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Circe, Calypso & Ino Scheming Enchantress, Concealer of Men & Flashing Gull Circe - #7 Calypso - #12 Circe Circe offering Odysseus a cup of Goddess & wine. Sorceress Island of Aeaea Daughter of Helios & Perse Possesses power for spiritual purification Circe Best known for her ability to turn men into swine [as she did with Odysseus’ men] Painting of Circe turning Odysseus’ men into swine. Circe Devoted to Hecate : Goddess Renowned for knowledge of of enchantment and Queen of magic & poisonous herbs witches Hecate Circe Circe Circe’s house Turned Scylla into a monster because she was jealous. Audio This is a black figure vase from C. 4th century BCE. This Greek vase shows Circe offering Odysseus the distorted wine. Notice the dagger in Odysseus’ right hand, which he will use to threaten Circe as Hermes advised. To the right of Circe is a weaving loom, which in Greek culture was a skill that women were expected to master. It suggests that this is something that Circe excels at. The way Odysseus is portrayed as an old, weak-looking man is interesting, as his appearance is usually very appealing with distinct, young features. It is possible the artist decided to portray him this way to represent his miserable state from his years of endless traveling. In Ancient Greece, the type of hat Odysseus is wearing is known as a traveling hat, which for the purposes of this vase, marks him as a wanderer. Also, it is interesting that the shape of the cup Circe has in her hands, is the same exact shape as the vase that the art it self was created on. Audio In this illustration Odysseus is threatening Circe with his sword. On the floor is the wine vase that contained the distorted wine she offered him. Notice Circe’s facial expression and body language. She looks sweet as if she is asking for mercy and using her charm to make Odysseus drop his sword. Clearly Odysseus is portrayed very differently in this drawing, compared to the previous black figure Odysseus & Circe Audio Black figure cup depicting Circe turning Odysseus’ men into swine. (550-525 BC): Many of the men begin turning into animals as Circe stirs her potion and continues serving it. We can see several men already changing, as one man has a boars head, and another man has the head and neck of a lion. It is interesting to see the man on the far right (still a man) looking as if he is escaping as he looks over his shoulder. Perhaps this is Eurylochus. A dog sits below Circe, possibly a man that has already been transformed, or maybe just a loyal pet of Circe’s. Ino ~ Flashing Gull Daughter of Cadmus & Harmonia Athamas’ wife Became Sea Deity Ino & all her sisters suffered some tragic fate in their lives. Queen of Orchomenus Ino was Athamas’ second husband. His first wife was Nephele, and they had two children, Phrixus and Helle. Ino plotted against her stepchildren and persuaded all the women in the city to parch their wheat and not tell their husbands. Naturally there was a poor harvest and so the people went to an oracle for help. She falsified the oracle and bribed him to tell the people that if they sacrificed Phrixus [ her stepson] that the Gods would be happy and their wheat would grow again. Ino ~ Flashing Gull The people prepared to sacrifice Phrixus but Nephele saved her children by sending a golden ram to save them. Helle fell off the ram over seas and drowned in Hellepsont [named after her] but Phrixus made it to safety. drawing This This sculpture displays Phrixus on depicts Helle and the ram flying to Phrixus on the safety. Notice he is golden ram. alone because Helle has already fallen off. Dionysis was given to Athamas & Ino. Ino & Dionysis II Zeus bore Dionysis II from his theigh, and Hera was furious. She decided to destroy Ino & Athamas for protecting the child of her husband’s mistress. Hera had Tisiphone [Erinye] injure their minds and they both went insane. Ino nursing Dionysis II. Ino ended her life in her insanity, by jumping off a cliff Ino Ino was the granddaughter of Aprhodite, and Aprhodite had always liked her, so she asked Poseidon if he would make Ino and her son a sea deities. Tisiphone injuring the minds of Athamas & Ino. Ino became known as the White Goddess and lived in the sea giving aid to sailors in need. Ino & Phrixus: Red Figure Vase Painting This vase painting depicts Ino attempting to kill her stepson Phrixus. Ino is displayed holding an axe in her right hand as she tries to kill him. Phrixus is getting away and is next to the golden ram which was sent by his mother to save him. This terra- cotta sculpture depicts Phrixus on the golden ram. Notice the fish below the front hooves of the ram. They probably represent that the ram is flying over the sea. Phrixus - Ino’s Stepson Calypso ~ Concealer of Men A sea nymph What is a Nymph? Any of the minor divinities of nature represented as beautiful maidens dwelling in the mountains, forests, trees and waters. Island of Ogygia Daughter of Titan Atlas Very little else is known about Calypso other than her dealings Statue of Calypso with Odysseus in The Odyssey. Calypso Circe Ino Post-classical 3 handled water jar Black figure vase panting by an depicting Odysseus (C. 390 - 380 BC) & Circe Italian artist, Tibaldo Calyspo, Circe & Ino all had different roles in The Odyssey and had different relationships with Odysseus. They all impacted his journey in some way. “You poor man. You can stop grieving now Audio And pining away. I’m sending you home. Look, here’s a bronze axe. Cut some long timbers And make yourself a raft fitted with topdecks, Something that will get you across the sea’s misty spaces. I’ll stock it with fresh water, food and red wine- Hearty provisions that will stave off hunger - and I’ll clothe you well and send you a following wind To bring you home safely to your own native land, If such is the will of the gods of high heaven, Whose minds and powers are stronger than mine.” -Calypso (Book 5, lines 160 - 170, pg.74-75, Lombardo translation) The End Bibliography Terracotta Phrixus Sculpture / Phrixus & Ino vase: Precourt, B. Mythology. 2004. 14 Feb. 2005 <www.uwn.edu/course/mythology/1000/oedipus.htm>. Calypso Statue / Ino & Dionysis II pic: Parada, Carlos. Greek Mythology Link. 14 Feb. 2005 <www.uwn.edu/course/mythology/1000/oedipus.htm> Calypso & Odysseus vase: Good, Walter. 14 Feb. 2005 <www.paeonia.ch/hist/daph/uk/kunst/CALYPSOE.htm>. Circe & Odysseus Vase: The Odyssey Online. 15 Feb. 2005 <rhapsodes.homestaead.com/odyssey.html>. Ino & Odysseus Painting & Circe/Odysseus Vase: Other Adventures of Odysseus. 15 Feb. 2005 <ccwf.cc.utexas.edu/.../Odyssey/adventures.html>. Circe & Odysseus Drawing: Hamilton, Edith. Edith Hamilton’s Mythology. New York: Little Brown & Company, 1999 Odysseus Main Map Graphic: Locke, . 2002. The Odyssey. 15 Feb. 2005 <www.mrlocke.net/English one/Epic/>. Circe Painting: Circe In Greek Mythology. 15 Feb. 2005 <waltm.net/Circe.htm>. Circe & Odysseus vase: Due Hackney, Casey. January 2004. Greek Art and Archaeology. 15 Feb. 2005 <www.uh.edu/~cldue/3397/odyssey_lecture.html>. Circe & Odysseus Vase: 22 August 2001. Index of Classics & Art Museum Mythology. 15 Feb. 2005 <www.beloit.edu/. ../Odyssey>. Circe & Odysseus’ men painting: The Isle of Circe. 15 Feb. 2005 <www.auburn.edu/.../gainey/homer/circe.html>. Circe’s House: Circe Enchants Odysseus' Crew. 15 Feb. 2005 <http://www.philipresheph.com/demodokos/odyssey/pi c80.htm>. Scylla Statue: Joe, Jimmy. Classical Mythology. 1999. Timeless Myths. 15 Feb. 2005 <http://www.timelessmyths.com/classical/beasts.html>. Hecate Picture: Hecate Goddess of Magic. 15 Feb. 2005 <http://www.linsdomain.com/gods&goddesses/hecate.htm>. Ino Picture: Design Ino. Independent Marine Design. 15 Feb. 2005 <http://www.designino.com/>. Ino/Athamas Picture: The University of Vermont. 2003. 15 Feb. 2005 <http://www.uvm.edu/~classics/?Page=mainpagelinks/ambrose.html>. Phrixus & Ram Drawing: Wilkes, Diane. 1998. 15 Feb. 2005 <http://www.tarotpassages.com/bursten12.htm>. Helle & Phrixus sculpture: Fairbanks, Avard. Fairbanks Art & Books. 2003. 15 Feb. 2005 <http://www.fairbanksartbooks.com/FantasySculptu re.html>.
"Circe_ Calypso _ Ino"