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					Unit: Atomic Theory                                                                          Chemistry, Wilson
                                            Models of the Atom
         Dalton's Model of the Atom
                                                                 Thompson's Model of the Atom

  Dalton's model was that the atoms were tiny,
                                                      He imagined the atom as a sphere full of an electrically
indivisible, indestructible particles, like billiard
                                                     positive substance mixed with negative electrons "like the
balls, and that each one had a certain mass, size,
                                                      raisins in a cake" or “plum pudding” (a ball of positive
 and chemical behavior that was determined by
                                                                  charge with electrons stuck to it).
         what kind of element they were.
                                                                     Bohr's Model of the Atom
      Rutherford's Model of the Atom

                                                Electrons arranged in concentric circles or orbits around
The electron in an atom moves around the dense,    the nucleus after the planets motion around the sun
 positively charged nucleus like planets around    (planetary model). Proposed that the electrons in a
      the Sun; atom is mostly empty space.       particular path have a fixed energy that prevents them
                                                            from collapsing onto the nucleus.
                                    Electron Cloud Model of the Atom

The cloud model represents a sort of history of where the electron has probably been and where it is likely to be
going. The red dot in the middle represents the nucleus while the red dots around the outside represents an instance
of the electron. Imagine, as the electron moves it leaves a trace of where it was. This collection of traces quickly
begins to resemble a cloud.
Unit: Atomic Theory                Chemistry, Wilson

                      Hog Hilton
Unit: Atomic Theory                                                                        Chemistry, Wilson

                                                  Hog Hilton
You are the manager of a prestigious new hotel in downtown Milwaukee ”Hog Hilton”. It’s just the “snort of the
town” and you want to keep its reputation a cut above all the other hotels. Your problem is your clientele. They
are hogs in the truest sense.

Your major task is to fill rooms in your hotel. The funny shape of your hotel is to accommodate the habits of the
hogs. The penthouse is on the first floor and the less desirable rooms are on the top floor. You must fill up your
hotel keeping the following rules in mind:

   1. Hogs are lazy and want the best accommodations possible without having to expend energy (they don’t
      want to climb steps).

   2. Hogs can’t stand each other except when rule #1 forces them to put up with each other.

   3. If hogs are in the same room they will face in opposite directions.

   4. They stink, so you can’t put more than two hogs in each room.

Your hotel looks like the diagram below: ( ___ Represents 1 Room)
       9th Floor       ___
       8th Floor       ___ ___ ___
       7 Floor         ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
       6th Floor       ___
       5 Floor         ___ ___ ___
       4th Floor       ___
       3 Floor         ___ ___ ___
       2nd Floor       ___
       1 Floor         ___
Your hotel can hold 36 hogs.
Sample problems
(1) Book 15 hogs into their rooms

(2) Book 25 hogs into their rooms

Class work: On your own, fill your hotel for the following days of the week:
       Monday: 5 hogs
       Tuesday: 8 hogs
       Wednesday: 1 hog
       Thursday: 12 hogs
       Friday: 23 hogs
       Saturday: 18 hogs
       Sunday: 32hogs
Unit: Atomic Theory                                                                         Chemistry, Wilson
On the last page you learned how to fill up an imaginary hotel. Now you will relate this example to electron
orbitals. Electron orbitals are modeled by the picture below and are grouped into principal energy levels.
        5s      ___ n = 4
        4p      ___ ___ ___ n= 4
        3d      ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ n=3
        4s      ____ n=3
        3p      ___ ___ ___ n=3
        3s      ___ n=3
        2p      ___ ___ ___ n=2
        2s      ___ n=2
        1s      ___ n=1

Questions to think about:
(1) Compare this with the Hog Hilton. What are the similarities and the differences?

(2) To go between floors on the Hog Hilton did the hogs need to use energy?
    Would electrons need to use energy to go between orbitals?

(3) If only ½ the energy necessary to go between the 1s and 2s orbital was available, will an electron go to the 2s

Examples on how to fill electron orbitals:
(1) 7 electrons
        3d ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ n=3
        (4s ____) n=3
        3p ___ ___ ___ n=3
        3s ___ n=3
        2p ___ ___ ___ n=2
        2s ___ n=2
        1s ___ n=1
(2) 16 electrons
        3d ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ n=3
        (4s ____) n=3
        3p ___ ___ ___ n=3
        3s ___ n=3
        2p ___ ___ ___ n=2
        2s ___ n=2
        1s ___ n=1
Unit: Atomic Theory                                                            Chemistry, Wilson

                                        Electron Configuration Practice

Complete an electron orbital diagram for the following numbers of electrons:
10, 24, 13, 3, 5, 26, 22, 17

10 electrons ___________________________________________________

24 electrons ___________________________________________________

13 electrons ___________________________________________________

3 electrons ___________________________________________________

5 electrons ___________________________________________________

26 electrons ___________________________________________________

22 electrons ___________________________________________________

17 electrons ___________________________________________________

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