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French Revolution


									        Economic Crisis of 1780s

 1780s—Bad weather
 Poor harvests
 Peasants
   – 90% of population
   – 75% Landless
   – Want end of feudal obligations
   – Lower Taxes
 Urban workers
   – Higher bread prices
   – 60% of wages go to food
             France on the Eve of Revolution
   Economic crisis
     – War and debt:
     – Louis XIV (1643-1715)—series of wars—Spanish Succession
     – Louis XV (1715-1774)—Austrian Succession; 7 Years‘ War
     – Louis XVI (1774-1792)– American Revolution
   Intransigence of aristocracy
     – Growing Influence of Nobles
     – Defense of Feudal privileges and seigneurial rights
     – No taxation
   Privileges of the clergy
   Various royal schemes to raise money
     – Finance Ministers like Necker and Calonne attempt to wrest power
        and money from Aristocracy
     – Nobles push for calling of Estates General to decide new taxes
        The French Revolution
 Origins: Failure of the old regime
 Significance: A new Europe
 A Revolution Unfolds
    Estates General
      ―Doubling the Third‖
      Abbe E. Sieyes What is the Third Estate?
      ―liberty, equality, fraternity‖
      National Assembly & Tennis Court Oath
      14 July 1789: Storming the Bastille
                  Estates General
   Last called in 1614
   Noble Aspirations
   Structure of Estates
     – First Estate: Clergy
     – Second Estate: Nobility
     – Third Estate: Everyone else
   Debate over Voting Procedures
     – A) Tradition– each estate same number of reps
     – B) Tradition—by Estate
     – C) Voting by head
   Decision
     – May 1789: ―Doubling of the Third‖
     – Number of Representatives doubles in Third Estate
     – Voting still remains by Estate
14 July 1789: Storming the Bastille
               The Summer of 1789:
    Revolutionary Activity in City and Countryside

   ―Storming of Bastille‖         ―Great Fear‖
     – Popular Fears of Royal        – Rioting throughout
       Plot                            rural France
     – Historic function:            – Peasants anger toward
       Prison                          Noble Lords
     – Popular Beliefs:                 Consequences
       Armory & Prison              – National Assembly
     – 14 July 1789                 – 4 August 1789
     – Royal troops kill 98             Renunciation of Feudal
       people                            Privileges
                                        End of Feudal
     – Significance?                     Obligations
                                        All French subject to
                                         same Laws
   Language of Revolution
       August 4, 1789: Civic Equality
       Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, 27
        August 1789
       March to Versailles, October 1789
       Administrative reforms: Departments
       Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790
       Constitution of 1791
         – Active vs. Passive Citizenship
       Olympes de Gouges Declaration of the Rights of
           The King‘s Dilemma

•June 20, 1791: Flees Paris, ―Flight to Varennes‖
•Reluctantly approves constitution
•Louis XVI as duplicitous monarch
  •Plotting counter-revolution with Austria & Prussia to
  defeat French Revolutionaries
  •April 1792 declaring war on Austria then Prussia
  •Hopes of French Defeat
•August 10, 1792: Arrested for treason
•September 22, 1792: France declared a republic
                                    French Revolution
    Estates General convened (May 5)
                                                              Louis XVI executed
    National Assembly declared (June 17)
                                                              Committee of Public Safety est.
    Tennis Court Oath (June 20)
                                                              Levée en masse
    Fall of the Bastille (July 14)
                                                              Marie Antoinette executed
    Great Fear (Summer)
                                                              Women’s clubs banned
    Nobles Surrender Feudal Rights (Aug. 4)
                                                              Cult of Reason Proclaimed
    Decl. Of Rights of Man & Citizen (Aug. 27)                                                           Napoleon’s
    October Days                                                                                         Coup d’état

               Civil Constitution
                                      France declares war on Austria
                  of the Clergy                                                        Directory est.
                                      September Massacres
                                      Republic Established (Sept.)
                                                                          Execution of
                            Royal family flees                            Robespierre
          Reforms 1789-1791 Constitutional Monarchy:              Republic:               Thermidorian Reaction:
                                    Sept. 1791 -- Aug. 1792      Aug. ‘92-Jl ’94                 ‘94-’99

                                                                   Reign of Terror
Economic Crisis                                                    June ‘93 - Jl ‘94

1787 1789 1790                      1791 1792                  1793          1794 1795                     1799
       Cultural Revolution and the Creation of
                 a Republic of Virtue
 Convention to ―republicanize everything‖
 Music—the national anthem ―The Marseillaise‖
 Festivals to celebrate the Revolution and the new Republic
   – Festival of Federation (14 July); Festival of Unity (10
 Flags—the Tricolor (red, white, and blue)—July 1789
   – 1793: the mandatory cockade
 Patriotic Symbols: Marianne and the Personification of
 Language—Patriots used informal ‗tu‘
 New Calendar honoring reason and republicanism replace
  Christian calendar
 New standards of measurement based on reason and
  decimals: metric system
The Final Step: End of the Royal Family

 Louis XVI (―citizen
  Capet‖) tried for
  treason and executed
  on 21 January 1793.
 The queen, Marie
  Antoinette, follow her
  husband to the
  guillotine in October.
 The dauphin dies in
  prison in 1794
                       The Republic of Virtue, the Marseillaise,
                               & the levée en masse
Allons enfants de la Patrie                            Let us go, children of the fatherland
Le jour de gloire est arrivé.                          Our day of Glory has arrived.
Contre nous, de la tyrannie,                           Against us stands tyranny,
L'étandard sanglant est levé,                          The bloody flag is raised,
l'étandard sanglant est levé,                          The bloody flag is raised.
Entendez-vous, dans la compagnes.                      Do you hear in the countryside
Mugir ces farouches soldats                            The roar of these savage soldiers
Ils viennent jusque dans nos bras                      They come right into our arms
Egorger vos fils,                                      To cut the throats of your sons,
vos compagnes.                                         your country.

Chorus: Aux armes citoyens!                            Chorus: To arms, citizens!
Formez vos bataillons,                                 Form up your battalions
Marchons, marchons!                                    Let us march, Let us march!
Qu'un sang impur                                       That their impure blood
Abreuve nos sillons.                                   Should water our fields
Amour sacré de la Patrie,
                                                       Sacred love of the fatherland
Conduis, soutiens nos bras
                                                       Guide and support our vengeful arms.
                                                       Liberty, beloved liberty,
Liberté, liberté cherie,
                                                       Fight with your defenders;
Combats avec tes defénseurs;
                                                       Fight with your defenders.
Combats avec tes défenseurs.
                                                       Under our flags, so that victory
Sous drapeaux, que la victoire
                                                       Will rush to your manly strains;
Acoure à tes mâles accents;
                                                       That your dying enemies
Que tes ennemis expirants
                                                       Should see your triumph and glory
Voient ton triomphe et notre
                                                       Chorus: To arms, citizens!
Chorus: Aux armes citoyens!
              Protecting the Republic of Virtue:
                          The Terror
   External and Internal Threats
     – Foreign enemies:
          Prussia, Austria, Spain, the Dutch Republic and Great Britain
     – Counter-revolutionaries—nobles, clergy, ―subversives‖
     – Rampant inflation and food shortages
   National Convention‘s 3 Goals:
     – Win external war ―levée en masse‖—National Army
     – Win internal war that threatened stability of nation
     – Stabilize economy by implementing price controls and higher wages
   Result:
     – Martial Law
     – Appointment of Committee for Public Safety
     – Terror
Conserving the revolution: The Thermidorean

   Death of Robespierre (28 July—the 9th of
   1794-1799: Thermidorean Reaction
   Weariness of Revolution and Turning back
    • Undoing the Machine of Terror
    • Continuing Instability and Uncertainty in
      Politics (spectrum of possibilities)
    • Ongoing War with European States
    New Constitutional Government:
            The Directory
Convention: 2 Legislative Houses:
          Upper Body--Council of Elders
          Lower Body– Council of 500
          Executive: 5 Man Directory Elected from
            Council of Elders
What‘s Changed from Previous Assemblies
   Rejection of Democracy and Radical Republicanism
   Reassertion of Property Qualifications
       Return of Middle Class Liberals
       Removal of Sans-Culottes
Rejection of Radical Republicanism, ―White‖ reaction
Return to Traditions of Family and Church

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