               47-3014    Masons                                                         Construction Pathway
Construction               47-3015    Helpers--Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters   Construction Pathway
Construction               47-3016    Helpers--Roofers                                               Construction Pathway
Construction               47-3019    Helpers, Construction Trades, All Other                        Construction Pathway
Construction               47-4011    Construction and Building Inspectors                           Construction Pathway
Construction               47-4021    Elevator Installers and Repairers                              Construction Pathway
Construction               47-4031    Fence Erectors                                                 Construction Pathway
Construction               47-4041    Hazardous Materials Removal Workers                            Construction Pathway
Construction               47-4071    Septic Tank Servicers and Sewer Pipe Cleaners                  Construction Pathway
Construction               47-4091    Segmental Pavers                                               Construction Pathway
Construction               47-5021    Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas                             Construction Pathway


       51
MARC Critical Occupation   Occ-Code   Occupation Title                                           Career Pathway
                                      Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse,
Construction               49-2095    Substation, and Relay                                      Construction Pathway
Construction               49-9045    Refractory Materials Repairers, Except Brickmasons         Construction Pathway
Construction               49-9051    Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers             Construction Pathway
Construction               49-9095    Manufactured Building and Mobile Home Installers           Construction Pathway
Construction               49-9096    Riggers                                                    Construction Pathway
Construction               49-9097    Signal and Track Switch Repairers                          Construction Pathway
Construction               49-9098    Helpers--Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers     Construction Pathway
Construction               49-9099    Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers, All Other   Construction Pathway
Construction               51-2041    Structural Metal Fabricators and Fitters                   Construction Pathway
Construction               53-7011    Conveyor Operators and Tenders                             Construction Pathway
Construction               53-7021    Crane and Tower Operators                                  Construction Pathway
Construction               53-7031    Dredge Operators                                           Construction Pathway
Construction               53-7032    Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators      Construction Pathway
Construction               53-7041    Hoist and Winch Operators                                  Construction Pathway
Electrical Engineering     11-9041    Engineering Managers                                       Engineering and Technology Pathway
Electrical Engineering     17-2071    Electrical Engineers                                       Engineering and Technology Pathway
Electrical Engineering     17-3023    Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technicians          Engineering and Technology Pathway
Electrical Engineering     17-3024    Electro-Mechanical Technicians                             Engineering and Technology Pathway
Electrical Engineering     17-3029    Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other        Engineering and Technology Pathway
Geospatial Technology      17-2121    Marine Engineers and Naval Architects                      Engineering and Technology Pathway
Geospatial Technology      17-3012    Electrical and Electronics Drafters                        Engineering and Technology Pathway
Geospatial Technology      17-3024    Electro-Mechanical Technicians                             Engineering and Technology Pathway
Geospatial Technology      17-3029    Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other        Engineering and Technology Pathway
Geospatial Technology      15-1041    Computer Support Specialists                               Information Support Services
Geospatial Technology      15-1099    Computer Specialists, All Other                            Information Support Services
Geospatial Technology      15-1061    Database Administrators                                    Network Systems Pathway
Geospatial Technology      15-1071    Network and Computer Systems Administrators                Network Systems Pathway
Geospatial Technology      15-1081    Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts           Network Systems Pathway
                                                                                                 Programming and Software
Geospatial Technology      11-3021    Computer and Information Systems Managers                  Development Pathway
                                                                                                 Programming and Software
Geospatial Technology      15-1021    Computer Programmers                                       Development Pathway
                                                                                                 Programming and Software
Geospatial Technology      15-1031    Computer Software Engineers, Applications                  Development Pathway
                                                                                                 Programming and Software
Geospatial Technology      15-1032    Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software              Development Pathway
                                                                                                 Programming and Software
Geospatial Technology      15-1051    Computer Systems Analysts                                  Development Pathway
Geospatial Technology      15-1011    Computer and Information Scientists, Research              Science and Mathematics Pathway
Geospatial Technology      19-3092    Geographers                                                Science and Mathematics Pathway
Government                                                                                       Emergency and Fire Management
Security/Intelligence      13-1061    Emergency Management Specialists                           Services Pathway
Government                                                                                       Emergency and Fire Management
Security/Intelligence      29-2041    Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics               Services Pathway
Government                            First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Fire Fighting and       Emergency and Fire Management
Security/Intelligence      33-1021    Prevention Workers                                         Services Pathway
Government                                                                                       Emergency and Fire Management
Security/Intelligence      33-2011    Fire Fighters                                              Services Pathway
Government                                                                                       Emergency and Fire Management
Security/Intelligence      33-2021    Fire Inspectors and Investigators                          Services Pathway
Government                                                                                       Emergency and Fire Management
Security/Intelligence      33-2022    Forest Fire Inspectors and Prevention Specialists          Services Pathway
Government                                                                                       Emergency and Fire Management
Security/Intelligence      43-5031    Police, Fire, and Ambulance Dispatchers                    Services Pathway
Government
Security/Intelligence      19-4092    Forensic Science Technicians                               Law Enforcement Services Pathway


       52
MARC Critical Occupation   Occ-Code    Occupation Title                                            Career Pathway
Government
Security/Intelligence      33-1012     First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Police and Detectives    Law Enforcement Services Pathway
Government
Security/Intelligence      33-9099     Protective Service Workers, All Other                       Law Enforcement Services Pathway
Government                             First-Line Supervisors/Managers, Protective Service         Security and Protective Services
Security/Intelligence      33-1099     Workers, All Other                                          Pathway
Government                                                                                         Security and Protective Services
Security/Intelligence      33-9021     Private Detectives and Investigators                        Pathway
Government                                                                                         Security and Protective Services
Security/Intelligence      33-9031     Gaming Surveillance Officers and Gaming Investigators       Pathway
Government                                                                                         Security and Protective Services
Security/Intelligence      33-9032     Security Guards                                             Pathway
Government                                                                                         Security and Protective Services
Security/Intelligence      33-9091     Crossing Guards                                             Pathway
Government                             Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and Other Recreational Protective   Security and Protective Services
Security/Intelligence      33-9092     Service Workers                                             Pathway
Government
Security/Intelligence      25-1124     Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary     Teaching/Training Pathway
Nursing                    29-1111     Registered Nurses                                           Therapeutic Services Pathway
Nursing                    29-2061     Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses           Therapeutic Services Pathway
Nursing                    31-1011     Home Health Aides                                           Therapeutic Services Pathway
Nursing                    31-1012     Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants                    Therapeutic Services Pathway
Nursing                    31-1013     Psychiatric Aides                                           Therapeutic Services Pathway
Nursing                    31-2011     Occupational Therapist Assistants                           Therapeutic Services Pathway
Nursing                    31-2012     Occupational Therapist Aides                                Therapeutic Services Pathway
Nursing                    31-2021     Physical Therapist Assistants                               Therapeutic Services Pathway
Nursing                    31-2022     Physical Therapist Aides                                    Therapeutic Services Pathway
Human Resource             11-3041     Compensation and Benefits Managers                          Human Resource Pathway
Human Resource             11-3042     Training and Development Managers                           Human Resource Pathway
Human Resource             11-3049     Human Resources Managers, All Other                         Human Resource Pathway
Human Resource             13-1071     Employment, Recruitment, and Placement Specialists          Human Resource Pathway
Human Resource             13-1072     Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists        Human Resource Pathway
Human Resource             13-1073     Training and Development Specialists                        Human Resource Pathway
                                       Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations
Human Resource             13-1079     Specialists, All Other                                      Human Resource Pathway
                                       Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and
Human Resource             43-4161     Timekeeping                                                 Human Resource Pathway
Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




          53
A6.3: Green Jobs Industries Definition
                                                                      24
There is no standard or widely accepted definition for green jobs. As shown in the table below, some researchers
define green jobs based on what they do to improve environmental conditions (Global Insight and John J. Heldrich
Center), while others define them based strategies needed to combat global warming (PERI and PEW).

                                     Definition of Green Jobs, Selected Studies
              25
PERI, 2008                           Focuses on the kinds of jobs needed to build a green economy in the United
                                     States based on six key strategies for attacking global warming: ―building
                                     retrofitting, mass transit, energy-efficient automobiles, wind power, solar power,
                                     and cellulosic biomass fuels.‖
                       26
Global Insight, 2008                 ―Green activities‖ are defined as ―Any activity that generates electricity using
                                     renewable or nuclear fuels, agriculture jobs supplying corn or soy for
                                     transportation fuel, manufacturing jobs producing goods used in renewable
                                     power generation, equipment dealers and wholesalers specializing in renewable
                                     energy or energy-efficiency products, construction and installation of energy and
                                     pollution management systems, government administration of environmental
                                     programs, and supporting jobs in the engineering, legal, research and consulting
                                     fields.‖
                                27
John J. Heldrich Center, 2009        ―Green jobs can be broadly defined as jobs that involve protecting wildlife or
                                     ecosystems, reducing pollution or waste, or reducing energy usage and lowering
                                     carbon emissions.‖
             28
Pew, 2009                            ―A clean energy economy generates jobs, businesses and investments while
                                     expanding clean energy efficiency, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, waste
                                     and pollution, and conserving water and other natural resources.‖

The breadth of the definition of green jobs impacts the number of industries and occupations counted in the
baseline of green jobs as well as the potential forecast for growth. For example, Global Insights estimates 751,051
green jobs in the nation in 2006 and predicts 2,540,800 jobs by 2018. The Pew Charitable Trusts‘ report, on the
other hand, estimates 770,385 ‖clean jobs‖ in 2007; Pew found that clean jobs grew at an annual average 9.1% in
the nation from 1998 through 2007, compared with 3.7% for all jobs.

The table below provides more detail around the categories/industries proposed by the PERI, Global Insight,
Heldrich Center and Pew reports to define green jobs and industries. Although some overlap appears in the


24
   The U.S. Bureau of Labor Analysis has requested that funds be added to the 2010 budget to measure ‖green collar‖ jobs.
See page 13 of the following site for further information: http://www.dol.gov/dol/budget/2010/pdf/cbj-2010-V3-01.pdf.
25
   Robert Pollin and Jeannette Wicks-Lim, ―Job Opportunities for the Green Economy: A State-by-State Picture of Occupations
that Gain from Green Investments,‖ Political Economy Research Institute (PERI), University of Massachusetts, Amherst, June
2008, page 1.
26
   Current and Potential Green Jobs in the U.S. Economy, by Global Insight, page 5. This report can be found at:
http://www.globalinsight.com/Scripts/registrationForm.cfm?ID=125.
27
   Jennifer Cleary and Allison Kopicki, ―Preparing the Workforce for a ‗Green Jobs‘ Economy,‖ John J. Heldrich Center for
Workforce Development Research Brief,‖ February 2009, page 1.
28
   The Pew Charitable Trusts, ―The Clean Energy Economy: Repowering Jobs, Businesses and Investments Across America,‖
June 2009, page 5.




        54
definitions, only Global Insights and Pew Charitable Trusts provide a list of 8-digit Standard Industrial Classification
      29
(SIC) industries that compose the green job industries. Detailed information on industries is needed to estimate
the number of jobs in the region and to link that with the occupations/skills they use. The resulting occupations
include jobs such as accountant and secretary that are not strictly green jobs but represent people who work in
green industries. A benefit of this approach is that industry employment is reported monthly while occupation
employment is reported every two years.

                                    Categories that Define Green Industries
       PERI, 2008                Global Insight, 2008        John J. Heldrich Center,                  Pew, 2009
                                                                      2009
                              Renewable Power               Renewable Energy                     Clean Energy
                              Generation
Wind Power                       Wind Power                    Wind Power
Solar Power                      Solar Power                   Solar Power
                                 Hydropower                    Hydropower
                                 Geothermal Power              Geothermal Power
Cellulosic Biofuels              Biomass Power
                                 Nuclear                       Nuclear
                                                               Coal with Carbon
                                                               Sequestration
                                                               Natural gas
                                                               cogeneration units
                              Energy Efficiency             Energy Efficiency                    Energy Efficiency
                                              30
                                  Standards
                                                   31
Building Retrofitting             Implementation                     Retrofitting Homes and      Conservation
                                                                     Businesses
                              Renewable Transportation
                              Fuels
Energy Efficient                 Transportation Sector
Automobiles                      Emissions
                                 Renewable Fuels
                              Engineering, Legal,                                                Environmentally
                              Research and Consulting                                            Friendly Production
                                                                                                 Pollution Mitigation
                                                                                                 Training and Support
Mass Transit

Several factors lead us to use the Global Insight definition as the baseline and forecast for the MARC Region
analysis. Global Insight lists 73 industries while Pew identifies 74 industries related to green jobs (lists of those



29
   The National Establishment Time-Series (NETS) database is derived from Dun & Bradstreet data.
30
   Standards are those programs and guidelines already in place that are driving change, such as the United States Green
Building Council‘s LEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) rating system and the Environmental Protection
Agency‘s Energy Star® program that promotes the use of energy–efficient products and building practices by providing
information to consumers and businesses.
31
   Residential and commercial retrofitting.




       55
industries are found at the end of this appendix). However, only about 30 industries appeared in both definitions.
Furthermore, it is bothersome that nuclear—a carbon-neutral source of energy—is not found on the Pew list. More
important, the Pew study is primarily backward-looking—it provides historically changes in green jobs but does not
provide a forecast. Only Global Insight provides a forecast of green jobs. Although Chmura can produce its own
forecast for green jobs in the nation, the tight deadline for this study warrants adopting an existing a forecast from a
reputable source. Consequently the Global Insight definition is used in this report. Headings highlighted in bold
                                      32
represent major industry categories.

                       Standard Industrial Classification 8-Digit Codes Used in Global Insight Study
      Renewable Power Generation                                Manufacturing
           Hydroelectric                                             Wet corn milling
           Nuclear                                                   Corn milling byproducts
           Other renewable                                           Gluten feed and meal
      Agriculture & Forestry                                         Soybean and vegetable oil mills
           Corn farming                                              Lecithin, soybean
           Soybean farming                                           Soybean flour, grits, oil, cake, meal, or powder
           Forestry and reforestation services                       Soybean protein concentrates and isolates
           Forest management services                                Hydrogen
           Forest management plans, preparation of                   Ethyl alcohol, ethanol
           Timber cruising, estimating, and valuation services       Solar heaters and collectors
      Engineering, Legal, Research & Consulting                      Turbine and turbine generator set units, complete
           Environmental law                                         Gas turbine generator set units, complete
           Environmental protection organization                     Hydraulic turbine generator set units, complete
           Pollution control engineering                             Steam turbine generator set units, complete
           Building construction consultant                          Turbines and turbine generator sets and parts
           Heating and ventilation engineering                       Gas turbines, mechanical drive
           Electrical or electronic engineering                      Hydraulic turbines
           Energy conservation engineering                           Steam engines and turbines
           Agricultural and biological research                      Turbo-generators
           Biotechnical research, commercial                         Wheels, water
           Natural resource research                                 Windmills for pumping water, agricultural
           Energy research                                           Windmills, electric generating
           Environmental research                                    Light emitting diodes
           Materials mgmt. consultant                                Solar cells and photovoltaic devices, solid state
           Productivity improvement consultant                       Fuel cells, solid state
           Environmental remediation                                 Hydrogen ion equipment, colorimetric
           Energy conservation consultant                            Environmental controls and testing equipment
           Environmental consultant                                  Solarimeters
           Earth science services                               Construction & Systems Installation
           Geological and geophysical consultant                     Solar energy contractor
           Recycling, waste materials                                Energy management controls
           Environmental cleanup services                            Environmental system control installation
           Natural resource preservation service                     Pollution control equipment installation
      Government Administration                                 Equipment Dealers & Wholesalers
           Environmental health program administration               Heating equipment and panels, solar
           Environmental agencies                                    Air pollution control equipment and supplies
           Air pollution control agency                              Pollution control equipment, air (environmental)
           Environmental protection agency                           Pollution control equipment, water (environmental)
           Environmental quality and control agency                  Solar heating equipment




32
  The Council for Adult & Experiential Learning (CAEL), ―Building Green Skills: Mission Verde, A Green Jobs Program for San
Antonio,‖ page C 1.




        56
                                    Standard Industrial Codes used in Pew Study
8-Digit SIC   Description                                 8-Digit SIC    Description
1810103       Mats, preseed: soil erosion, growing of     38220300       Thermostats and other environmental
                                                                         sensors
8510102       Reforestation services                      38229900       Environmental controls, nec
13110201      Coal gasification                           38229905       Energy cutoff controls, residential or
                                                                         commercial types
13110303      Coal pyrolysis                              38269907       Environmental testing equipment
16290505      Waste water and sewage treatment            38290218       Solarimeters
              plant construction
17110403      Solar energy contractor                     49119908       Hydro electric power generation
17310202      Energy management controls                  49520000       Sewerage systems
17310203      Environmental system control                49539905       Recycling, waste materials
              installation
17420204      Solar reflecting insulation film            49539907       Sewage treatment facility
17819901      Geothermal drilling                         49590300       Toxic or hazardous waste cleanup
17969906      Pollution control equipment installation    49590301       Oil spill cleanup
17990210      Weather stripping                           49590302       Environmental cleanup services
28210401      Carbohydrate plastics                       50399912       Soil erosion control fabrics
28210407      Soybean plastics                            50740208       Heating equipment and panels, solar
28690104      Ethyl alcohol, ethanol                      50750103       Air pollution control equipment and
                                                                         supplies
28739901      Fertilizers: natural (organic), except      50840706       Pollution control equipment, air
              compost                                                    (environmental)
28759901      Compost                                     50840707       Pollution control equipment, water
                                                                         (environmental)
28999913      Desalter kits, sea water                    50849914       Recycling machinery and equipment
32110302      Insulating glass, sealed units              50930000       Scrap and waste materials (all related
                                                                         codes)
32310401      Insulating glass: made from purchased       52110300       Insulation and energy conservation
              glass                                                      products
34339904      Solar heaters and collectors                52110301       Energy conservation products
34430304      Economizers (boilers)                       52110303       Solar heating equipment
35110207      Wheels, water                               73890201       Air pollution measuring service
35239906      Windmills for pumping water,                73899931       Meter readers, remote
              agricultural
35590403      Desalination equipment                      76990304       Thermostat repair
35599937      Recycling machinery                         81110208       Environmental law
35890300      Sewage and water treatment equipment 86419903              Environmental protection organization
35890301      Sewage treatment equipment                  87110101       Pollution control engineering
35890306      Water treatment equipment, industrial       87110403       Heating and ventilation engineering
36219909      Windmills, electric generating              87119906       Energy conservation engineering
36290102      Electrochemical generators (fuel cells)     87310302       Environmental research
36740305      Photovoltaic devices, solid state           87340300       Pollution testing
36740306      Solar cells                                 87349911       Water testing laboratory
36749901      Fuel cells, solid state                     87449904       Environmental remediation
37110104      Cars, electric assembly of                  87489904       Energy conservation consultant
38220000      Environmental controls                      87489905       Environmental consultant
38220206      Temperature controls, automatic             89990703       Natural resource preservation service




    57
A6.4: BRAC and Similar Industry Definition

One of the main objectives of this study is to analyze the workforce impact of the BRAC movements. To understand
the occupation impact of the BRAC initiatives on the MARC Region, the first step is to allocate BRAC-affected jobs
in all eleven military bases into different occupations. Unfortunately, many of the detailed redeployment data,
especially at the military command level, are classified. Chmura used publicly available information and
approximated military units with industries where the occupation mix data are available. For example, one of the big
gains for Fort Belvoir is the National Geospatial Agency, which is approximated by the information system sector
under the NAICS classification (see table below). Another gain for Fort Belvoir is relocating Walter Reed hospital,
which is approximated by general and medical hospital industries. For Quantico, also in Virginia, several
investigative agencies will be consolidated in this base, which are approximated by investigative and security
           33
services. Another example is Fort George G. Meade in Maryland, where a large portion of defense media
operations are consolidated. Those units are approximated by the radio/broadcast industry. Fort Detrick added
biomedical research units, which are approximated by the scientific research industry.

The data sources used to identify similar industries include reports from MARC, the Virginia National Defense
Industry Authority, and the Department of Defense. Chmura reviewed the detailed descriptions of military
movements at each base, and assigned a NAICS industry similar to those occupation descriptions.

Bases that are located in Virginia are highlighted in yellow in the table below while Maryland bases are shown with
a white background.

                                                 Military Movement and Similar Industries
                                                                                                                          Similar
       Military Base                                  Function Change                                          NAICS4     Industry
                        Relocate elements of Program Executive Office Enterprise Systems from Fort                        National
 Fort Belvoir           Monmouth, NJ                                                                               9281   Security
                                                                                                                          Logistic
                        Consolidate Program Manager Acquisition; Logistics & Technology Enterprise                        Management
                        Systems from VA leased space at 2511 Jeff Davis Hwy w/Program Executive                           and
 Fort Belvoir           Office Enterprise Information Systems.                                                     5416   Consulting
                                                                                                                          National
 Fort Belvoir           Relocate the Army‘s Prime Power School to Fort Leonard Wood, MO.                           9281   Security
                                                                                                                          Investigative
                        Relocate Army Criminal Investigation Command (CID) from Fort Belvoir to Marine                    and Security
 Fort Belvoir           Corps Base (MCB) Quantico, VA                                                              5616   Service
                        Co-locate Miscellaneous OSD, Defense Agency & Field Activity Locations, to Fort                   National
 Fort Belvoir           Belvoir.                                                                                   9281   Security
                        Federal Office Building 2-HQ Command Center for Missile Defense Agency                            National
 Fort Belvoir           (MDA) to Fort Belvoir.                                                                     9281   Security
 Fort Belvoir           Relocating Soldier Magazine to Fort George G. Meade, MD.                                   5111   Magazine
                        Relocating the Army Material Command (AMC) and the Security Assistance                            National
 Fort Belvoir           Command (USASAC) to Redstone Arsenal, AL                                                   9281   Security
                        Close National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Dalecarlia and Sumner                         Information
 Fort Belvoir           Sites, MD., and relocate to Fort Belvoir.                                                  5413   System
                        Relocate functions from NGA Reston 1, 2, and 3 sites in Reston, VA, to Fort
                        Belvoir. Relocate NGA functions Newington buildings 8510, 8520 and 8530 in
                        Newington, VA, to Fort Belvoir. Relocate all NGA functions from the National
                        Reconnaissance Office facility in Westfields, VA, to a new facility at Fort Belvoir.              Information
 Fort Belvoir           Relocate NGA functions from Building 213 at the South East Federal Center,                 5413   System



33
     Appendix 6.4 has a complete list of all military bases and industry approximates.




           58
                    Washington, DC, and relocate functions to Fort Belvoir.
                                                                                                             General
                    Realign Walter Reed Army Medical Center, D.C., by relocating all non-tertiary            Medical
Fort Belvoir        (primary and specialty) patient care functions to Fort Belvoir.                   6221   Hospital
                                                                                                             Logistic
                                                                                                             Management
                    Realign various Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) business functions from the               and
Fort Belvoir        Naval Support Activity Mechanicsburg, PA, to HQ DLA at Fort Belvoir               5416   Consulting
                    Realign Marine Corps Base Albany, GA, by relocating various business functions           Management
Fort Belvoir        to HQ DLA at Fort Belvoir.                                                        5511   of Enterprise
                    1919 S. Eads St., 1801 S. Bell St. & 1340 Braddock Place. Relocate all                   Investigative
                    components of the Counterintelligence Field Activity (CIFA) & Defense Security           and Security
Quantico            Service (DSS) to MCB Quantico.                                                    5616   Service
                    Crystal Square 2, 4 & 251 18th Street, Elkridge, MD, CA, GA, OH, CIFA & DSS to           Management
Quantico            MCB Quantico.                                                                     5511   of Enterprise
                                                                                                             Investigative
                    Relocate Naval Criminal Investigative Service from Washington Navy Yard to               and Security
Quantico            MCB Quantico.                                                                     5616   Service
                                                                                                             Investigative
                    Realign Andrews AFB, MD, by relocating the Air Force Office of Special                   and Security
Quantico            Investigations (AFOSI) to MCB Quantico.                                           5616   Service
                                                                                                             Investigative
                    Relocate Army Criminal Investigation Command (CID) from Fort Belvoir to MCB              and Security
Quantico            Quantico.                                                                         5616   Service
                    Realign MCB Quantico by relocating the correctional facility to Naval Support
                    Activity, Northwest Annex, Chesapeake, Virginia, to form a single Level II Mid-          Jail/Justice/P
Quantico            Atlantic Joint Regional Correctional Facility.                                    9221   ublic order
National Naval                                                                                               General
Medical Center                                                                                               Medical
Bethesda            Relocate Walter Reed Amy Medical Center                                           6221   Hospital
Aberdeen Proving                                                                                             National
Ground              Relocate Combat Service Center, Ordinance Center and school, logistic school      9281   Security
Aberdeen Proving                                                                                             Scientific
Ground              Chem-Bio Research Center                                                          5417   Research
Aberdeen Proving                                                                                             Scientific
Ground              Receive and consolidate Army test and evaluation command (ATEC)                   5417   Research
Aberdeen Proving                                                                                             Scientific
Ground              Other ATEC                                                                        5417   Research
Aberdeen Proving    C4ISR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance,          Information
Ground              and reconnaissance (C41SR) information structure)                                 5413   System
Aberdeen Proving                                                                                             Information
Ground              Other DOD Growth                                                                  5413   System
Aberdeen Proving                                                                                             Scientific
Ground              Army Research Laboratory (from Langley)                                           5417   Research
                                                                                                             Investigative
Andrews Air Force                                                                                            and Security
Base                Relocate Investigation to Quantico                                                5616   Service
Andrews Air Force                                                                                            Jail/Justice/P
Base                Receive from AF JAG, Information officer, operations, logistic personal           9221   ublic order
Andrews Air Force                                                                                            National
Base                Air National Guard                                                                9281   Security
Andrews Air Force                                                                                            National
Base                Air Force District of Washington                                                  9281   Security
                                                                                                             Scientific
Fort Detrick        USAMRIID Legacy                                                                   5417   Research
                                                                                                             Scientific
Fort Detrick        NIAID                                                                             5417   Research
                                                                                                             Scientific
Fort Detrick        USAMRIID -I                                                                       5417   Research
                                                                                                             Scientific
Fort Detrick        USAMRIID -II                                                                      5417   Research
                                                                                                             National
Fort Detrick        Other Federal Growth                                                              9281   Security
                                                                                                             National
Fort Detrick        2005 BRAC Move out 15                                                             9281   Security
Fort George G.
Meade               Relocating of soldier magazine from Fort Belvoir                                  5111   Magazine
Fort George G.      Defense Office of Hearing and Appeals (Adjuction)                                 9221   Jail/Justice/


        59
 Meade                                                                                            Public order
 Fort George G.                                                                                   Jail/Justice/P
 Meade               Defense Office of Hearing and Appeals (Adjuction)                     9221   ublic order
 Fort George G.                                                                                   Information
 Meade               Defense Information System Agency, Other DISA                         5413   System
 Fort George G.                                                                                   Information
 Meade               Defense Information System Agency, Other DISA                         5413   System
 Fort George G.                                                                                   Radio/TV
 Meade               Army Broadcasting Soldier Radio/TV & Defense Media Activity           5151   Broadcasting
 Fort George G.                                                                                   Radio/TV
 Meade               Army Broadcasting Soldier Radio/TV & Defense Media Activity           5151   Broadcasting
                                                                                                  Investigative
 Fort George G.                                                                                   and Security
 Meade               Intelligence Community                                                5616   Service
 Fort George G.                                                                                   National
 Meade               Other DOD Growth                                                      9281   Security
                                                                                                  Investigative
 Bolling Air Force                                                                                and Security
 Base                Defense Intelligence Agency Analysis function                         5616   Service
                                                                                                  Investigative
 Bolling Air Force                                                                                and Security
 Base                Relocating selected defense intelligence to Virginia                  5616   Service
                                                                                                  Investigative
                                                                                                  and Security
 Naval District      Relocating Naval Criminal Investigative Service to Quantico           5616   Service
                                                                                                  General
 Walter Reed Army                                                                                 Medical
 Medical Center      Relocate                                                              6221   Hospital
                                                                                                  National
 Potomac Annex       2005 BRAC                                                             9281   Security


A6.5: Industry Cluster Definitions

Industry clusters represent a geographic concentration of interrelated industries. Clusters can form and grow
because of a region‘s competitive advantage—resources such as location, trained labor, and education systems.
The industries that make up the clusters used in this report, which are an output of JobsEQ, are defined below.

Agriculture

111 Crop Production
112 Animal Production
114 Fishing, Hunting and Trapping
115 Support Activities for Agriculture and Forestry
3111 Animal Food Manufacturing
3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling
3253 Pesticide, Fertilizer, and Other Agricultural Chemical Manufacturing

Auto/Auto-related

811 Repair and Maintenance
3336 Engine, Turbine, and Power Transmission Equipment Manufacturing
3361 Motor Vehicle Manufacturing
3362 Motor Vehicle Body and Trailer Manufacturing
3363 Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing

Chemical

3251 Basic Chemical Manufacturing

         60
3252 Resin, Synthetic Rubber, and Artificial Synthetic Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing
3255 Paint, Coating, and Adhesive Manufacturing
3256 Soap, Cleaning Compound, and Toilet Preparation Manufacturing
3259 Other Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing
3261 Plastics Product Manufacturing
3262 Rubber Product Manufacturing
3271 Clay Product and Refractory Manufacturing
3272 Glass and Glass Product Manufacturing
3274 Lime and Gypsum Product Manufacturing
3279 Other Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing

Coal/Oil/Power

486 Pipeline Transportation
2111 Oil and Gas Extraction
2121 Coal Mining
2123 Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying
2131 Support Activities for Mining
2211 Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution
2212 Natural Gas Distribution
3241 Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing

Construction

2361 Residential Building Construction
2362 Nonresidential Building Construction
2371 Utility System Construction
2372 Land Subdivision
2373 Highway, Street, and Bridge Construction
2379 Other Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction
2381 Foundation, Structure, and Building Exterior Contractors
2382 Building Equipment Contractors
2383 Building Finishing Contractors
2389 Other Specialty Trade Contractors
3273 Cement and Concrete Product Manufacturing

Consumer Service

481 Air Transportation
485 Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation
487 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation
493 Warehousing and Storage

531 Real Estate

711 Performing Arts, Spectator Sports, and Related Industries
713 Amusement, Gambling, and Recreation Industries

721 Accommodation

722 Food Services and Drinking Places
812 Personal and Laundry Services
814 Private Households

       61
Education

611 Educational Services
712 Museums, Historical Sites, and Similar Institutions
813 Religious, Grantmaking, Civic, Professional, and Similar Organizations

Electric/Electronics Manufacturing

3332 Industrial Machinery Manufacturing
3333 Commercial and Service Industry Machinery Manufacturing
3341 Computer and Peripheral Equipment Manufacturing
3342 Communications Equipment Manufacturing
3343 Audio and Video Equipment Manufacturing
3344 Semiconductor and Other Electronic Component Manufacturing
3345 Navigational, Measuring, Electromedical, and Control Instruments Manufacturing
3351 Electric Lighting Equipment Manufacturing
3352 Household Appliance Manufacturing
3353 Electrical Equipment Manufacturing
3359 Other Electrical Equipment and Component Manufacturing

Financial Service

521 Monetary Authorities - Central Bank
522 Credit Intermediation and Related Activities
523 Securities, Commodity Contracts, and Other Financial Investments and Related Activities
524 Insurance Carriers and Related Activities
525 Funds, Trusts, and Other Financial Vehicles
533 Lessors of Nonfinancial Intangible Assets (except Copyrighted Works)

Food Manufacturing

3113 Sugar and Confectionery Product Manufacturing
3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Food Manufacturing
3115 Dairy Product Manufacturing
3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing
3117 Seafood Product Preparation and Packaging
3118 Bakeries and Tortilla Manufacturing
3119 Other Food Manufacturing
3121 Beverage Manufacturing
3122 Tobacco Manufacturing

Freight Transportation

482 Rail Transportation
483 Water Transportation
484 Truck Transportation
488 Support Activities for Transportation
491 Postal Service
492 Couriers and Messengers

Health

621 Ambulatory Health Care Services

         62
622 Hospitals
623 Nursing and Residential Care Facilities
624 Social Assistance

Machinery Manufacturing

3322 Cutlery and Handtool Manufacturing
3325 Hardware Manufacturing
3327 Machine Shops; Turned Product; and Screw, Nut, and Bolt Manufacturing
3329 Other Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing
3331 Agriculture, Construction, and Mining Machinery Manufacturing
3334 Ventilation, Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturing
3335 Metalworking Machinery Manufacturing
3339 Other General Purpose Machinery Manufacturing
3346 Manufacturing and Reproducing Magnetic and Optical Media
3364 Aerospace Product and Parts Manufacturing
3365 Railroad Rolling Stock Manufacturing
3366 Ship and Boat Building
3369 Other Transportation Equipment Manufacturing
3391 Medical Equipment and Supplies Manufacturing
3399 Other Miscellaneous Manufacturing

Media

511 Publishing Industries (except Internet)
512 Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries
515 Broadcasting (except Internet)
519 Other Information Services
3231 Printing and Related Support Activities

Metal and Product Manufacturing

2122 Metal Ore Mining3311 Iron and Steel Mills and Ferroalloy Manufacturing
3312 Steel Product Manufacturing from Purchased Steel
3313 Alumina and Aluminum Production and Processing
3314 Nonferrous Metal (except Aluminum) Production and Processing
3315 Foundries
3321 Forging and Stamping
3323 Architectural and Structural Metals Manufacturing
3324 Boiler, Tank, and Shipping Container Manufacturing
3326 Spring and Wire Product Manufacturing
3328 Coating, Engraving, Heat Treating, and Allied Activities

Pharmaceutical

3254 Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing
Professional Service
516 Internet Publishing and Broadcasting
517 Telecommunications
518 Internet Service Providers, Web Search Portals, and Data Processing Services
532 Rental and Leasing Services
541 Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
551 Management of Companies and Enterprises
561 Administrative and Support Services


        63
Public Administration

921 Executive, Legislative, and Other General Government Support
922 Justice, Public Order, and Safety Activities
923 Administration of Human Resource Programs
924 Administration of Environmental Quality Programs
925 Administration of Housing Programs, Urban Planning, and Community Development
926 Administration of Economic Programs
927 Space Research and Technology
928 National Security and International Affairs

Other

9999 Unclassified

Retail

423 Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods
424 Merchant Wholesalers, Nondurable Goods
425 Wholesale Electronic Markets and Agents and Brokers
441 Motor Vehicle and Parts Dealers
442 Furniture and Home Furnishings Stores
443 Electronics and Appliance Stores
444 Building Material and Garden Equipment and Supplies Dealers
445 Food and Beverage Stores
446 Health and Personal Care Stores
447 Gasoline Stations
448 Clothing and Clothing Accessories Stores
451 Sporting Goods, Hobby, Book, and Music Stores
452 General Merchandise Stores
453 Miscellaneous Store Retailers
454 Nonstore Retailers

Textile/Leather

3131 Fiber, Yarn, and Thread Mills
3132 Fabric Mills
3133 Textile and Fabric Finishing and Fabric Coating Mills
3141 Textile Furnishings Mills
3149 Other Textile Product Mills
3151 Apparel Knitting Mills
3152 Cut and Sew Apparel Manufacturing
3159 Apparel Accessories and Other Apparel Manufacturing
3161 Leather and Hide Tanning and Finishing
3162 Footwear Manufacturing
3169 Other Leather and Allied Product Manufacturing

Utilities

562 Waste Management and Remediation Services
2213 Water, Sewage and Other Systems




         64
Wood/Paper

113 Forestry and Logging
3211 Sawmills and Wood Preservation
3212 Veneer, Plywood, and Engineered Wood Product Manufacturing
3219 Other Wood Product Manufacturing
3221 Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills
3222 Converted Paper Product Manufacturing
3371 Household and Institutional Furniture and Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturing
3372 Office Furniture (including Fixtures) Manufacturing
3379 Other Furniture Related Product Manufacturing

A6.6. Military Exits

Military exits represent the occupations of individuals who locate in the MARC Region after being
discharged or retiring from the military. Consequently, they represent an important potential source of
skills to the MARC Region workforce. The tables below show the annual military exits in the MARC Region
and each of it sub-regions for those occupations where there is a positive gap indicating the need for
more of those occupations.




       65
                          Military Exits in MARC, DC Sub-region, October 2007 - September 2008
                                                                                                 Annual
 SOC                                                                                                        Annual Occ.
                                               Description                                       Military
 Code                                                                                                          Gap
                                                                                                  Exits

43-9061   Office Clerks, General                                                                   80          737
29-1111   Registered Nurses                                                                        48          317
43-3031   Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks                                             12          316
41-2031   Retail Salespersons                                                                       9          287
15-1081   Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts                                          1          257
13-1111   Management Analysts                                                                       1          145
31-9092   Medical Assistants                                                                       27          128
53-3032   Truck Drivers, Heavy and Tractor-Trailer                                                 26          107
33-3012   Correctional Officers and Jailers                                                         6           94
13-1199   Business Operations Specialists, All Other                                                5           87
23-2011   Paralegals and Legal Assistants                                                           6           84
53-3033   Truck Drivers, Light or Delivery Services                                                 5           74
31-9091   Dental Assistants                                                                         4           70
29-2052   Pharmacy Technicians                                                                      3           60
53-3021   Bus Drivers, Transit and Intercity                                                        3           50
49-3023   Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics                                             28           38
29-2071   Medical Records and Health Information Technicians                                       193          33
17-3031   Surveying and Mapping Technicians                                                        24           31
51-8031   Water and Liquid Waste Treatment Plant and System Operators                               1           30
47-1011   First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers             5           29
15-1051   Computer Systems Analysts                                                                39           29
49-3031   Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists                                    11           26
29-2021   Dental Hygienists                                                                         9           24
49-1011   First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers                  51           24
11-9021   Construction Managers                                                                    10           23
53-5031   Ship Engineers                                                                           16           22
47-2073   Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators                           11           21
31-9096   Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers                                    2           21
15-1071   Network and Computer Systems Administrators                                              54           19
11-3011   Administrative Services Managers                                                          3           18
27-1014   Multi-Media Artists and Animators                                                         3           16
53-5021   Captains, Mates, and Pilots of Water Vessels                                             17           16
47-2031   Carpenters                                                                                1           15
49-9041   Industrial Machinery Mechanics                                                            1           15
49-3021   Automotive Body and Related Repairers                                                     2           14
17-3022   Civil Engineering Technicians                                                             5           14
29-1131   Veterinarians                                                                             2           14
47-2152   Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters                                                  15           13

     66
                     Military Exits in MARC, DC Sub-region, October 2007 - September 2008 (Continued)
                                                                                                        Annual
   SOC                                                                                                                Annual Occ.
                                               Description                                              Military
   Code                                                                                                                  Gap
                                                                                                         Exits

 13-1073     Training and Development Specialists                                                          3                 12
 13-1071     Employment, Recruitment, and Placement Specialists                                           16                 9
 11-9111     Medical and Health Services Managers                                                         43                 9
 43-5011     Cargo and Freight Agents                                                                      2                 8
 29-2055     Surgical Technologists                                                                       12                 8
 49-9062     Medical Equipment Repairers                                                                   7                 8
 29-2041     Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics                                                 81                 8
 43-5051     Postal Service Clerks                                                                         6                 8
 27-3091     Interpreters and Translators                                                                 116                6
 39-6031     Flight Attendants                                                                             7                 6
 29-2034     Radiologic Technologists and Technicians                                                      5                 5
 21-2021     Directors, Religious Activities and Education                                                 7                 5
             First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Transportation and Material-Moving Machine
 53-1031     and Vehicle Operators                                                                         5                 5
 27-4011     Audio and Video Equipment Technicians                                                         3                 5
 35-1012     First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Food Preparation and Serving Workers                       2                 4
 49-2093     Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation Equipment                 5                 4
 53-1011     Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors                                                           5                 4
 27-2042     Musicians and Singers                                                                        20                 4
 29-2032     Diagnostic Medical Sonographers                                                               2                 3
 47-2071     Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators                                            1                 3
 29-2011     Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists                                                20                 2
 49-3011     Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians                                                   29                 2
 13-1081     Logisticians                                                                                 77                 2
 27-2041     Music Directors and Composers                                                                26                 2
 47-4099     Construction and Related Workers, All Other                                                  13                 1
 49-9069     Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers, All Other                                       5                 1
 23-2091     Court Reporters                                                                               4                 1
 19-4041     Geological and Petroleum Technicians                                                          1                 1
 45-2011    Agricultural Inspectors                                                                        3                 1
Source: JobsEQ

                            Military Exits in MARC Region, October 2007 - September 2008
                                                                                             Annual
   SOC                                                                                                         Annual Occ.
                                            Description                                      Military
   Code                                                                                                           Gap
                                                                                              Exits
 43-9061     Office Clerks, General                                                            82                  1,184
 29-1111     Registered Nurses                                                                 70                   665
 43-3031     Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks                                      27                   507
 41-2031     Retail Salespersons                                                                9                   505
 15-1081     Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts                                  17                   347


       67
                  Military Exits in MARC Region, October 2007 - September 2008 (Continued)
                                                                                    Annual
 SOC                                                                                           Annual Occ.
                                         Description                                Military
 Code                                                                                             Gap
                                                                                      Exits
13-1111   Management Analysts                                                           1         250
31-9092   Medical Assistants                                                            33        245
53-3032   Truck Drivers, Heavy and Tractor-Trailer                                      55        238
13-1199   Business Operations Specialists, All Other                                    8         159
53-3033   Truck Drivers, Light or Delivery Services                                     22        139
31-9091   Dental Assistants                                                             4         118
23-2011   Paralegals and Legal Assistants                                               13        117
33-3012   Correctional Officers and Jailers                                             12        110
29-2052   Pharmacy Technicians                                                          4         106
53-3021   Bus Drivers, Transit and Intercity                                            4          83
29-2071   Medical Records and Health Information Technicians                           225         59
49-3023   Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics                                  51         57
          First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Construction Trades and Extraction
47-1011   Workers                                                                     13           47
15-1051   Computer Systems Analysts                                                   70           45
17-3031   Surveying and Mapping Technicians                                           27           44
49-3031   Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists                       30           44
29-2021   Dental Hygienists                                                           10           42
51-8031   Water and Liquid Waste Treatment Plant and System Operators                 1            40
11-9021   Construction Managers                                                       14           38
31-9096   Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers                      6            38

49-1011   First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers     138          36
47-2073   Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators               19          33
49-9041   Industrial Machinery Mechanics                                               8           31
53-5031   Ship Engineers                                                               17          30
29-1131   Veterinarians                                                                3           28
11-3011   Administrative Services Managers                                             12          28
49-3021   Automotive Body and Related Repairers                                        5           26
15-1071   Network and Computer Systems Administrators                                  71          25
13-1073   Training and Development Specialists                                         4           25
53-5021   Captains, Mates, and Pilots of Water Vessels                                 17          23
27-1014   Multi-Media Artists and Animators                                            4           22
11-9111   Medical and Health Services Managers                                         70          22
17-3022   Civil Engineering Technicians                                                5           19
13-1071   Employment, Recruitment, and Placement Specialists                           32          18
47-2031   Carpenters                                                                   1           18
43-5011   Cargo and Freight Agents                                                     11          16
29-2041   Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics                                122          15
49-9062   Medical Equipment Repairers                                                  12          15
29-2055   Surgical Technologists                                                       16          14
47-2152   Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters                                      19          13
          First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Food Preparation and Serving
35-1012   Workers                                                                     4            13
43-5051   Postal Service Clerks                                                       13           12
39-6031   Flight Attendants                                                           11           11
49-3042   Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines                            6            11
29-2034   Radiologic Technologists and Technicians                                    5            11


     68
                    Military Exits in MARC Region, October 2007 - September 2008 (Continued)
                                                                                      Annual
 SOC                                                                                             Annual Occ.
                                          Description                                 Military
 Code                                                                                               Gap
                                                                                        Exits
27-3091    Interpreters and Translators                                                  138         11
29-2011    Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists                                  34         9
13-1081    Logisticians                                                                  116         9
           Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation
49-2093    Equipment                                                                    5            7
27-2042    Musicians and Singers                                                        35           7
21-2021    Directors, Religious Activities and Education                                9            7
53-1011    Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors                                          7            6

13-1079    Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists, All Other        51           6
27-4011    Audio and Video Equipment Technicians                                        3            6
           First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Transportation and Material-Moving
53-1031    Machine and Vehicle Operators                                                17           6
29-2032    Diagnostic Medical Sonographers                                              3            6
47-2071    Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators                           2            4
49-3011    Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians                                   65           3
21-2011    Clergy                                                                       6            3
29-1071    Physician Assistants                                                         7            2
27-2041    Music Directors and Composers                                                30           2
49-9069    Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers, All Other                      14           2
23-2091    Court Reporters                                                              4            2
47-4099    Construction and Related Workers, All Other                                  20           2
19-4041    Geological and Petroleum Technicians                                         3            1
45-2011    Agricultural Inspectors                                                      3            1
Source: JobsEQ


                     Military Exits in MARC, MD Sub-region, October 2007 - September 2008
                                                                                      Annual
 SOC                                                                                             Annual Occ.
                                          Description                                 Military
 Code                                                                                               Gap
                                                                                       Exits
43-9061    Office Clerks, General                                                        80         1,058
29-1111    Registered Nurses                                                             57          656
41-2031    Retail Salespersons                                                           9           439
43-3031    Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks                                  18          437
15-1081    Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts                              2           332
13-1111    Management Analysts                                                           1           258
31-9092    Medical Assistants                                                            28          222
53-3032    Truck Drivers, Heavy and Tractor-Trailer                                      46          193
13-1199    Business Operations Specialists, All Other                                    5           152
53-3033    Truck Drivers, Light or Delivery Services                                     10          116
23-2011    Paralegals and Legal Assistants                                               9           115
31-9091    Dental Assistants                                                             4           103
33-3012    Correctional Officers and Jailers                                             7           102
29-2052    Pharmacy Technicians                                                          4            96
15-1051    Computer Systems Analysts                                                     56           75
53-3021    Bus Drivers, Transit and Intercity                                            4            69
29-2071    Medical Records and Health Information Technicians                           208           55
49-3023    Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics                                  42           42


      69
             Military Exits in MARC, MD Sub-region, October 2007 - September 2008 (Continued)
                                                                                   Annual
 SOC                                                                                            Annual Occ.
                                       Description                                 Military
 Code                                                                                              Gap
                                                                                    Exits
17-3031   Surveying and Mapping Technicians                                          24             41
29-2021   Dental Hygienists                                                          10             38
51-8031   Water and Liquid Waste Treatment Plant and System Operators                 1             37
49-3031   Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists                      22             37
15-1071   Network and Computer Systems Administrators                                61             36
          First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Construction Trades and Extraction
47-1011   Workers                                                                    8              34
31-9096   Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers                     5              32
11-9021   Construction Managers                                                      10             32

49-1011   First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers     89            31
53-5031   Ship Engineers                                                              17            28
11-3011   Administrative Services Managers                                            3             28
13-1073   Training and Development Specialists                                        4             27
49-9041   Industrial Machinery Mechanics                                              8             27
29-1131   Veterinarians                                                               2             27
11-9111   Medical and Health Services Managers                                        58            24
47-2073   Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators              16            23
53-5021   Captains, Mates, and Pilots of Water Vessels                                17            22
49-3021   Automotive Body and Related Repairers                                       5             21
27-1014   Multi-Media Artists and Animators                                           3             21
13-1071   Employment, Recruitment, and Placement Specialists                          23            20
17-3022   Civil Engineering Technicians                                               5             18
49-9062   Medical Equipment Repairers                                                 10            14
29-2055   Surgical Technologists                                                      15            13
29-2041   Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics                               113            13
43-5011   Cargo and Freight Agents                                                    7             13

13-1079   Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists, All Other       35            12
29-2034   Radiologic Technologists and Technicians                                    5             11
13-1081   Logisticians                                                                90            10
27-3091   Interpreters and Translators                                               131            10
43-5051   Postal Service Clerks                                                       6             10
49-3042   Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines                            4             9
29-2011   Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists                               30            8
39-6031   Flight Attendants                                                           10            8
27-2042   Musicians and Singers                                                       29            7
21-2021   Directors, Religious Activities and Education                               7             7
47-2152   Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters                                     18            7
27-4011   Audio and Video Equipment Technicians                                       3             6
          Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation
49-2093   Equipment                                                                   5             6
29-2032   Diagnostic Medical Sonographers                                             3             6
53-1011   Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors                                         7             6
          First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Transportation and Material-Moving
53-1031   Machine and Vehicle Operators                                               8             4
29-1071   Physician Assistants                                                        5             3
21-2011   Clergy                                                                      6             3


     70
                Military Exits in MARC, MD Sub-region, October 2007 - September 2008 (Continued)
                                                                                      Annual
   SOC                                                                                             Annual Occ.
                                          Description                                 Military
   Code                                                                                               Gap
                                                                                       Exits
 47-2071    Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators                           1             2
 27-2041    Music Directors and Composers                                               27             2
 47-2031    Carpenters                                                                   1             2
 29-1051    Pharmacists                                                                 11             2
 49-9069    Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers, All Other                     10             2
 49-3011    Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians                                  48             2
 23-2091    Court Reporters                                                              4             2
 29-1123    Physical Therapists                                                          1             1
 19-4041    Geological and Petroleum Technicians                                         2             1
 47-4099    Construction and Related Workers, All Other                                 20             1
 17-1021    Cartographers and Photogrammetrists                                         19             1
 21-1029    Social Workers, All Other                                                    1             1
 45-2011    Agricultural Inspectors                                                      3             1
Source: JobsEQ




                     Military Exits in MARC, NVA Sub-region, October 2007 - September 2008
                                                                                      Annual
   SOC                                                                                             Annual Occ.
                                           Description                                Military
   Code                                                                                               Gap
                                                                                       Exits
 43-9061    Office Clerks, General                                                      82            862
 43-3031    Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks                                21            386
 41-2031    Retail Salespersons                                                          9            353
 29-1111    Registered Nurses                                                           61            334
 15-1081    Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts                            16            271
 31-9092    Medical Assistants                                                          32            151
 53-3032    Truck Drivers, Heavy and Tractor-Trailer                                    35            150
 13-1111    Management Analysts                                                          1            141
 33-3012    Correctional Officers and Jailers                                           11            101
 13-1199    Business Operations Specialists, All Other                                   8             97
 53-3033    Truck Drivers, Light or Delivery Services                                   17             96
 23-2011    Paralegals and Legal Assistants                                             10             86
 31-9091    Dental Assistants                                                            4             85
 29-2052    Pharmacy Technicians                                                         3             70
 53-3021    Bus Drivers, Transit and Intercity                                           3             63
 49-3023    Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics                                37             53
            First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Construction Trades and Extraction
 47-1011    Workers                                                                      10            43
 29-2071    Medical Records and Health Information Technicians                          210            37
 17-3031    Surveying and Mapping Technicians                                            27            35
 51-8031    Water and Liquid Waste Treatment Plant and System Operators                  1             33
 49-3031    Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists                        19            33
 47-2073    Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators               14            32
 47-2031    Carpenters                                                                   1             30
 49-1011    First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers     100            29
 29-2021    Dental Hygienists                                                            9             28
 11-9021    Construction Managers                                                        14            27


       71
                Military Exits in MARC, NVA Sub-region, October 2007 - September 2008 (Continued)
                                                                                       Annual
   SOC                                                                                              Annual Occ.
                                           Description                                 Military
   Code                                                                                                Gap
                                                                                        Exits
 31-9096     Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers                       3             26
 53-5031     Ship Engineers                                                              16             24
 47-2152     Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters                                     16             20
             First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Food Preparation and Serving
 35-1012     Workers                                                                     2              19
 49-3021     Automotive Body and Related Repairers                                       2              19
 49-9041     Industrial Machinery Mechanics                                              1              19
 27-1014     Multi-Media Artists and Animators                                           4              18
 11-3011     Administrative Services Managers                                            12             18
 53-5021     Captains, Mates, and Pilots of Water Vessels                                17             17
 29-1131     Veterinarians                                                               3              15
 17-3022     Civil Engineering Technicians                                               5              15
 43-5011     Cargo and Freight Agents                                                    6              12
 43-5051     Postal Service Clerks                                                       13             10
 29-2041     Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics                                90             10
 13-1073     Training and Development Specialists                                        3              10
 49-3042     Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines                            2              9
 49-9062     Medical Equipment Repairers                                                 9              9
 39-6031     Flight Attendants                                                           8              9
 29-2055     Surgical Technologists                                                      13             9
 15-1071     Network and Computer Systems Administrators                                 64             8
 13-1071     Employment, Recruitment, and Placement Specialists                          25             7
 11-9111     Medical and Health Services Managers                                        55             7
 27-3091     Interpreters and Translators                                               123             7
 29-2034     Radiologic Technologists and Technicians                                    5              6
             First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Transportation and Material-Moving
 53-1031     Machine and Vehicle Operators                                               14             6
            Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation
 49-2093    Equipment                                                                    5              5
 21-2021    Directors, Religious Activities and Education                                9              5
 53-1011    Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors                                          5              5
 27-4011    Audio and Video Equipment Technicians                                        3              5
 47-2071    Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators                           2              4
 49-3011    Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians                                   46             4
 27-2042    Musicians and Singers                                                        26             4
 29-2032    Diagnostic Medical Sonographers                                              2              3
 29-2011    Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists                                24             3
 47-4099    Construction and Related Workers, All Other                                  13             2
 27-2041    Music Directors and Composers                                                29             1
 49-9069    Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers, All Other                      9              1
 23-2091    Court Reporters                                                              4              1
 19-4041    Geological and Petroleum Technicians                                         2              1
 45-2011    Agricultural Inspectors                                                      3              1
Source: JobsEQ




        72
A6.7: Gap Reductions in Critical Occupations

                      MARC Region: Gap Reduction in Critical Occupations Based on Training and Military Exits
                                                                                                                                Military
                                                                                       Baseline             New     Military   Adjusted
 SOC           Occupation                                                                Gap      Retrain   Gap      Exits       Gap
            Computer Science                                                             -570      1,091       3      158        -156
11-3021        Computer and Information Systems Managers                                 -175        0      -175                 -175
15-1011        Computer and Information Scientists, Research                              -13        0       -13                  -13
15-1021        Computer Programmers                                                      -737       736       -1                   -1
15-1031        Computer Software Engineers, Applications                                  229        0         0                    0
15-1032        Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software                             -116       115       -1                   -1
15-1041        Computer Support Specialists                                              -179       179        0                    0
15-1051        Computer Systems Analysts                                                   98        0         0      70          -70
15-1061        Database Administrators                                                     54        0         0                    0
15-1071        Network and Computer Systems Administrators                                 73        0         0      71          -71
15-1081        Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts                           257        0       193      17          175
15-1099        Computer Specialists, All Other                                            -61        61        0                    0
            Construction                                                                1,676       146     1,335     33         1,297
11-9021        Construction Managers                                                       69        0         0                    0
13-1051        Cost Estimators                                                            118        0       15                    15
               First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Construction Trades and Extraction
47-1011        Workers                                                                   230        0       230       13         217
47-2021        Brickmasons and Blockmasons                                                18        0       18                   18
47-2022        Stonemasons                                                                 3        0         3                    3
47-2031        Carpenters                                                                325        0       325        1         324
47-2041        Carpet Installers                                                         -14        13       -1                   -1
47-2042        Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles                         -13        12       -1                   -1
47-2043        Floor Sanders and Finishers                                                -9        8        -1                   -1
47-2044        Tile and Marble Setters                                                     9        0         9                    9
47-2051        Cement Masons and Concrete Finishers                                       17        0         0                    0
47-2053        Terrazzo Workers and Finishers                                              2        0         2                    2
47-2061        Construction Laborers                                                     306        0       306                  306
47-2071        Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators                         24        0         0                    0
47-2072        Pile-Driver Operators                                                      -1        1         0                    0
47-2073        Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators             99        0       20        19           1
47-2081        Drywall and Ceiling Tile Installers                                        16        0       16                   16
47-2082        Tapers                                                                      2        0         2                    2
47-2111        Electricians                                                               75        0         0                    0
47-2121        Glaziers                                                                    0        0         0                    0
47-2131        Insulation Workers, Floor, Ceiling, and Wall                               -8        7        -1                   -1
47-2132        Insulation Workers, Mechanical                                             -3        2        -1                   -1
47-2141        Painters, Construction and Maintenance                                     76        0       76                   76
47-2142        Paperhangers                                                               -2        1        -1                   -1
47-2151        Pipelayers                                                                 10        0       10                   10
47-2152        Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters                                   120        0       120                  120
47-2161        Plasterers and Stucco Masons                                               -4        3        -1                   -1
47-2171        Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers                                        -12        12        0                    0
47-2181        Roofers                                                                    14        0       14                   14
47-2211        Sheet Metal Workers                                                        15        0       15                   15
47-2221        Structural Iron and Steel Workers                                         -10        10        0                    0
               Helpers--Brickmasons, Blockmasons, Stonemasons, and Tile and
47-3011        Marble Setters                                                             -2        1        -1                   -1
47-3012        Helpers--Carpenters                                                        26        0        26                   26
47-3013        Helpers--Electricians                                                     -20        20        0                    0
47-3014        Helpers--Painters, Paperhangers, Plasterers, and Stucco Masons             -9        8        -1                   -1
47-3015        Helpers--Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters               -1        1         0                    0


       73
               MARC Region: Gap Reduction in Critical Occupations Based on Training and Military Exits (Continued)
                                                                                                                             Military
                                                                                    Baseline             New     Military   Adjusted
 SOC          Occupation                                                              Gap      Retrain   Gap      Exits       Gap
47-3016       Helpers--Roofers                                                         -9         8       -1                    -1
47-3019       Helpers, Construction Trades, All Other                                   4         0        4                     4
47-4011       Construction and Building Inspectors                                    121         0        0                    -5
47-4021       Elevator Installers and Repairers                                        -1         1        0                     0
47-4031       Fence Erectors                                                            2         0        2                     2
47-4041       Hazardous Materials Removal Workers                                      25         0       25                   25
47-4071       Septic Tank Servicers and Sewer Pipe Cleaners                            12         0       12                   12
47-4091       Segmental Pavers                                                          0         0        0                     0
47-5021       Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas                                        6         0        6                     6
              Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and
49-2095       Relay                                                                    -11       10        -1                   -1
49-9045       Refractory Materials Repairers, Except Brickmasons                        -1       0         -1                   -1
49-9051       Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers                           -18       17        -1                   -1
49-9095       Manufactured Building and Mobile Home Installers                           0       0          0                    0
49-9096       Riggers                                                                    0       0          0                    0
49-9097       Signal and Track Switch Repairers                                          0       0          0                    0
49-9098       Helpers--Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers                    43       0        43                    43
49-9099       Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers, All Other                   3       0          3                    3
51-2041       Structural Metal Fabricators and Fitters                                  10       0        10                    10
53-7011       Conveyor Operators and Tenders                                           -11       10        -1                   -1
53-7021       Crane and Tower Operators                                                  0       0          0                    0
53-7031       Dredge Operators                                                           0       0          0                    0
53-7032       Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators                     36       0        36                    36
53-7041       Hoist and Winch Operators                                                 -1       1          0                    0
           Electrical Engineering                                                       36       0        37        0           34
11-9041       Engineering Managers                                                     -48       0        -48                  -48
17-2071       Electrical Engineers                                                     -38       0        -38                  -41
17-3023       Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technicians                         92       0        92                    92
17-3024       Electro-Mechanical Technicians                                            22       0        22                    22
17-3029       Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other                       10       0        10                    10
           Geospatial Technology                                                      -515     1,093      35       158        -123
11-3021       Computer and Information Systems Managers                               -175       0       -175                 -175
15-1011       Computer and Information Scientists, Research                            -13       0        -13                  -13
15-1021       Computer Programmers                                                    -737      736        -1                   -1
15-1031       Computer Software Engineers, Applications                                229       0          0                    0
15-1032       Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software                           -116      115        -1                   -1
15-1041       Computer Support Specialists                                            -179      179         0                    0
15-1051       Computer Systems Analysts                                                 98       0          0      70          -70
15-1061       Database Administrators                                                   54       0          0                    0
15-1071       Network and Computer Systems Administrators                               73       0          0      71          -71
15-1081       Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts                         257       0        193      17         176
15-1099       Computer Specialists, All Other                                          -61       61         0                    0
17-2121       Marine Engineers and Naval Architects                                     22       0          0                    0
17-3012       Electrical and Electronics Drafters                                        4       0          0                    0
17-3024       Electro-Mechanical Technicians                                            22       0        22                    22
17-3029       Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other                       10       0        10                    10
19-3092       Geographers                                                               -2       2          0                    0
           Government Security/Intelligence                                            885      222      1,005      0         992
13-1061       Emergency Management Specialists                                          -4       3         -1                   -1
19-4092       Forensic Science Technicians                                               8       0          8                    7
25-1124       Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary                    6       0          6                    6
29-2041       Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics                             -16       15        -1                   -1
33-1012       First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Police and Detectives                 -46       46         0                    0
33-1021       First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Fire Fighting/Prevention Workers       -3       3          0                    0


      74
                 MARC Region: Gap Reduction in Critical Occupations Based on Training and Military Exits (Continued)
                                                                                                                                Military
                                                                                         Baseline             New   Military   Adjusted
  SOC           Occupation                                                                 Gap      Retrain   Gap    Exits       Gap
 33-1099        First-Line Supervisors/Managers, Protective Service Workers, All Other      24         0       24                 24
 33-2011        Fire Fighters                                                              -141      140       -1                  -1
 33-2021        Fire Inspectors and Investigators                                            7         0        7                   7
 33-2022        Forest Fire Inspectors and Prevention Specialists                            0         0        0                   0
 33-9021        Private Detectives and Investigators                                        31         0        0                   0
 33-9031        Gaming Surveillance Officers and Gaming Investigators                       126        0      110                 98
 33-9032        Security Guards                                                             848        0      794                794
 33-9091        Crossing Guards                                                             33         0       33                 33
                Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and Other Recreational Protective Service
 33-9092        Workers                                                                     17        0       17                   17
 33-9099        Protective Service Workers, All Other                                      -15        15        0                   0
 43-5031        Police, Fire, and Ambulance Dispatchers                                      9        0         9                   9
             Human Resource                                                                 65        8       73      20         -172
 11-3041        Compensation and Benefits Managers                                          -9        8        -1                  -1
 11-3042        Training and Development Managers                                           -4        0        -4                  -4
 11-3049        Human Resources Managers, All Other                                        -14        0       -14                 -14
 13-1071        Employment, Recruitment, and Placement Specialists                          15        0       15      16           -1
 13-1072        Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists                        10        0       10                   10
 13-1073        Training and Development Specialists                                        22        0       22       4           18
 13-1079        Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists, All Other       31        0       31                   31
 43-4161        Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping                  14        0       14                 -211
             Nursing                                                                       726        16      724     70         633
 29-1111        Registered Nurses                                                           63        0       63      70           -7
 29-2061        Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses                          109        0       109                  93
 31-1011        Home Health Aides                                                          470        0       470                470
 31-1012        Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants                                    86        0       68                   68
 31-1013        Psychiatric Aides                                                          -13        13        0                   0
 31-2011        Occupational Therapist Assistants                                            9        0         9                   4
 31-2012        Occupational Therapist Aides                                                 1        0         1                   1
 31-2021        Physical Therapist Assistants                                                5        0         5                   5
 31-2022        Physical Therapist Aides                                                    -3        3         0                   0
 Source:   JobsEQ


A6.7.1: Alternative Occupations for Two Critical Occupations

Alternative occupations that, with training, can fill two critical occupations (network systems and data
communications analysts and security guards) are shown in the tables below.

 Alternative Occupations for Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts
     SOC Code                                     Occupation Title
 15-1061            Database Administrators
 15-1051            Computer Systems Analysts
 15-1021            Computer Programmers
 11-1111            Computer and Information Systems Managers
 13-3021            Management Analysts
 15-1031            Computer Software Engineers, Applications
 15-1032            Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software
 17-2061            Computer Hardware Engineers
 13-1061            Emergency Management Specialists
 15-1071            Network and Computer Systems Administrators
 Source: JobsEQ



       75
Alternative Occupations for Security Guards
    SOC Code                                         Occupation Title
39-6011            Baggage Porters and Bellhops
43-5053            Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, and Processing Machine Operators
33-9091            Crossing Guards
43-5021            Couriers and Messengers
53-3041            Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs
53-7062            Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand
37-2011            Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners
53-7081            Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors
53-3021            Bus Drivers, Transit and Intercity
Source: JobsEQ




      76
Appendix 7: MARC Region Overall Data
A7.1: Industry

                                   MARC Employment and Growth
 4,200,000                                                                       3%
                      Annual
 4,150,000            Employment
                                                                                 2%
 4,100,000

 4,050,000                                                                       2%

 4,000,000
                                                                                 1%
 3,950,000

 3,900,000                                                                       1%

 3,850,000
                                                                                 0%
 3,800,000

 3,750,000                                                                       -1%
               2001       2002         2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008
Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




      77
                                               MARC Region Average Wages
   $60,000



   $50,000



   $40,000



   $30,000



   $20,000



   $10,000



           $-
                        2001        2002          2003         2004         2005           2006       2007            2008
Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics



                                                  Major Industry Sectors and Growth
                                                       MARC Region                                          National (2008)
                         Industry   Industry                 Annual Emp.
                            Mix        Mix      Employment  Growth (2001-    Average Annual Wages   Industry      Annual Average
                          (2001)     (2008)       (2008)        2008)               (2008)            Mix            Wages
 Construction             6.0%       6.0%        251,122             0.9%             $52,934        5.5%            $47,757
 Education/Health         18.0%     19.7%        820,893             2.3%             $44,232       21.7%            $41,430
 Financial Activities     5.9%       5.6%        232,171             0.1%             $77,972        6.0%            $73,818
 Government               11.1%     11.4%        476,163             1.3%             $75,961        5.5%            $51,754
 Leisure                  8.8%       9.5%        394,210             2.0%             $22,593       10.4%            $19,082
 Manufacturing            4.7%       3.4%        140,900         -3.6%                $64,985       10.0%            $54,022
 Other                    4.9%       4.9%        203,659             1.0%             $48,427        5.0%            $34,708
 PBS                      23.3%     23.4%        976,712             1.0%             $77,996       15.6%            $58,428
 TTU                      17.4%     16.1%        670,378         -0.2%                $40,098       20.4%            $38,897
 Total                    100.0%    100.0%       4,166,207           0.9%             $56,373       100.0%           $45,042
 Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics and U.S. Department of Labor
PBS = Professional Business Service
TTU = Trade, Transportation, and Utility




           78
                                         MARC Region Jobs in Green Industries
                       Category                                             2007 Employment
                       Agriculture and Forestry                                   572
                       Construction & Systems Installation                        346
                       Engineering, Legal, Research & Consulting                 20,180
                       Equipment Dealers & Wholesalers                             59
                       Government Administration                                 9,303
                       Manufacturing                                              920
                       Total                                                     31,380
                       Percentage of Total Employment                            0.59%
                       Source: National Establishment Time-Series Database, Walls & Associates and
                       Chmura Economics & Analytics




                                                Defense Contractor in MARC Region
                                               2007 Defense            2008 Defense            2008 Overall   % Defense
                                           Contractor Employment Contractor Employment         Employment     Contractor
 Construction                                     6,938                    21,675                251,122        8.6%
 Education/Health                                 8,342                    12,448                820,893        1.5%
 Financial Activities                              372                      723                  232,171        0.3%
 Government                                       1,187                    1,267                 476,163        0.3%
 Leisure                                           576                      601                  394,210        0.2%
 Manufacturing                                    18,725                   23,578                140,900        16.7%
 Other                                            2,416                    2,726                 203,659        1.3%
 PBS                                             152,108                  170,209                976,712        17.4%
 TTU                                              15,493                   9,953                 670,378        1.5%
 Total                                           206,157                  243,180               4,166,207       5.8%
 Source: US General Service Administration, IMPLAN 2007, Chmura Economics & Analytics
PBS = Professional Business Service
TTU = Trade, Transportation, and Utility




         79
A7.2: Occupations

                                 MARC Region Occupation Mix 2008Q3
          Major Occupation Group                              Employment   Percentage
          Architecture and engineering                          92,022       2.2%
          Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media        61,105       1.5%
          Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance         166,584      4.0%
          Business and financial operations                     231,579      5.6%
          Community and social services                         67,997       1.6%
          Computer and mathematical science                     198,839      4.8%
          Construction and extraction                           211,866      5.1%
          Education, training, and library                      246,339      5.9%
          Farming, fishing, and forestry                         5,054       0.1%
          Food preparation and serving related                  321,135      7.7%
          Health care practitioners and technical               192,312      4.6%
          Health care support                                   98,045       2.4%
          Installation, maintenance, and repair                 159,640      3.8%
          Legal                                                 49,477       1.2%
          Life, physical, and social science                    57,390       1.4%
          Management                                            220,941      5.3%
          Office and administrative support                     741,989      17.9%
          Personal care and service                             112,316      2.7%
          Production                                            129,671      3.1%
          Protective service                                    146,096      3.5%
          Sales and related                                     406,154      9.8%
          Transportation and material moving                    230,078      5.5%
          Total                                                4,146,629
          Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




     80
                            MARC Region Top 20 Occupations 2008Q3
     Retail Salespersons                                                            122,630
     Office Clerks, General                                                         112,941
     Cashiers                                                                       100,526
     Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners                  76,743
     Waiters and Waitresses                                                         73,947
     Registered Nurses                                                              71,800
     General and Operations Managers                                                66,229
     Secretaries, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive                              63,985
     Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food             62,603
     Customer Service Representatives                                               61,468
     Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks                                   50,588
     Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand                         49,602
     Executive Secretaries and Administrative Assistants                            46,599
     First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Office and Administrative Support Workers   46,338
     Stock Clerks and Order Fillers                                                 43,298
     Security Guards                                                                42,434
     Receptionists and Information Clerks                                           40,464
     Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants                                       40,251
     Accountants and Auditors                                                       40,171
     Business Operations Specialists, All Other                                     40,124
     Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




                             MARC Region 10-Year Occupation Gaps
                                                          Annual Average Demand
        Major Occupation Group                               Gaps (2008-2018)
        Architecture and engineering                               -787
        Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media             -462
        Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance              2,468
        Business and financial operations                          -244
        Community and social services                               605
        Computer and mathematical science                         -1,455
        Construction and extraction                                 405
        Education, training, and library                           -706
        Farming, fishing, and forestry                              -16
        Food preparation and serving related                       -818
        Health care practitioners and technical                     570
        Health care support                                        1,646
        Installation, maintenance, and repair                       210
        Legal                                                      -229
        Life, physical, and social science                         -712
        Management                                                -2,064
        Office and administrative support                          1,437
        Personal care and service                                  1,466
        Production                                                -1,096
        Protective service                                          514
        Sales and related                                          -946
        Transportation and material moving                          214
        Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics



81
                    MARC Region Baseline: Top Occupations with Large Shortage and Surplus
                                                                                 10-Year Annual
                                                                                Average Demand
                                                                                                34
                                           Occupation                          Gap (2008-2018)
           Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners             1,396
           Office Clerks, General                                                      991
           Registered Nurses                                                           754
           Security Guards                                                             682
           Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food          668
           Home Health Aides                                                           650
           Customer Service Representatives                                            596
           Personal and Home Care Aides                                                550
           Executive Secretaries and Administrative Assistants                         523
           Retail Salespersons                                                         519
           Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software                              -339
           Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education                       -344
           Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand                     -384
           Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop            -424
           Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Vocational Education         -485
           Stock Clerks and Order Fillers                                             -570
           Computer Programmers                                                       -858
           Waiters and Waitresses                                                    -1,066
           General and Operations Managers                                           -1,080
           Cashiers                                                                  -1,616
           Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




                                MARC Region Baseline Gap of Critical Occupations
                                                     Employment        Average Annual 10-Year
                  MARC Critical Occupation            2008Q3              Gap (2008-2018)
                  Computer Science                                204,389      -1,644
                  Construction                                    237,888       493
                  Electrical Engineering                           26,319       -274
                  Government Security/Intelligence                 95,556       727
                  Human Resource                                   40,229       -12
                  Nursing                                         153,319      2,057
                  Geospatial Technology                           210,809      -1,667
                  Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




34
     Positive gap indicates shortage while negative gap indicates surplus.




          82
               MARC Region Baseline Occupation Gaps for Critical Occupations
                                                                                      10-
                                                               10-Year   10-Year    Year
                                                               Annual    Annual    Annual
                                                               Supply    Demand      Gap
MARC Critical                                                   (2008-    (2008-   (2008-
Occupation           Occupation Title                            2018)     2018)    2018)
Computer Science     Computer Support Specialists                1,558     1,298     -259
                     Computer Specialists, All Other              396       305       -91
                     Database Administrators                      300       330       30
                     Network and Computer Systems
                     Administrators                             1,018     985       -33
                     Network Systems and Data
                     Communications Analysts                    693       876       183
                     Computer and Information Systems
                     Managers                                    729      524       -205
                     Computer Programmers                       1,482     623       -858
                     Computer Software Engineers,
                     Applications                               2,136     2,200     63
                     Computer Software Engineers, Systems
                     Software                                   1,722     1,383     -339
                     Computer Systems Analysts                  2,164     2,059     -106
                     Computer and Information Scientists,
                     Research                                   160       130       -30
Construction         Construction Managers                      318       369       51
                     Cost Estimators                            235       329       94
                     First-Line Supervisors/Managers of
                     Construction Trades and Extraction
                     Workers                                    658       755        97
                     Brickmasons and Blockmasons                169       169         0
                     Stonemasons                                 32        32         0
                     Carpenters                                 873       979       106
                     Carpet Installers                           42        28       -13
                     Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and
                     Hard Tiles                                  16          7      -10
                     Floor Sanders and Finishers                 25         16       -9
                     Tile and Marble Setters                     56         59       3
                     Cement Masons and Concrete Finishers       282        276       -6
                     Terrazzo Workers and Finishers               9          9       0
                     Construction Laborers                      885       1,005     120
                     Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping
                     Equipment Operators                        111       127       16
                     Pile-Driver Operators                       8         7        -1
                     Operating Engineers and Other
                     Construction Equipment Operators            384       439      55
                     Drywall and Ceiling Tile Installers         132       136       4
                     Tapers                                       20        19       0
                     Electricians                               1,018     1,009     -9
                     Glaziers                                     74        67      -6
                     Insulation Workers, Floor, Ceiling, and
                     Wall                                       107        92       -15
                     Insulation Workers, Mechanical              53        47        -7


      83
              Painters, Construction and Maintenance     309   347   38
              Paperhangers                                 9     6    -3
              Pipelayers                                  89    93    4
              Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters    661   713   52
              Plasterers and Stucco Masons                44    38    -7
              Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers          96    77   -19
              Roofers                                    125   126    2
              Sheet Metal Workers                        259   255    -4
              Structural Iron and Steel Workers          113    95   -18
              Helpers--Brickmasons, Blockmasons,
              Stonemasons, and Tile and Marble
              Setters                                    112   102   -10
              Helpers--Carpenters                        215   198   -17
              Helpers--Electricians                      176   146   -30
              Helpers--Painters, Paperhangers,
              Plasterers, and Stucco Masons              37    26    -11
              Helpers--Pipelayers, Plumbers,
              Pipefitters, and Steamfitters              209   193   -16
              Helpers--Roofers                            57    47   -10
              Helpers, Construction Trades, All Other     83    78    -5
              Construction and Building Inspectors       110   165   55
              Elevator Installers and Repairers           53    48    -6
              Fence Erectors                              41    40    -1
              Hazardous Materials Removal Workers         56    67   11
              Septic Tank Servicers and Sewer Pipe
              Cleaners                                   21    28     7
              Segmental Pavers                            5     4     -1
              Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas         18    19     0
              Electrical and Electronics Repairers,
              Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay          40    29    -11
              Refractory Materials Repairers, Except
              Brickmasons                                3      2     -1
              Electrical Power-Line Installers and
              Repairers                                  142   123   -19
              Manufactured Building and Mobile Home
              Installers                                 5      5     0
              Riggers                                    6      4     -2
              Signal and Track Switch Repairers          0      0     0
              Helpers--Installation, Maintenance, and
              Repair Workers                             221   256   35
              Installation, Maintenance, and Repair
              Workers, All Other                         136   129    -7
              Structural Metal Fabricators and Fitters    37    37    1
              Conveyor Operators and Tenders              32    24    -8
              Crane and Tower Operators                   39    37    -2
              Dredge Operators                             2     2    0
              Excavating and Loading Machine and
              Dragline Operators                         65    92    27
              Hoist and Winch Operators                   7     6    -1
Electrical
Engineering   Engineering Managers                       368   252   -116
              Electrical Engineers                       428   282   -146

     84
                        Electrical and Electronic Engineering
                        Technicians                                 204     201      -3
                        Electro-Mechanical Technicians               15      14      -1
                        Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters,
                        All Other                                   128     119      -9
Geospatial
Technology              Marine Engineers and Naval Architects        22      20      -2
                        Electrical and Electronics Drafters          57      48      -9
                        Electro-Mechanical Technicians               15      14      -1
                        Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters,
                        All Other                                    128     119      -9
                        Computer Support Specialists                1,558   1,298   -259
                        Computer Specialists, All Other              396     305     -91
                        Database Administrators                      300     330     30
                        Network and Computer Systems
                        Administrators                              1,018   985     -33
                        Network Systems and Data
                        Communications Analysts                     693     876     183
                        Computer and Information Systems
                        Managers                                     729    524     -205
                        Computer Programmers                        1,482   623     -858
                        Computer Software Engineers,
                        Applications                                2,136   2,200   63
                        Computer Software Engineers, Systems
                        Software                                    1,722   1,383   -339
                        Computer Systems Analysts                   2,164   2,059   -106
                        Computer and Information Scientists,
                        Research                                    160     130     -30
                        Geographers                                  3       1       -3
Government
Security/Intelligence   Emergency Management Specialists             27      22      -5
                        Emergency Medical Technicians and
                        Paramedics                                  104     117     13
                        First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Fire
                        Fighting and Prevention Workers             120     115      -4
                        Fire Fighters                               785     633     -152
                        Fire Inspectors and Investigators            19      18      -1
                        Forest Fire Inspectors and Prevention
                        Specialists                                   0       0      0
                        Police, Fire, and Ambulance Dispatchers     174     175      1
                        Forensic Science Technicians                 31      36      5
                        First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Police
                        and Detectives                              245     200     -46
                        Protective Service Workers, All Other       686     676     -10
                        First-Line Supervisors/Managers,
                        Protective Service Workers, All Other        57      78     21
                        Private Detectives and Investigators         85     115     30
                        Gaming Surveillance Officers and Gaming
                        Investigators                                149     286    137
                        Security Guards                             1,163   1,845   682
                        Crossing Guards                               53      85     31
                        Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and Other
                        Recreational Protective Service Workers     459     478     19

      85
                   Foreign Language and Literature
                   Teachers, Postsecondary                      37         43     6
Nursing            Registered Nurses                          2,613      3,367   754
                   Licensed Practical and Licensed
                   Vocational Nurses                           703        911    208
                   Home Health Aides                           448       1,099   650
                   Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants   1,002      1,406   404
                   Psychiatric Aides                            40         26    -14
                   Occupational Therapist Assistants            22         37     15
                   Occupational Therapist Aides                  4          5      2
                   Physical Therapist Assistants                60         83     23
                   Physical Therapist Aides                     54         67     13
Human Resource     Compensation and Benefits Managers           70         60    -10
                   Training and Development Managers            58         55     -3
                   Human Resources Managers, All Other         102         86    -16
                   Employment, Recruitment, and Placement
                   Specialists                                280         289     9
                   Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis
                   Specialists                                148         151     3
                   Training and Development Specialists       395         402     7
                   Human Resources, Training, and Labor
                   Relations Specialists, All Other           402         401    -1
                   Human Resources Assistants, Except
                   Payroll and Timekeeping                    156         153    -2
Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics

A7.3. Occupation Impact for MARC Region

                       Industry Approximation of BRAC Initiative- MARC Region
                      Similar Industries                         Employment
                      General Medical Hospital                       121
                      Information System                           20,546
                      Investigative and Security Service            5,017
                      Jail/Justice/Public order                      726
                      Logistic Management and Consulting              19
                      Magazine                                         0
                      Management of Enterprise                       138
                      National Security                            -3,131
                      Radio/TV Broadcasting                          697
                      Scientific Research                           2,248
                      Grand Total                                  26,381
                      Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




     86
                BRAC Initiative Occupation Impact- MARC Region
                                                        Total BRAC
                                                       Demand (2008-
                   Major Occupation Group                  2018)
     Architecture and engineering                          6,519
     Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media         582
     Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance          131
     Business and financial operations                     1,373
     Community and social services                          -83
     Computer and mathematical science                     2,920
     Construction and extraction                            457
     Education, training, and library                       -13
     Farming, fishing, and forestry                           3
     Food preparation and serving related                    -2
     Health care practitioners and technical                203
     Health care support                                     48
     Installation, maintenance, and repair                  585
     Legal                                                  -60
     Life, physical, and social science                     913
     Management                                            1,050
     Office and administrative support                     2,046
     Personal care and service                              -50
     Production                                             337
     Protective service                                    2,915
     Sales and related                                      284
     Transportation and material moving                      52
     Grand Total                                          20,210
     Source Chmura Economics & Analytics




               BRAC Initiative Occupation Impact- MARC Region
                                                  Total BRAC Demand
                 Critical Occupations                 (2008-2018)
     Computer Science                                    2,896
     Construction                                         625
     Electrical Engineering                               992
     Government Security/Intelligence                    3,121
     Human Resource                                       193
     Nursing                                              137
     Geospatial Technology                               3,117
     Source Chmura Economics & Analytics




87
         Defense Contractor Occupation Impact- MARC Region
                                                       Annual
                                                      Average
                                                      Demand
                   Major Occupation Group           (2008-2018)
     Architecture and engineering                       753
     Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media      79
     Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance       22
     Business and financial operations                  366
     Community and social services                        2
     Computer and mathematical science                  959
     Construction and extraction                        399
     Education, training, and library                     6
     Farming, fishing, and forestry                       2
     Food preparation and serving related                 0
     Health care practitioners and technical            101
     Health care support                                 92
     Installation, maintenance, and repair              172
     Legal                                                5
     Life, physical, and social science                 223
     Management                                         278
     Office and administrative support                  640
     Personal care and service                           30
     Production                                         398
     Protective service                                  15
     Sales and related                                  236
     Transportation and material moving                  87
     Grand Total                                       4,864
     Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




        Defense Contractor Occupation Impact-MARC Region
                                            Annual Average
                                            Demand (2008-
            MARC Critical Occupation            2018)
       Computer Science                          970
       Construction                              463
       Electrical Engineering                    184
       Government Security/Intelligence           18
       Human Resource                             56
       Nursing                                     8
       Geospatial Technology                    1,013
       Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




88
               Environment Occupation Impact- MARC Region
                                                         Annual
                                                        Average
                                                        Demand
                   Major Occupation Group             (2008-2018)
     Architecture and engineering                           224
     Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media          52
     Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance           35
     Business and financial operations                      426
     Community and social services                           76
     Computer and mathematical science                      220
     Construction and extraction                            128
     Education, training, and library                        29
     Farming, fishing, and forestry                          42
     Food preparation and serving related                    22
     Health care practitioners and technical                 54
     Health care support                                     10
     Installation, maintenance, and repair                   73
     Legal                                                   57
     Life, physical, and social science                     135
     Management                                             185
     Office and administrative support                      403
     Personal care and service                               62
     Production                                             131
     Protective service                                     193
     Sales and related                                       56
     Transportation and material moving                     104
     Grand Total                                            2,719
     Source Chmura Economics & Analytics




               Environment Occupation Impact- MARC Region
                                               Annual Average
                                               Demand (2008-
                 MARC Critical Occupation          2018)
          Computer Science                            205
          Construction                                131
          Electrical Engineering                      69
          Government Security/Intelligence            77
          Human Resource                              61
          Nursing                                     27
          Geospatial Technology                       226
          Source Chmura Economics & Analytics



89
A7.4. Final Occupation Gap

          Annual Labor Supply Forecast-MARC Region-Annual Average 2008-2018
                                          Adjust for Adjust for  Total      Annual
Occupations                      Baseline  Student    BRAC      Supply   Growth Rate
Architecture and engineering            4,452     26     163     4,641      4.2%
Arts, design, entertainment, sports,
and media                               3,007    1098    15      4,120      5.3%
Building and grounds cleaning and
maintenance                             4,272    -553    3       3,722      2.1%
Business and financial operations       9,525    312     34      9,872      3.6%
Community and social services           2,611     -77    -2      2,532      3.2%
Computer and mathematical
science                                12,065    183     73     12,322      5.0%
Construction and extraction             8,194    -647    11      7,558      3.1%
Education, training, and library       12,002     -74    0      11,928      4.1%
Farming, fishing, and forestry          187       -52    0       135        2.4%
Food preparation and serving
related                                19,727    -1269   0      18,458      4.7%
Health care practitioners and
technical                               8,120    1790    5       9,915      4.3%
Health care support                     2,724    820     1       3,545      3.2%
Installation, maintenance, and
repair                                  5,478     -67    15      5,426      3.0%
Legal                                   1,805     71     -2      1,875      3.3%
Life, physical, and social science      3,305     1      23      3,329      4.7%
Management                             10,491    129     26     10,646      4.0%
Office and administrative support      25,276    -263    51     25,064      3.0%
Personal care and service               4,527    -297    -1      4,228      3.3%
Production                              4,479    118     8       4,605      3.1%
Protective service                      6,555    185     73      6,814      3.9%
Sales and related                      21,411    -1068   7      20,350      4.2%
Transportation and material
moving                                  8,775    -365    1       8,410      3.2%
Grand Total                            178,990    0      505    179,495     3.7%
Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




        90
         Annual Occupation Demand Projection - MARC Region Annual Average 2008-2018
                                                          Defense      Annual      Annual
                                    BRAC Environment     Contractor      Total     Growth
Healthcare Occupations     Baseline Effect     Effect       Effect     Demand       Rate
Architecture and
engineering                 3,639    652        224          753        5,268       4.6%
Arts, design,
entertainment, sports, and
media                       2,527     58         52           79        2,716       3.7%
Building and grounds
cleaning and maintenance    6,692     13         35           22        6,763       3.5%
Business and financial
operations                  9,214    137        426          366        10,143      3.7%
Community and social
services                    3,195     -8         76            2        3,265       4.0%
Computer and
mathematical science        10,547   292        220          959        12,018      4.8%
Construction and
extraction                  8,537     46        128          399        9,109       3.6%
Education, training, and
library                     11,222    -1         29            6        11,256      3.8%
Farming, fishing, and
forestry                     169       0         42            2         213        3.6%
Food preparation and
serving related             18,803     0         22            0        18,825      4.7%
Health care practitioners
and technical               8,632     20         54          101        8,807       3.8%
Health care support           4,341     5       10          92          4,448      3.8%
Installation, maintenance,
and repair                    5,644     59      73          172         5,947      3.2%
Legal                         1,563     -6      57           5          1,619      2.9%
Life, physical, and social
science                       2,576     91     135          223         3,025      4.3%
Management                    8,363    105     185          278         8,932      3.5%
Office and administrative
support                      26,504    205     403          640        27,752      3.2%
Personal care and service     5,957     -5      62          30          6,044      4.4%
Production                    3,349     34     131          398         3,912      2.7%
Protective service            7,024    291     193          15          7,525      4.2%
Sales and related            20,338     28      56          236        20,658      4.2%
Transportation and
material moving               8,922     5      104          87          9,119      3.4%
Total                        177,760   2,021   2,719       4,864       187,364     3.8%
Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




        91
               Annual Occupation Gaps-MARC Region, Annual Average 2008-2018
           Occupations                                         Baseline         Final
           Architecture and engineering                          -787            586
           Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media        -462           -1,441
           Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance        2,468           3,007
           Business and financial operations                     -244            183
           Community and social services                         605             710
           Computer and mathematical science                    -1,455          -414
           Construction and extraction                           405            1,483
           Education, training, and library                      -706           -780
           Farming, fishing, and forestry                        -16             77
           Food preparation and serving related                  -818            200
           Health care practitioners and technical               570            -1,197
           Health care support                                  1,646            870
           Installation, maintenance, and repair                 210             471
           Legal                                                 -229           -272
           Life, physical, and social science                    -712           -333
           Management                                           -2,064          -1,810
           Office and administrative support                    1,437           2,462
           Personal care and service                            1,466           1,778
           Production                                           -1,096          -735
           Protective service                                    514             650
           Sales and related                                     -946            124
           Transportation and material moving                    214             632
           Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




             Critical Occupation Gaps- MARC Region, Annual Average 2008-2018
                                              Baseline
     MARC Critical Occupation                   Gap        Average Annual 10-Year Gap
     Computer Science                                 -1,644             -570
     Construction                                      493              1,676
     Electrical Engineering                            -274               36
     Government Security/Intelligence                  727               885
     Human Resource                                    -12                65
     Nursing                                          2,057              726
     Geospatial Technology                            -1,667             -515
     Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




92
                 10-Year Annual Average Final Occupation Gaps of Critical Occupations-MARC Region 2008-2019
                                                       Annual                  BRAC       Green                    Final
MARC                                        Annual     Supply      Annual      Demand     Demand      Defense      Occupa-
Critical                                    Baseline   Adjust-     Baseline    Adjust-    Adjust-     Demand       tion
Occupation     Occupation Title             Supply     ment        Demand      ment       ment        Adjustment   Demand
Computer
Science        Computer Support Specialists      1,558    29        1,298        26          38           71         -179
               Computer Specialists, All Other   396       7         305          -2         25           12         -61
               Database Administrators           300      13         330          6          14           23          54
               Network and Computer
               Systems Administrators            1,018    37         985         35          53           89          73
               Network Systems and Data
               Communications Analysts           693      32         876         22          37           68         257
               Computer and Information
               Systems Managers                  729      35         524         12          22           44         -175
               Computer Programmers              1,482    -9         623         22          30           82         -737
               Computer Software Engineers,
               Applications                      2,136    96        2,200        43          75          187         229
               Computer Software Engineers,
               Systems Software                  1,722    76        1,383        63          98          201         -116
               Computer Systems Analysts         2,164    72        2,059        58          92          183          98
               Computer and Information
               Scientists, Research              160       4         130          3           9           11         -13
Construction   Construction Managers             318      16         369          6          10           24          69
               Cost Estimators                   235      11         329          6          11           24         118
               First-Line
               Supervisors/Managers of
               Construction Trades and
               Extraction Workers                658      -54        755          2          15           64         230
               Brickmasons and Blockmasons       169      -11        169          0           1           6           18
               Stonemasons                        32      -2          32          0           0           0           3
               Carpenters                        873      -79        979          0           4          135         325
               Carpet Installers                  42       1          28          0           0           0          -14
               Floor Layers, Except Carpet,
               Wood, and Hard Tiles               16       3          7           0           0           0          -13
               Floor Sanders and Finishers        25       0          16          0           0           0           -9
               Tile and Marble Setters            56      -6          59          0           0           0           9
               Cement Masons and Concrete
               Finishers                         282      -16        276          0           1           6           17
               Terrazzo Workers and
               Finishers                          9       -1          9           0           0           2           2
               Construction Laborers             885     -112       1,005         2          17           57         306
               Paving, Surfacing, and
               Tamping Equipment Operators       111      -7         127          0           1           0           24
               Pile-Driver Operators              8        0          7           0           0           0           -1
               Operating Engineers and Other
               Construction Equipment
               Operators                         384      -24        439          0          15           6           99
               Drywall and Ceiling Tile
               Installers                        132      -10        136          0           1           2           16
               Tapers                             20      -2          19          0           0           0           2
               Electricians                      1,018    -44       1,009         7          17           23          75
               Glaziers                           74      -7          67          0           0           0           0
               Insulation Workers, Floor,
               Ceiling, and Wall                 107      -7          92          0           1           0           -8
               Insulation Workers, Mechanical     53      -2          47          0           1           0           -3
               Painters, Construction and
               Maintenance                       309      -25        347          0           5           7           76
               Paperhangers                       9        1          6           0           0           2           -2
               Pipelayers                         89      -6          93          0           0           1           10


       93
              Plumbers, Pipefitters, and
              Steamfitters                       661   -44   713   6    14   10   120
              Plasterers and Stucco Masons       44    -2    38    0    0    0    -4
              Reinforcing Iron and Rebar
              Workers                            96    -5    77    0    0    1    -12
              Roofers                            125   -10   126   0    1    2    14
              Sheet Metal Workers                259   -11   255   1    3    5    15
              Structural Iron and Steel
              Workers                            113   -3    95    0    0    4    -10
              Helpers--Brickmasons,
              Blockmasons, Stonemasons,
              and Tile and Marble Setters        112   -7    102   0    1    0    -2
              Helpers--Carpenters                215   -14   198   0    1    28   26
              Helpers--Electricians              176   -7    146   0    1    0    -20
              Helpers--Painters,
              Paperhangers, Plasterers, and
              Stucco Masons                      37    0     26    0    0    2    -9
              Helpers--Pipelayers, Plumbers,
              Pipefitters, and Steamfitters      209   -13   193   0    1    1    -1
              Helpers--Roofers                   57    -2    47    0    0    0    -9
              Helpers, Construction Trades,
              All Other                          83    -6    78    1    1    2    4
              Construction and Building
              Inspectors                         110   -4    165   28   38   23   121
              Elevator Installers and
              Repairers                          53    -3    48    0    0    2    -1
              Fence Erectors                     41    -3    40    0    0    0    2
              Hazardous Materials Removal
              Workers                            56    -3    67    0    10   0    25
              Septic Tank Servicers and
              Sewer Pipe Cleaners                21    -1    28    0    3    0    12
              Segmental Pavers                   5     -1    4     0    0    0    0
              Earth Drillers, Except Oil and
              Gas                                18    0     19    1    3    2    6
              Electrical and Electronics
              Repairers, Powerhouse,
              Substation, and Relay              40    0     29    0    0    0    -11
              Refractory Materials Repairers,
              Except Brickmasons                 3     0     2     0    0    0    -1
              Electrical Power-Line Installers
              and Repairers                      142   0     123   0    1    1    -18
              Manufactured Building and
              Mobile Home Installers             5     0     5     0    0    0    0
              Riggers                            6     0     4     0    1    0    0
              Signal and Track Switch
              Repairers                          0     0     0     0    0    0    0
              Helpers--Installation,
              Maintenance, and Repair
              Workers                            221   0     256   2    4    3    43
              Installation, Maintenance, and
              Repair Workers, All Other          136   -1    129   0    4    5    3
              Structural Metal Fabricators
              and Fitters                        37    0     37    0    1    8    10
              Conveyor Operators and
              Tenders                            32    3     24    0    0    0    -11
              Crane and Tower Operators          39    -1    37    0    0    1    0
              Dredge Operators                   2     0     2     0    0    0    0
              Excavating and Loading
              Machine and Dragline
              Operators                          65    -5    92    0    3    1    36
              Hoist and Winch Operators          7     0     6     0    0    0    -1
Electrical
Engineering   Engineering Managers               368   16    252   30   44   40   -48



       94
               Electrical Engineers              428     13    282     33    54    66    -38
               Electrical and Electronic
               Engineering Technicians           204     10    201     34    52    53    92
               Electro-Mechanical
               Technicians                        15     0      14     0     7     16    22
               Engineering Technicians,
               Except Drafters, All Other        128     1     119     2     11    9     10
Geospatial     Marine Engineers and Naval
Technology     Architects                         22     4      20     14    17    11    22
               Electrical and Electronics
               Drafters                           57     2      48     5     7     7      4
               Electro-Mechanical
               Technicians                        15     0      14     0     7     16    22
               Engineering Technicians,
               Except Drafters, All Other        128     1     119     2     11    9     10
               Computer Support Specialists      1,558   29    1,298   26    38    71    -179
               Computer Specialists, All Other   396     7     305     -2    25    12    -61
               Database Administrators           300     13    330     6     14    23    54
               Network and Computer
               Systems Administrators            1,018   37    985     35    53    89    73
               Network Systems and Data
               Communications Analysts           693     32    876     22    37    68    257
               Computer and Information
               Systems Managers                  729     35    524     12    22    44    -175
               Computer Programmers              1,482   -9    623     22    30    82    -737
               Computer Software Engineers,
               Applications                      2,136   96    2,200   43    75    187   229
               Computer Software Engineers,
               Systems Software                  1,722   76    1,383   63    98    201   -116
               Computer Systems Analysts         2,164   72    2,059   58    92    183   98
               Computer and Information
               Scientists, Research              160     4     130     3     9     11    -13
               Geographers                        3      0      1      0     0     0      -2
Government
Security/      Emergency Management
Intelligence   Specialists                        27     1      22     1     2     1      -4
               Emergency Medical
               Technicians and Paramedics        104     31    117     0     3     0     -16
               First-Line
               Supervisors/Managers of Fire
               Fighting and Prevention
               Workers                           120     4     115     -1    5     0      -3
               Fire Fighters                     785     24    633     7     35    1     -141
               Fire Inspectors and
               Investigators                      19     4      18     12    12    0      7
               Forest Fire Inspectors and
               Prevention Specialists             0      0      0      0     0     0      0
               Police, Fire, and Ambulance
               Dispatchers                       174     -1    175     -1    7     0      9
               Forensic Science Technicians       31     1      36     0     2     1      8
               First-Line
               Supervisors/Managers of
               Police and Detectives             245     7     200     -1    6     0     -46
               Protective Service Workers, All
               Other                             686     10    676     0     5     0     -15
               First-Line
               Supervisors/Managers,
               Protective Service Workers, All
               Other                              57     5      78     7     7     0     24
               Private Detectives and
               Investigators                      85     6     115     3     3     4     31
               Gaming Surveillance Officers
               and Gaming Investigators          149     11    286     0     0     0     126
               Security Guards                   1,163   136   1,845   285   292   10    848



       95
               Crossing Guards                  53     0      85      0            2            0    33
               Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and
               Other Recreational Protective
               Service Workers                 459     9     478      0            8            0    17
               Foreign Language and
               Literature Teachers,
               Postsecondary                    37     0      43      0            0            0    6
Nursing        Registered Nurses               2,613   719   3,367    10           26           2    63
               Licensed Practical and
               Licensed Vocational Nurses      703     108   911      1            6            2    109
               Home Health Aides               448     182   1,099    0            2            0    470
               Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and
               Attendants                      1,002   324   1,406    3            6            0    86
               Psychiatric Aides                40     0      26      0            0            0    -13
               Occupational Therapist
               Assistants                       22     6      37      0            0            0    9
               Occupational Therapist Aides     4      1      5       0            0            0    1
               Physical Therapist Assistants    60     21     83      0            0            3    5
               Physical Therapist Aides         54     17     67      0            0            0    -3
Human          Compensation and Benefits
Resource       Managers                         70     3      60      1            2            2    -9
               Training and Development
               Managers                         58     3      55      0            1            1    -4
               Human Resources Managers,
               All Other                       102     4      86      1            2            3    -14
               Employment, Recruitment, and
               Placement Specialists           280     11    289      1            9            8    15
               Compensation, Benefits, and
               Job Analysis Specialists        148     6     151      2            7            6    10
               Training and Development
               Specialists                     395     17    402      6            19           13   22
               Human Resources, Training,
               and Labor Relations
               Specialists, All Other          402     17    401      6            30           18   31
               Human Resources Assistants,
               Except Payroll and
               Timekeeping                     156     0     153      2            10           5    14
Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




                              Skill Gaps-MARC Region, Annual Average 2008-2018
               Discipline                                Low Skill  Medium Skill        High Skill
               Annual Demand                              109,326      28,802            49,236
               Annual Supply                              100,430      26,445            54,238
               Annual Skill Gaps                           8,896        2,357            -5,002
               Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




          96
A7.5. Education

                          Top Twenty Higher Education Institutions in MARC Region
                                                             Total Awards (2006-07 School
                                                                        Year)
                  University of Maryland-College Park                   9,439
                  George Washington University                          7,435
                  George Mason University                               6,980
                  Johns Hopkins University                              6,385
                  University of Maryland-University College             5,830
                  Strayer University                                    4,870
                  Georgetown University                                 4,843
                  Towson University                                     4,253
                  American University                                   3,668
                  Northern Virginia Community College                   3,077
                  University of Maryland-Baltimore County               2,565
                  Howard University                                     2,358
                  Montgomery College                                    2,138
                  The Community College of Baltimore
                  County                                                1,785
                  University of Maryland-Baltimore                      1,755
                  Loyola College in Maryland                            1,609
                  Anne Arundel Community College                        1,550
                  Catholic University of America                        1,528
                  University of Mary Washington                         1,301
                  Marymount University                                  1,064
                  All Others                                            25,837
                  Total MARC Region                                    100,270
                  Source: National Center for Education Statistics




     97
            Degree Awards by Major Program and Award Level in MARC Region (2006-07 Academic Year)
                                         Certification Less
                                          than Associates   Associates  Bachelor's    Graduate
                                              Degree          Degree      Degree       Degree        Total
Agriculture, general                                30         52           92          33           207
Architecture and related services                    0         0           195          76           271
Area, ethnic, cultural, and gender studies          14         65          334          268          681
Biological and biomedical sciences                   0         2           1,920       1,110         3,032
Business, management, marketing, and
related support services                            584       3,150        8,817       6,779        19,330
Communication, journalism, related
programs                                             0         2           1,715        332          2,049
Communications technologies/technicians
and support services                                47         83          267          67           464
Computer and information sciences and
support services                                    299       754          2,830       1,776         5,659
Construction trades, general                        280        21           0            0           301
Education                                           12        323          1,931       5,133         7,399
Engineering technology, general                     236       491           63          204          994
Engineering                                          2        148          2,118       1,448         3,716
English language and literature/letters              3         0           1,741        362          2,106
Foreign languages, literatures, linguistics         43         12          734          145          934
Health services/Allied health/Health
sciences, general                                  5,295      2,376        2,674       3,618        13,963
History                                              0         0           1,085        201          1,286
Human services, general                              4         5           475         1,637         2,121
Legal studies, general                              104       219          207         3,333         3,863
Liberal arts and sciences, general studies
and humanities                                       100      5,351        621         246           6,318
Library science                                       0         0           7          213            220
Mathematics and statistics                            0         5          436         194            635
Mechanics and repairers, general                     815       121          0           0             936
Multi/interdisciplinary studies                       5        165         972         736           1,878
Natural resources and conservation                    0         0           84          2              86
Parks, recreation, leisure, fitness studies          13         6          386          57            462
Personal and culinary services                      1,253      247          0           0            1,500
Philosophy and religious studies                      0         0          381          81            462
Physical sciences                                     0         0          522         344            866
Precision production trades, general                  0         0           0           0               0
Psychology                                            0         0         2,486       1,070          3,556
Science technologies/technicians                      4         30          12          0              46
Security and protective services                     301       502         535         110           1,448
Social sciences                                      48         36        6,473       2,195          8,752
Theology and religious vocations                     18         9          121         488            636
Transportation and materials moving                  479        4           7           0             490
Visual and performing arts                           181       267        2,123        535           3,106
Work and family studies                              56        150         265          26            497
Grand Total                                        10,226    14,596       42,629      32,819        100,270
Source: National Center for Education Statistics




       98
               Degree Demand by Disciplines-MARC Region, Annual Average 2008-2018
                                             High     Associates or    Bachelor or
Discipline                                  School     Certificate       Higher       Total
Agriculture, general                        1,993          743            534         3,270
Architecture and related services             24            69            419          513
Area, ethnic, cultural, and gender studies     0             1              9           10
Biological and biomedical sciences            10            19            554          582
Business, management, marketing, and
related support services                    23,136       21,407         20,069       64,612
Communication, journalism, and related
programs                                     164           226            743         1,132
Communications technologies/technicians
and support services                         215           178            117         510
Computer and information sciences and
support services                             750          2,058          4,712        7,520
Construction trades, general                6,071         2,239           543         8,853
Education                                   1,229         1,645          6,968        9,842
Engineering technology, general             1,014         1,394           776         3,185
Engineering                                  276           923           4,890        6,090
English language and literature/letters       26            95            518          639
Health services/Allied health/Health
sciences, general                           4,220         6,605          6,619       17,444
Human services, general                      146           280            726        1,152
Legal studies, general                       276           479           1,231       1,987
Library science                              190           293            405         888
Mathematics and statistics                    13            30            182         225
Mechanics and repairers, general            2,300         1,260           206        3,767
Multi/interdisciplinary studies               54           145            683         882
Natural resources and conservation            57            66            350         473
Parks, recreation, leisure, and fitness
studies                                      106           151            268         525
Personal and culinary services              13,040        4,702          1,721       19,463
Philosophy and religious studies               0             1             10          11
Physical sciences                             13            19            401         434
Precision production trades, general         777           293             37        1,107
Psychology                                     1             4            183         188
Science technologies/technicians             153           168            299         620
Security and protective services            3,099         2,990          1,199       7,287
Social sciences                              115           163            654         932
Theology and religious vocations              14            38             98         150
Transportation and materials moving         3,745         1,350           562        5,657
Visual and performing arts                   231           332            755        1,319
Work and family studies                      936           612            357        1,906
Foreign languages, literatures, and
linguistics                                   11            22             71          104
History                                        5            12            119          135
Medicine                                       3            10            401          415
Total                                       64,418       51,021         58,391       173,830
Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics



     99
            Estimated Education Gaps-MARC Region, Annual Average 2008-2018
                                                       Associates Bachelor‘s and Higher
Program                                                   Gaps            Gaps
Agriculture, general                                       661             409
Architecture and related services                           69             148
Area, ethnic, cultural, and gender studies                 -78            -593
Biological and biomedical sciences                          17           -2,476
Business, management, marketing, and related support
services                                                17,673            4,473
Communication, journalism, and related programs            224           -1,304
Communications technologies/technicians and support
services                                                    48            -217
Computer and information sciences and support
services                                                  1,005            106
Construction trades, general                              1,938            543
Education                                                 1,310            -96
Engineering technology, general                            667             509
Engineering                                                773            1,324
English language and literature/letters                     92           -1,585
Foreign languages, literatures, and linguistics            -33            -808
Health services/Allied health/Health sciences, general   -1,066            327
History                                                     12           -1,167
Human services, general                                    271           -1,386
Legal studies, general                                     156           -2,309
Liberal arts and sciences, general studies and
humanities                                               -5,451           -867
Library science                                            293             185
Mathematics and statistics                                  25            -448
Mechanics and repairers, general                           324             206
Medicine                                                    10             401
Multi/interdisciplinary studies                            -25           -1,025
Natural resources and conservation                          66             264
Parks, recreation, leisure, and fitness studies            132            -175
Personal and culinary services                            3,202           1,721
Philosophy and religious studies                             1            -452
Physical sciences                                           19            -465
Precision production trades, general                       293              37
Psychology                                                   4           -3,373
Science technologies/technicians                           134             287
Security and protective services                          2,187            554
Social sciences                                             79           -8,014
Theology and religious vocations                            11            -511
Transportation and materials moving                        867             555
Visual and performing arts                                -116           -1,903
Work and family studies                                    406              66
Source: Chmura Economics & Analytics




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