The Cameras by wanghonghx

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									      The Cameras

Xiaoya Li(xul115)
Yiqiao Zhu (yzz5070)
Xiyue Zhao(xwz5025)
Wei Dai(wzd5010)
Cameras
 A camera is a device that
 records images, either as a
 still photograph or as moving
 images known as videos or
 movies.
What does the oldest photo look like?

                                                                                             “View from the
                                                                                             Window at Le Gras"
                                                                                             is the first
                                                                                             permanent
                                                                                             photograph and was
                                                                                             taken by Joseph
                                                                                             Niépce in 1826.
                                                                                             Public Domain

 http://web.islandnet.com/~yesmag/how_work/graphics/First_Photo_Niepce.jpg




              The first permanent colour
              photograph, taken by James
              Clerk Maxwell in 1861.



                                                                     http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7f/Tartan_Ribbon.jpg/180px-Tartan_Ribbon.jpg
         Before Camera has been
               invented...




Drawing was the only tool recording moment, memory and history.
However,painting is kind of expensive, hard to preserve and usually takes a
long time to finish which is not effective.
Early cameras
     -------camera obscura
    • The forerunner to the camera
      was the camera obscura.

    • The camera obscura is an
      instrument consisting of a
      darkened chamber or box, into
      which light is admitted through
      a convex lens, forming an
      image of external objects on a
      surface of paper or glass, etc.,
      placed at the focus of the lens.
     Discovery and origins

The first mention of the principles behind the pinhole
camera, a precursor to the camera obscura, belongs to Mozi
(470 BC to 390 BC), a Chinese philosopher and the founder
of Mohism.The Mohist tradition is unusual in Chinese
thought because it is concerned with developing principles
of logic. The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 to 322 BC)
understood the optical principle of the pinhole camera. He
viewed the crescent shape of a partially eclipsed sun
projected on the ground through the holes in a sieve, and
the gaps between leaves of a plane tree.
Principle:
 The principle can be
demonstrated with a box with a
hole in one side (the box may
be room-sized, or hangar
sized). Light from a scene       http://www.phy520.cn/tp/UploadFiles_3372/200708/小孔成像_S.jpg

passes through the hole and
strikes a surface where it is
reproduced, in color, and
upside-down.
Principle:
   As a pinhole is made smaller, the image gets
   sharper, but the projected image becomes
   dimmer. With too small a pinhole the sharpness
   again becomes worse due to diffraction.


   Some practical camera obscurae use a lens rather
   than a pinhole because it allows a larger aperture,
   giving a usable brightness while maintaining
   focus.
The development of camera(1)
 Early cameras of the 16th and
 17th century




                                                                                               http://www.dagazine.com/mi/exhibit/cameras/camera03.jpg




                                                                                                           Cameras in Modern Times




 http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/hardwares/classics/nikonf3ver2/htmls/images/nikonf.jpg
Basic Camera
Settings

 Camera generally
 consists of an
 enclosed hollow
 with an aperture at
 one end for light to
 enter, and a
 recording or
 viewing surface for
 capturing the light
 at the other end.


A majority of cameras have a lens positioned in front of the camera's
opening to gather the incoming light and focus all or part of the image
on the recording surface.
                      Lens perfect or
A lens is an optical device with
approximate axial symmetry which transmits and
refracts light, converging or diverging the beam.
We are only talking about the biconvex lens( for both
surfaces are convex) in this project.




                  any parallel rays of light
                  that enter the lens will
                  pass through the focal
                  point on the right

                                               Lenses can be used
                                               to focus light
    Diagram of the problem with a
    pinhole lens with a large aperture.
    With a large pinhole, the image spot
    is large, resulting in a blurry image.


Diagram of the problem with a pinhole
lens with a small aperture.
With a small pinhole, light is reduced
and diffraction prevents the image spot
from getting arbitrarily small.


    Diagram to help show how a
    simple lens overcomes problems
    inherent in a pinhole lens.
    With a simple lens, much more
    light can be brought into sharp
    focus.
Basic Camera
Settings


Much like a camera,
human eyes augment
the pinhole effect with a
lens, bringing an
inverted image to bear
on a light-sensitive
surface, the retina.


                            http://www.logosjournal.com/image1.jpg
Basic Camera
Settings                    FOCAL LENGTH
     Focal length: Controls field of view (.zoom. to a layperson)
     In terms of 35mm film:
     •Around 50mm focal length is called normal
     (similar to field of view of eye)
     •Shorter focal lengths are called wide angle (see left photo)
     •Longer focal lengths are called telephoto (see right photo)
     •Actual numbers may be different for other cameras, but it is
     common to refer to 35mm equivalent focal length.




                         www.unswphotoclub.org/files/intro2.pdf
Basic Camera
Settings
                           DEPTH OF FIELD
  Depth of field (DOF) is the portion of a scene that appears sharp in the
  image. Although a lens can precisely focus at only one distance, the
  decrease in sharpness is gradual on either side of the focused distance,
  so that within the DOF, the unsharpness is imperceptible under normal
  viewing conditions.
EXAMPLE:

                                                                                                       Effect of aperture on
                                                                                                       blur and DOF. The
                                                                                                       points in focus (2)
                                                                                                       project points onto the
                                                                                                       image plane (5), but
                                                                                                       points at different
                                                                                                       distances (1 and 3)
                                                                                                       project blurred images,
                                                                                                       or circles of confusion.
                                                                                                       Decreasing the
                                                                                                       aperture size (4)
                                                                                                       reduces the size of the
                                                                                                       blur circles for points
                                                                                                       not in the focused
                                                                                                       plane, so that the
                                                                                                       blurring is
                                                                                                       imperceptible, and all
                                                                                                       points are within the
                                                                                                       DOF.

      http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Diaphragm.svg/645px-Diaphragm.svg.png
single-lens reflex (SLR) camera
The single-lens reflex (SLR) camera uses an automatic moving
mirror system which permits the photographer to see exactly what
will be captured by the film or digital imaging system, as opposed to
non-SLR cameras where the view through the viewfinder could be
significantly different from what was captured on film



                                                                         When you press the button
                                                                         on an SLR camera, the
                                                                         mirror flips up exposing the
                                                                         film to the light coming
                                                                         through the lens.
                                                                                    by David Garrison




     http://web.islandnet.com/~yesmag/how_work/graphics/slr_camera.gif
                       Early Cameras
•   In 16th and 17th century, Cameras were able to capture images on the paper or
    glasses,but the study of capturing, processing and printing the images took many more
    years.
•   In the 17th century Newton discovered that light was actually composed of a spectum
    of colors which was contrary to people's traditonal belif that light was simply compsoed
    by "White".
•   In the 19th century   Camera obscyra        clear and realistic. And Camera Lucida
    superimposed image of a subject on paper. Both are temporary which could not be
    lasting captured on paper for later reference.
•    In 1822            French researcher Joseph Nicephore Niepce ceated the first
    photograph by using paper that was coated with a chemical. Concept of photography
    was born and paved the way for future study and development in this field.

•   In 1827              Daguerre developed the process of capturing photographic images
    that would not fade away called Daguerreotype.

•   In 1840's            Cameras make their mark on the power of visual communication.
•   In 1850              Underwater Photography of seascapes.
•   In 1851              Federick Scott Archer made discory terned collodion process
    called for          just 2-3 seconds of light exposure to capture an image.
•   In 1888               Geoge Eastman created Kodark
•   In 1889               Geoge and fellow scientists developed the photographic film. An
    important milestone in our entertainment and communication history was the
    development of transparent roll film by Eastman
•   In 1891               The motion picture camera invented by T. Edision.
           Modern Times
Cameras developed at an accelerated
 pace. The first mass use camera became
 available as early as the year 1900.
There are tons of various models of
 cameras available today both for the
 amateur as well as the professional.
Camera is now becoming a common device
 in most family all round the world.
 The development of camera(2)

          Digital Cameras




                                                                                      http://i.zdnet.com/blogs/casio-exilim-ex-z9-pink.JPG




                                                                                                         Cameras of 20th century




http://malaligned.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/leica-digilux_3-digital_camera.jpg
    -->20th century chronology in
     the history of the camera:
•   1913: 35 mm still-camera created
•   1935- 1941: Kodak starts marketing Kodachrome film and subsequently
    launches Kodacolor negative film.
•   1948: Polaroid camera introduced in the market. American scientist Edwin
    Land developed the process for instant photography.Polaroid Corporation
    developed the ‘instant color’ film.
•   1957: Frenchman Jaques Yves Cousteau invented the first waterproof 35mm
    camera Calypso Phot.
•   1972: The electronic camera that does not require film was created and
    patented by Texas Instruments.
•   1978 – 1980: The ‘point and shoot’ automatic focus camera is launched by
    Konica while Sony starts talking about the camcorder and demonstrates a
    prototype.
•   1981: Sony launches a commercially available electronic still camera. came
    with a mini disc on which images were recorded and stored. The recorded
    images could be later printed or viewed on a monitor using a reader device.
•   1985: Digital processing technology makes its entry. Digital imaging and
    processing is introduced by Pixar.
•   1991: Kodak introduces a digital camera targeted at professionals and
    journalists.
•   1994: The Apple QuickTake camera, a home use digital camera is launched.
                 Digital Era
• In 1990's, the focus of camera development shifted
  to the digital imaging.
• Software         Download digital images directly from
  camera onto home computers.
• In 2001, Kodark and Microsoft partnershiped and
  developed the Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP)
  standard through windows.
• Printing industries     Adpated products to be in
  sync with the images created by dugutal cameras.
• Cell Phone manufactures       Tied up with digital
  camera manufactures to develop new age camera
  phones in recent years.
     Four Key ongoing camera
          developments
• 1. Greater resolution from even the simplest,
  low cost camera models
• 2. Usage in any type of lighting conditions,
• 3. Compatibility across a range of software,
  hardware and image types
• 4. Rich colors and tone
While the digital cameras evolution continues,
  the prices of simple cameras fall. Even
  children and teens can afford uncomplicated
  cameras which creates a larger audience
  base for camera industry.
                 REFERENCES:
    1.Stephen Whitt. (2008,September).How Does a Camera Work?
    http://web.islandnet.com/~yesmag/how_work/camera.html

    2.Photo of DOF
    Chabacano. (2007,November)
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Diaphragm.svg/6
    45px-Diaphragm.svg.png

    3. Matthew Chapman. Camera Principles Part I
    http://ww.unswphotoclub.org/files/intro2.pdf

    4. Ali Hossaini. Vision of the Gods: An Inquiry Into the Meaning of
    Photography
    http://www.logosjournal.com/hossaini.htm

•   5. Wikipedia
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
THE END

								
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