Lead Awareness

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					 Lead for Project Managers

Presented by Aurora Industrial Hygiene, Inc.,
•   Background
•   Health Effects
•   Definitions
•   Regulations
•   Procedures
•   Important Numbers
•   Useful Links
              What is Lead
• Lead is an elemental
• Forms 0.06% of the
  earth’s crust
• Cannot be destroyed,
  only smaller
• Should not be in our
Why was Lead Used
   • Prevents Corrosion
 • Kills mold and mildew
        • Malleable
          • Strong
    • Blocks Radiation
      • Blocks Sound
      • Drying Agent

• It’s a chronic and
  acute poison

• Contamination
      Where is Lead Found?

• Quality Paint
                   Military uses

Bridges and
Steel Structures

Banned in 1978
Schools in 1984
Lead is Found in Gasoline

             • Used over a period of
               50 years
             • 93% reduction from
          Lead Is Found In….
•   Industrial Releases
•   Soil
•   Food
•   Drinking Water
•   Occupational Exposure
   Heart and Blood System

•High blood                          Inno ina ar r
                                         m te tey
                                                                                           ro     tey
                                                                                         Ca ti dar r

                                       bc vianar r
                                     Su l a     tey

                                                                                                        Hea t
                          L g                                                                           Aorta
                              o ry tey
                          Pulm na ar r
                          Alve      pill rie
                              olarca a s                                                                  ft i m
                                                                                                        Le atr u
                                                                                                            ht i m
                                                                                                        Ri g atr u

•Increased risk
                                                                                                          ft ntr le
                                                                                                        Le ve i c
                                     Br   ial tey
                                       ach ar r                                                                 ntr le
                                                                                                        Right ve i c


                  H ti car r
                          tey                                                                            id y
                                                                                                        K ne
                                                                                                           al tey
                                                                                                        Ren ar r

of heart attack                                                                                         Large in st s

                                                                                                        Ca ai e of
                                                                                                          pill r s
                                                                                                         as oin stina tra
                                                                                                        g tr te
                                                                                                                te ine

                                                                                                        Small in st s
                                                                                                                     l ct

                                                                                                                te ine

and stroke
                            Iliacar r

•Anemia                                                em r   tey
                                                      F oal ar r

                                                       i ial tey
                                                      T b ar r

                                                                    A RTE RIAL SYS TEM

     • Filter the blood
     • Not detectable
     • Kidney failure
      Central Nervous System

•   Most affected
•   Permanent
•   Brain damage
•   Damage to
                                                                                                Bone Tissue
                                                                                Cr a ni um

                              Ce r vic a l ve r t e br a e                      M andi ble

                                                                                                                                              • Body Burden
                                                                                                              Cla vi c le

                                                                                                              Sc a pula

      T hor a c i c ve r t e br a e

                                                                                                                   H umer us

                                                                                                                                              • Released when the
                                                                                     R ib

Lumba r ve r t e br a e

                                                   P e l vis

                                                                                                                                                body is under stress
                                              Sa c r um
                                          Cocc yx                                                                     Ra dius

      Ca r pa ls

Me ta c a r pa ls

                                                                                                                                              • Pregnancy
 P ha l a nge s

                                               Fe mur

                                                                                      Fi bula                                                 • Menopause
                                                                                                                                              • Serious Illness
                                                                                      T i bia

                                                     T a lus
                                             Ca l c a ne us
                                                                                             T a r s al s ,met a ta r s a ls &pha l a nge s

                                                       S KELETON, POSTERIOR V IEW
       Reproductive Systems
• Male System         • Female System
  – Impotency            – Infertility
  – Lack of drive        – Birth defects
  – Damage to sperm      – Miscarriage
  – Infertility          – Pregnancy
    • Proportion to body
      weight and size
    • Developmental effects
    • More hand-to mouth
    • More absorption of
         Lead Bans/Phase-Out
• Late 20th Century
• Residential paint (1978)
• Solder and pipes for drinking water
• Solder in food cans
• Gasoline
Huge improvements in air quality in last 50 years but
  still a major source of lead pollution today
• Lead-based paint:
   – New paint: greater than 0.06% (600 ppm) lead content.
   – Existing paint: greater than 0.5% (5000 ppm) or 1 mg/cm2 lead
   – Some counties: 0.7 mg/cm2 lead content.
   – City of SD: Lead-Safe Work Practices (LSWP) required at 0.1%
      (1000 ppm) or 0.5 mg/cm2.
• Lead-containing paint: paint with any detectable lead.
• Presumed lead-based paint.
   – State: Constructed prior to January 1, 1978.
   – San Diego: Constructed prior to January 1, 1979 and ALL steel
      structures, regardless of construction date.
• Lead hazards: deteriorating LBP or PLBP, contaminated dust,
  contaminated soil, disturbance of LBP or PLBP w/o containment.
  Applicable Regulations (a few)
• Title X, Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act of
• HUD Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-
  Based Paint Hazards in Housing
• California-OSHA Lead in Construction
• California Title 17, Accreditation, Certification, Work
  Practices for Lead-Based Paint and Lead Hazards
• CA SB 460
• San Diego Municipal Code, Lead Hazard Prevention and
  Control Ordinance
• EPA Lead Renovation Repair and Painting Program
Title X, Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act of 1992.
• The regulation which started it all.
• Evaluation hazards
   – Risk Assessment
   – Inspection
• Reduce hazards
   – Interim controls
   – Remediation
HUD Guidelines for Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based
  Paint Hazards in Housing
• Step-by-step “how-to” manual
• Inspection, risk assessment, monitoring, worker protection,
  waste management, interim controls, abatement, clearance,
• Written as guidance document for housing
• Made mandatory for public and residential buildings by
  California Title 17
California OSHA Lead in Construction – 8 CCR 1532.1
• Applies to all lead exposure in construction, regardless of
  type of building or lead content in paint
• Construction includes demolition, renovation, clean-up
• UCSD puts compliance responsibility onto contractors:
   –   Airborne exposure limits
   –   Exposure assessment
   –   Written compliance program
   –   Respiratory protection and PPE
   –   Medical surveillance
   –   Recordkeeping
California OSHA Lead in Construction – 8 CCR 1532.1
• Important for Protecting Workers AND Surrounding
   –   Housekeeping: wet cleaning, HEPA vacuums, prompt clean-up
   –   Hygiene facilities, change areas, showers
   –   Regulated areas
   –   Posting
   –   Certified workers if abatement of public or residential OR
       exposure over PEL
Accreditation, Certification, and Work Practices for Lead-
  Based Paint and Lead Hazards. Title 17 CCR 35001 -
• Applies to all public and residential buildings
• Certification of training and training providers, workers,
  supervisors, inspectors, project monitors
• Defines LPB, PLBP, lead hazards, lead-safe work practices
• Defines inspection, risk assessment, clearance
• Makes HUD Guidelines regulatory
Lead Hazard Prevention and Control Ordinance, San Diego
  Municipal Code, Division 10, 54.1001-54.1015 (2008)
• Applies to properties, premises, dwelling units, structures,
  and steel structures
• Re-states many requirements of Title 17
• LEAD HAZARDS are dangerous to life and health and
  owner must prevent or correct
• Requires LSWP at lower lead content than LBP
• Defines presumed LBP one year earlier than Title 17
• San Diego City enforcement team – drive-by citations
EPA Lead Renovation Repair and Painting Program, (2008, effective
• Applies to residential houses, apartments, child-occupied facilities.
• Renovation = ANY activity that disturbs paint.
• Renovation firms must be EPA-certified
• Workers must be trained in LSWP
• Pre-renovation education required (pamphlet, signs)
• LSWP mandatory
• Recordkeeping
       Procedures - Variables
• Requirements vary based on:
  – Building age
  – Building function (public, commercial,
    residential, industrial)
  – Lead content in paint
  – Scope of construction/renovation
  – State, County, City
         Procedures - General
•   Characterize
•   Handling/Management
•   Clearance
•   Disposal
     Procedures – Characterize
• Pre-1979 buildings must be inspected prior to
• Inspection must be by certified inspectors
• Inspection must follow HUD Guidelines
• Laboratories must be accredited
• CDPH 8552 must be submitted to State and City
*Some exceptions if buildings not accessible to
            Procedures –
• OSHA applies for any lead content
• LSWP required if over criteria
• Loose/flaky paint returned to intact state
• Renovation/demolition in a manner that adhered
  paint must remain adhered
• Worksite preparation, containment, and clearance
  vary based on use of building and lead content
              Procedures - LSWP
•   Notice to occupants
•   Regulated area
•   Temporary relocation
•   Containment (App. A, HUD Guidelines)
•   Specialized cleaning (HEPA-wet-HEPA)
•   Daily clean-up
•   Proper waste disposal
•   Clearance (visual or test dep. on building and lead content)
•   Prohibited: burning or torching; heat guns >1100F;
    scraping, sanding, grinding, or blasting without
    Procedures – Interim Controls
•   Abatement designed for less than 20 years
•   Trained workers
•   Containment
•   Notification
•   Follow HUD Guidelines Chapter 11
•   Clearance inspection depending on
        Procedures - Abatement
•   Abatement for 20 years or longer
•   Certified supervisors and workers
•   Abatement plan
•   Notification to CDPH and OSHA
•   HUD Guidelines, Chapter 12
•   Containment
•   Clearance inspection
       Procedures - Clearance
• Certified Inspector/Risk Assessor or Project
• Visual
• Dust
• Soil
• CDPH 8552 to City and State
         Procedures - Disposal
• Segregate and test each waste stream
• Firmly adhered paint can be tested as a composite
  in construction debris
• TTLC. Total Threshold Limit Concentration.
• STLC. Soluble Threshold Limit Concentration.
  (also WET)
• TCLP. Toxicity Characteristic Leachate
               Important Numbers
•   Presumed LBP: Pre-1979
•   LBP – New Paint – 0.06%, 600 ppm
•   LBP – Existing Paint – 0.5%, 5000 ppm, 1 mg/cm2
•   LSWP Required – 0.1%, 1000 ppm, 0.5 mg/cm2
•   Lead in Air – PEL = 50 µg/m3; AL = 30 µg/m3
•   Contaminated Soil – 400 ppm play areas; 1000 ppm other
•   Contaminated Dust – 40 µg/ft2 interior floor;
    250 µg/ft2 interior horizontal; 400 µg/ft2 exterior
• Waste
                       Useful Links
•   CA DPH Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch (lots of useful
    information and links):
•   Ca DPH List of Certified Individuals:
•   EPA’s Resources Related to Lead in Paint, Dust, and Soil:
•   HUD Guidelines:
•   Compliance Guide to EPA LRRP:
•   LRRP:
•   Cal-OSHA Lead in Construction Standard:

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