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NPR 2.2 BALLISTIC_ CRUISE MISSILE_ AND MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEMS

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					                                                                Missile Developments




   BALLISTIC, CRUISE MISSILE, AND
  MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEMS: TRADE
  AND SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS,
      JUNE 1994-SEPTEMBER 1994


                                                           RUSSIA   WITH  AFGHANISTAN         AND
           AFGHANISTAN                                                  TAJIKISTAN                                      AUSTRALIA

                                                                         8/10/94
                                                       According to Russian military forces in
                                                       Dushanbe, the 12th post of the Moscow
         INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS                         border troops headquarters in Tajikistan is                 INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS
                                                       attacked by missiles fired from Afghan ter-
                    9/27/94                            ritory. The Russians respond with suppres-                                7/94
Rocket and mortar attacks leave 58 people              sive fire on the missile launcher emplace-          It is reported that Australia’s University of
dead and 224 wounded in Kabul. Kabul                   ment; no casualties are reported.                   Queensland can produce a scramjet air-
radio attributes this attack to factions op-            Itar-Tass (Moscow), 8/11/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-155,   breathing engine, which may offer payload
posing President Burhanuddin Rabbani.                   8/11/94, p. 36 (4564).                             and cost advantages over conventional SLVs.
More than 100 rockets and mortar shells                                                                     Chris Schacht, Australian (Sydney), 7/20/94, p. 6;
are fired on residential areas of Kabul by                               8/27/94                            in FBIS-EAS-94-152, 8/8/94, pp. 89-90 (4405).
anti-Rabbani militia under the control of              During the early morning hours, Tajik
Prime Minister Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and                 Mujaheedin launch several missiles at the                                 7/94
northern warlord General Abdul Rashid                  Russian Frontier Guard observation posi-            It is reported that the Australian government
Dostam.                                                tion and post on the Turk Heights in                awarded Australia’s AWA Defence Industries
  Wall Street Journal, 9/28/94, p. 1 (4333).           Tajikistan. The missiles are launched from          (AWADI) a $17 million contract to produce
                                                       the area of the Afghan-Tajik border and from        the Active Missile Decoy (AMD) system, a
                                                       Afghan territory, according to the second           “hovering rocket-propelled anti-ship missile
                                                       commander of Russian border guards in               decoy system” providing for ship defense
The numbers listed in parenthesis following the        Tajikistan, Major General Aleksandr                 against sea-skimming missiles. AWADI will
bibliographic references refer to the identification   Savchenko. No Russian soldiers are killed.          also develop a fire control system to coor-
number of the document in the International             Galina Gridneva, Itar-Tass (Moscow), 8/28/94; in   dinate a ship’s decoy and combat data sys-
Missile Proliferation Project Database, from            FBIS-SOV-94-167, 8/29/94, p. 48 (4392).            tems. The AMD system was jointly devel-
which the news summaries are abstracted.                                                                   oped by Australia and Sippican of the U.S.,
Because of the rapidly changing nature of the                                                              who developed the electronic payload.
subject matter, The Nonproliferation Review is                                                              Flight International, 7/13/94, p. 16 (4430).
unable to guarantee that the information reported
herein is complete or accurate, and disclaims
liability to any party for any loss or damage
caused by errors or omissions.




128                                                                                                    The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995
                                                            Missile Developments

        AUSTRALIA     WITH   RUSSIA               Fan Song-E C-band targeting and missile
                                                  guidance radar, the core of the SA-2 Guide-
                    7/94                          line SAM system, and an SA-6 TEL have                            DENMARK
The new launch complex that is being de-          been photographed at the site. The Bosnian-
veloped by Russia and the Australian com-         Serb Army deploys the SA-2 system, gen-
pany Space Transportation Systems (STS)           erally with as many as six launchers, and
on Papua New Guinea, which has a comple-          also deploys dummy SAM sites to spoof
tion date of 1998, will allow Russia to           NATO aircraft.                                             INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS
double the payload it can launch into geo-         Joris Janssen Lok, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 6/11/
                                                   94, p. 25 (4309).                                                      9/94
stationary orbits on its Proton rockets from
2.4 metric tons to 4.8 metric tons.                                                                  It is reported that the Royal Danish Navy
 Journal of Commerce, 1/21/94, p. 3A; in RA                                                          has activated two Harpoon Coastal Defence
 Report no. 17, 7/94, p. 75 (4607).                                                                  System (HCDS) batteries containing Har-
                                                                  BRAZIL                             poon Block 1C missiles. Each battery is
                                                                                                     comprised of two launch vehicles and a
                                                                                                     mobile launch and command center situated
                                                                                                     on a Scania truck and built for rapid de-
              BELARUS                                                                                ployment. The mobile launch and command
                                                                                                     center houses the guidance, launch data, and
                                                          INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS
                                                                                                     communication systems and travels with the
                                                                                                     missile launch vehicles. Four missiles are
                                                                       7/94                          fitted on each launch vehicle.
         BELARUS     WITH   RUSSIA                It is reported that Brazil is developing a four-    Charles Bickers, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 9/24/94,
                                                  stage rocket that can carry a 440 lb pay-           p. 5 (4433).
                  5/18/94                         load. The rocket, which may be ready for
Russia withdraws the first shipment of SS-        deployment in 1995, could allegedly be used
25 ICBMs from Belarus. At present, it is          as an intermediate-range missile.
believed that 27 SS-25s have been withdrawn        For Your Eyes Only, 7/11/94 (4378).

from Belarus to Russia.
                                                                                                                       EGYPT
 Neue Zurcher Zeitung, 5/20/94; in Arms Control
 Today, 6/94 (4522). PPNN Newsbrief, Second
 Quarter, p. 17 (4522).
                                                                 CROATIA
                                                                                                           EGYPT WITH UNITED STATES

                BOSNIA                                                                                                    9/94
                                                                                                     McDonnell Douglas is awarded an $125
                                                           CROATIA WITH UKRAINE                      million contract by the U.S. Navy for 75
                                                                                                     SLAMs and 44 Harpoon missiles. Of the
                                                                     7/22/94                         44 Harpoon missiles currently covered by
                                                  The Ukrainian Defense Ministry press ser-          the deal, Egypt will receive 16, Japan three,
        INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS                     vice denies a report by the Serbian publica-       and Malaysia 25. Work on the contract is
                                                  tion Novny that stated that Croatia has pro-       expected to be completed by 12/96.
                    6/94                          cured 20 S-300 anti-missile systems from            Reuter, 8/22/94; in Executive News Service, 8/24/
According to NATO intelligence sources, the       Ukraine. The Ukrainian Defense Ministry             94 (4347). Flight International, 9/14/94, p. 40
Bosnian-Serb Army maintains a large facil-        press service states that Ukraine operates in       (4347).
ity for modifying and upgrading its air de-       accordance with the moratorium on the sale
fense systems which routinely works on SA-        of arms to combative nations.                                         9/23/94
2, SA-3, and SA-6 SAMs. The facility,              Radio Ukraine World Service (Kiev), 7/22/94; in   U.S. Navy intelligence officers state that the
which is reportedly near Banja Luka, com-          FBIS-SOV-94-142, 7/25/94, p. 35 (4312).           submarine-launched Harpoon missile has
prises three administration and six produc-        Krasnaya Zvezda, 7/26/94, p. 1; in FBIS-SOV-94-   been transferred to seven countries: Egypt,
                                                   147, 8/1/94, pp. 32-33 (4605).
tion buildings, and may be developing and                                                            Greece, Japan, Israel, Turkey, the U.K., and
installing fire control sensors and/or pas-                                                          Pakistan.
sive electro-optical search technology. A                                                             Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi,
                                                                                                      Defense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).




The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995                                                                                                             129
                                                              Missile Developments

                                                                       9/23/94                           and SM-39s will give [Pakistan] a very cost-
                                                     Patrick Mercillon, spokesman for                    effective anti-blockade deterrent” against the
                FRANCE                               Aerospatiale Missiles of Chatillon, the             Indian Navy during a conflict. According
                                                     manufacturer of the SM-39 Exocet anti-ship          to an official of the French Defense Pro-
                                                     missile, states that “the United States has         curement Agency (DGA), the first of the
                                                     exported the submarine-launched Harpoon             three Agosta submarines will be delivered
                                                     to nine countries, so this kind of missile          to Pakistan by late 1998. The first subma-
        INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS                        has already been proliferated. We are sim-          rine will be built completely in France, the
                                                     ply doing what our competitors have already         second will be assembled in Pakistan after
                     5/94                            done.”                                              being partially built in France, and the third
French President Francois Mitterand states            Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi,        will be built entirely in Pakistan. The work
that France is planning to manufacture four           Defense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).           in Pakistan on the second and third subma-
Triomphant-class submarines instead of six                                                               rines will be done at the Karachi Naval Ship-
and that they will be equipped to carry an                                                               yards.
upgraded version of the M4 missile, the M45          FRANCE    WITH   MULTI-COUNTRY GROUP                 Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi,
SLBM, which will be used until it is re-                                                                  Defense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).

placed by the M5 SLBM in 2010. Mitterand                               6/20/94
states that France is continuing work on the         The French space agency and its Ariane-5
development of a longer-range version of             contracting team conducts, with the Euro-                    FRANCE      WITH    UKRAINE
the ASMP air-to-surface, medium-range                pean Space Agency, the third test-firing of
nuclear missile, known as the ASLP air-              the 1.3 million pound thrust Ariane-5 solid-                              5/94
launched missile. According to Mitterand,            fuel booster at Kourou, French Guiana.              It is reported that Aerospatiale of France
France is also developing a new land-based           Because of a propellant viscosity problem           and Yuzhnoe of Ukraine have signed four
version of the M45 SLBM to replace the S3            resulting from ammonium perchlorate grains          contracts which provide for the conversion
IRBM in 2005.                                        supplied by Espera, a subsidiary of France’s        of SS-24 oxygen tanks to containers for liq-
 Dunbar Lockwood and Adam Grissom, Arms              SNPE company, the test-firing is conducted          uid oxygen and kerosene; the use of SS-24
 Control Today, 9/94, p. 8 (4575).                   using a U.S. propellant supplied by Kerr-           missiles and components to manufacture
                                                     McGee.                                              small rockets that will launch satellites into
                     8/94                             Craig Covault, Aviation Week & Space Technology,   a low-earth orbit from France’s space cen-
It is reported that France has decided to             6/27/94, p. 81 (4556).                             ter in Guiana; the use of a 30 ton thrust
postpone the deployment of its future long-                                                              engine as the second stage booster for small
range nuclear missile, the M5, until 2010.                                                               rockets; and the conversion of SS-24 ICBM
 Financial Times, 8/4/94; in PPNN Newsbrief, Sec-            FRANCE     WITH    PAKISTAN                 missile components to boosters for the
 ond Quarter, p. 10 (4427).
                                                                                                         Ariane-5 SLV.
                                                                       9/21/94                            Ukrinform (Kiev), 5/30/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-105,
                     9/94                            France and Pakistan sign a $950 million deal         6/1/94, pp. 46-47 (4487).
According to officials from Matra Defense            that includes three Agosta 90-B submarines
of France, an Apache prototype cruise mis-           and the transfer of technology. The deal                                  7/94
sile completes its first long-range test at the      also includes training and long-term logis-         It is reported that Ukraine is initiating joint
French Air Force’s In-Flight Test Center             tical support, and reportedly gives the Pa-         technology transfers with France’s CNES
located at Cazaux. The Apache is guided              kistani Navy “offensive capabilities far su-        and the U.S. NASA, as well as booster de-
over 140 km (84 mi) to a target by satellite         perior to those of most non-NATO navies.”           velopment with U.S. Boeing and France’s
control. Frederic Aragon of Matra states             The submarines are equipped with Air-In-            Aerospatiale for the 461-ton “piggyback” air-
that the first test of the Apache is signifi-        dependent Propulsion (AIP) and are armed            launched Zenit booster.
cant because it marks the critical technical         with torpedoes and SM-39 Exocet anti-ship            Intelligence Newsletter, 7/26/94, p. 7 (4488).
phase for the conventional-warhead stand-            missiles. The Exocets can be fired while a
off missile development program. It is es-           submarine is submerged.
timated that the Apache will be deployed              Jawed Naqvi, Reuter, 9/23/94 (4331). Giovanni de       FRANCE     WITH    UNITED KINGDOM
on German Tornado and French Mirage                   Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, Defense News,
2000-D aircraft starting in 1997.                     9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).                                               9/94
 Reuter, 9/6/94; in Executive News Service, 9/7/94                                                       It is reported that Matra and Aerospatiale
 (4435). Defense News, 9/26/94, p. 18 (4441).                          9/23/94                           of France are interested in entering the U.K.
                                                     A senior French defense official states that        conventionally armed air-launched stand-off
                                                     Pakistan feels that “the combination of AIP         missile (CASOM) competition with the



130                                                                                                  The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995
                                                               Missile Developments

Apache and ASMP-C missiles.                          U.K., and Pakistan.                                   missile propellants listed are 92 liters of “O”
 Flight International, 9/14/94, p. 16 (4308).         Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi,          fuel (nitric acid), 53,124 liters of “G” fuel
                                                      Defense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).             and 20,785 liters of IPN. India’s Agni and
                                                                                                           Prithvi missiles use “O” and “G” fuel.
                                                                                                            Times of India (Bombay), 4/12/94, pp. 1, 9; in JPRS-
                                                                                                            TND-94-012, 6/7/94, p. 22 (4553).
              GERMANY
                                                                       INDIA                                                    6/1/94
                                                                                                           At a beach in Payyoli, Indian fisherman dis-
                                                                                                           cover and drag ashore what is believed to
                                                                                                           be a surface-to-surface missile. The mis-
           GERMANY WITH IRAQ                                                                               sile, missing its front portion but with el-
                                                             INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS                         evators, stabilizers, and rudders intact, is 6
                   7/19/94                                                                                 m long, 2.5 m wide, and is marked with a
German businessman Anton Eyerle, owner                                    4/94                             Russian inscription. The object is identi-
of Rhein-Bayern Fahrzeugbau, is sentenced            India commissions a radar system at Gadanki           fied as an SSM by the District Collector,
to five-and-a-half years imprisonment be-            near Tirupati to conduct research in atmo-            Amitabh Kant, and Commodore S. Soman
cause his firm continued to deliver missile          spheric science and to help space scientists          from the local NCC [National Cadet Corps]
components to Iraq after the invasion of             with safe rocket launches from the                    unit. District authorities request that Naval
Kuwait in 8/90. The firm supplied more               Sriharikota site, which is located 80 km              experts in Cochin and the Indian Space Re-
than 1,000 ignition systems for Iraqi Styx           away.                                                 search Organization in Trivandrum contact
and Scud missiles.                                    Statesman (Calcutta), 4/27/94, p. 11; in JPRS-TND-   Payyoli.
                                                      94-012, 6/7/94, p. 22 (4527).                         Hindu, 6/11/94, p. 13 (4323).
 International Herald Tribune, 7/20/94 (4600).

                                                                        5/15/94                                                 6/4/94
                                                     Pakistan’s Chief of Naval Staff Admiral               At 11:35 am, a Prithvi is launched from a
                                                     Saeed Khan says that India is reportedly              mobile launcher near the Interim Testing
                GREECE                               working on the development of nuclear pro-            Range (ITR) at the Chandipur-on-Sea facil-
                                                     pulsion capability, which is “ominous” given          ity on the Balasore coast and hits its target
                                                     India’s nuclear capability and ballistic mis-         80 km away on Wheeler Island, four min-
                                                     sile programs.                                        utes after its launch. This is the 13th test-
                                                      Nation (Islamabad), 5/16/94, pp. 1, 4; in JPRS-
                                                      TND-94-012, 6/7/94, p. 15 (4426).
                                                                                                           launch of the Prithvi and its first user trial.
     GREECE WITH UNITED STATES                                                                             It is also the first time the Prithvi carries a
                                                                        5/30/94                            live warhead.
                      5/94                           An official with India’s Defence Research
                                                                                                            Venkatnarain, All India Radio Network (Delhi), 6/
                                                                                                            7/94; in FBIS-NES-94-109, 6/7/94, p. 72 (4497).
                                                     and Development Laboratory (DRDL) states               Navbharat Times (Bombay), 6/7/94, p. 9; in JPRS-
Israel, Greece, and Japan finalize a $43.4           that measures are being taken to correct a             TND-94-017, 7/13/94, p. 32 (4525). Aviation Week
million Foreign Military Sales contract with         problem with a faulty nozzle on the propel-            & Space Technology, 6/13/94, p. 21 (4325). Laxmi
the U.S. Loral Vought Systems for the pur-           lant loading system of the Prithvi missile
                                                                                                            Shankar Yadav, Dainik Jagran (Delhi), 6/19/94, p.
chase of Multiple Launch Rocket Systems                                                                     6; in JPRS-TND-94-014, 7/13/94, pp. 34-37 (4530).
                                                     which is allowing propellant to seep into              Asian Recorder, 6/25/94, pp. 24048-24049 (4623).
(MLRS) and rockets. By 9/95, Japan will              the engine casings. This problem caused a              Sunil Dasgupta, India Today, 6/30/94, p. 93 (4525).
receive 72 practice rockets; by 12/96, Is-           scheduled 5/13/94 launch to be cancelled               Asian Recorder, 7/2/94, pp. 24065-24066 (4525).
rael will receive 6 MLRS launchers, 726              indefinitely.
tactical rockets, and 720 practice rockets;           Theresa Hitchens and Vivek Raghuvanshi, Defense                           6/6/94
and by 2/97, Greece will take delivery of 9           News, 6/6/94, p. 22 (4624).                          The Indian Army successfully launches the
MLRS launchers and 132 reduced-range                                                                       Prithvi missile in its second user trial to the
practice rockets.                                                         6/94                             missile’s maximum range of 250 km. An-
 International Defense Review, 8/94, p. 17 (4466).   It is reported that the Indian defense minis-         other report states that the target is 145 mi
                                                     try has offered to sell Indian Air Force equip-       away and that the missile reached it 4 min-
                   9/23/94                           ment, including 161 lines of electronic               utes and 47 seconds after launch.
U.S. Navy intelligence officers state that           equipment for the Russian surface-to-air               Venkatnarain, All India Radio Network (Delhi), 6/
the submarine-launched Harpoon missile               missile (SAM II) guidance system, 126 ser-             7/94; in FBIS-NES-94-109, 6/7/94, p. 72 (4497).
has been transferred to seven countries:                                                                    Navbharat Times (Bombay), 6/7/94, p. 9; in JPRS-
                                                     viceable missiles, 35 SAM II launchers, and            TND-94-017, 7/13/94, p. 32 (4525). Laxmi
Egypt, Greece, Japan, Israel, Turkey, the            missile liquid propellants. Specifically, the          Shankar Yadav, Dainik Jagran (Delhi), 6/19/94, p.




The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995                                                                                                                     131
                                                                 Missile Developments

 6; in JPRS-TND-94-014, 7/13/94, pp. 34-37 (4530).                           9/94                            ensures that all major Pakistani cities, ex-
 Sunil Dasgupta, India Today, 6/30/94, p. 93 (4525).                                                         cept Quetta in the far south, are within range
 Asian Recorder, 7/2/94, pp. 24065-24066 (4525).
                                                       It is reported that the second developmental
                                                       launch of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle          of Indian missiles. Munir states that Indian
                                                       (PSLV-D2) planned for 10/94 has been de-              deployment of such missiles will give Paki-
                      7/94
                                                       layed. The launch is scheduled to occur               stan only a few minutes warning time if a
It is reported that India has begun to de-
                                                       before the end of 1994, but monsoons may              surprise attack takes place, “and, therefore,
velop the Surya (Sun) ICBM at the Interim
                                                       cause further postponements.                          increase the hair-trigger environment in
Test Range (ITR) Chandipur. Indian scien-
                                                        Flight International, 9/7/94, p. 40 (4543).          South Asia.”
tists, working at ITR and at DRDO labora-                                                                     News (Islamabad), 6/15/94, p. 1; in FBIS-NES-94-
tories in Delhi, are striving to finalize the                                                                 108, 6/6/94, p. 81 (4533).
                                                                           9/20/94
design for the ICBM by 1995. The ICBM
                                                       A malfunction in the Polar Satellite Launch
is reportedly an upgrade of the Agni-3 mis-                                                                                    8/14/94
                                                       Vehicle (PSLV) causes it to veer off course
sile and will have a range of at least 12,000                                                                Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto
                                                       during its first launch attempt. The mal-
km; it could be test-fired in 1996.                                                                          makes a statement critical of the Indian de-
 Asian Defense Journal, 7/94, p. 94 (4546).
                                                       function is attributed to a separation fault
                                                       in the second and third stages; the PSLV’s            ployment of Trishul, Prithvi, and Agni mis-
                                                       engines function very well.                           siles and India’s “race” for weaponry. Dur-
                  Late 7/94                                                                                  ing her Independence Day speech, Bhutto
                                                        Flight International, 8/3/94, p. 26 (4529).
Bhuvanesh Chaturvedi, Minister of State in                                                                   states that both Pakistan and India should
the Department of Atomic Energy and                                                                          follow a “zero-missile regime”; that is, nei-
Space, tells the Indian Parliament that $108                                                                 ther country should possess any missiles.
                                                         INDIA   WITH   MULTI-COUNTRY GROUP
million has been approved by the govern-                                                                      Ranjit Kumar, Navbharat Times (Delhi), 8/17/94,
ment for testing the Cryogenic Upper Stage                                                                    p. 7; in JPRS-TND-94-107, 9/8/94, p. 19 (4524).
Project by the end of 1998, and says that
                                                                     8/29/94-9/1/94                           K. K. Katyal, Hindu, 8/27/94, p. 5 (4324).
within four years India will be able to build          A four-nation group of representatives from
indigenously developed liquid-fuel rocket              the MTCR visit India and Pakistan to dis-                               8/15/94
engines.                                               cuss the objectives of the regime in regards          In his Independence Day address from the
 Washington Times, 7/30/94, p. A10 (4526).             to missile developments in the region. The            Red Fort in Delhi, Indian Prime Minister
                                                       delegates from Australia, Switzerland, the            P. V. Narasimha Rao asks why India’s mis-
                  Late 7/94                            U.S., and the U.K. begin what they describe           sile program is receiving so much attention
The Indian Army completes user trials of               as “the first stage in a dialogue.” The team’s        while Pakistan’s acquisition of “off-the-shelf”
the Prithvi; as a result, production of the            discussions with India on 8/29-8/30 cover             nuclear weapons is not addressed. Rao states
missile can begin.                                     the Prithvi and Agni programs. Pakistan’s             that India will not put a stop to “its defense
 International Defense Review, 9/94, p. 14 (4544).     Hatf-1 and Hatf-2 programs, and possibly              preparedness” and will not halt either the
                                                       the Chinese transfer of M-11s to Pakistan,            development or the deployment of its mis-
                      8/94                             are discussed during the team’s meetings              siles.
It is reported that the Prithvi missile may            with Pakistan on 9/1-9/2. Pakistan informs             Ranjit Kumar, Navbharat Times (Delhi), 8/17/94,
have been deployed in static formation and             the delegates that it supports a missile-free          p. 7; in JPRS-TND-94-107, 9/8/94, p. 19 (4524).
                                                       South Asia, but that India’s development and           K.K. Katyal, Hindu, 8/27/94, p. 5 (4324).
that there are signs that the missile may be
ready for launch from chosen sites on the              deployment of missiles could spur a nuclear
Western border. This temporary deployment              arms race in the region. According to In-
                                                       dian defense sources, the MTCR team does                           INDIA   WITH   PRC
is expected to be a deterrent against
Pakistan’s 70 km range Hatf-1 and 280 km               not bring up the issue of India discontinu-
range Hatf-2 missiles, deployed in 1991 and            ing its missile program.                                            9/7/94-9/13/94
1993, respectively.                                     Tahir Ikram, Reuter; in Executive News Service, 9/   Chinese Minister of Defense General Chi
 Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter, 8/94-9/94, p. 21
                                                        2/94 (4535). Flight International, 9/21/94, p. 18    Haotian leads a delegation to India for dis-
                                                        (4537).                                              cussions on bilateral defense relations. The
 (4541).
                                                                                                             meetings are unsuccessful and key issues
                    8/1/94                                                                                   remain unresolved, including China’s sale
India conducts successful user trials of its                      INDIA   WITH    PAKISTAN                   of M-11 missiles to Pakistan, which India
indigenously-produced Trishul short-range                                                                    is interested in discussing with the Chinese.
SAM. The Trishul is to form the “inner                                     6/4/94                            The negotiations also include discussion on
ring of an interlinked two-tier air defense            Pakistan states that India’s test firing of the       joint Chinese-Indian space exploration.
system of the future,” while the Akash SAM,            Prithvi has started a weapons race in South            Vivek Raghuvanshi, Defense News, 9/19/94, p. 34
which is still being tested, will form the             Asia. Munir Akram, a spokesman of the                  (4538).

outer ring.                                            Pakistan Foreign Office, states that this test
 Hindu, 8/13/94, p. 12 (4545).



132                                                                                                      The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995
                                                               Missile Developments

                                                                                                              within six to 12 months because “[t]esting
            INDIA   WITH    RUSSIA                                                                            facilities don’t exist for a full-range test [of
                                                                         IRAN                                 the No-dong-1] in North Korea,” and be-
                     6/94                                                                                     cause it wants to avoid increasing the exist-
It is reported that Russia has announced its                                                                  ing tension over the nuclear issue.
commitment to provide the spare parts for                                                                      Martin Sieff, Washington Times, 6/16/94, p. A13
                                                                                                               (4363). James Bruce, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 7/
military equipment India had purchased                                                                         30/94, pp. 23-33 (4569).
from the Soviet Union and called for greater                 IRAN    WITH   NORTH KOREA
trade between the two countries. In addi-                                                                                          7/94
tion, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Youri                                   6/94
                                                                                                              It is reported that Iran is funding North
[sic] Yarov says that the problems with the          The Director of U.S. Naval Intelligence
                                                                                                              Korea’s development of the 1,000 km range
cryogenic engine deal between Russia and             (DNI) Rear Admiral Edward D. Shaefer, Jr.,
                                                                                                              No-dong missile in hopes of obtaining an
India will be sorted out because Russia con-         releases a posture statement, which, among
                                                                                                              extended-range ballistic missile capability.
siders it important for the two countries to         other things, indicates that Iran may not yet             James Bruce, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 7/30/94, pp.
maintain good relations.                             be in possession of No-dong missiles. He                  23-33 (4569).
 Hindu, 6/18/94, p. 5 (4388).                        states, “Iranian acquisition of the No-dong
                                                     system from North Korea is possible in the                                    9/4/94
                    7/31/94                          future.” According to CIA Director R.                    U.S. Administration sources reveal that U.S.
It is reported that the Indian army may pur-         James Woolsey, North Korean plans to sell                Assistant Secretary of State Robert Gallucci
chase Tunguska air defense systems from              Iran the No-dong missile have not been car-              and Israeli Foreign Ministry Deputy Chief
Russia. The Indian Defence Research and              ried out.                                                Eytan Bentzur had discussed cooperative
Development Organisation (DRDO) is                    Jon B. Wolfsthal and Dunbar Lockwood, Arms Con-         arrangements to forestall North Korean ex-
                                                      trol Today, 7/94, p. 23 (4359). Barbara Starr, Jane’s
against the purchase as it wants to produce           Defence Weekly, 8/6/94, pp. 4-6 (4481).                 ports of the No-dong-1 and -2 missiles to
its indigenously built Trishul SAM as early                                                                   Iran. Since 1993, Iran has been negotiat-
as possible, and “buying the Russian system                                 6/94                              ing for the purchase of either No-dong-1
would pull the plug on funds.”                       U.S. officials reportedly state that Iranian             and -2 missiles or their manufacturing tech-
 Sudeep Chakravarti and Sunil Dasgupta, India To-                                                             nology. Libya and other Middle Eastern
 day, 7/31/94, pp. 30-35 (4334).                     officials have recently been present at a num-
                                                     ber of missile tests in North Korea which                countries were also interested in the No-
                                                     the U.S. describes as “sales demonstrations.”            dong missiles.
                                                      Bill Gertz, Washington Times, 6/8/94, pp. A1, A9         Yi Sang-sok, Chungang Ilbo, 9/6/94, p. 1; in FBIS-
          INDIA    WITH   UKRAINE                     (4367).                                                  EAS-94-172, 9/6/94, p. 60 (4364).


                    9/16/94                                              6/14/94
According to Andrey Zhalko-Titarenko, act-           U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Robert                               IRAN   WITH   PRC
ing Director General of the Ukraine Space            Pelletreau testifies before the House For-
Agency, Ukraine and India sign a space               eign Relations Committee that, “North Ko-                                     7/94
agreement to cooperate in the areas of space         rea has in the past delivered Scud-Bs and                U.S. Pentagon officials state that China is
technology and the remote probing of the             Scud-Cs, primarily to Iran and Syria.”                   ready to deliver 10 fast-attack missile boats
Earth. Zhalko-Titarenko states that there is         Pelletreau adds, “We’re concerned about                  and an “undisclosed number” of 83 km range
a provision in the agreement for the use of          press reports and other intelligence that they           anti-ship missiles to Iran.
Indian boosters to launch Ukrainian satel-           might, at some point, sell the No-dong mis-               Elaine Sciolino, New York Times, 7/5/94, p. A1
lites and the reciprocal use of space facili-                                                                  (4571).
                                                     sile—with a much longer range than the Scud-
ties. The U.S. is concerned that rocket tech-        B and -C.” According to intelligence and
nologies that fall under the MTCR may be             nonproliferation sources, since 1988 North
transferred to India. Ukraine, according to          Korea has delivered 200-300 “knock-down”
Zhalko-Titarenko, has assured the U.S. that          kits of Scud-B missiles to Iran, where they
the agreement does not have any “military            were assembled at a plant near Isfahan.
applications.”                                       Since 1992, these sources say, 150 com-
 Pavlo Balkovsky, Reuter, 9/18/94 (4548). Interfax
 (Moscow), 9/20/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-183, 9/21/94,
                                                     pleted Scud-Cs have been delivered. North
 p. 60 (4534). Hindu, 9/24/94, p. 16 (4542). Space   Korean experts are in Iran attempting to
 News, 9/26/94, p. 2 (4542).                         extend the range of the Scud missiles. Ac-
                                                     cording to intelligence sources, North Ko-
                                                     rea may test its No-dong-1 missile in Iran




The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995                                                                                                                       133
                                                                 Missile Developments

                                                       were tagged to ensure that they will not be        effort to rebuild advanced weapons systems.
                                                       modified to ranges greater than the 150 km         Harb was convicted of 23 counts relating to
                    IRAQ                               allowed under the terms of the Gulf War            the illegal shipping operation.
                                                       ceasefire. The most dangerous and diffi-            Daniel Southerland, Washington Post, 9/17/94, p.
                                                       cult task is tagging operational missiles,          C5 (4598).

                                                       which were ready to launch as the U.N.
                                                       experts worked around them. In addition
           IRAQ WITH GERMANY                           to the tagging, Silver made four scheduled
                                                       and three surprise inspections of Iraqi mis-                        ISRAEL
                    7/19/94                            sile production sites near Baghdad.
German businessman Anton Eyerle, owner                  Leon Barkho, Reuter, 6/24/94; in Executive News
of Rhein-Bayern Fahrzeugbau, is sentenced               Service, 6/24/94 (4314).

to five-and-a-half years imprisonment be-
cause his firm continued to deliver missile                               7/15/94
                                                       A multinational team of 10 U.N. inspectors                 INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS
components to Iraq after the invasion of
Kuwait in 8/90. The firm supplied more                 led by German Norbert Reinecke flies to
than 1,000 ignition systems for Iraqi Styx             Baghdad on a planned 10-day inspection                                   8/94
and Scud missiles.                                     mission to examine Iraq’s missile research         The Israeli Navy and Israel Aircraft Indus-
 International Herald Tribune, 7/20/94 (4600).         and development program. The team is to            tries (IAI) have begun development of a re-
                                                       lay the foundation for long-term monitor-          placement for the Gabriel Mk-2 sea-skim-
                                                       ing to ensure that Iraq does not revive weap-      ming anti-ship missile. With a 36 km maxi-
       IRAQ   WITH    UNITED NATIONS                   ons programs banned by the U.N. Security           mum range, the Gabriel Mk-2 has a launch
                                                       Council.                                           weight of 520 kg, including the 150 kg war-
                    6/11/94                             Washington Times, 7/20/94, p. A15 (4320).         head. The Israeli Navy wants the replace-
U.S. President Clinton reports to Congress                                                                ment of the Gabriel Mk-2 to have a greater
that UNSCOM has destroyed Iraq’s missile
                                                                            8/94                          range, as well as greater accuracy and le-
launchers in Baghdad, missile support fa-              UNSCOM Chairman Rolf Ekeus states that             thality.
cilities, and a large portion of Iraq’s missile        “satisfactory progress” has been made with          Flight International, 8/10/94, p. 14 (4473).

manufacturing capability. Clinton also states          regard to the monitoring of Iraqi nuclear
                                                       facilities and its weapons production pro-                               9/94
that “serious gaps remain in Iraq’s missile
                                                       grams.                                             An undisclosed South American country is
and weapons of mass destruction program
                                                        Rym Brahimi, UPI, 8/31/94 (4321).                 reportedly the first customer for a battle-
and the destruction process for all desig-
                                                                                                          field air-defense version of the Israeli-built
nated Iraqi weapons is not yet complete.”
 Statesman (Calcutta); in Asian Recorder, 7/2/94, p.
                                                                          9/23/94                         Barak naval SAM. The Barak missile, de-
 24068 (4395).                                         U.S. CIA Director James Woolsey contra-            signed by Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) and
                                                       dicts an UNSCOM finding that Iraq’s Scud           Rafael Armament Development Authority,
                    6/14/94                            missiles and chemical weapons have been            has a maximum range of 10 km against
An UNSCOM missile inspection team led                  destroyed; Woolsey accuses Saddam                  fixed-wing aircraft or high-speed sea-skim-
by Patrice Palanque of France begins a four-           Hussein’s regime of “still hiding Scud mis-        ming targets, and weighs 98 kg. The Barak’s
day missile inspection of Iraq. The mis-               siles, chemical munitions, and its entire bio-     command-to-line-of-sight guidance system
sion is the 25th ballistic missile inspection          logical weapons warfare program.”                  will be adapted by Rafael to operate with
and the 81st inspection since the end of the            Patrick Worsnip, Reuter, 9/26/94 (4477).          the fire control radar used by the customer.
Gulf War.                                                                                                  International Defense Review, 9/94, p. 21 (4464).
 Leon Barkho, Reuter, 6/14/94 (4322).
                                                              IRAQ WITH UNITED STATES
                    6/24/94                                                                                     ISRAEL WITH NORTH KOREA
U.N. arms experts complete a 15-day in-                                   9/15/94
spection during which they tagged missiles             A Jordanian-born, naturalized U.S. citizen,                          Mid 6/94
and inspected missile production sites. The            Al M. Harb, is convicted of circumventing          Israeli ambassador to South Korea Na’im
leader of the mission, Mark Silver, does not           the U.S. trade embargo on Iraq. Harb ille-         Asher says that North Korea is selling long-
say how many missiles had been tagged, but             gally procured and exported technology,            range Scud ballistic missiles to several coun-
does say that all of the tagged missiles had           machinery, spare parts, and other goods            tries in the Middle East, including Syria,
been declared by Iraq. The tagged missiles             which experts say were probably intended           Iran, and Libya. Asher says that Israeli ef-
have ranges between 50 and 149 km, and                 for military use in the Iraqi government’s         forts to persuade North Korea to halt its



134                                                                                                   The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995
                                                               Missile Developments

missile exports to the Middle East have not                             5/26/94                            battle control center to intercept targets up
met with success, and that U.S. efforts to           The Israeli Home Front Command, with                  to an altitude of 35 mi.
have sanctions implemented against North             U.S. cooperation, detonates a Scud-like                Joseph Lovece, Defense Week, 7/5/94, p. 6 (4505).
Korea would be in Israel’s interest.                 missile in a southern Israeli open training
 KBS-1 Radio Network (Seoul), 6/19/94; in JPRS-      range scattered with reinforced structures.                                 7/94
 TND-94-014, 7/13/94, p. 56 (4411).                                                                        It is reported that the Senate Armed Ser-
                                                     The missile, which is similar to Scuds owned
                                                     by Syria and other Arab countries, contains           vices Committee recommends that the U.S.
                                                     hundreds of kilograms of explosives; the              continue cooperating with Israel on The-
           ISRAEL    WITH    RUSSIA                  experiment is designed to study the impact            ater Missile Defense (TMD), the Arrow
                                                     a Scud would create falling into a densely            ATBM, and the boost phase intercept tech-
                     9/94                            populated area.                                       nology program.
Russian Space Agency Director General Yuri            Arye Kiesel, Yedi’ot Aharonot, 5/27/94, p. 17; in     BMD Monitor, 7/1/94, p. 227 (4499).
Koptev meets with Israeli Space Agency                FBIS-NES-94-124, 5/28/94, p. 54 (4478).
Chairman Yuval Ne’eman to discuss pos-                                                                                           7/94
sible launcher and satellite cooperation be-                              6/94                             Feasibility studies of Israel’s boost-phase
tween the two countries. Israeli sources             It is reported that Lt. Gen. Malcolm                  intercept (BPI) technologies are scheduled
report that Koptev broached the possibility          O’Neill, Director of the U.S. Ballistic Mis-          to be completed. The BPI system, known
of Russia launching Israeli satellites and           sile Defense Organization (BMDO), said                as the Israel Boost-Intercept System (IBIS),
inspected Israeli space facilities. Ne’eman          that there must be a successful intercept test        will be composed of long-range high en-
and Koptev sign an agreement to encourage            by the Israeli Arrow missile before the U.S.          durance unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV).
scientific and commercial space contacts.            will provide $25 million in funding that has          The UAVs will be equipped with sensors to
 Space News, 9/5/94, p. 2 (4476).                    already been earmarked for deployment                 detect a ballistic missile launch by an en-
                                                     technology R&D or participate in any pro-             emy. Once a launch is detected, the UAV
                                                     gram to deploy the Arrow. To date, the U.S.           will fire high-speed air-to-air missiles car-
            ISRAEL    WITH   SYRIA                   and Israel have been jointly developing the           rying infrared seekers to destroy the missile
                                                     Arrow missile under the $330 million Ar-              over enemy territory.
                   6/22/94                           row Continuation Experiments (ACES) pro-               International Defense Review, 8/94, p. 15 (4568).
In a speech to the Zionist General Council,          gram, of which the U.S. funds 75 percent.
Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin says             Barbara Starr, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 6/4/94, p. 4                         9/94
that “Syria today has ground-to-ground mis-           (4496).                                              The U.S. Navy begins evaluating the Israeli
siles in quantity and in quality that [make]                                                               Barak ship point-defense missile as a pos-
what we suffered from Iraq in the gulf war                              6/12/94                            sible alternative to the Evolved Sea Spar-
[seem like] a children’s game.” Opposition           The Israeli Arrow Continuing Experiments              row Missile (ESSM), which is being devel-
leaders denounce Rabin for attempting to             series (ACES) experiences its first major             oped by Hughes Missile Systems Co. and
frighten opponents into advocating an ex-            success when an Arrow-1 missile intercepts            Raytheon Co. for an estimated cost of $250
tensive withdrawal from the Golan Heights.           and destroys a dummy chemical warhead on              million. The Barak, which is being devel-
 Sharone Parnes, Defense News, 6/27/94, p. 16        the Palmachim range south of Tel Aviv. The            oped by Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) and
 (4335).                                             U.S. provided 72 percent of the $330 mil-             Rafael Armament Development Authority,
                                                     lion in funding for Arrow development.                is a vertically launched missile weighing 98
                                                      Defense Daily, 6/14/94, p. 403 (4568). Barbara       kg and has a range of 10 km (5.5 nm). The
      ISRAEL    WITH   UNITED STATES                  Opall, Defense News, 6/20/94, p. 36 (4568). JINSA
                                                      Security Affairs, 7/94, pp. 1, 8-9 (4469). Joseph    Barak is being designed to defend ships
                                                      Lovece, Defense Week, 7/5/94, p. 6 (4505). Inter-    against high-speed, stealthy, sea-skimming
                     5/94                             national Defense Review, 8/94, p. 15 (4568).         targets.
Israel, Greece, and Japan finalize a $43.4                                                                  Barbara Opall, Defense News, 9/26/94, p. 14 (4566).
million Foreign Military Sales contract with                           Late 6/94
the U.S. Loral Vought Systems for the pur-           An Israeli industry official states that the                              9/23/94
chase of Multiple Launch Rocket Systems              Arrow missile is comparable in efficiency             U.S. Navy intelligence officers state that the
(MLRS) and rockets. By 9/95, Japan will              to the U.S. Patriot PAC-3 system, and says            submarine-launched Harpoon missile has
receive 72 practice rockets; by 12/96, Is-           that the Arrow will be deployed using only            been transferred to seven countries: Egypt,
rael will receive 6 MLRS launchers, 726              Israeli funds and that Israel will not sell the       Greece, Japan, Israel, Turkey, the U.K., and
tactical rockets, and 720 practice rockets;          system to other countries. The Arrow sys-             Pakistan.
and by 2/97, Greece will take delivery of 9          tem is planned for use in a two-tier missile           Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, De-
MLRS launchers and 132 reduced-range                 defense, employing six canister-launched               fense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).

practice rockets.                                    missiles, an Elta “Music” radar, and a Tadiran
 International Defense Review, 8/94, p. 17 (4466).



The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995                                                                                                                     135
                                                              Missile Developments

                                                                        6/21/94                            Heavy Industries shipyard in Uraga, and is
                                                    Japan’s Institute of Space and Aeronautical            scheduled to enter service in 3/95.
                   ITALY                            Science (ISAS) successfully tests the first-            Jane’s Defence Weekly, 7/2/94, p. 12 (4327).
                                                    stage M-14 engine for its 3-stage M-5 space
                                                    launch vehicle. One report says the test lasts                              8/94
                                                    for 80 seconds and burns 71 tons of fuel;              The Japanese newspaper Mainichi Shimbun
                                                    other reports list the test duration variously         releases a 100-page top secret Foreign Min-
       ITALY WITH UNITED STATES                     as 41 and 78 seconds. The solid-fuel M-14              istry report from 1969 entitled “Prerequi-
                                                    engine, produced by Nissan, is 13.65 m long            sites of Japan’s Foreign Policy.” According
                     9/94                           and 2.5 m in diameter, and is capable of               to the report, the Foreign Ministry had de-
The U.S. Pentagon informs Congress of the           926,000 lbs thrust. It weighs 92,100 kg,               cided to “ensure [Japan] had the financial
proposed $48 million sale of 42 Maverick            and its control system utilizes a “gas-gen-            and technical potential to make nuclear arms
missiles and 33 AIM-120 AMRAAMs to                  erator controlled, movable-nozzle thrust-              without producing them.” Mainichi
Italy.                                              vector.” Japan plans to conduct “in-flight             Shimbun reports that the Foreign Ministry
 International Defense Review, 9/94, p. 9 (4349).   combustion tests” on the M-5 rocket’s M-               believes that Japan is currently able to pro-
                                                    24 engine in fall 1994. Testing is planned             duce nuclear weapons, and critics believe
                                                    in summer 1995 for a “flight-configured”               that Japan could convert its indigenously
                                                    prototype M-14 engine with high-tensile-               produced SLV into a ballistic missile.
                                                    steel casing and thinner, “more critical”               Eugene Moosa, Washington Times, 8/5/94, p. A14
                  JAPAN                             nozzle material. The M-5 SLV’s maiden
                                                                                                            (4344).

                                                    flight from Kagoshima space center has been
                                                                                                                                8/94
                                                    postponed until 1996 because of problems
                                                                                                           It is reported that Japan’s National Space
                                                    with extendable nozzles on the second and
                                                                                                           Development Agency (NASDA) has said
                                                    third stages. The M-5 SLV is 26 m long
        INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS                                                                              that it will stress reusability in its future
                                                    and can carry a payload of 2,000 kg into
                                                                                                           space vehicles. NASDA’s proposed Fully
                                                    low-earth orbit, or a 520 kg payload des-
                     6/94                                                                                  Reusable Space Infrastructure plan includes
                                                    tined for the moon or other planets. Planned
The “special committee on long-term vi-                                                                    the development of a shuttle vehicle and six
                                                    payloads include a telescope, a lunar orbiter,
sion,” an advisory committee to the Japa-                                                                  reusable orbital transfer vehicles.
                                                    and a Mars probe.                                       Eiichiro Sekigawa, Aviation Week & Space Tech-
nese Space Activities Commission, gives a            Washington Times, 6/24/94, p. A17 (4329). Paul         nology, 8/8/94, pp. 64-65 (4457).
report recommending the development of an            Proctor, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 7/4/
H-2 rocket capable of carrying double the            94, p. 17 (4329). Flight International, 7/20/94, p.
                                                     18 (4329).                                                               8/12/94
payload of the current version.
 David Swinbanks, Nature, 8/11/94 (4402).
                                                                                                           Recommendations by a top-level Japanese
                                                                        6/30/94                            government panel are released. The panel
                   6/13/94                          Japan’s new Defense Minister Tokuichiro                urges Japan to utilize military reconnaissance
The Director General of the Defense Policy          Tamazawa states that an advisory panel will            satellites and to cooperate with the U.S. on
Bureau of the Japanese Defense Agency tells         issue a recommendation for a Japanese mis-             creating a ballistic missile defense system
the budget committee of the upper house of          sile defense system as part of a draft of              to defend Japan against a “limited missile
the Japanese Diet that “with our existing           Japan’s basic defense strategy. A senior of-           attack.” The recommendations are to be used
weapons system it would be difficult to deal        ficial from Japan’s Defense Agency says that           as the basis for the replacement of the Japan
with long-range ballistic missiles like [North      Theater Missile Defense (TMD) will be part             Defense Agency’s 1976 “Outline of National
Korea’s] No-dong because the velocity of            of Japan’s strategic plans. The official states,       Defense” by the end of 1994. Japan’s De-
their descent is too rapid.” The point is           “We cannot afford not to study the system.             fense Agency has requested 20 million yen
reiterated by Defense Agency minister               The current Japanese defense is virtually              ($200,000) for initial funding for TMD in
Atsushi Kanada, who tells the committee,            useless to address ballistic missile threats.”         its 1995 budget request.
                                                     Pat Cooper and Naoaki Usui, Defense News, 7/10/        Naoaki Usui, Defense News, 8/15/94, pp. 1, 29
“Once a No-dong with a range of 1,000 km             94, pp. 1, 28 (4407).                                  (4351). Eiichiro Sekigawa, Aviation Week & Space
is developed, Japan’s defenses will not be                                                                  Technology, 8/22/94, p. 59 (4459). Naoaki Usui,
sufficient. We will have to install a large-                            7/2/94
                                                                                                            Defense News, 9/12/94, p. 10 (4453).
scale air defense system.”                          It is reported that Japan has launched its
 Reuter, 6/14/94 (4348).                                                                                                      8/17/94
                                                    third hydrofoil missile boat, armed with four
                                                                                                           Japan cancels a scheduled launch of its H-2
                                                    SSM-1B (Type 90) anti-ship missiles. The
                                                                                                           rocket due to problems with a fuel valve.
                                                    missile boat was put to sea by Japan’s Mari-            Wall Street Journal, 8/19/94, p. A8 (4326). David
                                                    time Self-Defense Force from the Sumitomo               Swinbanks, Nature, 8/25/94 (4326).



136                                                                                                    The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995
                                                                 Missile Developments

                    8/18/94                                               9/10/94                           tinues its missile development program. The
Japan’s National Space Development Agency              The Executive Director of NASDA,                     white paper notes that North Korea is near-
(NASDA) again aborts a scheduled launch                Tomifume Godai, responds to a 4/30/94                ing final development of its 1,000 km range
of the H-2 rocket. The cancellation is caused          Jane’s Defence Weekly article entitled “Bal-         No-dong-1 missile, and developing even
by problems with a computer chip in the H-             listic Missiles Hit New Heights,” arguing            longer range systems.
2’s “ground-based launch control equip-                that Japan would not convert its civilian SLV         William Dawkins, Financial Times, 7/16/94 (4358).
ment,” which cause the rocket’s boosters to            technology into a ballistic missile capabil-
fail to fire. The H-2, which has a liquid-             ity. He states that NASDA’s objective is to
fuel main engine and solid-fuel booster en-            further space exploration, and points out that              JAPAN WITH UNITED STATES
gines, was to deliver a two-ton telecommu-             the Japanese Diet has decided that Japan’s
nications satellite into geostationary orbit.          development of space should be for peace-                                 5/94
 Wall Street Journal, 8/19/94, p. A8 (4326). Michael   ful purposes only. Godai also argues that            Israel, Greece, and Japan finalize a $43.4
 Mecham, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 8/          Japan’s H-2 SLV could not be used as an              million Foreign Military Sales contract with
 22/94, p. 25 (4460). David Swinbanks, Nature, 8/
 25/94 (4326).                                         ICBM because it cannot be launched in the            the U.S. Loral Vought Systems for the pur-
                                                       short time available in an emergency or cri-         chase of Multiple Launch Rocket Systems
                    8/28/94                            sis situation.                                       (MLRS) and rockets. By 9/95, Japan will
Japan successfully launches its H-2 space
                                                        Tomifume Godai, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 9/10/94      receive 72 practice rockets; by 12/96, Is-
                                                        (4343).                                             rael will receive 6 MLRS launchers, 726
launch vehicle for the second time from the
Tanegashima Space Center.                                                                                   tactical rockets, and 720 practice rockets;
                                                                          9/10/94                           and by 2/97, Greece will take delivery of 9
 Washington Times, 8/29/94, p. A13 (4610). New
 York Times, 8/29/94, p. 2 (4610). Simon Mansfield,    Japanese defense ministry sources publicize          MLRS launchers and 132 reduced-range
 Space News, 9/5/94, p. 3 (4610).                      plans to integrate the radar networks of the         practice rockets.
                                                       air, ground, and maritime defense forces into         International Defense Review, 8/94, p. 17 (4466).
                      9/94                             a single comprehensive radar network to
It is reported that Japan’s Science and Tech-          bolster defenses against potential North                                  5/94
nology Agency (STA) requested about $2.81              Korean missile attacks.                              Japan signs a $50 million contract with U.S.
billion for its space programs for fiscal year          Reuter, 9/10/94; in Executive News Service, 9/13/   Loral Vought Systems for an additional 9
                                                        94 (4370).
1995, a 9.1 percent increase from 1994. The                                                                 MRLS launchers (5 assembled and 4 par-
STA’s proposed programs include: the                                                                        tially assembled) to be delivered to Japan’s
launches of the fourth H-2 and the first J-1                                                                Nissan Aerospace division of the Nissan
SLVs; development and launch of the                           JAPAN WITH NORTH KOREA                        Motor Company by 8/96.
HOPE-X unmanned mini-shuttle technol-                                                                        Jane’s Defence Weekly, 6/25/94, p. 13 (4466).
ogy demonstrator; and other programs. The                                   6/94
Ministry of International Trade and Indus-             It is reported that Japanese intelligence                                 6/94
try (MITI) requested $133.6 million for fis-           sources believe that the North Korean con-           U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization
cal year 1995 for its space programs.                  trolled Chongryun, the 250,000-member                (BMDO) Director Lt. Gen. Malcolm
 Eiichiro Sekigawa, Aviation Week & Space Tech-        General Association of Korean Residents in           O’Neill gives his Japanese counterparts a
 nology, 9/19/94, p. 61 (4456).                        Japan, secretly provides money and equip-            briefing entitled “Ballistic Missile Defense:
                                                       ment, including powerful computers, to               Options for Japanese TMD” in which four
                    9/3/94                             North Korea for its nuclear and missile de-          options for Japanese ballistic missile defense
The Socialist Democratic Party (SDP) de-               velopment programs in violation of Japa-             are outlined. Japan’s present plan includes
clares Japan’s military to be constitutional           nese laws.                                           the deployment of 24 Patriot PAC-2 units
in a controversial vote. The controversial              Edward W. Desmond and Hiroko Tashiro, Time, 6/      that are to be operational by 1999 and up to
nature of the vote worries many Japanese                13/94, p. 27 (4523).
                                                                                                            four Aegis destroyers and four AWACS air-
officials who are advocating that Japan pur-                                                                craft that are to be operational by 1998.
sue development of a Theater Missile De-                                  7/15/94                           Missile defense option A would cost $4.5
fense (TMD) system, because many Social-               The Japanese Defense Agency warns in its             billion and would use Aegis destroyers in
ists oppose joint development of a TMD sys-            annual white paper that North Korean weap-           concert with Patriot PAC-3 land-based units
tem with the U.S.                                      ons programs are “a serious destabilizing            to engage targets in the upper and lower tiers,
 Naoaki Usui, Defense News, 9/12/94, p. 16 (4458).     factor.” Japanese Defense Agency advisor             respectively. Option B would cost $16.3
                                                       Hirotsu Ota says that Japan currently has            billion and would include Patriot PAC-3
                                                       no “contingency plans” for defense against a         units, eight new Aegis destroyers, and a new
                                                       North Korean attack, but that “measures              radar system situated west of Tokyo. Op-
                                                       would be considered” if North Korea con-             tion C would cost $4.55 billion and would



The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995                                                                                                                      137
                                                                Missile Developments

employ six land-based THAAD firing units                                 9/10/94
and the Patriot PAC-3, for a combined total           It is reported that the Japan Defence Equip-
of 560 missiles. Option D would cost $8.9             ment Association will establish a “joint re-                        KUWAIT
billion and would include five THAAD fir-             search committee” by the end of 1994 to
ing units, upgraded Patriot missiles, and four        examine the Theater Missile Defense (TMD)
Aegis destroyers. Each of the Aegis destroy-          system, in order to “coordinate activities
ers would carry 36 ATBMs; one would be                already underway.” The cost of the proposed
stationed in the Sea of Japan, one off                TMD system could exceed $20 billion.                          KUWAIT      WITH   RUSSIA
Kyushu, and the remaining two held in re-              Jane’s Defence Weekly, 9/10/94, p. 16 (4341).
serve.                                                                                                                         6/94
 Paul Beaver, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 8/13/94, p. 21                      9/23/94                          Kuwait welcomes a high-level Russian mili-
 (4350).                                              U.S. Navy intelligence officers state that the      tary delegation to conclude a substantial
                                                      submarine-launched Harpoon missile has              weapon systems sale. Kuwait is intent on
                     6/94                             been transferred to seven countries: Egypt,         buying the S-300/S-300V (SA-10
Japan considers a U.S. proposal for coop-             Greece, Japan, Israel, Turkey, the U.K., and        “Grumble”/SA-12 “Gladiator”) and TOR M-
eration on Theater Missile Defense (TMD).             Pakistan.                                           1 (SA-15 “Gauntlet) SAMs. Kuwait may
Via the program, the U.S. hopes to gain                Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, De-    also buy BMP-2s and -3s, as well as five S-
access to Japanese radar circuit production            fense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).             300 systems which could be integrated into
technology, “advanced materials” to produce                                                               its air defense system beside its U.S.-built
lightweight rockets, and cooperation in the                                                               Patriot missiles.
production of an optoelectronic guidance                                                                   James Bruce, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 7/9/94, p. 1
system for ATBMs.                                                                                          (4467).
 Daily Japan Digest, 6/20/94 (4339).                             KAZAKHSTAN
                                                                                                                              8/8/94
                    6/8/94                                                                                An official of Rosvooruzheniye, a Russian
Meetings commence in Tokyo between Ja-                                                                    state-owned arms trading company, an-
pan and a team from the U.S. Pentagon’s                                                                   nounces a contract for Kuwait’s purchase of
Ballistic Missile Defense Organization                       KAZAKHSTAN        WITH   RUSSIA              27 300mm, twelve-round BM 9A52-2
(BMDO), headed by David Martin. The                                                                       Smerch multiple rocket launch systems.
U.S. is seeking to jointly develop a two-                                  6/94                            Stephen Foye, RFE/RL News Briefs, 8/8/94, p. 3
phase sea-based tactical missile defense sys-         It is reported that Kazakh National Space            (4470). Viktor Litovkin, Izvestiya (Moscow), 8/
                                                                                                           11/94, p. 2; in FBIS-SOV-94-157, 8/15/94, p. 10
tem with Japan, at an estimated cost of $85           Agency Director Aisultan Kalybayev has               (4470). Christopher F. Foss and James Bruce,
million, using Aegis ships and upgrades of            said that a draft treaty calling for Russia to       Jane’s Defence Weekly, 8/20/94, p. 21 (4582).
the U.S. Standard SAM. The first “Navy                pay Kazakhstan $115 million a year for use
Lower-Tier” phase includes Aegis upgrades             of the Baykonur Cosmodrome is in compli-                               8/29/94
and slight changes in the Standard missile.           ance with a 3/28/94 agreement signed by             It is reported that Russia is close to con-
The second “Navy Upper-Tier” phase would              Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Kazakh          cluding a deal to sell an SA-12 missile de-
augment the Standard missile with a kinetic           President Nursultan Nazarbayev. Russia will         fense system to Kuwait. Once the SA-12 is
kill vehicle to intercept missiles at higher          rent the launch pads and buildings located          integrated with the U.S.-built Patriot anti-
altitudes.                                            in the Kazakh town of Leninsk for a term of         missile systems, Kuwait will have the only
 Barbara Opall and Naoaki Usui, Defense News, 6/      20 years, which can be extended for another         two-tier missile defense system outside of
 6/94, pp. 1, 42 (4400).                              10-year period. The municipal council in            Russia. However, Russia’s Rosvooruzheniye
                                                      Leninsk expressed concern over the future           said that Kuwait has not yet ordered the sys-
                     9/94                             of the Baykonur Cosmodrome. It has sup-             tem. Kuwait’s Defense Minister, Sheik
McDonnell Douglas is awarded an $125                  ported an appeal made by several of its mem-        Ahmed Mahud Sabah Ahmed, has indicated
million contract by the U.S. Navy for 75              bers to the Kazakh Supreme Soviet about             that Kuwait may be interested in buying the
SLAMs and 44 Harpoon missiles. Of the                 the lack of a mechanism for implementing            SA-10, the SA-12, and the SA-15.
44 Harpoon missiles currently covered by              the agreement signed by Russia and                   Christopher F. Foss and James Bruce, Jane’s De-
the deal, Egypt will receive 16, Japan 3,             Kazakhstan on the use of Baykonur.                   fence Weekly, 8/20/94, p. 21 (4582). Washington
and Malaysia 25. Work on the contract is               Interfax (Moscow), 6/8/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-111,      Times, 8/29/94, p. A16 (4455). Christopher F. Foss
expected to be completed by 12/96.                     6/9/94, p. 64 (4422). Vladimir Akimov, Itar-Tass    and James A. Bruce, Washington Times, 9/21/94,
 Reuter, 8/22/94; in Executive News Service, 8/24/     (Moscow), 6/10/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-113, 6/13/94,     p. A11 (4582).
 94 (4347). Flight International, 9/14/94, p. 40       p. 70 (4421).
 (4347).




138                                                                                                    The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995
                                                               Missile Developments

                                                     to hinder attempts at detection.                                          6/9/94
                                                      Barbara Starr, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 6/25/94, p.    North Korean Foreign Minister Kim Yong-
              MALAYSIA                                10 (4410).
                                                                                                           nam tells reporters at Kiev airport after a
                                                                                                           visit to Ukraine that North Korea will con-
                                                                          6/94                             tinue to test-launch missiles, stating, “Mis-
                                                     According to U.S. CIA Director R. James               sile launches occur in any country regularly,
                                                     Woolsey, the CIA will continue to monitor             and the United States and Japan do this most
    MALAYSIA WITH UNITED STATES                      North Korea’s nuclear program, and the “po-           often. Until now, no one ever mentioned
                                                     tential exports” of nuclear warheads and              anything about our launches of experimen-
                         9/94                        Scud, No-dong, and Taep’o-dong missiles.              tal missiles. We don’t understand why there
McDonnell Douglas is awarded an $125                 Woolsey states that at present, these tech-           is so much noise about it now.”
million contract by the U.S. Navy for 75             nologies are not ready for export, although            Reuter, 6/9/94; in Executive News Service, 6/9/94
SLAMs and 44 Harpoon missiles. Of the                they could earn North Korea hard currency              (4368).
44 Harpoon missiles currently covered by             in the future.
                                                      Barbara Starr, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 8/6/94, pp.                       6/14/94
the deal, Egypt will receive 16, Japan 3,             4-6 (4481).
and Malaysia 25. Work on the contract is                                                                   According to the 7/1/94 early edition of the
expected to be completed by 12/96.                                                                         South Korean newspaper Chosen Ilbo, North
                                                                          6/94                             Korea conducts its first test on the engine
 Reuter, 8/22/94; in Executive News Service, 8/24/
 94 (4347). Flight International, 9/14/94, p. 40     Director of U.S. Naval Intelligence (DNI)             for its new ballistic missiles, the Taep’o-
 (4347).                                             Rear Admiral Edward D. Shaefer, Jr. releases          dong-1 and Taep’o-dong-2, at its North
                                                     a posture statement, which suggests that              Hamgyong Province missile testing site.
                                                     North Korea’s 1,000 km range No-dong-1                The Taep’o-dong missile is a continuation
                                                     SSM, in addition to being chemical and                of the No-dong-1 and is currently in the
                                                     conventional warhead capable, may also be             testing stage of development. It is estimated
               MOLDOVA                               nuclear capable by the year 2000. While               that the Taep’o-dong has a range of over
                                                     this is the accepted deployment date, the             2,000 km. According to Chosen Ilbo, the
                                                     report notes that “some authorities believe”          tests are detected by U.S. spy satellites, and
                                                     that the missile could be nuclear capable by          indicate that the speed of development of
                                                     1995. The posture statement further states            the Taep’o-dong is quicker than first
  MOLDOVA WITH RUSSIA AND YEMEN                      that the Taep’o-dong SSM “is still in the             thought. According to some U.S. intelli-
                                                     initial research phase and is not expected to         gence estimates, the Taep’o-dong-1 could
                    6/20/94                          become operational until the early 2000s.”            be operational by 1996, and the Taep’o-
According to Moldovan news sources, the               Barbara Starr, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 6/18/94, p.
                                                                                                           dong-2 by 2000.
Moldovan Ministry of Defense sells four               1 (4359). Jon B. Wolfsthal and Dunbar Lockwood,
                                                      Arms Control Today, 7/94, p. 23 (4359).               Barbara Starr, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 6/25/94, p.
MiG-24s and seven missile launchers, worth                                                                  10 (4410). Yomiuri Shimbun (in Japanese), 7/2/94
a total of $40 million, to Yemen via                                                                        (4412).
                                                                          6/94
Rosvooruzheniye, a Russian state arms com-
                                                     It is reported that increased activity at North                          6/20/94
pany.
 Itar, 8/23/94 (4376).
                                                     Korea’s missile launch and support sites has          William J. Taylor, Jr., Senior Vice Presi-
                                                     private and governmental North Korea ex-              dent at the Center for Strategic and Interna-
                                                     perts convinced that the country is prepar-           tional Studies, writes in an editorial that
                                                     ing to test its No-dong missile to verify the         North Korea is in possession of approxi-
                                                     system’s flight characteristics.                      mately 100 SSMs and “deliverable chemi-
          NORTH KOREA                                 Paul Mann, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 6/
                                                                                                           cal, and probably, biological weapons.”
                                                      20/94, p. 19 (4428).
                                                                                                            William J. Taylor, Jr., Washington Times, 6/20/94,
                                                                                                            p. A20 (4369).
                                                                         6/9/94
                                                     South Korean Defense Minister Rhee                                         7/94
                                                     Byoung-tae, in a report to the South Korean           It is reported that a Russian satellite took
        INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS
                                                     parliament, states that since early 5/94 North        detailed images of North Korea’s missile
                                                     Korea had been preparing to test launch the           testing facility in Taep’o Dong, in the North
                         5/94                        Taep’o-dong missile, which has a range of
According to U.S. officials, North Korea                                                                   Hamgyong Province. The facility includes
                                                     more than 1,000 km.                                   three missile launch sites, a rocket engine
begins shielding the simulators for the               Reuter, 6/9/94, in Executive News Service, 6/9/94,
Taep’o-dong-1 and -2 at the Sanum Dong                (4361).                                              test stand and platform, missile construc-
Missile Research and Development facility                                                                  tion and maintenance facilities, and docks



The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995                                                                                                                    139
                                                              Missile Developments

for missile tracking ships.                         other things, indicates that Iran may not yet                  NORTH KOREA         WITH ISRAEL
 Kyodo News Service, 5/9/94 (4498). Aviation Week   be in possession of No-dong missiles. He
 & Space Technology, 7/11/94, p. 55 (4498).         states, “Iranian acquisition of the No-dong                                Mid 6/94
                                                    system from North Korea is possible in the               Israeli Ambassador to South Korea Na’im
                  7/27/94                           future.” According to CIA Director R.                    Asher says that North Korea is selling long-
North Korean defector Kang Myong-do ac-             James Woolsey, North Korean plans to sell                range Scud ballistic missiles to several coun-
cuses North Korea of carrying out negotia-          Iran the No-dong missile have not been car-              tries in the Middle East, including Syria,
tions on its nuclear program with the intent        ried out.                                                Iran, and Libya. Asher says that Israeli ef-
of stalling to allow time to build missiles to       Jon B. Wolfsthal and Dunbar Lockwood, Arms Con-         forts to persuade North Korea to halt its mis-
carry nuclear warheads. Kang says that               trol Today, 7/94, p. 23 (4359). Barbara Starr, Jane’s
                                                     Defence Weekly, 8/6/94, pp. 4-6 (4481).                 sile exports to the Middle East have not met
North Korea had already built five nuclear
                                                                                                             with success, and that U.S. efforts to have
“bombs” and intends to build an additional
                                                                           6/94                              sanctions implemented against North Ko-
five.
 Times Record, 7/29/94, p.8 (4356).                 U.S. officials reportedly state that Iranian             rea would be in Israel’s interest.
                                                                                                              KBS-1 Radio Network (Seoul), 6/19/94; in JPRS-
                                                    officials have recently been present at a num-            TND-94-014, 7/13/94, p. 56 (4411).
                     8/94                           ber of missile tests in North Korea which
It is reported that the U.S. Defense Intelli-       the U.S. describes as “sales demonstrations.”                   NORTH KOREA WITH JAPAN
gence Agency (DIA) told the Senate Select            Bill Gertz, Washington Times, 6/8/94, pp. A1, A9
                                                     (4367).
Committee on Intelligence that North Ko-                                                                                          6/94
rea, regardless of any agreements, will con-                                                                 It is reported that Japanese intelligence
tinue to develop nuclear weapons. Accord-
                                                                        6/14/94
                                                    U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Robert                 sources believe that the North Korean con-
ing to the DIA, a ballistic missile is North                                                                 trolled Chongryun, the 250,000-member
Korea's preferred delivery system; its Scud         Pelletreau testifies before the House For-
                                                    eign Relations Committee that, “North Ko-                General Association of Korean Residents in
and No-dong missiles can target all of                                                                       Japan, secretly provides money and equip-
South Korea and parts of Japan, China, and          rea has in the past delivered Scud-Bs and
                                                    Scud-Cs, primarily to Iran and Syria.”                   ment, including powerful computers, to
Russia.                                                                                                      North Korea for its nuclear and missile de-
 James R. Asker, Aviation Week & Space Technol-     Pelletreau adds, “We’re concerned about
 ogy, 8/15/94, p. 19 (4461).                        press reports and other intelligence that they           velopment programs in violation of Japa-
                                                    might, at some point, sell the No-dong mis-              nese laws.
                                                    sile—with a much longer range than the Scud-              Edward W. Desmond and Hiroko Tashiro, Time, 6/
                  9/26/94                                                                                     13/94, p. 27 (4523).
The South Korean news agency Yonhap cites           B and -C.” According to intelligence and
a Unification Ministry report submitted to          nonproliferation sources, since 1988 North
                                                                                                                                7/15/94
the National Assembly which states that             Korea has delivered 200-300 “knock-down”
                                                                                                             The Japanese Defense Agency warns in its
North Korea is capable of producing 100-            kits of Scud-B missiles to Iran, where they
                                                                                                             annual white paper that North Korean weap-
150 Scud-B and -C missiles per year, and            were assembled at a plant near Isfahan.
                                                                                                             ons programs are “a serious destabilizing
“was expected to complete development” of           Since 1992, 150 completed Scud-Cs have
                                                                                                             factor.” Japanese Defense Agency advisor
its 1,500-2,000 km range, No-dong-2 mis-            been delivered. It is reported that Iran is
                                                                                                             Hirotsu Ota says that Japan currently has
sile by the end of 1995. The report states          funding North Korea’s development of the
                                                                                                             no “contingency plans” for defense against a
that, because of the growing economic dis-          1,000 km range No-dong missile with hopes
                                                                                                             North Korean attack, but that “measures
parity between North and South Korea, the           of achieving an extended-range ballistic
                                                                                                             would be considered” if North Korea con-
North is no longer able to maintain its mili-       missile capability. North Korean experts
                                                                                                             tinues its missile development program. The
tary edge and has thus resorted to “develop-        are in Iran attempting to extend the range of
                                                                                                             white paper notes that North Korea is near-
ing long-range guided missiles and biologi-         the Scud missiles. According to intelligence
                                                                                                             ing final development of its 1,000 km range
cal and chemical weapons.”                          sources, North Korea may test its No-dong-
                                                                                                             No-dong-1 missile, and developing even
 Reuter, 9/26/94 (4357). Washington Times, 9/27/    1 missile in Iran within 6-12 months be-
 94, p. A20 (4357).                                                                                          longer range systems.
                                                    cause “[t]esting facilities don’t exist for a             William Dawkins, Financial Times, 7/16/94 (4358).
                                                    full-range test [of the No-dong-1] in North
                                                    Korea,” and because it wants to avoid in-
       NORTH KOREA WITH IRAN                        creasing the existing tension over the nuclear             NORTH KOREA WITH UNITED STATES
                                                    issue.
                     6/94                            Martin Sieff, Washington Times, 6/16/94, p. A13
The Director of U.S. Naval Intelligence              (4363). James Bruce, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 7/                             6/29/94
(DNI) Rear Admiral Edward D. Shaefer, Jr.            30/94, pp. 23-33 (4569).                                Assistant Secretary of State Robert Gallucci,
releases a posture statement, which, among                                                                   commenting on the upcoming 7/8/94 talks
                                                                                                             with North Korea in Geneva, states, “We



140                                                                                                      The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995
                                                               Missile Developments

would like to see the North Koreans adjust                                                                         PAKISTAN     WITH   INDIA
their missile technology export policy and
also their development policy.” Gallucci                           PAKISTAN                                                 6/4/94
adds, “If the dialogue fails and if the DPRK                                                             Pakistan states that India’s test-firing of the
does not prove willing to take the necessary                                                             Prithvi has started a weapons race in South
steps to resolve issues, we will return again                                                            Asia. Munir Akram, a spokesman of the
to the Security Council.”                                                                                Pakistan Foreign Office, states that this test
 Sid Balman Jr., UPI, 6/29/94 (4366).                        INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS                       ensures that all major Pakistani cities, ex-
                                                                                                         cept Quetta in the far south, are within range
                                                                       5/15/94                           of Indian missiles. Munir states that Indian
      NORTH KOREA WITH YEMEN                         According to Pakistan’s Chief of Naval Staff        deployment of such missiles will give Paki-
                                                     Admiral Saeed Khan, Pakistan’s submarine            stan only a few minutes warning time if a
                    6/8/94                           fleet is armed with Harpoon missiles.               surprise attack takes place, “and, therefore,
Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh states            Nation (Islamabad), 5/16/94, pp. 1, 4; in JPRS-    increase the hair-trigger environment in
that North Korea has agreed to sell missiles          TND-94-012, 6/7/94, p. 15 (4426).
                                                                                                         South Asia.”
to the southern side in Yemen’s civil war.                                                                News (Islamabad), 6/15/94, p. 1; in FBIS-NES-94-
Saleh, who leads the northern forces, said,                                                               108, 6/6/94, p. 81 (4533).
“Now we have received confirmation about                      PAKISTAN    WITH    FRANCE
a new contract of MiG-29 (jets) and a num-                                                                                 8/14/94
ber of T-82 (tanks) and tactical missiles                              9/21/94                           Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto
contracted with North Korea.”                        France and Pakistan sign a $950 million deal        makes a statement critical of the Indian de-
 Reuter, 6/13/94; in Executive News Service, 6/13/   that includes three Agosta 90-B submarines          ployment of Trishul, Prithvi, and Agni mis-
 94 (4429).                                          and the transfer of technology. The deal            siles and India’s “race” for weaponry. Dur-
                                                     also includes training and long-term logis-         ing her Independence Day speech, Bhutto
                   6/13/94                           tical support, and reportedly gives the Pa-         states that both Pakistan and India should
In response to Yemeni President Ali                  kistani Navy “offensive capabilities far su-        follow a "zero-missile regime," that is, nei-
Abdullah Saleh’s statement concerning a              perior to those of most non-NATO navies.”           ther country should possess any missiles.
contract with North Korea for weapons, in-           The submarines are equipped with Air-In-             Ranjit Kumar, Navbharat Times (Delhi), 8/17/94,
cluding tactical missiles, an unidentified           dependent Propulsion (AIP) and are armed             p. 7; in JPRS-TND-94-107, 9/8/94, p. 19 (4524).
North Korean Foreign Ministry spokesman                                                                   K. K. Katyal, Hindu, 8/27/94, p. 5 (4324).
                                                     with torpedoes and SM-39 Exocet anti-ship
tells the [North] Korean Central News                missiles. The Exocets can be fired while a
Agency (KCNA) that the accusation was                submarine is submerged.
                                                                                                                           8/15/94
“... an utterly groundless fabrication.”              Jawed Naqvi, Reuter, 9/23/94 (4331). Giovanni de   In his Independence Day address from the
 Reuter, 6/13/94; in Executive News Service, 6/13/    Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, Defense News, 9/   Red Fort in Delhi, Indian Prime Minister
 94 (4429).                                           26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).                           P. V. Narasimha Rao asks why India’s mis-
                                                                                                         sile program is receiving so much attention
                                                                       9/23/94                           while Pakistan’s acquisition of “off-the-shelf”
                                                     A senior French defense official states that        nuclear weapons is not addressed. Rao states
                                                     Pakistan feels that “the combination of AIP         that India will not put a stop to “its defense
                NORWAY                               and SM-39s will give [Pakistan] a very cost-        preparedness” and will not halt either the
                                                     effective anti-blockade deterrent” against the      development or the deployment of its mis-
                                                     Indian Navy during a conflict. According            siles.
                                                     to an official of the French Defense Pro-            Ranjit Kumar, Navbharat Times (Delhi), 8/17/94,
                                                     curement Agency (DGA), the first of the              p. 7; in JPRS-TND-94-107, 9/8/94, p. 19 (4524).
        INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS                                                                             K.K. Katyal, Hindu, 8/27/94, p. 5 (4324).
                                                     three Agosta submarines will be delivered
                                                     to Pakistan by late 1998. The first subma-
                    6/8/94                           rine will be built completely in France, the
Norway tests four of its 20-year-old surface-        second will be assembled in Pakistan after              PAKISTAN    WITH MULTI-COUNTRY
to-surface Penguin missiles; three fell short        being partially built in France, and the third                         GROUP
of the target and the fourth failed to launch.       will be built entirely in Pakistan. The work
The Penguin missile test, which was the first        in Pakistan on the second and third subma-                        8/29/94-9/1/94
in 12 years, prompted the Norwegian Navy             rines will be done at the Karachi Naval Ship-       A four-nation group of representatives from
to reassess its deployment of the Penguins.          yards.                                              the MTCR visit India and Pakistan to dis-
 Reuter, 6/8/94; in Executive News Service, 6/8/94    Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, De-    cuss the objectives of the regime in regards
 (4436).                                              fense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).             to missile developments in the region. The



The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995                                                                                                                141
                                                                 Missile Developments

delegates from Australia, Switzerland, the             Chinese technicians will soon travel to Pa-                                7/94
U.S., and the U.K. begin what they describe            kistan to assist in activating the M-11 mis-         It is reported that China launches its Apstar-
as “the first stage in a dialogue.” The team’s         siles that China had sold to Pakistan.               1 telecommunications satellite into orbit in
discussions with India on 8/29-8/30 cover               Wall Street Journal, 9/14/94, p. A18 (4451).        defiance of a U.N. pact requiring consent
the Prithvi and Agni programs. Pakistan’s                                                                   for close orbits and despite Japan’s request
Hatf-1 and Hatf-2 programs, and possibly                                                                    to change Apstar’s orbit.
the Chinese transfer of M-11s to Pakistan,                  PAKISTAN    WITH    UNITED STATES                Wall Street Journal, 7/22/94, p. A8 (4447).
are discussed during the team’s meetings
with Pakistan on 9/1-9/2. Pakistan informs                                9/23/94                                               8/28/94
the delegates that it supports a missile-free          U.S. Navy intelligence officers state that the       China launches its Long March-2E rocket
South Asia, but that India’s development and           submarine-launched Harpoon missile has               from Xichang in its third successful lift-off,
deployment of missiles could spur a nuclear            been transferred to seven countries: Egypt,          carrying an Australian Optus B3 commer-
arms race in the region. According to In-              Greece, Japan, Israel, Turkey, the U.K., and         cial satellite made by Hughes.
dian defense sources, the MTCR team does               Pakistan. One official adds that, currently,          Flight International, 9/7/94, p. 40 (4381).
not bring up the issue of India discontinu-            three Pakistani submarines are capable of
ing its missile program.                               firing submarine-launched Harpoon mis-
 Tahir Ikram, Reuter; in Executive News Service, 9/    siles.                                                            PRC     WITH    INDIA
 2/94 (4535). Flight International, 9/21/94, p. 18      Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, De-
 (4537).                                                fense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).                            9/7/94-9/13/94
                                                                                                            Chinese Minister of Defense, General Chi
                                                                                                            Haotian, leads a delegation to India for dis-
           PAKISTAN     WITH    PRC
                                                                                                            cussions on bilateral defense relations. The
                                                        PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF                                meetings are unsuccessful and key issues
                    8/22/94                                                                                 remain unresolved, including China’s sale
According to U.S. officials, Pakistan has                      CHINA                                        of M-11 missiles to Pakistan, which India
agreed to pay China $15 million as a partial                                                                is interested in discussing with the Chinese.
payment on its 1988 contract with the China                                                                 The negotiations also include discussion on
Precision Machinery Import and Export                                                                       collaborative Chinese-Indian space explo-
Corp., which is government owned, for an                                                                    ration.
indeterminate number of M-11 missiles,                         INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS                         Vivek Raghuvanshi, Defense News, 9/19/94, p. 34
launchers, and support equipment.                                                                            (4538).
 Washington Times, 9/7/94, pp. A1, A18 (4549).
 R. Jeffrey Smith and Thomas W. Lippman, Wash-                           Late 5/94
 ington Post, 9/8/94, p. A32 (4622).                   According to U.S. intelligence, China
                                                       launches a new diesel-electric submarine,                          PRC WITH IRAN
                      9/94                             which U.S. analysts call the Wuhan-C. The
For the first time, Pakistan concedes that it          Wuhan-C is a possible prototype for the                                    7/94
has purchased M-11 missiles from China.                Type 039, a second-generation Ming class             U.S. Pentagon officials state that China is
Pakistan Embassy political counselor Zamir             submarine produced in 1990 that will be              ready to deliver 10 fast-attack missile boats
Akram said in Washington, D.C., that his               capable of firing surface-to-surface anti-ship       and an “undisclosed number” of 83 km range
country has made no secret of the purchases.           missiles while submerged.                            anti-ship missiles to Iran.
                                                        Barbara Starr, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 8/13/94, p.    Elaine Sciolino, New York Times, 7/5/94, p. A1
Pakistan states that sanctions should not be                                                                 (4571).
                                                        3 (4373).
levied due to the purchase because the range
of the M-11 missile falls below the required
300 km minimum range set by the MTCR.                                       6/94
                                                       The Director of U.S. Naval Intelligence                         PRC WITH PAKISTAN
Other Pakistani officials continue to deny
that Pakistan has made the purchase.                   (DNI) Rear Admiral Edward D. Shaefer, Jr.
 R. Jeffrey Smith and Thomas W. Lippman, Wash-         releases a posture statement, which states                               8/22/94
 ington Post, 9/8/94, p. A32 (4622). Asian Age, 9/     that China is “believed to be working on an          According to U.S. officials, Pakistan has
 9/94; in International Security Digest, 9/94, p. 94   indigenous design for a second generation            agreed to pay China $15 million as a partial
 (4539).                                               nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine          payment on its 1988 contract with the China
                                                       to carry a new SLBM also in development;             Precision Machinery Import and Export
                      9/94                             the new SSBN may be launched by the turn             Corp., which is government owned, for an
It is reported that a U.S. intelligence report,        of the century.”                                     indeterminate number of M-11 missiles,
which was leaked to the media, said that                Jon B. Wolfsthal and Dunbar Lockwood, Arms Con-     launchers, and support equipment.
                                                        trol Today, 7/94, p. 23 (4359).



142                                                                                                     The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995
                                                                 Missile Developments

 Washington Times, 9/7/94, pp. A1, A18 (4549).          Andrey Kirillov, Anna Melnikova, and Vladimir
 R. Jeffrey Smith and Thomas W. Lippman, Wash-          Solntsev, Itar-Tass World Service (Moscow), 9/3/
 ington Post, 9/8/94, p. A32 (4622).                    94; in FBIS-SOV-94-172, 9/6/94, p. 19 (4483).
                                                        Andrey Kirillov, Anna Melnikova, and Vladimir
                                                                                                                              RUSSIA
                                                        Solntsev, Itar-Tass (Moscow), 9/3/94; in FBIS-SOV-
                      9/94                              94-172, 9/6/94, p. 12 (4483). Michael Specter,
For the first time, Pakistan concedes that it           New York Times, 9/4/94, p. 4 (4550). Sergei
has purchased M-11 missiles from China.                 Shargorodsky, Washington Times, 9/4/94, p. A8
Pakistan Embassy political counselor Zamir              (4374). Nadezhda Potapova, Itar-Tass (Moscow),
                                                        9/6/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-172, 9/6/94, pp. 18-19                INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS
Akram said in Washington, D.C., that his                (4483).
country has made no secret of the purchases.
                                                                                                                                   4/94
Pakistan states that sanctions should not be
                                                                                                             As a result of the START II agreement, a
levied due to the purchase because the range
                                                                                                             strategic nuclear division at Khabarovsk is
of the M-11 missile falls below the required
                                                                                                             to be deactivated and its base occupied by a
300 km minimum range set by the MTCR.                                ROMANIA                                 sub-unit of the main center for space ve-
Other Pakistani officials continue to deny
                                                                                                             hicle operation and testing.
that Pakistan has made the purchase.                                                                          Segodnya, 4/8/94, p. 2; in FBIS-SOV-94-068, 4/8/
 R. Jeffrey Smith and Thomas W. Lippman, Wash-                                                                94, p. 32 (4362).
 ington Post, 9/8/94, p. A32 (4622). Asian Age, 9/
 9/94; in International Security Digest, 9/94, p. 94
 (4539).                                                       INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS                                               6/94
                                                                                                             The Director of U.S. Naval Intelligence
                      9/94                                                  6/94                             (DNI) Rear Admiral Edward D. Shaefer, Jr.
It is reported that a U.S. intelligence report,        RATMIL, which was once the Bucharest-                 releases a posture statement which states that
which was leaked to the media, said that               based Romanian state arsenal, is develop-             Russia’s first Typhoon-class SSBN at
Chinese technicians will soon travel to Pa-            ing modifications for Soviet-designed equip-          Severodvinsk shipyard is “undergoing an
kistan to assist in activating the M-11 mis-           ment and is also developing new equipment             overhaul and modernization to accommo-
siles that China had sold to Pakistan.                 such as “reactive shells” for 122 mm truck-           date new ballistic missiles,” believed to be
 Wall Street Journal, 9/14/94, p. A18 (4451).          mounted 40-tube MRLs.                                 SS-N-20s. In the 1993 posture statement,
                                                        Paul Beaver, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 6/25/94, p. 30   the DNI said that the SS-N-20s “should be-
                                                        (4377).                                              gin flight testing soon.”
            PRC     WITH     RUSSIA                                                                           Jon B. Wolfsthal and Dunbar Lockwood, Arms Con-
                                                                        Early 9/94                            trol Today, 7/94, p. 23 (4359).

                      6/94                             Romanian deputy national police chief Gen-
It is reported that in the opinion of U.S.             eral Costica Voicu announces that police                                  6/22/94
intelligence sources, China is currently               have arrested seven Romanians in Turnu                Under the direction of the Ministry of De-
employing several thousand former Soviet               Severin, on Romania’s Danube River bor-               fense, Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces
scientists and technicians in the research,            der with Yugoslavia, for attempting to sell           carry out coordinated launches of strategic
development, and production of advanced                11 “triggering devices” for surface-to-air            missiles of all three legs of the nuclear triad,
weapons. The weapons include a new gen-                missile warheads; the arrest took place in            including the launch of an RS-12M “Topol”
eration of mobile, solid-fuel intercontinen-           early 9/94. According to the police, the              (SS-25) ICBM from Plesetsk to the Kura
tal missiles and a modern version of the               missile devices were manufactured in Ro-              testing ground on the Kamchatka Peninsula,
Soviet MiG series of tactical aircraft. The            mania by a manufacturer that has not yet              the launch of an SLBM from the Barents
scientists, most of whom are Russian, are              been identified.                                      Sea, and the launch of a long-range ALCM,
paid in hard currency and receive a higher              Washington Times, 9/13/94, p. A12 (4311).            possibly an AS-15, from a Tu-160 bomber.
                                                                                                              Russian Television Network (Moscow), 6/22/94; in
salary than they would at home.                                                                               FBIS-SOV-94-122, 6/24/94, p. 31 (4609). Anatoliy
 U.S. News & World Report, 6/6/94, p. 24 (4445).                                                              Yurkin, Itar-Tass (Moscow), 6/22/94; in FBIS-SOV-
                                                                                                              94-120, 6/22/94, p. 28 (4609). Ostankino Televi-
                    9/3/94                                                                                    sion First Channel Network (Moscow), 6/22/94; in
                                                                                                              FBIS-SOV-94-121, 6/23/94, p. 26 (4609). Viktor
Russian President Boris Yeltsin and the                                                                       Litovkin, Izvestiya (Moscow), 6/23/94, p. 1 (4609).
Chairman of the PRC Jiang Zemin sign a
joint declaration which includes measures                                                                                          7/94
to ensure the non-targeting of their strate-                                                                 It is reported that Russia is developing a
gic nuclear missiles and a statement that                                                                    new, fast, and subsonic unmanned aerial
neither country will be the first to use                                                                     vehicle (UAV), the “Malachite F,” with pro-
nuclear weapons against the other.



The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995                                                                                                                       143
                                                              Missile Developments

duction primarily geared for export. Ac-            for use with the RSD-10 (SS-20).                                       9/20/94
cording to Deputy Head of Procurement                Steven Zaloga, Armed Forces Journal, 8/94, p. 43   The Russian power distribution authority
Colonel Valery Barkovski, the UAV being              (4585).
                                                                                                        Energonadzor cuts off the power to the Stra-
developed is a 950 km/h system with a one                                                               tegic Rocket Forces (SRF) Central Com-
hour endurance time, a 300 km radius of                               8/18/94                           mand Post (CCP) for three to four hours
action, and an increased payload capacity           A surface-to-surface missile engine ignites,        because of an unpaid power bill. The SRF
to handle the radar and other sensors. The          due to careless handling during planned             CCP has an autonomous power supply, but
UAV is not related to any current drone or          loading and unloading work at a technical           there is some debate as to whether the cut
target development program, Barkovski said.         battalion subordinate to the Moscow Air             off threatened national security. An SRF
 Charles Bickers, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 7/23/94,   Defense District. The accident causes a fire        spokesperson said that the autonomous
 p. 24 (4599).                                      in the missile engine and warhead storage           power supply was switched on “in a brief
                                                    area and a series of explosions leading to          time” but added that such a cutoff could lead
                     8/94                           the deaths of a missile transfer crew and the       to “significant complications in controlling
It is reported that the Khrunichev State Space      disappearance of a crane operator. The en-          nuclear weapons.” SRF commander Igor
and Scientific-Production Center (KSSSPC)           suing explosions also destroy a technical           Sergeyev said, “You cannot even imagine
wins a competition to establish the Angara          installation, however, no local inhabitants         how much switching off the electricity
space complex as the site for future heavy-         are hurt and no damage to the environment           threatened the security of this country.”
class space launch vehicles. The launch pads        results from the accident.                           Segodnya (Moscow), 9/23/94, p. 1; in FBIS-SOV-
from which the Angara will launch will most          Valeriy Prasolov, Krasnaya Zvezda (Moscow), 8/      94-185, 9/23/94, p. 30 (4583). Oleg Falichev and
likely be situated in Plesetsk in Northern           23/94, p. 2; in FBIS-SOV-94-163, 8/23/94, p. 28     Aleksandr Dolinin, Krasnaya Zvezda (Moscow), 9/
                                                     (4578).                                             23/94, p. 1; in FBIS-SOV-94-185, 9/23/94, pp. 31-
Russia and, later, at Svobodny in the Rus-
                                                                                                         32 (4613). David Hearst, Guardian, 9/23/94
sian Far East. The Russian Space Corpora-                                                                (4613). Adi Ignatius, Wall Street Journal, 9/23/94
                                                                         9/94
tion Energia and the Makeyev State Rocket                                                                (4613).
                                                    It is reported that the A-135 domestic
Center will develop the hydrogen-oxygen
                                                    nuclear interceptor, which works by using
fueled second stage of the Angara rocket.                                                                                  9/22/94
 Interfax, 8/18/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-161, 8/19/94,
                                                    atmospheric nuclear explosions to kill in-
                                                    coming missiles both at close range and far         Russian Prime Minister Viktor
 p. 24 (4396).
                                                    away, has been complete for more than three         Chernomyrdin says that he would punish
                                                    years and is awaiting a decision by the de-         officials at the Moscow region electrical
                     8/94                                                                               authority who cut the power to the Central
It is reported that a new Russian coastal           fense minister to deploy it in place of exist-
                                                    ing A-50 and A-30 interceptors in the Mos-          Command of Russia’s strategic nuclear force
defense missile system, called the Bal                                                                  due to unpaid bills. The power authority
(Wave), will be marketed by the Granit In-          cow ABM belt. The A-135 would destroy
                                                    the first salvo of nuclear missiles, giving         reportedly did not know the identity of the
stitute in St. Petersburg to clients in the                                                             military installation prior to the incident.
Arabian Gulf, South America, and Asia.              Russian leaders the time needed to launch a
                                                                                                         International Herald Tribune, 9/23/94 (4393).
The Bal battery system consists of four             counter-strike. There are 100 A-135 mis-
launch vehicles with eight missiles apiece,         siles lying in depots near Moscow, awaiting
                                                                                                                           9/23/94
a mobile command and control vehicle, and           deployment.
                                                     Pavel Felgengauer, Segodnya (Moscow), 9/16/94,
                                                                                                        A regiment of the Omsk division of the
a radar target acquisition vehicle utilizing                                                            Russian Strategic Missile Troops at the
                                                     p. 1; in FBIS-SOV-94-180, 9/16/94, pp. 27-28
the 3Ts-24 surveillance radar. The Bal uti-          (4590).                                            Plesetsk test range flight-tests a “dummy”
lizes the Kh-35 missile, which is the equiva-                                                           SS-25 Topol strategic nuclear missile. The
lent of the U.S. Navy’s Harpoon.                                         9/94                           missile successfully hits its training ground
 Steven Zaloga, Armed Forces Journal, 8/94, p. 43
 (4463).
                                                    It is reported that Strategic Missile Forces        target on the Kamchatka peninsula 25 min-
                                                    unit X commander Colonel Aleksey                    utes after launch. Russia has also devel-
                     8/94                           Zhvanko has stated that he is in charge of          oped and indigenously built a new missile,
It is reported that there have been a mini-         an operation currently scrapping six obso-          the Topol-M.
mum of 10 incidents in which the mobile             lete strategic missiles from Russia, Ukraine,        Anatoliy Yurkin, Itar-Tass (Moscow), 9/24/94; in
                                                    and Belarus per month. In the near future,           FBIS-SOV-94-186, 9/26/94, p. 27 (4482). NTV
launch vehicles of the RS-12M Topol (SS-                                                                 (Moscow), 9/25/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-186, 9/26/94,
25) have overturned. None of the accidents          the number of missiles dismantled at the             pp. 27-28 (4482).
were severe enough to ignite the solid fuel         operation may increase to 10-12 missiles per
engines, nor have the nuclear warheads been         month.
                                                     Oleg Bedula, Krasnaya Zvezda, 9/14/94, p. 1; in
involved in any dangerous incidents. The             FBIS-SOV-94-179, 9/15/94, p. 24 (4592).
mobile truck is a massive, 10-wheeled ve-
hicle similar to an earlier model designed




144                                                                                                 The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995
                                                              Missile Developments

    RUSSIA   WITH    AFGHANISTAN       AND                      RUSSIA   WITH       INDIA               Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Kazakh
                 TAJIKISTAN                                                                             President Nursultan Nazarbayev. Russia will
                                                                         6/94                           rent the launch pads and buildings located
                  8/10/94                           It is reported that Russia has announced its        in the Kazakh town of Leninsk for a term of
According to Russian military forces in             commitment to provide the spare parts for           20 years, which can be extended for another
Dushanbe, the 12th post of the Moscow               equipment India had purchased from the              10-year period. The municipal council in
border troops headquarters in Tajikistan is         Soviet Union and called for greater trade           Leninsk expressed concern over the future
attacked by missiles fired from Afghan ter-         between the two countries. In addition,             of the Baykonur Cosmodrome. It has sup-
ritory. The Russians respond with suppres-          Russian Deputy Prime Minister Youri [sic]           ported an appeal made by several of its mem-
sive fire on the missile launcher emplace-          Yarov says that the problems with the cryo-         bers to the Kazakh Supreme Soviet about
ment; no casualties are reported.                   genic engine deal between Russia and India          the lack of a mechanism for implementing
 Itar-Tass (Moscow), 8/11/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-155,   will be sorted out because Russia considers         the agreement signed by Russia and
 8/11/94, p. 36 (4564).                             it important for the two countries to main-         Kazakhstan on the use of Baykonur.
                                                    tain good relations.                                 Interfax (Moscow), 6/8/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-111,
                  8/27/94                                                                                6/9/94, p. 64 (4422). Vladimir Akimov, Itar-Tass
                                                     Hindu, 6/18/94, p. 5 (4388).
                                                                                                         (Moscow), 6/10/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-113, 6/13/94,
During the early morning hours, Tajik                                                                    p. 70 (4421).
Mujaheedin launch several missiles at the                              7/31/94
Russian Frontier Guard observation posi-            It is reported that the Indian army may pur-
tion and post on the Turk Heights in                chase Tunguska air defense systems from                       RUSSIA    WITH    KUWAIT
Tajikistan. The missiles are launched from          Russia. The Indian Defence Research and
the area of the Afghan-Tajik border and from        Development Organisation (DRDO) is                                       6/94
Afghan territory, according to the second           against the purchase as it wants to produce         Kuwait welcomes a high-level Russian mili-
commander of Russian border guards in               its indigenously built Trishul SAM as early         tary delegation to conclude a substantial
Tajikistan, Major General Aleksandr                 as feasible, and “buying the Russian system         weapon systems sale. Kuwait is intent on
Savchenko. No Russian soldiers are killed.          would pull the plug on funds.”                      buying the S-300/S-300V (SA-10
 Galina Gridneva, Itar-Tass (Moscow), 8/28/94; in    Sudeep Chakravarti and Sunil Dasgupta, India To-
 FBIS-SOV-94-167, 8/29/94, p. 48 (4392).             day, 7/31/94, pp. 30-35 (4334).
                                                                                                        “Grumble”/SA-12 “Gladiator”) and TOR M-
                                                                                                        1 (SA-15 “Gauntlet) SAMs. Kuwait may
                                                                                                        also buy BMP-2s and -3s, as well as five S-
        RUSSIA    WITH   AUSTRALIA                             RUSSIA    WITH   ISRAEL                  300 systems which could be integrated into
                                                                                                        its air defense system beside its U.S.-built
                     7/94                                                                               Patriot missiles.
                                                                         9/94                            James Bruce, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 7/9/94, p. 1
The new launch complex that is being de-            Russian Space Agency Director General Yuri           (4467).
veloped by Russia and the Australian com-           Koptev meets with Israeli Space Agency
pany Space Transportation Systems (STS)             Chairman Yuval Ne’eman to discuss pos-                                 8/8/94
on Papua New Guinea, which has a comple-            sible launcher and satellite cooperation be-        An official of Rosvooruzheniye, a Russian
tion date of 1998, will allow Russia to             tween the two countries. Israeli sources            state-owned arms trading company, an-
double the payload it can launch into geo-          report that Koptev broached the possibility         nounces a contract for Kuwait’s purchase of
stationary orbits on its Proton rockets from        of Russia launching Israeli satellites and          27 300 mm, twelve-round BM 9A52-2
2.4 metric tons to 4.8 metric tons.                 inspected Israeli space facilities. Ne’eman         Smerch multiple rocket launch systems.
 Journal of Commerce, 1/21/94, p. 3A; in RA Re-     and Koptev sign an agreement to encourage            Stephen Foye, RFE/RL News Briefs, 8/8/94, p. 3
 port no. 17, 7/94, p. 75 (4607).
                                                    scientific and commercial space contacts.            (4470). Viktor Litovkin, Izvestiya (Moscow), 8/
                                                     Space News, 9/5/94, p. 2 (4476).                    11/94, p. 2; in FBIS-SOV-94-157, 8/15/94, p. 10
                                                                                                         (4470). Christopher F. Foss and James Bruce,
                                                                                                         Jane’s Defence Weekly, 8/20/94, p. 21 (4582).
         RUSSIA WITH BELARUS
                                                           RUSSIA WITH KAZAKHSTAN
                  5/18/94
                                                                                                                          8/29/94
Russia withdraws the first shipment of SS-                               6/94                           It is reported that Russia is close to con-
25 ICBMs from Belarus. At present, it is            It is reported that Kazakh National Space           cluding a deal to sell an SA-12 missile de-
believed that 27 SS-25s have been withdrawn         Agency Director Aisultan Kalybayev has              fense system to Kuwait. Once the SA-12 is
from Belarus to Russia.                             said that a draft treaty calling for Russia to
 Neue Zurcher Zeitung, 5/20/94; in Arms Control
                                                                                                        integrated with the U.S.-built Patriot anti-
                                                    pay Kazakhstan $115 million a year for use          missile systems, Kuwait will have the only
 Today, 6/94 (4522). PPNN Newsbrief, Second
 Quarter, p. 17 (4522).                             of the Baykonur Cosmodrome is in compli-            two-tier missile defense system outside of
                                                    ance with a 3/28/94 agreement signed by             Russia. However, Russia’s Rosvooruzheniye


The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995                                                                                                               145
                                                                Missile Developments

said that Kuwait has not yet ordered the sys-                RUSSIA WITH SOUTH KOREA                        Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty. As a re-
tem. Kuwait’s Defense Minister, Sheik                                                                       sult, the speed of new interceptors will be
Ahmed Mahud Sabah Ahmed, has indicated                                     8/94                             limited to 1.24 miles per second, the speed
that Kuwait may be interested in buying the           It is reported that Gennadiy Yanpolskiy,              of those used in the U.S. Army’s new The-
SA-10, the SA-12, and the SA-15.                      vice-chairman of the Russian state commit-            ater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)
 Christopher F. Foss and James Bruce, Jane’s De-      tee for defence sectors of industry, has stated,      system. The administration’s decision also
 fence Weekly, 8/20/94, p. 21 (4582). Washington                                                            effectively stalls the development of several
 Times, 8/29/94, p. A16 (4455). Christopher F. Foss   “We could agree to supply S-300 complexes
 and James A. Bruce, Washington Times, 9/21/94,       to South Korea given its desire to buy them.”         wide-area missile defense systems, includ-
 p. A11 (4582).                                        Vladimir Solntsev, Itar-Tass (Moscow), 8/10/94; in   ing the Navy’s Upper Tier system and the
                                                       FBIS-SOV-94-154, 8/10/94, p. 9 (4454).               Air Force’s Boost Phase Intercept Program,
                                                                                                            which is designed to kill theater missiles
      RUSSIA WITH NORTH KOREA                                             8/4/94                            shortly after launch. The U.S. also agrees
                                                      South Korean Defense Ministry officials               to end the development of new Army, Navy,
                     7/94                             state that South Korea and Russia will com-           and Air Force wide-area defense systems.
It is reported that three North Koreans are           plete an agreement in 9/94 for Russia to               Washington Times, 7/1/94 (4318). Bill Gertz, Wash-
                                                      transfer military weaponry, including S-300            ington Times, 7/1/94, p. A3 (4390).
detained while allegedly attempting to gather
missile and nuclear technology in Russia.             air defense missiles, to South Korea as pay-
 Washington Times, 7/5/94; in ISD, 7/94 (4494).       ment for a portion of the $650 million Rus-                                7/94
                                                      sian debt to South Korea.                             It is reported that the Russians have pro-
                                                       Defense News, 8/8/94, p. 2 (4413).                   posed a series of tests and experiments uti-
            RUSSIA    WITH    PRC                                                                           lizing early warning sensors, Patriot mis-
                                                                                                            sile interceptors, and the SA-12 missile sys-
                                                            RUSSIA WITH UNITED STATES                       tem. According to the U.S. Air Force Se-
                     6/94
                                                                                                            nior Executive Officer for Space Maj. Gen.
It is reported that in the opinion of U.S.
                                                                          5/5/94                            Garry Schnelzer, the cost would presumably
intelligence sources, China is currently
                                                      U.S. officials propose a range of coopera-            be divided between the U.S. and Russia.
employing several thousand former Soviet                                                                     BMD Monitor, 7/1/94, p. 228 (4353).
scientists and technicians in the research,           tive ballistic missile defense programs with
development, and production of advanced               Russia that are to involve the sharing of basic
                                                      technology, as well as jointly-conducted                                   7/94
weapons. The weapons include a new gen-                                                                     It is reported that the Douglas Company of
eration of mobile, solid-fuel intercontinen-          experiments and exercises.
                                                       BMD Monitor, 7/1/94, p. 228 (4353).                  the U.S. has contracted with Novator, a
tal missiles and a modern version of the                                                                    Russian firm based in Yekaterinburg, to
Soviet MiG series of tactical aircraft. The                                                                 deliver 2,000 Russian missiles to the U.S.
scientists, most of whom are Russian, are
                                                                           6/94
                                                      It is reported that Russia and the U.S. are           Army for use as test targets for the next gen-
paid in hard currency and receive a higher                                                                  eration of U.S. anti-missile missile systems.
salary than they would at home.                       currently negotiating the inclusion of Rus-
                                                      sian SS-25 ballistic missiles in the 1993              Leonid Pozdeyev, Krasnaya Zvezda, 6/3/94, p. 1;
 U.S. News & World Report, 6/6/94, p. 24 (4445).                                                             in FBIS-SOV-94-109, 6/7/94, pp. 14-15 (4391).
                                                      bilateral launch agreement that allowed Rus-           Intelligence Newsletter, 7/26/94, p. 7 (4391).
                    9/3/94                            sia access to the lucrative space launch mar-
Russian President Boris Yeltsin and the               ket in exchange for Russian promises to price                              8/94
Chairman of the PRC, Jiang Zemin, sign a              its services at market value. The problem             It is reported that the U.S. Air Force’s Philips
joint declaration which includes measures             is that Russia is using SS-25s to boost low-          Laboratory will begin using a new Russian
to ensure the non-targeting of their strate-          earth orbit (LEO) payloads for between $3.5           generator based on a rocket engine to test
gic nuclear missiles and a statement that             and $7 million, which is below market                 new advanced weaponry systems. The Rus-
neither country will be the first to use              value. Under the 1993 agreement, LEO                  sian generator is a magneto-hydrodynamic
nuclear weapons against the other.                    launches were to be handled on a case-by-             generator that converts chemical energy into
 Andrey Kirillov, Anna Melnikova, and Vladimir        case basis; the U.S. would like to place a            kinetic energy, and then into electrical en-
 Solntsev, Itar-Tass World Service (Moscow), 9/3/     more specific limit on the launches.                  ergy, by burning rocket fuel to create a high
 94; in FBIS-SOV-94-172, 9/6/94, p. 19 (4483).         Aerospace Daily, 6/2/94, pp. 343-344 (4586).
 Andrey Kirillov, Anna Melnikova, and Vladimir                                                              speed plasma flow which is directed through
 Solntsev, Itar-Tass (Moscow), 9/3/94; in FBIS-SOV-                                                         a magnetic field to induce voltage.
 94-172, 9/6/94, p. 12 (4483). Michael Specter,                            6/94                              International Defense Review, 8/94, p. 70 (4492).
 New York Times, 9/4/94, p. 4 (4550). Sergei          The Clinton Administration agrees to Rus-
 Shargorodsky, Washington Times, 9/4/94, p. A8        sian demands to freeze the capability of U.S.
 (4374). Nadezhda Potapova, Itar-Tass (Moscow),       high-speed anti-missile missiles at current
 9/6/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-172, 9/6/94, pp. 18-19
 (4483).                                              levels under the terms of the 1972 Anti-



146                                                                                                     The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995
                                                              Missile Developments

  RUSSIA   WITH UNITED KINGDOM           AND                                                         get drone. The Flowchart-2 weighs 600 kg
              UNITED STATES                                                                          fully loaded and travels at high subsonic
                                                             SOUTH AFRICA                            speeds.
                                                                                                      Helmoed-Romer Heitman, Jane’s Defence Weekly,
                  5/25/94                                                                             8/20/94, p. 10 (4560).
Russian Defense Minister General Pavel
Grachev writes a letter to Russian President
Boris Yeltsin announcing the completion of                                                           SOUTH AFRICA        WITH   UNITED KINGDOM
nuclear missile detargeting. Russian ICBMs                  INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS
were detargeted in accordance with an agree-
                                                                        5/94                                               9/94
ment that had been initially concluded be-
                                                    It is reported that a new SAM, which will        It is reported that Kentron may enter the
tween the U.S. and Russia in 1/94, which
                                                    probably be a navalized version of the           U.K. SR(A)1236 conventionally armed air-
the U.K. joined in 2/94. The agreement
                                                    SAHV-3 missile, is being developed as part       launched stand-off missile (CASOM) com-
called for the missiles to be retargeted by 5/
                                                    of the South African Navy’s (SAN) corvette       petition with its modular stand-off weapon
30/94. The missiles are not currently tar-
                                                    requirement. Kentron has done preliminary        (MUPSOW), a classified South African Air
geted at any location, so, because they can-
                                                    work on a vertical launch version of the         Force program that is still in the develop-
not be launched without a flight plan, un-
                                                    Mach 3.5, 123 kg, 12 km range SAHV-3,            mental phase. The MUPSOW has been
authorized launches cannot occur.
 Asian Defense Journal, 8/94, pp. 104-105 (4418).   which is capable of 40 g’s, but there are        described by one source as “somewhere be-
                                                    indications that the SAN will opt for a train-   tween the Apache and the Tomahawk,” and
                                                    able launcher. Future upgrades of the ships      is thought to be a follow-on to the H2 ex-
                                                    may include a new SSM.                           tended-range glide bomb, which reportedly
                                                     Helmoed-Romer Heitman, Jane’s Defence Con-      began development in the late 1970s and
          SAUDI ARABIA                               tracts, 5/94, pp. 1-2 (4306).                   was employed in the Angolan war. The U.K.
                                                                                                     Treasury is to review the CASOM program
                                                                        7/94                         before the request for proposals; this delay
                                                    Johan Alberts, CEO of South Africa’s Denel       is likely to be beneficial for the Kentron bid.
                                                    company, announces that Denel’s Eloptro          It is believed that U.K. Ministry of Defence
        INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS                       optics/optronics and Kentron divisions have      officials have met with South African offi-
                                                    been merged, and are now operating under         cials regarding the MUPSOW.
                   8/5/94                           the name of Kentron. Kentron now con-             Flight International, 9/14/94, p. 16 (4308).

Defector Mohammed A. al-Khilewi, the                sists of three sections: Dynamics, Eloptro,
former second-ranking official at the Saudi         and Irenco. Kentron Dynamics produces
Mission to the U.N., states that in 1985            the Darter infra-red AAM, ZT-35 anti-tank
“Saudi Arabia started to think seriously            missile, Seeker RPV, and Skua high-speed
                                                    target. Irenco produces stabilized TV/FLIR
                                                                                                               SOUTH KOREA
about starting its own nuclear weapons pro-
gram.” Saudi Arabia has CSS-2 IRBMs in              turrets for aircraft and helicopters, and
its arms inventory.                                 Eloptro is to produce items such as IR sen-
 Paul Lewis, New York Times, 8/7/94 (4338).         sors, thermal imagers, and laser range-find-
                                                    ers. Kentron is to increase emphasis on
                                                    long-range reconnaissance and stand-off                 SOUTH KOREA         WITH   RUSSIA
  SAUDI ARABIA WITH UNITED STATES                   weapons.
                                                     Helmoed-Romer Heitman, Jane’s Defence Weekly,                         8/94
                                                     7/2/94, p. 37 (4310).                           It is reported that Gennadiy Yanpolskiy,
                     9/94
                                                                                                     vice-chairman of the Russian state commit-
It is reported that Raytheon has won a $9.3                             8/94                         tee for defence sectors of industry, has stated,
million contract from the U.S. Army Mis-            The South Africa company Kentron, a di-          “We could agree to supply S-300 complexes
sile Command for integration work on eight          vision of the Denel company, has report-         to South Korea given its desire to buy them.”
Patriot tactical fire units bought by Saudi         edly developed a ‘stealth’ target drone called    Vladimir Solntsev, Itar-Tass (Moscow), 8/10/94; in
Arabia. According to Raytheon’s Vice Presi-         the Flowchart-2, which is intended to simu-       FBIS-SOV-94-154, 8/10/94, p. 9 (4454).
dent of Corporate Communications, Pat               late “low-observable” aircraft and cruise
Coulter, one of the eight units will be used        missiles. The Flowchart-2 is 5 m long, with                          8/4/94
for Saudi training and another will be kept         a wingspan of 3.5 m, and incorporates a          South Korean Defense Ministry officials
as a floating spare.                                new, low observable airframe with many           state that South Korea and Russia will com-
 Defense News, 9/19/94, p. 25 (4554).                                                                plete an agreement in 9/94 for Russia to
                                                    subsystems from the Skua high-speed tar-



The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995                                                                                                              147
                                                           Missile Developments

transfer military weaponry, including S-300                                                            missiles, related hardware, logistics and
air defense missiles, to South Korea as pay-                                                           spare parts support, installation assistance,
ment for a portion of the $650 million Rus-                      TAIWAN                                and training. The MADS are to be deliv-
sian debt to South Korea.                                                                              ered beginning in 9/96.
 Defense News, 8/8/94, p. 2 (4413).                                                                      Aerospace Daily, 7/1/94, p. 5A (4415). Jason
                                                                                                         Glashow, Defense News, 7/4/94, p. 16 (4415). BMD
                                                                                                         Monitor, 7/15/94, p. 237, (4415). Washington
                                                                                                         Times, 7/17/94, p. A7 (4415). International De-
                                                         INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS                           fense Review, 9/94, pp. 13-14 (4415).

                  SYRIA                                               7/94
                                                 Taiwan makes public photographs showing
                                                 the Hsiung Feng-2 medium-range ASM.
                                                 The Hsiung Feng-2, believed to be derived                          TAJIKISTAN
                                                 from a ship-launched missile, utilized tur-
        INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS                    bofan propulsion and active radar and im-
                                                 aging infrared (IIR) dual-seeker guidance.
                   6/26/94                       It will probably be carried on Taiwan’s
In an interview, an Israeli official states,     AIDC Ching-Kuo indigenous defense                       TAJIKISTAN     WITH AFGHANISTAN         AND
“Syria already has produced a small quan-        fighter, and may also be used on Taiwan’s                                 RUSSIA
tity of the [Scud-C] missiles and they al-       F-16, Mirage 2000, and AT-3 “support vari-
ready have their own launchers. In 12 to 24      ant” aircraft. The Hsiung Feng series and                                8/10/94
months, they will enter into full production     the Sky Sword AAM were developed by the               According to Russian military forces in
capability.” According to Israeli military       Chung Shan Institute of Science and Tech-             Dushanbe, the 12th post of the Moscow
officials, Syrian leaders consider the Scud-     nology (CSIST), a division of Aero Indus-             border troops headquarters in Tajikistan is
C SSM as a counter to the Israeli Air Force’s    try Development Centre (AIDC).                        atttacked by missiles fired from Afghan ter-
strike capabilities. Despite the fact that        Charles Bickers, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 6/18/94,     ritory. The Russians respond with suppres-
Syria’s total defense budget has dropped in       p. 4 (4345). Flight International, 8/3/94, p. 18
                                                                                                       sive fire on the missile launcher emplace-
1994 to around $3 billion, or 44 percent of       (4345).
                                                                                                       ment; no casualties are reported.
its national budget, Israeli officials have                                                              Itar-Tass (Moscow), 8/11/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-155,
stated that Syria has increased spending on                           8/94                               8/11/94, p. 36 (4564).
its Scud-C program; production of the Scud-      It is reported that Taiwan has deployed the
C and other SSMs has become the highest          Sky Bow SAM, Sky Sword AAM, and U.S.                                     8/27/94
military priority in Syria.                      Hawk missiles to defend against a possible            During the early morning hours, Tajik
 Richard C. Barnard and Barbara Opall, Defense   Chinese invasion. Sky Bow and Sky Sword               Mujaheedin launch several missiles at the
 News, 7/4/94, p. 15 (4337).                     were developed by the Taiwanese military’s            Russian Frontier Guard observation posi-
                                                 Chungsan Institute of Science and Technol-            tion and post on the Turk Heights in
                                                 ogy.                                                  Tajikistan. The missiles are launched from
           SYRIA    WITH   ISRAEL                 Asia Pacific Defence Review, 8/94, p. 81 (4330).
                                                                                                       the area of the Afghan-Tajik border and from
                                                                                                       Afghan territory, according to the second
                   6/22/94                                                                             commander of Russian border guards in
In a speech to the Zionist General Council,           TAIWAN     WITH    UNITED STATES                 Tajikistan, Major General Aleksandr
Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin says                                                              Savchenko. No Russian soldiers are killed.
that “Syria today has ground-to-ground mis-                         6/29/94                              Galina Gridneva, Itar-Tass (Moscow), 8/28/94; in
siles in quantity and in quality that [make]     The U.S.’s Raytheon Co. signs a contract                FBIS-SOV-94-167, 8/29/94, p. 48 (4392).
what we suffered from Iraq in the gulf war       with Taiwan’s Defense Ministry to sell Tai-
[seem like] a children’s game.” Opposition       wan $600 million worth of Modified Air
leaders denounce Rabin for attempting to         Defense Systems (MADS), which are based
frighten opponents into advocating an ex-        on the Patriot missile system. Other sources
tensive withdrawal from the Golan Heights.       report the deal is worth $565 million. The
 Sharone Parnes, Defense News, 6/27/94, p. 16    MADS system will replace one of Taiwan’s
 (4335).                                         older Nike-Hercules SAM battalions, and
                                                 will be deployed in the northern region of
                                                 Taiwan. Under the terms of the contract,
                                                 Raytheon will supply Taiwan with fire units,



148                                                                                                  The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995
                                                                Missile Developments

                                                      pan 3, and Malaysia 25. Work on the con-              Krasnaya Zvezda, 7/26/94, p. 1; in FBIS-SOV-94-
                                                      tract is expected to be completed by 12/96.           147, 8/1/94, pp. 32-33 (4605).
                TURKEY                                 Reuter, 8/22/94; in Executive News Service, 8/24/
                                                       94 (4347). Flight International, 9/14/94, p. 40
                                                       (4347).                                                      UKRAINE      WITH    FRANCE
                                                                           9/94                                                  5/94
TURKEY WITH MULTI-COUNTRY GROUP                       The Pentagon informs Congress of the pro-            It is reported that Aerospatiale of France
                                                      posed $32 million sale of 270 Multiple               and Yuzhnoe of Ukraine have signed four
                                                      Launch Rocket System pods to Turkey.                 contracts which provide for the conversion
                    6/9/94                             International Defense Review, 9/94, p. 9 (4349).
Turkey hosts a NATO meeting in Istanbul                                                                    of SS-24 oxygen tanks to containers for liq-
at which the foreign ministers of NATO                                                                     uid oxygen and kerosene; the use of SS-24
                                                                         9/23/94                           missiles and components to manufacture
settle on a counterproliferation policy of            U.S. Navy intelligence officers state that the
strengthening existing international agree-                                                                small rockets that will launch satellites into
                                                      submarine-launched Harpoon missile has               a low-earth orbit from France’s space cen-
ments while preparing defenses against po-            been transferred to seven countries: Egypt,
tential nuclear or chemical weapon-armed                                                                   ter in Guiana; the use of a 30 ton thrust
                                                      Greece, Japan, Israel, Turkey, the U.K., and         engine as the second stage booster for small
ballistic missile threats from rogue states in        Pakistan.
the Middle East or North Africa. A policy                                                                  rockets; and the conversion of SS-24 ICBM
                                                       Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, De-
statement released after the meeting said,             fense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).              missile components to boosters for the
“Weapons of mass destruction and their de-                                                                 Ariane-5 SLV.
livery means can pose a direct military risk                                                                Ukrinform (Kiev), 5/30/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-105,
                                                                                                            6/1/94, pp. 46-47 (4487).
to the member states of the alliance and to
their forces.” The ministers provide no in-
                                                                     UKRAINE                                                     7/94
formation on how NATO, which is already
                                                                                                           It is reported that Ukraine is initiating joint
evaluating the establishment of ballistic
                                                                                                           technology transfers with France’s CNES
missile defenses, could adapt to meet this
                                                                                                           and the U.S. NASA, as well as booster de-
threat.
 Aliza Marcus, Reuter, 6/9/94; in Executive News
                                                                                                           velopment with U.S. Boeing and France’s
 Service, 6/10/94 (4307).                                     INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS                        Aerospatiale for the 461-ton “piggyback” air-
                                                                                                           launched Zenit booster.
                                                                                                            Intelligence Newsletter, 7/26/94, p. 7 (4488).
                                                                           8/94
     TURKEY WITH UNITED STATES                        A number of surface-to-air missiles are sto-
                                                      len from a military unit in the Cherkassk                       UKRAINE      WITH    INDIA
                    8/1/94                            region of Ukraine by both servicemen and
The U.S. Defense Department announces                 civilians, according to the Ukrainian Min-
that it has proposed to sell Turkey 596 more                                                                                   9/16/94
                                                      istry of Defense. Some of the missiles have
air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles for ap-                                                             According to Andrey Zhalko-Titarenko, act-
                                                      been located.
proximately $137 million. The missile deal             Interfax (Moscow), 8/11/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-156,
                                                                                                           ing Director General of the Ukraine Space
would include 80 AIM-120 Advanced Me-                  8/12/94, p. 26 (4462).                              Agency, Ukraine and India sign an agree-
dium Range Air-to-Air Missiles                                                                             ment to cooperate in the areas of space tech-
(AMRAAM) worth roughly $52 million,                                                                        nology and the remote probing of the Earth.
500 AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles                       UKRAINE WITH CROATIA                        Zhalko-Titarenko states that there is a pro-
for $55 million, and 16 Harpoon anti-ship                                                                  vision in the agreement for the use of In-
missiles for $30 million.                                                7/22/94                           dian boosters to launch Ukrainian satellites
 Umit Enginsoy, Defense News, 8/8/94, p. 18 (4431).   The Ukrainian Defense Ministry press ser-            and the reciprocal use of space facilities.
 Jane’s Defence Weekly, 8/13/94, p. 12 (4595).        vice denies a report by the Serbian publica-         The U.S. is concerned that rocket technolo-
                                                      tion Novny that stated that Croatia has pro-         gies that fall under the MTCR may be trans-
                     9/94                             cured 20 S-300 anti-missile systems from             ferred to India. Ukraine, according to
McDonnell Douglas is awarded a contract               Ukraine. The Ukrainian Defense Ministry              Zhalko-Titarenko, has assured the U.S. that
for 75 SLAMs and 44 Harpoon missiles.                 press service states that Ukraine operates in        the agreement does not have any “military
The contract is worth $125 million, but its           accordance with the moratorium on the sale           applications.”
value may increase by $12 million if Tur-             of arms to combative nations.                         Pavlo Balkovsky, Reuter, 9/18/94 (4548). Interfax
key opts to procure 12 Harpoon missiles.                                                                    (Moscow), 9/20/94; in FBIS-SOV-94-183, 9/21/94,
                                                       Radio Ukraine World Service (Kiev), 7/22/94; in      p. 60 (4534). Hindu, 9/24/94, p. 16 (4542). Space
Of the 44 Harpoon missiles currently cov-              FBIS-SOV-94-142, 7/25/94, p. 35 (4312).              News, 9/26/94, p. 2 (4542).
ered by the deal, Egypt will receive 16, Ja-


The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995                                                                                                                      149
                                                                Missile Developments

      UKRAINE     WITH   UNITED STATES                  UNITED KINGDOM WITH RUSSIA                AND     SLAM, Hughes may enter the Air Hawk,
                                                                 UNITED STATES                            and Texas Instruments may enter the ex-
                      7/94                                                                                tended-range JSOW variant. Rockwell may
It is reported that Ukraine is initiating joint                          5/25/94                          enter the AGM-130 stand-off weapon, al-
technology transfers with France’s CNES               Russian Defense Minister General Pavel              though the missile’s 200 km (110 nm) range
and the U.S. NASA, and booster develop-               Grachev writes a letter to Russian President        falls short of the 400 km range requirement
ment with U.S. Boeing and France’s                    Boris Yeltsin announcing the completion of          expected to be given in the British Ministry
Aerospatiale for the 461-ton “piggyback” air-         nuclear missile detargeting. Russian ICBMs          of Defence request.
launched Zenit booster.                                                                                     Flight International, 9/14/94, p. 16 (4308).
                                                      were detargeted in accordance with an agree-
 Intelligence Newsletter, 7/26/94, p. 7 (4488).       ment that had been initially concluded be-
                                                      tween the U.S. and Russia in 1/94, which                                   9/94
                    8/31/94                           the U.K. joined in 2/94. The agreement              It is reported that McDonnell Douglas
During a meeting between the Ukrainian                called for the missiles to be retargeted by 5/      (MDC) of the U.S. is negotiating with GEC-
American Community and a U.S. delega-                 30/94. The missiles are not currently tar-          Marconi Avionics (GMAv) of the U.K. over
tion which includes the Ambassador-at-                geted at any location, so, because they can-        the possibility of including the British
Large to the newly-independent states of the          not be launched without a flight plan, un-          company’s advanced infra-red imaging (IIR)
former Soviet Union, James Collins, details           authorized launches cannot occur.                   seeker as part of the Grand SLAM missile
of the $350 million Nunn-Lugar aid pack-               Asian Defense Journal, 8/94, pp. 104-105 (4418).   produced by MDC and Hunting. The Grand
age to Ukraine are revealed. An SS-24 dis-                                                                SLAM missile is competing for the Royal
mantlement project will receive $50 mil-                                                                  Air Force’s (RAF) stand-off missile require-
lion, and the U.S. will participate in the            UNITED KINGDOM         WITH    SOUTH AFRICA         ment. It is estimated that 500-1,000 mis-
building of storage facilities for SS-19 fuel.                                                            siles will be purchased to meet the RAF’s
 UNIS; in Ukrainian Weekly, 9/11/94, pp. 2, 16                              9/94                          conventional stand-off needs.
 (4490).                                                                                                    Flight International, 9/21/94, p. 18 (4439).
                                                      It is reported that Kentron may enter the
                                                      U.K. SR(A)1236 conventionally armed air-
                                                                                                                              9/23/94
                                                      launched stand-off missile (CASOM) com-
                                                                                                          U.S. Navy intelligence officers state that the
                                                      petition with its modular stand-off weapon
                                                                                                          submarine-launched Harpoon missile has
      UNITED KINGDOM                                  (MUPSOW), a classified South African Air
                                                                                                          been transferred to seven countries: Egypt,
                                                      Force program that is still in the develop-
                                                                                                          Greece, Japan, Israel, Turkey, the U.K., and
                                                      mental phase. The MUPSOW has been
                                                                                                          Pakistan.
                                                      described by one source as “somewhere be-             Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, De-
        INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS                         tween the Apache and the Tomahawk,” and               fense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).
                                                      is thought to be a follow-on to the H2 ex-
                      8/94                            tended-range glide bomb, which reportedly
It is reported that the HMS Vanguard Tri-             began development in the late 1970s and
dent submarine has successfully completed             was employed in the Angolan war. The U.K.
its first test-firing of an unarmed Trident II        Treasury is to review the CASOM program                       UNITED STATES
D-5 ballistic missile while submerged off             before the request for proposals, a delay that
the Florida coast.                                    will likely be beneficial for the Kentron bid.
 Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter, 8/94, p. 23 (4509).   It is believed that U.K. Ministry of Defence
                                                      (MoD) officials have met with South Afri-
                                                      can officials regarding the MUPSOW.                          INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS
                                                       Flight International, 9/14/94, p. 16 (4308).
    UNITED KINGDOM           WITH   FRANCE
                                                                                                                               6/2/94
                      9/94                                                                                The Extended Range Interceptor (ERINT),
                                                      UNITED KINGDOM         WITH    UNITED STATES        produced by Loral Vought, intercepts and
It is reported that Matra and Aerospatiale
of France are interested in entering the U.K.                                                             destroys an MQM-107D target drone at the
conventionally armed air-launched stand-off                                 9/94                          White Sands Missile Range, completing its
missile (CASOM) competition with the                  It is reported that several U.S. companies          third successful test in a row. The drone
Apache and ASMP-C missiles.                           are interested in entering the U.K. conven-         simulates a typical diving ground attack
 Flight International, 9/14/94, p. 16 (4308).         tionally armed air-launched stand-off               maneuver that an aircraft might use to at-
                                                      weapon (CASOM) competition. McDonnell               tack a ground target. The ERINT, recently
                                                      Douglas and Hunting may enter the Grand             approved as the missile for the PAC-3 mis-



150                                                                                                     The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995
                                                                Missile Developments

sile defense system, has in the last six months       ager Col. Fred Kilgore will propose delays          a series of tests on the aircraft carrier USS
intercepted Storm targets which were car-             in the first test firing of the THAAD hit-to-       Dwight D. Eisenhower and other ships, the
rying simulated bulk chemical warheads and            kill interceptor at a 7/25/94 meeting with          CEC was used against seven simulated bal-
submunitions.                                         the director of the BMDO, Army Lt. Gen.             listic missile launches and one live launch.
 Aerospace Daily, 6/3/94, p. 354 (4419).              Malcolm O’Neill.                                    The system shows great potential for increas-
                                                       Jason Glashow and Barbara Opall, Defense News,     ing the abilities of land-based air defense
                   6/16/94                             7/25/94, pp. 1, 28 (4493).                         weapons, including the Army’s Patriot mis-
Raytheon Missile Corporation announces                                                                    sile.
that it has received a $43.3 million contract                           7/30/94                            Robert Holzer, Defense News, 9/26/94, p. 12 (4519).
to provide the U.S. Navy with 145 Stan-               The U.S. Air Force announces that an MX
dard missiles, one-half of the FY 1994 al-            Peacekeeper missile was struck by two high-                               9/94
lotment for Standard missiles. The Stan-              power rifle bullets which caused $11 mil-           It is reported that the U.S. Navy awards
dard missile is a supersonic, all-weather             lion worth of damage. The missile was               Hughes Aircraft Co. a “sole-source” contract
SAM able to engage hostile aircraft and               struck during a journey from an Air Force           worth over $2 billion to build Tomahawk
missiles up to 80 miles distant. It provides          base near Cheyenne, Wyoming to                      cruise missiles. The contract provides $130
fleet air defense and is the Navy’s primary           Vandenburg Air Force Base for a test launch         million for 216 Block III Tomahawk mis-
air defense missile.                                  scheduled for 9/94. The missile had been            siles, with future options for 1995-1998
 Arms Trade News, 7/94, p. 2 (4355).                  disassembled and packed in unmarked box-            purchases and $226.5 million for develop-
                                                      cars for the journey, and was hit in the first      ment of the Block IV Tomahawk upgrade
                     7/94                             and second stages by the unknown sniper.            under the Tomahawk Baseline Improvement
The U.S. State Department concludes that              The damage was discovered during a rou-             Program (TBIP). Under TBIP, two versions
the high endurance unmanned aerial vehicle            tine inspection after delivery. The missile         of the Block IV Tomahawk will be designed
(UAV) to be designed for use in the ARPA              was rendered useless by the bullets, and was        for greater effectiveness against hardened
Tier II Plus project falls under the MTCR             sent to Ogden, Utah where inspectors will           and relocatable targets. The Tomahawk
as a “Category I system.” The State Depart-           determine how much of it can be salvaged.           Multi-Mission Missile (TMMM), for use
ment will decide on a case-by-case basis              The Air Force maintains that there was never        against land-based targets and ships, will
whether foreign companies can compete to              any danger of the nuclear-tipped missile            carry the smaller and lighter WDU-36B
participate in the UAV project. The UAV               exploding.                                          high-explosive warhead, allowing for addi-
can carry 500 kg (1,100 lbs) over 300 km               Sunday Times, 7/31/94 (4346).                      tional fuel and a greater range. The war-
(186 mi). ARPA would like the Tier II Plus                                                                head design for the second version, the
system to be able to carry 1,500 lbs over a                             8/10/94                           Tomahawk Hard Target Penetrator (THTP),
distance of 900-1,900 mi.                             U.S. Senate and House conferees finalize            will be determined by Hughes.
 Defense Daily, 7/5/94, (4479). Aerospace Daily,      the defense authorization bill allocating a          International Defense Review, 7/94, pp. 16-17
 7/7/94, p. 24 (4479). Jane’s Defence Contracts, 8/   $263.8 billion budget for Fiscal Year 1995.          (4486). Steven Pearlstein, Washington Post, 9/17/
 94, p. 6 (4479).                                     The bill includes $696 million for 18 Tri-           94; in Executive News Service, 9/19/94 (4486). Jeff
                                                                                                           Cole, Wall Street Journal, 9/19/94, p. 3 (4486).
                                                      dent II SLBMs to be used on the Navy’s 10            Jane’s Defence Weekly, 9/24/94, p. 3 (4486). Bruce
                     7/94                             Trident ballistic missile submarines in the          A. Smith, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9/
It is reported that kinetic energy missile tech-      Atlantic Fleet. The bill also eliminates $375        26/94, pp. 86-87 (4486).
nology, developed by the U.S. Army, may               million previously allocated for 48 Tri-Ser-
be provided to the U.S. Air Force for use in          vice Standoff Attack Missiles (TSSAMs) to                                 9/94
the AF Boost Phase Interceptor (BPI) pro-             be built by Northrup-Grumman. Under the             It is reported that Honeywell Military Avi-
gram, designed to kill theater ballistic mis-         bill, both the Navy’s Tier II theater missile       onics has been awarded a contract by the
siles shortly after launch. The Army pro-             defense and the Air Force’s Brilliant Eyes,         U.S. Navy for guidance units to be used in
gram, the Atmospheric Interceptor Technol-            space-based missile-attack warning satellite        the improved versions of the Navy’s Stand-
ogy (AIT) program, is a part of the weap-             programs’ funding will be restricted until it       off Land Attack Missile (SLAM), produced
ons directorate at the Army Space and Stra-           has been determined that the programs are           by the McDonnell Douglas Co. The initial
tegic Defense Command, and is one of sev-             allowed under the ABM Treaty.                       order is for 28 guidance and navigation units
eral Army theater ballistic missile defense            Arthur G. Atkins and Dunbar Lockwood, Arms         for use during the initial upgrade develop-
programs that are to be follow-ons to the              Control Today, 9/94, p. 26 (4465). Bloomberg, 9/   ment phase of the improved SLAM, but that
Patriot interceptor and the THAAD systems.             14/94 (4465).
                                                                                                          number could increase by another 750 units,
 Jason Glashow and Theresa Hitchens, Defense News,
                                                                                                          depending on final procurement levels.
 7/11/94, p. 8 (4501).                                                     9/94                            Defense News, 9/29/94, p. 19 (4593).
                                                      It is reported that a new U.S. Navy target-
                   7/25/94                            ing system, called the Cooperative Engage-
It is reported that THAAD program man-                ment Capability (CEC), performed well. In



The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995                                                                                                                    151
                                                                 Missile Developments

                      9/94                                   UNITED STATES        WITH   EGYPT                the U.S. trade embargo on Iraq. Harb ille-
The U.S. Navy approves the acquisition of                                                                     gally procured and exported technology,
the AGM/RGM/UGM-84G Harpoon Block                                           9/94                              machinery, spare parts, and other goods
1G upgrade, which will be installed in over            McDonnell Douglas is awarded an $125                   which experts say were probably intended
2,000 existing Block 1C Harpoon missiles.              million contract by the U.S. Navy for 75               for military use in the Iraqi government’s
The Block 1G Upgrade consists of software              SLAMs and 44 Harpoon missiles. Of the                  effort to rebuild advanced weapons systems.
modifications that will allow the missile to           44 Harpoon missiles currently covered by               Harb was convicted of 23 counts relating to
re-attack missed targets until it runs out of          the deal, Egypt will receive 16, Japan 3,              the illegal shipping operation.
fuel, and an enhanced electronics counter-             and Malaysia 25. Work on the contract is                 Daniel Southerland, Washington Post, 9/17/94, p.
                                                                                                                C5 (4598).
countermeasures package.                               expected to be completed by 12/96.
 Jane’s Defence Weekly, 9/17/94, p. 12 (4596).          Reuter, 8/22/94; in Executive News Service, 8/24/
                                                        94 (4347). Flight International, 9/14/94, p. 40
                    9/3/94                              (4347).                                                      UNITED STATES WITH ISRAEL
The U.S. Air Force (USAF) unveils its new
radar-evading cruise missile, the Tri-Ser-                                9/23/94                                                   5/94
vice Standoff Attack Missile (TSSAM), in               U.S. Navy intelligence officers state that the         Israel, Greece, and Japan finalize a $43.4
an effort to preserve the program. The mili-           submarine-launched Harpoon missile has                 million Foreign Military Sales contract with
tary would like to procure 4,100 TSSAMs                been transferred to seven countries: Egypt,            the U.S. Loral Vought Systems for the pur-
at a cost of over $2 million each, and the             Greece, Japan, Israel, Turkey, the U.K., and           chase of Multiple Launch Rocket Systems
USAF and Navy plan to go forward with                  Pakistan.                                              (MLRS) and rockets. By 9/95, Japan will
                                                        Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, De-       receive 72 practice rockets, by 12/96 Israel
the $13.3 billion program if funding is se-             fense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).
cured from Congress. A number of compa-                                                                       will receive 6 MLRS launchers, 726 tacti-
nies are preparing to offer less expensive                                                                    cal rockets, and 720 practice rockets, and
systems to replace the TSSAM if the Penta-                                                                    by 2/97 Greece will take delivery of 9 MLRS
                                                             UNITED STATES       WITH   GREECE                launchers and 132 reduced-range practice
gon decides to terminate the program be-
cause of technical problems and cost over-                                                                    rockets.
                                                                            5/94                                International Defense Review, 8/94, p. 17 (4466).
runs.
 Charles Aldinger, Reuter, 9/6/94; in Executive News
                                                       Israel, Greece, and Japan finalize a $43.4
 Service, 9/7/94 (4601). Jane’s Defence Weekly, 9/     million Foreign Military Sales contract with                               5/26/94
 24/94, p. 10 (4602).                                  the U.S. Loral Vought Systems for the pur-             The Israeli Home Front Command, with
                                                       chase of Multiple Launch Rocket Systems                U.S. cooperation, detonates a Scud-like
                    9/20/94                            (MLRS) and rockets. By 9/95, Japan will                missile in a southern Israeli open training
The Defense Resources Board meets to con-              receive 72 practice rockets, by 12/96 Israel           range scattered with reinforced structures.
sider three possible design concepts for the           will receive 6 MLRS launchers, 726 tacti-              The missile, which is similar to Scuds owned
Alert, Locate, and Report Missiles                     cal rockets, and 720 practice rockets, and             by Syria and other Arab countries, contains
(ALARM) system, a program the U.S. Air                 by 2/97 Greece will take delivery of 9 MLRS            hundreds of kilograms of explosives; the
Force plans to spend about $1 billion on               launchers and 132 reduced-range practice               experiment is designed to study the impact
between 1995 and 1999.                                 rockets.                                               a Scud would create falling into a densely
 Andrew Lawler, Space News, 8/15/94, pp. 4, 21          International Defense Review, 8/94, p. 17 (4466).
 (4567). Steve Weber, Space News, 9/26/94, pp. 3,
                                                                                                              populated area.
 21 (4567). Steve Weber, Defense News, 9/26/94,                                                                  Arye Kiesel, Yedi’ot Aharonot, 5/27/94, p. 17; in
 pp. 4, 36 (4567).
                                                                          9/23/94                               FBIS-NES-94-124, 5/28/94, p. 54 (4478).
                                                       U.S. Navy intelligence officers state that the
                    9/23/94                            submarine-launched Harpoon missile has                                       6/94
U.S. Congressman Robert Livingston from                been transferred to seven countries: Egypt,            It is reported that Lt. Gen. Malcolm
Louisiana announces the formation of the               Greece, Japan, Israel, Turkey, the U.K., and           O’Neill, Director of the U.S. Ballistic Mis-
Coalition to Defend America, a group dedi-             Pakistan.                                              sile Defense Organization (BMDO), said
                                                        Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, De-       that there must be a successful intercept test
cated to ensuring that no further reductions            fense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).
in missile defenses are negotiated during the                                                                 by the Israeli Arrow missile before the U.S.
U.S.-Russian summit scheduled for late 9/                                                                     will provide $25 million in funding that has
94. Livingston releases letters signed by                                                                     already been earmarked for deployment
                                                              UNITED STATES WITH IRAQ
32 House members and 39 Senators urging                                                                       technology R&D or participate in any pro-
President Clinton not to negotiate limits on                                                                  gram to deploy the Arrow. To date, the U.S.
                                                                          9/15/94                             and Israel have been jointly developing the
theater missile defense.                               A Jordanian-born, naturalized U.S. citizen,
 Washington Times, 9/24/94, p. A5 (4354).                                                                     Arrow missile under the $330 million Ar-
                                                       Al M. Harb, is convicted of circumventing


152                                                                                                         The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995
                                                                 Missile Developments

row Continuation Experiments (ACES) pro-                      UNITED STATES        WITH ITALY               radar system situated west of Tokyo. Op-
gram, of which the U.S. funds 75 percent.                                                                   tion C would cost $4.55 billion and would
 Barbara Starr, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 6/4/94, p. 4                         9/94                            employ six land-based THAAD firing units
 (4496).                                                                                                    and the Patriot PAC-3, for a combined total
                                                       The U.S. Pentagon informs Congress of the
                                                       proposed $48 million sale of 42 Maverick             of 560 missiles. Option D would cost $8.9
                      7/94                                                                                  billion and would include five THAAD fir-
                                                       missiles and 33 AIM-120 AMRAAMs to
It is reported that the Senate Armed Ser-                                                                   ing units, upgraded Patriot missiles, and four
                                                       Italy.
vices Committee recommends that the U.S.                International Defense Review, 9/94, p. 9 (4349).    Aegis destroyers. Each of the Aegis destroy-
continue cooperating with Israel on The-                                                                    ers would carry 36 ATBMs; one would be
ater Missile Defense (TMD), the Arrow                                                                       stationed in the Sea of Japan, one off Kyushi,
ATBM, and the boost phase intercept tech-                     UNITED STATES WITH JAPAN                      and the remaining two held in reserve.
nology program.                                                                                              Paul Beaver, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 8/13/94, p. 21
 BMD Monitor, 7/1/94, p. 227 (4499).                                                                         (4350).
                                                                            5/94
                      7/94                             Israel, Greece, and Japan finalize a $43.4
                                                                                                                                 6/94
Feasibility studies of Israel’s boost-phase            million Foreign Military Sales contract with
                                                                                                            Japan considers a U.S. proposal for coop-
intercept (BPI) technologies are scheduled             the U.S. Loral Vought Systems for the pur-
                                                                                                            eration on Theater Missile Defense (TMD).
to be completed. The BPI system, known                 chase of Multiple Launch Rocket Systems
                                                                                                            Via the program, the U.S. hopes to gain
as the Israel Boost-Intercept System (IBIS),           (MLRS) and rockets. By 9/95, Japan will
                                                                                                            access to Japanese radar circuit production
will be composed of long-range high en-                receive 72 practice rockets; by 12/96, Is-
                                                                                                            technology, “advanced materials” to produce
durance unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV).                rael will receive 6 MLRS launchers, 726
                                                                                                            lightweight rockets, and cooperation in the
The UAVs will be equipped with sensors to              tactical rockets, and 720 practice rockets;
                                                                                                            production of an optoelectronic guidance
detect a ballistic missile launch by an en-            and by 2/97, Greece will take delivery of 9
                                                                                                            system for ATBMs.
emy. Once a launch is detected, the UAV                MLRS launchers and 132 reduced-range                  Daily Japan Digest, 6/20/94 (4339).
will fire high-speed air-to-air missiles car-          practice rockets.
                                                        International Defense Review, 8/94, p. 17 (4466).
rying infrared seekers to destroy the missile                                                                                   6/8/94
over enemy territory.                                                                                       Meetings commence in Tokyo between Ja-
                                                                            5/94
 International Defense Review, 8/94, p. 15 (4568).                                                          pan and a team from the U.S. Pentagon’s
                                                       Japan signs a $50 million contract with U.S.
                                                                                                            Ballistic Missile Defense Organization
                      9/94                             Loral Vought Systems for an additional 9
                                                                                                            (BMDO), headed by David Martin. The
The U.S. Navy begins evaluating the Israeli            MRLS launchers (5 assembled and 4 par-
                                                                                                            U.S. is seeking to jointly develop a two-
Barak ship point-defense missile as a pos-             tially assembled) to be delivered to Japan’s
                                                                                                            phase sea-based tactical missile defense sys-
sible alternative to the Evolved Sea Spar-             Nissan Aerospace division of the Nissan
                                                                                                            tem with Japan, at an estimated cost of $85
row Missile (ESSM), which is being devel-              Motor Company by 8/96.
                                                        Jane’s Defence Weekly, 6/25/94, p. 13 (4466).
                                                                                                            million, using Aegis ships and upgrades of
oped by Hughes Missile Systems Co. and                                                                      the U.S. Standard SAM. The first “Navy
Raytheon Co. for an estimated cost of $250                                                                  Lower-Tier” phase includes Aegis upgrades
                                                                            6/94
million. The Barak, which is being devel-                                                                   and slight changes in the Standard missile.
                                                       U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization
oped by Israel Aircraft industries (IAI) and                                                                The second “Navy Upper-Tier” phase would
                                                       (BMDO) Director Lt. Gen. Malcolm
Rafael Armament Development Authority,                                                                      augment the Standard missile with a kinetic
                                                       O’Neill gives his Japanese counterparts a
is a vertically launched missile weighing 98                                                                kill vehicle to intercept missiles at higher
                                                       briefing entitled “Ballistic Missile Defense:
kg and has a range of 10 km (5.5 nm). The                                                                   altitudes.
                                                       Options for Japanese TMD” in which four
Barak is being designed to defend ships                                                                      Barbara Opall and Naoaki Usui, Defense News, 6/
                                                       options for Japanese ballistic missile defense        6/94, pp. 1, 42 (4400).
against high-speed, stealthy, sea-skimming
                                                       are outlined. Japan’s present plan includes
targets.
 Barbara Opall, Defense News, 9/26/94, p. 14 (4566).
                                                       the deployment of 24 Patriot PAC-2 units                                  9/94
                                                       that are to be operational by 1999 and up to         McDonnell Douglas is awarded an $125
                    9/23/94                            four Aegis destroyers and four AWACS air-            million contract by the U.S. Navy for 75
U.S. Navy intelligence officers state that the         craft that are to be operational by 1998.            SLAMs and 44 Harpoon missiles. Of the
submarine-launched Harpoon missile has                 Missile defense option A would cost $4.5             44 Harpoon missiles currently covered by
been transferred to seven countries: Egypt,            billion and would use Aegis destroyers in            the deal, Egypt will receive 16, Japan 3,
Greece, Japan, Israel, Turkey, the U.K., and           concert with Patriot PAC-3 land-based units          and Malaysia 25. Work on the contract is
Pakistan.                                              to engage targets in the upper and lower tiers       expected to be completed by 12/96.
 Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, De-       respectively. Option B would cost $16.3               Reuter, 8/22/94; in Executive News Service, 8/24/
 fense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).                billion and would include Patriot PAC-3               94 (4347). Flight International, 9/14/94, p. 40
                                                       units, eight new Aegis destroyers, and a new          (4347). Defense News, 9/19/94, p. 24 (4508).




The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995                                                                                                                     153
                                                               Missile Developments

                   9/10/94                           range of 150 km. U.S. Teledyne appears to          ket in exchange for Russian promises to price
It is reported that the Japan Defence Equip-         be favored to supply the turbojet engine for       its services at market value. The problem
ment Association will establish a “joint re-         the mid- and long-range missiles, but as yet       is that Russia is using SS-25s to boost low-
search committee” by the end of 1994 to              no decision has been made.                         earth orbit (LEO) payloads for between $3.5
examine the Theater Missile Defense (TMD)             Flight International, 8/17/94, p. 15 (4443).      and $7 million, which is below market
system, in order to “coordinate activities                                                              value. Under the 1993 agreement, LEO
already underway.” The cost of the proposed                                                             launches will be handled on a case-by-case
TMD system could exceed $20 billion.                   UNITED STATES WITH NORTH KOREA                   basis; the U.S. would like to place a more
 Jane’s Defence Weekly, 9/10/94, p. 16 (4341).                                                          specific limit on the launches.
                                                                        6/29/94                          Aerospace Daily, 6/2/94, pp. 343-344 (4586).
                   9/23/94                           Assistant Secretary of State Robert Gallucci,
U.S. Navy intelligence officers state that the       commenting on the upcoming 7/8/94 talks                                 6/94
submarine-launched Harpoon missile has               with North Korea in Geneva, states, “We            The Clinton Administration agrees to Rus-
been transferred to seven countries: Egypt,          would like to see the North Koreans adjust         sian demands to freeze the capability of U.S.
Greece, Japan, Israel, Turkey, the U.K., and         their missile technology export policy and         high-speed anti-missile missiles at current
Pakistan.                                            also their development policy.” Gallucci           levels under the terms of the 1972 Anti-
 Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, De-     adds, “If the dialogue fails and if the DPRK       Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty. As a re-
 fense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).              does not prove willing to take the necessary       sult, the speed of new interceptors will be
                                                     steps to resolve issues, we will return again      limited to 1.24 miles per second, the speed
                                                     to the Security Council.”                          ofthose used in the U.S. Army’s new The-
    UNITED STATES       WITH   MALAYSIA               Sid Balman Jr., UPI, 6/29/94 (4366).              ater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)
                                                                                                        system. The administration’s decision also
                     9/94                                                                               effectively stalls the development of several
McDonnell Douglas is awarded an $125                      UNITED STATES       WITH    PAKISTAN          wide-area missile defense systems, includ-
million contract by the U.S. Navy for 75                                                                ing the Navy’s Upper Tier system and the
SLAMs and 44 Harpoon missiles. Of the                                   9/23/94                         Air Force’s Boost Phase Intercept Program,
44 Harpoon missiles currently covered by             U.S. Navy intelligence officers state that the     which is designed to kill theater missiles
the deal, Egypt will receive 16, Japan 3,            submarine-launched Harpoon missile has             shortly after launch. The U.S. also agrees
and Malaysia 25. Work on the contract is             been transferred to seven countries: Egypt,        to end the development of new Army, Navy,
expected to be completed by 12/96.                   Greece, Japan, Israel, Turkey, the U.K., and       and Air Force wide-area defense systems.
 Reuter, 8/22/94; in Executive News Service, 8/24/   Pakistan. One official adds that, currently,        Washington Times, 7/1/94 (4318). Bill Gertz, Wash-
 94 (4347). Flight International, 9/14/94, p. 40                                                         ington Times, 7/1/94, p. A3 (4390).
 (4347). Defense News, 9/19/94, p. 24 (4508).        three Pakistani submarines are capable of
                                                     firing submarine-launched Harpoon mis-
                                                     siles.
                                                                                                                             7/94
                                                      Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, De-   It is reported that the Russians have pro-
UNITED STATES       WITH    MULTI-COUNTRY             fense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).            posed a series of tests and experiments uti-
                    GROUP                                                                               lizing early warning sensors, Patriot mis-
                                                                                                        sile interceptors, and the SA-12 missile sys-
                     8/94                                  UNITED STATES        WITH   RUSSIA           tem. According to the U.S. Air Force Se-
It is reported that three European partners                                                             nior Executive Officer for Space Maj. Gen.
of the Polyphem fibre-optic-guided, short-                               5/5/94                         Garry Schnelzer, the cost would presumably
range missile program, Aerospatiale,                 U.S. officials propose a range of coopera-         be divided between the U.S. and Russia.
Deutsche Aerospace (DASA), and                       tive ballistic missile defense programs with        BMD Monitor, 7/1/94, p. 228 (4353).
Italmissile, want to work with the U.S. com-         Russia that are to involve the sharing of basic
pany that is awarded a contract for the En-          technology, as well as jointly-conducted                                7/94
hanced Fibre-Optic Guided Missile                    experiments, and exercises.                        It is reported that the Douglas Company of
(EFOGM) program. According to DASA                    BMD Monitor, 7/1/94, p. 228 (4353).               the U.S. has contracted with Novator, a
head Ernst Seiffarth, “close contact” has been                                                          Russian firm based in Yekaterinburg, to
made with Boeing, Hughes, Raytheon, and                                    6/94                         deliver 2,000 Russian missiles to the U.S.
Westinghouse, the U.S. companies compet-             It is reported that Russia and the U.S. are        Army for use as test targets for the next gen-
ing for EFOGM. The Polyphem missile’s                currently negotiating the inclusion of Rus-        eration of U.S. anti-missile missile systems.
middle-range variant has a turbojet engine           sian SS-25 ballistic missiles in the 1993           Leonid Pozdeyev, Krasnaya Zvezda, 6/3/94, p. 1;
providing a range of 60 km.The long-range                                                                in FBIS-SOV-94-109, 6/7/94, pp. 14-15 (4391).
                                                     bilateral launch agreement that allowed Rus-        Intelligence Newsletter, 7/26/94, p. 7 (4391).
version has stealth features and a possible          sia access to the lucrative space launch mar-



154                                                                                                  The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995
                                                               Missile Developments

                     8/94                            wan $600 million worth of Modified Air                                    9/23/94
It is reported that the U.S. Air Force’s Philips     Defense Systems (MADS), which are based               U.S. Navy intelligence officers state that the
Laboratory will begin using a new Russian            on the Patriot missile system. Other sources          submarine-launched Harpoon missile has
generator based on a rocket engine to test           report the deal is worth $565 million. The            been transferred to seven countries: Egypt,
new advanced weaponry systems. The Rus-              MADS system will replace one of Taiwan’s              Greece, Japan, Israel, Turkey, the U.K., and
sian generator is a magneto-hydrodynamic             older Nike-Hercules SAM battalions, and               Pakistan.
generator that converts chemical energy into         will be deployed in the northern region of             Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, De-
kinetic energy, and then into electrical en-         Taiwan. Under the terms of the contract,               fense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).

ergy, by burning rocket fuel to create a high        Raytheon will supply Taiwan with fire units,
speed plasma flow which is directed through          missiles, related hardware, logistics and
a magnetic field to induce voltage.                  spare parts support, installation assistance,              UNITED STATES        WITH    UKRAINE
 International Defense Review, 8/94, p. 70 (4492).   and training. The MADS are to be deliv-
                                                     ered beginning in 9/96.                                                     7/94
                                                      Aerospace Daily, 7/1/94, p. 5A (4415). Jason         It is reported that Ukraine is initiating joint
                                                      Glashow, Defense News, 7/4/94, p. 16 (4415). BMD     technology transfers with France’s CNES
   UNITED STATES WITH RUSSIA AND                      Monitor, 7/15/94, p. 237, (4415). Washington
          UNITED KINGDOM                              Times, 7/17/94, p. A7 (4415). International De-
                                                                                                           and the U.S.’s NASA, and booster develop-
                                                      fense Review, 9/94, pp. 13-14 (4415).                ment with U.S. Boeing and France’s
                   5/25/94                                                                                 Aerospatiale for the 461-ton “piggyback” air-
Russian Defense Minister General Pavel                                                                     launched Zenit booster.
                                                          UNITED STATES WITH TURKEY                         Intelligence Newsletter, 7/26/94, p. 7 (4488).
Grachev writes a letter to Russian President
Boris Yeltsin announcing the completion of
                                                                         8/1/94                                                8/31/94
nuclear missile detargeting. Russian ICBMs
                                                     The U.S. Defense Department announces                 During a meeting between the Ukrainian
were detargeted in accordance with an agree-
                                                     that it has proposed to sell Turkey 596 more          American Community and a U.S. delega-
ment that had been initially concluded be-
                                                     air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles, for           tion which includes the Ambassador-at-
tween the U.S. and Russia in 1/94, which
                                                     approximately $137 million. The missile               Large to the newly-independent states of the
the U.K. joined in 2/94. The agreement
                                                     deal would include 80 AIM-120 Advanced                former Soviet Union, James Collins, details
called for the missiles to be retargeted by 5/
                                                     Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles                      of the $350 million Nunn-Lugar aid pack-
30/94. The missiles are not currently tar-
                                                     (AMRAAM) worth roughly $52 million,                   age to Ukraine are revealed. An SS-24 dis-
geted at any location, so, because they can-
                                                     500 AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles              mantlement project will receive $50 mil-
not be launched without a flight plan, un-
                                                     for $55 million, and 16 Harpoon anti-ship             lion, and the U.S. will participate in the
authorized launches cannot occur.
 Asian Defense Journal, 8/94, pp. 104-105 (4418).    missiles for $30 million.                             building of storage facilities for SS-19 fuel.
                                                                                                            UNIS; in Ukrainian Weekly, 9/11/94, pp. 2, 16
                                                      Umit Enginsoy, Defense News, 8/8/94, p. 18 (4431).
                                                                                                            (4490).
                                                      Jane’s Defence Weekly, 8/13/94, p. 12 (4595).
  UNITED STATES       WITH   SAUDI ARABIA
                                                                          9/94
                                                     McDonnell Douglas is awarded a contract               UNITED STATES       WITH    UNITED KINGDOM
                     9/94
It is reported that Raytheon has won a $9.3          for 75 SLAMs and 44 Harpoon missiles.
                                                     The contract is worth $125 million, but its                                 9/94
million contract from the U.S. Army Mis-                                                                   It is reported that several U.S. companies
sile Command for integration work on eight           value may increase by $12 million if Tur-
                                                     key opts to procure 12 Harpoon missiles.              are interested in entering the U.K. conven-
Patriot tactical fire units bought by Saudi                                                                tionally armed air-launched stand-off
Arabia. According to Raytheon’s Vice Presi-          Of the 44 Harpoon missiles currently cov-
                                                     ered by the deal, Egypt will receive 16, Ja-          weapon (CASOM) competition. McDonnell
dent of Corporate Communications, Pat                                                                      Douglas and Hunting may enter the Grand
Coulter, one of the eight units will be used         pan 3, and Malaysia 25. Work on the con-
                                                     tract is expected to be completed by 12/96.           SLAM, Hughes may enter the Air Hawk,
for Saudi training and another will be kept                                                                and Texas Instruments may enter the ex-
                                                      Reuter, 8/22/94; in Executive News Service, 8/24/
as a floating spare.                                  94 (4347). Flight International, 9/14/94, p. 40      tended-range JSOW variant. Rockwell may
 Defense News, 9/19/94, p. 25 (4554).                 (4347).                                              enter the AGM-130 stand-off weapon, al-
                                                                                                           though the missile’s 200 km (110 nm) range
                                                                          9/94                             falls short of the 400 km range requirement
      UNITED STATES       WITH   TAIWAN              The U.S. Pentagon informs Congress of the             expected to be given in the British Ministry
                                                     proposed $32 million sale of 270 Multiple             of Defence request.
                   6/29/94                           Launch Rocket System pods to Turkey.                   Flight International, 9/14/94, p. 16 (4308).
The U.S.’s Raytheon Co. signs a contract              International Defense Review, 9/94, p. 9 (4349).
with Taiwan’s Defense Ministry to sell Tai-


The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995                                                                                                                      155
                                                             Missile Developments

                         9/94                      ber of T-82 (tanks) and tactical missiles
It is reported that McDonnell Douglas              contracted with North Korea.”
(MDC) of the U.S. is negotiating with GEC-          Reuter, 6/13/94; in Executive News Service,
                                                    6/13/94 (4429).
Marconi Avionics (GMAv) of the U.K. over
the possibility of including the British
company’s advanced infra-red imaging (IIR)                            6/13/94
seeker as part of the Grand SLAM missile           In response to Yemeni President Ali
produced by MDC and Hunting. The Grand             Abdullah Saleh’s statement concerning a
SLAM missile is competing for the Royal            contract with North Korea for weapons, in-
Air Force’s (RAF) stand-off missile require-       cluding tactical missiles, an unidentified
ment. It is estimated that 500-1,000 mis-          North Korean Foreign Ministry spokesman
siles will be purchased to meet the RAF’s          tells the [North] Korean Central News
conventional stand-off needs.                      Agency (KCNA) that the accusation was
 Flight International, 9/21/94, p. 18 (4439).      “...an utterly groundless fabrication.”
                                                    Reuter, 6/13/94; in Executive News Service, 6/13/
                                                    94 (4429).
                    9/23/94
U.S. Navy intelligence officers state that the
submarine-launched Harpoon missile has
been transferred to seven countries: Egypt,
Greece, Japan, Israel, Turkey, the U.K., and                  YUGOSLAVIA
Pakistan.
 Giovanni de Briganti and Vivek Raghuvanshi, De-
 fense News, 9/26/94, pp. 1, 34 (4332).


                                                           INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS

                 YEMEN                                                  8/94
                                                   The local media in Yugoslavia has reported
                                                   on an indigenously-built SS-1 Scud missile.
                                                   Western officials have said that these reports
                                                   are probably propaganda.
                                                    Paul Beaver, Washington Times, 8/2/94, p. A14
                                                    (4471).
  YEMEN WITH MOLDOVA AND RUSSIA

                    6/20/94
According to Moldovan news sources, the
Moldovan Ministry of Defense sells four
MiG-24s and seven missile launchers, worth
a total of $40 million, to Yemen via
Rosvooruzheniye, a Russian state arms com-
pany.
 Itar, 8/23/94 (4376).



      YEMEN WITH NORTH KOREA

                    6/8/94
Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh states
that North Korea has agreed to sell missiles
to the southern side in Yemen’s civil war.
Saleh, who leads the northern forces, said,
“Now we have received confirmation about
a new contract of MiG-29 (jets) and a num-



156                                                                                                 The Nonproliferation Review/Winter 1995

				
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