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Foundation Foundation and and Concealer Concealer

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					1702705                                                                                              1-2010




                                                                                   Outline
             Foundation and Concealer
             Foundation and Concealer
                                                               • Foundation
                                                               • Concealer
                                                                 Make‐
                                                               • Make‐up Base Foundation
                                                                  q p        q
                                                               • Equipment Requirements

                          Ampa Jimtaisong, PhD
                        School of Cosmetic Science 
                       MAE FAH LUANG UNIVERSITY
                                                      1-2010                                     2




                        Introduction                                            Foundation
          • Face powder                                        Functions:
          • Face powder VS Powder foundation                   • Hide the skin flaws
                                                               • Even out various color tones 
                                                                 in the skin
                                                               • Act as a protectant from the 
                                                                 environment
                                                               • Make the skin surface appear 
                                                                 smoother


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                               Foundation                                        Foundation
                                                                           Other properties of ideal foundation

          Ideal make‐up foundation’s application
                                                                  • Water resistance 
          • Moderate fast drying to allow for an even             • Shade consistency between the bottle 
            application                                             and the skin tone
          • Non‐settling, pour easily, be stable in storage       • Product should be uniform
          • Should not feel tacky, greasy, or too dry             • Coverage will vary with skin types
            Proper  play time and slip
          • Proper ‘play time’ and slip
                                                                         h     h k              h     d
                                                                  • Finish on the skin: matte, shiny, dewy 
          • Improve the appearance, not artificially  
                                                                  • Wear properties: not peel‐ff, not rub‐
                                                                    off on clothes

                                                              5                                                            6




                          Foundation:                                   Powder Compact Foundation
                        Types of foundations


          • Powder foundation                                     Easy to touch up the makeup when one is away from home

          • Oil‐based (anhydrous) foundation
          • Aqueous‐based foundation
          • Emulsion foundation




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                   Powder Compact Foundation                          Powder Compact Foundation
                                                                 Powder
                                                                 •     Talc                20.3
          •       Extender pigments: Talc, mica, sericite
                           pg            ,     ,                 •     Mica                35.0
                                                                 •     Kaolin              35.0
          •       Whitening & coloring pigments:                 •     TiO2                10.0
                                                                 •     TiO2 coated Mica 3.0
              –     TiO2, ZnO, iron oxides                       •     Zinc stearate       1.0
                                                                 •     Iron oxides         4‐5%
          •       Binding agents                                 •     Nylon powder        10.0
                                                                 Binding agents
                                                                 Bi di         t
          •       Perfumes                                       •     Squalane            6.0
                                                                 •     Lanolin acetate     1.0
          •       Actives                                        •     Octyldodecyl myristate4.0
                                                                 •     Sorbitol monooleate0.5
                                                            9    Perfumes, actives                                  10




              Two‐way powder Foundation                          Two‐way powder Foundation
                                                                      Powder
          •       Used on dry or wet sponge                           •     Silicone‐treated talc            19.2
                                                                      •       l             d
                                                                            Silicone‐treated mica            40.0
          •       Main type of summer foundation                      •     Silicone‐treated TiO2            15.0
                                                                      •     Silicone‐treated ultrafineTiO2   5.0
                                                                      •     Silicone‐treated Iron oxides     4‐5%
          •       Convenience, cool, refreshing feeling               •     Zinc stearate           0.1
                                                                      •     Nylon powder                     2.0
                                                                      Binding agents
                                                                      •     Squalane                         4.0
                                                                      •     Solid paraffin                   0.5
                                                                      •     Dimethyl polysiloxane 4.0
                                                                      •     Glyceryl triisooctanoate         5.0
                                                                      Perfumes, actives

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                     Two‐Way Foundation Make‐Up
                     Two‐Way Foundation Make‐                                   Anhydrous Foundation
          • Ingredients                                     % w/w
                                                                         • Powdery, not fluid
                         Treated Sericite
          • Dimethicone Treated Sericite                   44.3
                                                           44 3
          • Dimethicone Treated Talc                       37.2          • Easy to travel with
          • Dimethicone Treated Titanium Dioxide, Alumina 3.5
          • Dimethicone Treated Yellow Iron Oxide          2.4
                                                                         • Autumn and winter
          • Dimethicone Treated Red Iron Oxide             0.9
          • Dimethicone Treated Black Iron Oxide           0.3
          Binder
          • Dimethicone                                    4.4
          • Octyldodecyl Oleate                            3.5
          • Squalane                                       3.5
          • Preservative                                    q.s.

                                                                    13                                        14




                     Anhydrous Foundation                                       Anhydrous Foundation
          • Ingredients
                                                                         • Ingredients
          • Waxes
             – Beeswax, jojoba, carnauba, candelilla                     • Pigments (often surface treated)
             – Paraffin, polyethylene,                                     – TiO2
             – Dimethicone copolyol, beeswax, polyglyceryl‐3               – ZnO
               beeswax (nice texture, compatibility with
               beeswax (nice texture, compatibility with                   – Iron oxides
               silicones)
             – Fatty alcohols


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                       Anhydrous Foundation                                      Anhydrous Foundation
                                                                        • Ingredients
          • Ingredients
                                                                        • Bioactives
          • Wetting agents
                                                                          – Anti‐inflammatory
            – Low HLB emulsifiers
                                                                          – Moisturizer and skin protectant
            – Polyglyceryl esters (polyglyceryl‐3 diisostearate)
                                                                          – Antioxidant
            – Lanolin alcohols



                                                                   17                                               18




                                                                            Anhydrous Foundation‐
                                                                            Anhydrous Foundation‐ Liquid type
                       Anhydrous Foundation
          • Basic formulation
                                                                        • Anhydrous liquid translucent foundation
          Emollients
          E lli t                            30‐60%
                                             30 60%
                                                                            Powder
          Waxes                              5‐10%
                                                                                Mica              20-25 %
          Wetting agents                     0.5‐1.0%
                                                                                Iron oxides       q.s.
          Texturing agents                   30‐60%                         Oil phase
          • Manufacturing procedure                                             Carnauba wax      5.0
                                                                                Beeswax           1.0
          1.Emollients,Waxes,Wetting agents‐heated
                                                                                Isopropyl myristate75.0
          2.Pigment,Texturing agents‐added                                  Perfumes, actives


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                                                                           Anhydrous Foundation‐
                                                                           Anhydrous Foundation‐
               Anhydrous Foundation‐
               Anhydrous Foundation‐ Cream type
                                                                        Compact type Cake foundation
                                                                        Compact type Cake foundation
                                                                  Powder

          • Anhydrous cream foundation                            •    Talc                17.8
                                                                  •    Kaolin              15.0
               Powder
                                                                  •    TiO2                15.0
                    Talc                   to 100
                                                                  •    Iron oxides         4‐5%
                    Mica                   3.0
                                                                  Oil phase
                    TiO2                   20.0
                                                                  •    Solid paraffin      3.0
                    Iron oxides            4-5
                                                                  •    Microcrystalline wax6.0
               Oil phase
                                                                  •    Beeswax             2.0
                                                                                           20
                    Carnauba wax           10.0
                                                                  •    Petrolatum          12.0
                    Mineral oil            30.0
                                                                  •    Lanolin acetate     1.0
                    Isopropyl myristate10.0
                                                                  •    Squalane            6.0
                    Lanolin                5.0
                                                                  •    Isopropyl palmitate 18.0
               Perfumes, actives
                                                        21        Perfumes, actives                             22




                    Anhydrous Foundation ‐
                    Anhydrous Foundation ‐ Stick type                   Emulsion Foundation
           Powder
           •     Talc                2.8
           •     Kaolin              20.0                    • Compositions are vary widely depending on degree of 
           •     Mica                3.0                       coverage and emollient desired.
           •     TiO2                20.0
           •     Iron oxides         4‐5%
                                                             • Stability
           Oil phase                                         • Pigment wetting and dispersion
           •     Solid paraffin      3.0
           •     Microcrystalline wax7.0
                 Microcrystalline wax7 0                     • Easy spreading and blending
           •     Petrolatum          15.0                    • Good skin feel
           •     Dimethyl polysiloxane3.0
           •     Squalane            5.0                     • Slippery feeling
           •     Isopropyl palmitate 17.0
           Perfumes, actives                            23                                                      24




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                           Emulsion Foundation                                                                    Emulsion Foundation
                                                                                                     • Oil‐in‐Water (O/W) Emulsion Foundations
            Formulation considerations
          • Formulation considerations                                                                 – Oils and powder are  dispersed through the water phase to 
              – Prolonged skin contact, minimize emulsifier levels                                       form an emulsion
                to avoid irritant                                                                      – Cream and liquid type
              – Choose the oils based on low comedogenicity                                            – Shorter playtime than that of W/O emulsion
                                                                                                         Stability 
                                                                                                       – Stability
               Preservation‐difficult to preserve (gum+water)
              –P        i diffi l                 (         )




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                           Emulsion Foundation                                                                    Emulsion Foundation
     •    Oil‐in‐Water (O/W) Emulsion Foundation
           – Powder                                                                                                  ( / )
                                                                                                      • Water‐in Oil (W/O) Emulsion Foundations
               • Talc                             3.0      1. Disperse bentonite in propylene
               • TiO2                             5.0
               • Iron oxides                   ~ 2.0‐3.0   glycol, add water, mix well with              – This type has been used for long ago
           – Oil                                           others in water phase at 70 °C
               •   Stearic acid                  2.2
                                                                                                         – Easy to apply, long playtime, oily feel on use
               •   Liquid paraffin               8.0       2. Grind the powder ad add to
               •   Liquid lanolin                2.0                                                     – Silicone oils—light feel, long wear, water‐resistant
                                                           water phase
               •   Glyceryl monostearate         2.0
               •   Isohexadecyl alcohol          70
                                                 7.0       3.The                            C
                                                           3 The oil phase is heated to 70 °C            – 2‐layer dispersed foundation (shake well‐type)
                                                                                                           2 layer dispersed foundation (shake well type)
           – Water
                                                           4. Add oil phase into water phase
               •   Bentonite                     0.5                                                     – Cream type‐very popular
               •   Deionized water               to 100    and process in a homomixer
               •   POE sorbitan monostearate     0.9
                                                           5. While stirring, cool to 45 °C ,
                                                                                                         – Undergo no change in color with wearing
               •   Triethanolamine               1.0
               •   Propylene glcol               10.0      and add other materials
           – Other materials                                                                    27                                                                28




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                               Emulsion Foundation                                                                                    Emulsion Foundation
    •   W/O Foundation Cream                                                                                    •   W/O liquid Foundation (2‐layer)
          – Powder                                                                                                   – Powder
                                                                      1.                            C
                                                                      1 Mix water phase well at 70 °C
               • Sericite                        5.36                                                                    • Talc                              7.0
               • Kaolin                          4.0                  2. Grind the powder ad add to water                • Silicic acid anhydride            2.0
               • TiO2                            9.32                                                                    • TiO2                              12.0         1. Mix water phase well
                                                                      phase
               • Iron oxides                       ~ 2.0‐3.0                                                             • Nylon powder                      4.0
                                                                                                                                                                          2. Grind the powder ad add to
                                                                      3.The oil phase is heated to 70 °C                 • Iron oxides                       ~ 2.0‐3.0
          – Oil
               • Liquid paraffin                               5.0    4. Add oil phase into water phase and          – Oil                                                water phase
                                                                                                                         • Octamethyl cyclotetrasiloxane     10.0
               • Decamethyl cyclopentasiloxane                 12.0   process in a homomixer                                                                              3.The oil phase is mixed and add
                                                                                                                         • Pentaerythritol rosinate          1.5
                 Polyethylene denatutured
               • Polyethylene denatutured dimethylsiloxane     4.0
                                                               40
                                                                      5. While stirring, cool to 45 °C , and             • Neopentyl glycol diisooctanoate   2.0          oil phase into water phase, process
          – Water                                                                                                        • Polyethylene denatutured dimethylsiloxane1.5
               • Deionized water                 to 100               add other materials                            – Water                                              in a homomixer
               • Dispersing agent                0.1                                                                     • Deionized water                   to 100
               • Propylene glcol                 5.0                                                                     • Ethanol                           7.0
          – Other materials                                                                                              • Propylene glycol                  5.0
                                                                                                                     – Other materials
                                                                                                           29                                                                                             30




                               Emulsion Foundation                                                                                    Emulsion Foundation

          Emulsions                                                                                                 1. Direct pigment
                  Coloration of the emulsion base may be handled in                                                      The pigments are weighted directly into the aqueous 
                  different ways:                                                                                        phase and dispersed or colloid milled
          1.      Direct pigment                                                                                         Then, the emulsion is formed
          2.      Pigment dispersions                                                                                    Problems: 
          3.      Mixed pigment blender                                                                                        too many color adjustments needed

          4.      Monochromatic color                                                                                          Accurate color matching is difficult


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                      Emulsion Foundation                                        Emulsion Foundation

          2. Pigment dispersions                                        3. Mixed pigment blender
              The pigment is mixed with talc in 50:50 dispersion           The pigments and the extenders are premixed, 
              ratio                                                        pulverized, and matched to a standard
                                                                           Then, dispersed in the aqueous phase of the 
              Then, pulverized to match a standard
                                                                           emulsion and the emulsion is formed
                d       b    f l                    d d b
              Reduce number of color corrections needed, but 
                                                                           The finished shade is color matched at the powder 
              storage may be a problem                                     blender stage
              Taking time to make the  dispersion                          Changes of error are reduced
                                                                   33                                                       34




                                                                           Aqueous‐
                                                                           Aqueous‐based or Suspension Foundation
                      Emulsion Foundation

          4. Monochromatic color solutions                                   Water‐based foundation
              Make color concentrates of each pigment in a                   Water
              finished formula                                               Suspending agent
              Easy to color match by blending finished base but              Pigment
              much storage space is needed
                                                                             Preservative
              Possibility of contamination is increased
                                                                             Additives


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                                                  Concealer Product
                                                  Cover facial blemishes: birthmarks, 
            Concealer Product                      chloasma, lack of pigmentation
                                                  Stick or cream form
                                                  Stick or cream form




                                              ‐



                                         37                                                            38




    CONCEALER COMES IN DIFFERENT FORMS
                                                                        Concealer
          Solid cream stick
                                                  Formulation‐stick form
          Pot                                        Caster oil       29.4
                                                     Butyl stearate   14.0
          Tube                                       Petrolatum       5.6
                                                     Beeswax          10.5
          Wand
                                                     Ozokerite wax    7.0
                                                                             Procedure
          Pencil                                     Paraffin wax     3.5
                                                                               Heat the oils, waxes,
                                                     TiO2             25.0     add the grind powders
          Oil‐free compact                           Iron oxides      5.0      Pour into mold


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                                                                           Make‐
                                                                           Make‐up Base Foundation

                     Make‐up Base Foundation
                     Make‐
                                                                       Correct your skin tone, to 
                                                                       achieving flawless and long 
                                                                       lasting complexion. 
                                                                       Yellow, green, violet, white




                                                        41                                                                42




          Make‐
          Make‐up Base Foundation Complexion:                       Make‐
                                                                    Make‐up Base Foundation
                     Three basic color categories
                                                               Yellow = suitable for Dark and Uneven Skin Tone, 
          Sallow:                                              yellow helps to lighten dark complexion and unified 
            Yellowish, brownish‐yellow or green color
            Yellowish, brownish‐                                        ki
                                                               uneven skin tone
                                                                Pink = suitable for Dull Skin Tone, pink can lighten 
          Florid:                                               and illuminates dull skin tone 
            Highly colored, ruddy                              Use Lilac to calm yellow, sallow skin

                                                                      = suitable for redness skin tone, green is very 
                                                               Green = suitable for redness skin tone green is very
          Neutral:                                           good to tone down the redness
             Little or no color                                Blue = suitable for slight redness Skin Tone, Very Fair 
                                                             Skin Tone, blue helps to illuminates fair skin tone and 
                                                        43
                                                             tone down slightly redness                                   44




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                                                                   Equipment Requirements:
                Equipment Requirements                                   Grinding or Dispersing

          Grinding of pigments                                 Grinding of the pigment phase into the
                                                               Grinding of the pigment phase into the 
          Mixing and blending of the liquid and the            smallest possible particle size.
          powder phases                                          Colloid mill
                                                                 Roller mill




                                                          45                                             46




              Equipment Requirements:                          Choosing the right foundation
                          Mixing

          A steam jacketed tank equipped with some 
          A steam jacketed tank equipped with some
          type of agitator (for oil phase) and a steam 
          jacketed tank for water phase
             Homomixer




                                                          47                                             48




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              Choosing the right foundation                                   Choosing the right foundation

                                                                                Product forms:                       Coverage
              N    l Ski F i l F     d i
              Normal Skin Facial Foundations                                      Liquid                              Very sheer
              Dry Skin Facial Foundations                                         Cream                               Sheer
                                                                                Product finishes:                     Moderate
              Acne/Oily Skin Facial Foundations                                   Matte                               Heavy
              Combination Skin Facial Foundations                                 Semimatte                           Full
                                                                                  Moist semimatte
                                                                                  Moist semimatte
                                                                                  shiny
                                                                         49                                                        50




                  Choosing the right foundation                                   Choosing the right foundation
                          Facial Foundation Finishes                                  Normal Skin Facial Foundations

      Finish          Appearance Formulation Skin type Moisturizing
                                                       ability                Numerous facial foundations of choice
                                                                              Numerous facial foundations of choice
          Matte       Flat, no shine   Oil-free      Oily        Least
                                                                                        to moist semimatte
                                                                              Semimatte to moist semimatte finish
          Semimatte   Min. shine       Oil-free or   Oily to                  Feature:
                                       O/W-based     Normal
       Moist-
       Moist-                                                                   Moisturizing foundation: additives
      semimatte       Dewy shine       O/W based
                                       O/W-based     Normal to                  Sun Protection (SPF)
                                                                                Sun Protection (SPF)
                                                     dry
          Shiny       Obvious shine W/O-based        Dry         Most           Long‐lasting
                                                                                Natural‐look foundation
                                                                                Liquid or Cream form
                                                                         51                                                        52




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              Choosing the right foundation                             Choosing the right foundation
                     Dry Skin Facial Foundations                           Acne/Oily Skin Facial Foundations

          All day moisturizing foundations                               Matte or semimatte
                                                                         Matte or semimatte finish

          Easy to apply, long playtime, moist feeling                    Oil‐
                                                                         Oil‐free or low oil content
                                                                         Less coverage
          Semimatte or shiny finish
                                                                         More prone to cake
          Feature:
                                                                         Short playtime, difficult to apply
            Oil‐based (anhydrous) foundations                            W/S emulsions
            W/O emulsions                                                Liquid form
            Cream form                                                  Oil selection: comedogenic
                                                                        Oil selection: comedogenic potential
                                                         53                                                                               54




              Choosing the right foundation
               Combination Skin Facial Foundations
                                                                                       References

                                yp
          The most common skin type                              J. B. Wilkinson, R. J. Moore, Harry s Cosmeticology, 7th ed. Chemical 
                                                              1. J. B. Wilkinson, R. J. Moore, Harry’s Cosmeticology, 7th ed. Chemical
                                                                 publishing, New York, USA, 1982.
          T‐zone : oily central forehead, nose, cheeks
                                                              2. T. Mitsui, New Cosmetic Science, Elsevier Science B.V, Amsterdam, The 
          No best foundation developed to date                   Netherlands, 1997.
                                                              3. M.S. Balsam, E. Sagarin. Cosmetics : Science and Technology. Volume I, II 
          Oil‐
          Oil‐control foundation (higher Talc, kaolin)
                                                                 and III, 2nd ed., Wiley‐Interscience, New York, 1972, 1974.
          Feature:                                            4. M. Paye, A.O. Barel, H.I. Maibach. Handbook of Cosmetic Science 
                                                              4 M Paye A O Barel H I Maibach Handbook of Cosmetic Science
                                                                 Technology. Taylor & Francis, New York, USA, 2006.
            O/W liquid emulsions
                                                              5. M. G. deNavarre, J.H. Merritt, The Chemistry and Manufacture of 
            W/S liquid emulsions                                 Cosmetics, 2nd ed.,Continetal Press, Orlando, FL,USA.,1974. 


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